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Sample records for solution liquid-mix methods

  1. Measurement of liquid mixing characteristics in large-sized ion exchange column for isotope separation by stepwise response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Saito, Keiichiro; Iwamoto, Kazumi; Itoi, Toshiaki.

    1981-07-01

    Liquid mixing in a large-sized ion exchange column for isotope separation was measured by the step-wise response method, using NaCl solution as tracer. A 50 cm diameter column was packed with an ion exchange resin of 200 μm in mean diameter. Experiments were carried out for several types of distributor and collector, which were attached to each end of the column. The smallest mixing was observed for the perforated plate type of the collector, coupled with a minimum stagnant volume above the ion exchange resin bed. The 50 cm diameter column exhibited the better characteristics of liquid mixing than the 2 cm diameter column for which the good performance of lithium isotope separation had already been confirmed. These results indicate that a large increment of throughput is attainable by the scale-up of column diameter with the same performance of isotope separation as for the 2 cm diameter column. (author)

  2. Raman and IR spectroscopic structural characterization of LiAlO2 powders prepared using a liquid mix technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornilsen, B.C.; Loyselle, P.L.; Saporta, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    γ-LiAlO 2 and β-LiAlO 2 have been characterized using Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Powders have been prepared using two different preparation techniques: a solution method known as the liquid mix technique (LMT) and the traditional ceramic method. The authors find that the LMT allows direct production of single phase γ-LiAlO 2 at 600 degrees C, below that found using other preparation methods. Furthermore, this solution technique appears to avoid formation of the β-LiAlO 2 intermediate phase. At lower temperatures, the LMT product is a disordered precursor of γ- LiAlO 2

  3. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Method of lines solution of Richards` equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.T.; Miller, C.T.; Tocci, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the method of lines solution of Richard`s equation, which models flow through porous media, as an example of a situation in which the method can give incorrect results because of premature termination of the nonlinear corrector iteration. This premature termination arises when the solution has a sharp moving front and the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. While this problem can be solved by tightening the tolerances provided to the ODE or DAE solver used for the temporal integration, it is more efficient to modify the termination criteria of the nonlinear solver and/or recompute the Jacobian more frequently. In this paper we continue previous work on this topic by analyzing the modifications in more detail and giving a strategy on how the modifications can be turned on and off in response to changes in the character of the solution.

  5. Algebraic methods for solution of polyhedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabitov, Idzhad Kh [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    By analogy with the solution of triangles, the solution of polyhedra means a theory and methods for calculating some geometric parameters of polyhedra in terms of other parameters of them. The main content of this paper is a survey of results on calculating the volumes of polyhedra in terms of their metrics and combinatorial structures. It turns out that a far-reaching generalization of Heron's formula for the area of a triangle to the volumes of polyhedra is possible, and it underlies the proof of the conjecture that the volume of a deformed flexible polyhedron remains constant. Bibliography: 110 titles.

  6. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  7. Transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US: Is it really a problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, S.; DeBiase, T.

    1993-01-01

    The transportation of liquid radioactive wastes has often been perceived to be a problem because of the potential consequences from hypothetical accident scenarios and the difficulties that may be encountered in the handling and containment of liquids. This paper focuses specifically to determine if the transportation of these wastes are severely restricted by the regulations. The paper also compares current practices for the transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US with that of France to provide an international perspective on the issue. The review of the regulations and current practices shows that the transportation of liquid mixed waste is by no means prohibited, and also that the majority of the regulations do not impose any additional restrictions because of the physical form of the waste. Rather, the selection of an authorized package primarily depends on the quantity of radioactivity and the specific radionuclides involved. Although the selection process for an authorized package for liquid mixed wastes is fairly straightforward, it seems that the difficulties in transporting liquid mixed waste can be attributed to the lack of readily available Type A packages designed for transporting liquids

  8. Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Robert E.; Hansen, Brian N.

    1990-01-01

    A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

  9. Exact solutions to some nonlinear PDEs, travelling profiles method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benhamidouche

    2008-04-01

    \\end{equation*} by a new method that we call the travelling profiles method. This method allows us to find several forms of exact solutions including the classical forms such as travelling-wave and self-similar solutions.

  10. Solution of the porous media equation by Adomian's decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, Serdal

    2005-01-01

    The particular exact solutions of the porous media equation that usually occurs in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer, and in biological systems are obtained using Adomian's decomposition method. Also, numerical comparison of particular solutions in the decomposition method indicate that there is a very good agreement between the numerical solutions and particular exact solutions in terms of efficiency and accuracy

  11. Method of processing plutonium and uranium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Isao; Suzuki, Toru.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of plutonium nitrate solutions and uranyl nitrate recovered in the solvent extraction step in reprocessing plants and nuclear fuel production plants are applied with low temperature treatment by means of freeze-drying under vacuum into residues containing nitrates, which are denitrated under heating and calcined under reduction into powders. That is, since complicate processes of heating, concentration and dinitration conducted so far for the plutonium solution and uranyl solution are replaced with one step of freeze-drying under vacuum, the process can be simplified significantly. In addition, since the treatment is applied at low temperature, occurrence of corrosion for the material of evaporation, etc. can be prevented. Further, the number of operators can be saved by dividing the operations into recovery of solidification products, supply and sintering of the solutions and vacuum sublimation. Further, since nitrates processed at a low temperature are powderized by heating dinitration, the powderization step can be simplified. The specific surface area and the grain size distribution of the powder is made appropriate and it is possible to obtain oxide powders of physical property easily to be prepared into pellets. (N.H.)

  12. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARABULUT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

  13. Perturbation method for periodic solutions of nonlinear jerk equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.

    2008-01-01

    A Lindstedt-Poincare type perturbation method with bookkeeping parameters is presented for determining accurate analytical approximate periodic solutions of some third-order (jerk) differential equations with cubic nonlinearities. In the process of the solution, higher-order approximate angular frequencies are obtained by Newton's method. A typical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed method

  14. Determination of solute descriptors by chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, Colin F.; Atapattu, Sanka N.; Poole, Salwa K.; Bell, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    The solvation parameter model is now well established as a useful tool for obtaining quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical, biomedical and environmental processes. The model correlates a free-energy related property of a system to six free-energy derived descriptors describing molecular properties. These molecular descriptors are defined as L (gas-liquid partition coefficient on hexadecane at 298 K), V (McGowan's characteristic volume), E (excess molar refraction), S (dipolarity/polarizability), A (hydrogen-bond acidity), and B (hydrogen-bond basicity). McGowan's characteristic volume is trivially calculated from structure and the excess molar refraction can be calculated for liquids from their refractive index and easily estimated for solids. The remaining four descriptors are derived by experiment using (largely) two-phase partitioning, chromatography, and solubility measurements. In this article, the use of gas chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and two-phase partitioning for determining solute descriptors is described. A large database of experimental retention factors and partition coefficients is constructed after first applying selection tools to remove unreliable experimental values and an optimized collection of varied compounds with descriptor values suitable for calibrating chromatographic systems is presented. These optimized descriptors are demonstrated to be robust and more suitable than other groups of descriptors characterizing the separation properties of chromatographic systems.

  15. Determination of solute descriptors by chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Atapattu, Sanka N; Poole, Salwa K; Bell, Andrea K

    2009-10-12

    The solvation parameter model is now well established as a useful tool for obtaining quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical, biomedical and environmental processes. The model correlates a free-energy related property of a system to six free-energy derived descriptors describing molecular properties. These molecular descriptors are defined as L (gas-liquid partition coefficient on hexadecane at 298K), V (McGowan's characteristic volume), E (excess molar refraction), S (dipolarity/polarizability), A (hydrogen-bond acidity), and B (hydrogen-bond basicity). McGowan's characteristic volume is trivially calculated from structure and the excess molar refraction can be calculated for liquids from their refractive index and easily estimated for solids. The remaining four descriptors are derived by experiment using (largely) two-phase partitioning, chromatography, and solubility measurements. In this article, the use of gas chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and two-phase partitioning for determining solute descriptors is described. A large database of experimental retention factors and partition coefficients is constructed after first applying selection tools to remove unreliable experimental values and an optimized collection of varied compounds with descriptor values suitable for calibrating chromatographic systems is presented. These optimized descriptors are demonstrated to be robust and more suitable than other groups of descriptors characterizing the separation properties of chromatographic systems.

  16. Variation Iteration Method for The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we considered the numerical solution of the nonlinear Burgers equation using the Variational Iteration Method (VIM). The method seeks to examine the convergence of solutions of the Burgers equation at the expense of the parameters x and t of which the amount of errors depends. Numerical experimentation ...

  17. expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear. Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (G /G)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with. Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary ...

  18. The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified. Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled. KdV system. This method is extremely simple ...

  19. Approximate solution methods in engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresi, A.P.; Cong, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is a short book of 147 pages including references and sometimes bibliographies at the end of each chapter, and subject and author indices at the end of the book. The test includes an introduction of 3 pages, 29 pages explaining approximate analysis, 41 pages on finite differences, 36 pages on finite elements, and 17 pages on specialized methods

  20. Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance

  1. Approximate solution fuzzy pantograph equation by using homotopy perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, A. F.; Saaban, A.; Ahadkulov, H.; Alipiah, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is modified and formulated to find the approximate solution for its employment to solve (FDDEs) involving a fuzzy pantograph equation. The solution that can be obtained by using HPM is in the form of infinite series that converge to the actual solution of the FDDE and this is one of the benefits of this method In addition, it can be used for solving high order fuzzy delay differential equations directly without reduction to a first order system. Moreover, the accuracy of HPM can be detected without needing the exact solution. The HPM is studied for fuzzy initial value problems involving pantograph equation. Using the properties of fuzzy set theory, we reformulate the standard approximate method of HPM and obtain the approximate solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for third order fuzzy pantograph equation.

  2. CFD code verification and the method of manufactured solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, D.; Roache, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) for CFD code verification. The MMS provides benchmark solutions for direct evaluation of the solution error. The best benchmarks are exact analytical solutions with sufficiently complex solution structure to ensure that all terms of the differential equations are exercised in the simulation. The MMS provides a straight forward and general procedure for generating such solutions. When used with systematic grid refinement studies, which are remarkably sensitive, the MMS provides strong code verification with a theorem-like quality. The MMS is first presented on simple 1-D examples. Manufactured solutions for more complex problems are then presented with sample results from grid convergence studies. (author)

  3. Optimisation-Based Solution Methods for Set Partitioning Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel

    The scheduling of crew, i.e. the construction of work schedules for crew members, is often not a trivial task, but a complex puzzle. The task is complicated by rules, restrictions, and preferences. Therefore, manual solutions as well as solutions from standard software packages are not always su......_cient with respect to solution quality and solution time. Enhancement of the overall solution quality as well as the solution time can be of vital importance to many organisations. The _elds of operations research and mathematical optimisation deal with mathematical modelling of di_cult scheduling problems (among...... other topics). The _elds also deal with the development of sophisticated solution methods for these mathematical models. This thesis describes the set partitioning model which has been widely used for modelling crew scheduling problems. Integer properties for the set partitioning model are shown...

  4. Nonclassical pseudospectral method for the solution of brachistochrone problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipanah, A.; Razzaghi, M.; Dehghan, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, nonclassical pseudospectral method is proposed for solving the classic brachistochrone problem. The brachistochrone problem is first formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Properties of nonclassical pseudospectral method are presented, these properties are then utilized to reduce the computation of brachistochrone problem to the solution of algebraic equations. Using this method, the solution to the brachistochrone problem is compared with those in the literature

  5. On numerical solution of Burgers' equation by homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the Homotopy Analysis Method (shortly HAM) for obtaining the numerical solution of the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation. The initial approximation can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions. Convergence of the solution and effects for the method is discussed. The comparison of the HAM results with the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the results of [E.N. Aksan, Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 884; S. Kutluay, A. Esen, Int. J. Comput. Math. 81 (2004) 1433; S. Abbasbandy, M.T. Darvishi, Appl. Math. Comput. 163 (2005) 1265] are made. The results reveal that HAM is very simple and effective. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter h, which provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical and some numerical solutions

  6. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  7. An evaluation of solutions to moment method of biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected solutions of moment method in respect to Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) kinetics with the aim of ascertain error free solution. Domestic - institutional wastewaters were collected two - weekly for three months from waste - stabilization ponds in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile - Ife.

  8. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions : framework and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business

  9. New numerical method for solving the solute transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Koplik, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The solute transport equation can be solved numerically by approximating the water flow field by a network of stream tubes and using a Green's function solution within each stream tube. Compared to previous methods, this approach permits greater computational efficiency and easier representation of small discontinuities, and the results are easier to interpret physically. The method has been used to study hypothetical sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

  10. Method for Cs-137 separation from the decontamination solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropov, I.G.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, Yu.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this work results of investigations are presented on separation of radiocaesium from the decontamination solutions containing reducing agents (thiocarbamide). The scientific basis for radiocaesium removal from the solution focuses on the state of the radionuclide and its sorption behavior in the solution with a complicated composition. Then using a combination of sorption and ultrafiltration methods it would be possible to concentrate the radionuclide in a small volume and to purify the main part of the solution. As a sorbent for radiocaesium removal from the solution, a ferrocyanide based sorbent is proposed. Use of this sorbent is justified since its high selectivity and effectiveness for radiocaesium sorption from the solutions of different composition is well known. When synthesis of the sorbent is performed directly in the treating solution, two components as a minimum should be added to it, namely K 4 Fe(CN) 6 and metal ions of Ni-II, Co-II, Cu-II, etc. The results are presented which show the possibility of radiocaesium separation from the decontamination solutions (containing 60--100 g/l of salts) using sorption and membrane separation methods without the use of metal salts. At the same time by using FE-2 in solution in the presence of cyanide ions and thiocarbamide, it is possible to avoid the addition of metal salts (Ni, Cu, etc.). Utilization of the proposed method for spent decontamination solution treatment allows a relatively easy way to reduce the concentration of radiocaesium in solution on 2--4 orders of magnitudes, and to exclude the utilization of relatively expensive metal salts

  11. Exact solution of some linear matrix equations using algebraic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study is done of solution methods for Linear Matrix Equations including Lyapunov's equation, using methods of modern algebra. The emphasis is on the use of finite algebraic procedures which are easily implemented on a digital computer and which lead to an explicit solution to the problem. The action f sub BA is introduced a Basic Lemma is proven. The equation PA + BP = -C as well as the Lyapunov equation are analyzed. Algorithms are given for the solution of the Lyapunov and comment is given on its arithmetic complexity. The equation P - A'PA = Q is studied and numerical examples are given.

  12. Rapid spectrographic method for determining microcomponents in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, L.I.; Fadeeva, L.A.; Gordeeva, A.N.; Ermakova, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid spectrographic method foe determining microcomponents (Cd, V, Mo, Ni, rare earths and other elements) in industrial and natural solutions has been developed. The analyses were conducted in argon medium and in the air. Calibration charts for determining individual rare earths in solutions are presented. The accuracy of analysis (Sr) was detection limit was 10 -3 -10 -4 mg/ml, that for rare earths - 1.10 -2 mg/ml. The developed method enables to rapidly analyze solutions (sewages and industrialllwaters, wine products) for 20 elements including 6 rare earths, using strandard equipment

  13. An investigation of calibration methods for solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yff, Barbara T S; Royall, Paul G; Brown, Marc B; Martin, Gary P

    2004-01-28

    Solution calorimetry has been used in a number of varying applications within pharmaceutical research as a technique for the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical materials, such as quantifying small degrees of amorphous content, identifying polymorphs and investigating interactions between drugs and carbohydrates or proteins and carbohydrates. A calibration test procedure is necessary to validate the instrumentation; a few of the suggested calibration reactions are the enthalpies of solution associated with dissolving Tris in 0.1 M HCl or NaCl, KCl or propan-1-ol in water. In addition, there are a number of different methods available to determine enthalpies of solution from the experimental data provided by the calorimeter, for example, the Regnault-Pfaundler's method, a graphical extrapolation based on the Dickinson method, or a manual integration-based method. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate how each of these methods influences the values for the enthalpy of solution. Experiments were performed according to the method outlined by Hogan and Buckton [Int. J. Pharm. 207 (2000) 57] using KCl (samples of 50, 100 and 200 mg), Tris and sucrose as calibrants. For all three materials the manual integration method was found to be the most consistent with the KCl in water (sample mass of 200 mg) being the most precise. Thus, this method is recommended for the validation of solution calorimeters.

  14. Newton-like methods for Navier-Stokes solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, N.; Xu, X.; Richards, B. E.

    1992-12-01

    The paper reports on Newton-like methods called SFDN-alpha-GMRES and SQN-alpha-GMRES methods that have been devised and proven as powerful schemes for large nonlinear problems typical of viscous compressible Navier-Stokes solutions. They can be applied using a partially converged solution from a conventional explicit or approximate implicit method. Developments have included the efficient parallelization of the schemes on a distributed memory parallel computer. The methods are illustrated using a RISC workstation and a transputer parallel system respectively to solve a hypersonic vortical flow.

  15. Properties and solution methods for large location-allocation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties of the l......Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties...... of the location-allocation problem. Using the rectilinear distance measure, two of these algorithms achieved optimal solutions in all 102 test problems for which solutions were known. The algorithms can be applied to much larger problems than any existing exact methods....

  16. Solidification method for organic solution and processing method of aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoshida, Mamoru; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yazawa, Noriko; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The relative dielectric constant of an organic solution containing polar ingredients is controlled to 13 or less to enable its solidification. The polarity of the organic solution can be evaluated quantitatively by using the relative dielectric constant. If the relative dielectric constant is high, it can be controlled by dilution using a non-polar organic solvent of low relative dielectric constant. With such procedures, solidification can be conducted by using an economical 12-hydroxy stearic acid, process of liquid wastes can be facilitated and the safety can be ensured. (T.M.)

  17. Solution of the Schroedinger equation by a spectral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.; Steiger, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new computational method for determining the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger equation is described. Conventional methods for solving this problem rely on diagonalization of a Hamiltonian matrix or iterative numerical solutions of a time independent wave equation. The new method, in contrast, is based on the spectral properties of solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The method requires the computation of a correlation function from a numerical solution psi(r, t). Fourier analysis of this correlation function reveals a set of resonant peaks that correspond to the stationary states of the system. Analysis of the location of these peaks reveals the eigenvalues with high accuracy. Additional Fourier transforms of psi(r, t) with respect to time generate the eigenfunctions. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for a one-dimensional asymmetric double well potential and for the two-dimensional Henon--Heiles potential

  18. Hydrogen/deuterium substitution methods: understanding water structure in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium substitution method has been used for different applications, such as the short range order between water molecules in a number of different environments (aqueous solutions of organic molecules), or to study the partial structure factors of water at high pressure and temperature. The absolute accuracy that can be obtained remains uncertain, but important qualitative information can be obtained on the local organization of water in aqueous solution. Some recent results with pure water, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions are presented. It is shown that the short range water structure is not greatly affected by most solutes except at high concentrations and when the solute species has its own distinctive interaction with water (such as a dissolved small ion). 3 figs., 14 refs

  19. Cost–benefit analysis method for building solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Catarina; Almeida, Manuela; Bragança, Luís; Barbosa, José Amarilio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cost–benefit method was developed to compare building solutions. • The method considers energy performance, life cycle costs and investment willingness. • The graphical analysis helps stakeholders to easily compare building solutions. • The method was applied to a case study showing consistency and feasibility. - Abstract: The building sector is responsible for consuming approximately 40% of the final energy in Europe. However, more than 50% of this consumption can be reduced through energy-efficient measures. Our society is facing not only a severe and unprecedented environmental crisis but also an economic crisis of similar magnitude. In light of this, EU has developed legislation promoting the use of the Cost-Optimal (CO) method in order to improve building energy efficiency, in which selection criteria is based on life cycle costs. Nevertheless, studies show that the implementation of energy-efficient solutions is far from ideal. Therefore, it is very important to analyse the reasons for this gap between theory and implementation as well as improve selection methods. This study aims to develop a methodology based on a cost-effectiveness analysis, which can be seen as an improvement to the CO method as it considers the investment willingness of stakeholders in the selection process of energy-efficient solutions. The method uses a simple graphical display in which the stakeholders’ investment willingness is identified as the slope of a reference line, allowing easy selection between building solutions. This method will lead to the selection of more desired – from stakeholders’ point of view – and more energy-efficient solutions than those selected through the CO method.

  20. Method for improving solution flow in solution mining of a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation containing same in which an injection and production well are drilled and completed within said formation, leach solution and an oxidant are injected through said injection well into said formation to dissolve said mineral, and said dissolved mineral is recovered via said production well, wherein the improvement comprises pretreating said formation with an acid gas to improve the permeabiltiy thereof

  1. The characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1993-11-01

    This literature review deals with characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions and in groundwater. The basis for the review has been the needs of nuclear waste disposal studies and methods applicable in such studies. The methods considered include non-destructive laserspectroscopic methods (e.g. TRLFS, LPAS, PALS), several separation methods (e.g. ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, field-flow-fractionation) and also some surface analytical methods, as well as some other methods giving additional information on formation and migration properties of colloids. (au.) (71 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.)

  2. Visualization and understanding of the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Differential and difference equations a comparison of methods of solution

    CERN Document Server

    Maximon, Leonard C

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering, presents a detailed comparison of the important methods of solution for linear differential and difference equations - variation of constants, reduction of order, Laplace transforms and generating functions - bringing out the similarities as well as the significant differences in the respective analyses. Equations of arbitrary order are studied, followed by a detailed analysis for equations of first and second order. Equations with polynomial coefficients are considered and explicit solutions for equations with linear coefficients are given, showing significant differences in the functional form of solutions of differential equations from those of difference equations. An alternative method of solution involving transformation of both the dependent and independent variables is given for both differential and difference equations. A comprehensive, detailed treatment of Green’s functions and the associat...

  4. Particular solution of the discrete-ordinate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Box, Michael A; Jupp, David L

    2004-06-20

    We present two methods that can be used to derive the particular solution of the discrete-ordinate method (DOM) for an arbitrary source in a plane-parallel atmosphere, which allows us to solve the transfer equation 12-18% faster in the case of a single beam source and is even faster for the atmosphere thermal emission source. We also remove the divide by zero problem that occurs when a beam source coincides with a Gaussian quadrature point. In our implementation, solution for multiple sources can be obtained simultaneously. For each extra source, it costs only 1.3-3.6% CPU time required for a full solution. The GDOM code that we developed previously has been revised to integrate with the DOM. Therefore we are now able to compute the Green's function and DOM solutions simultaneously.

  5. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, - (2010), s. 1-33 ISSN 2090-0147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : iterative solution methods * convergence acceleration methods * linear systems Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2010/972794.html

  6. Comparing numerical methods for the solutions of the Chen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorani, M.S.M.; Hashim, I.; Ahmad, R.; Bakar, S.A.; Ismail, E.S.; Zakaria, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to the Chen system which is a three-dimensional system of ODEs with quadratic nonlinearities. The ADM yields an analytical solution in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms. Comparisons between the decomposition solutions and the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions are made. In particular we look at the accuracy of the ADM as the Chen system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one. To highlight some computational difficulties due to a high Lyapunov exponent, a comparison with the Lorenz system is given

  7. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Triki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PPSRP over a T-day planning horizon and describe four heuristic methods for its solution. Even though all the proposed heuristics belong to the common partitioning-then-routing paradigm, they differ in assigning the stations to each day of the horizon. The resulting daily routing problems are then solved exactly until achieving optimalization. Moreover, an improvement procedure is also developed with the aim of ensuring a better quality solution. Our heuristics are tested and compared in two real-life cases, and our computational results show encouraging improvements with respect to a human planning solution

  8. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  9. Generalized Truncated Methods for an Efficient Solution of Retrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jose Domenech-Benlloch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the analytic solution of multiserver retrial queues including the impatience phenomenon. As there are not closed-form solutions to these systems, approximate methods are required. We propose two different generalized truncated methods to effectively solve this type of systems. The methods proposed are based on the homogenization of the state space beyond a given number of users in the retrial orbit. We compare the proposed methods with the most well-known methods appeared in the literature in a wide range of scenarios. We conclude that the proposed methods generally outperform previous proposals in terms of accuracy for the most common performance parameters used in retrial systems with a moderated growth in the computational cost.

  10. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Axelsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative solution methods to solve linear systems of equations were originally formulated as basic iteration methods of defect-correction type, commonly referred to as Richardson's iteration method. These methods developed further into various versions of splitting methods, including the successive overrelaxation (SOR method. Later, immensely important developments included convergence acceleration methods, such as the Chebyshev and conjugate gradient iteration methods and preconditioning methods of various forms. A major strive has been to find methods with a total computational complexity of optimal order, that is, proportional to the degrees of freedom involved in the equation. Methods that have turned out to have been particularly important for the further developments of linear equation solvers are surveyed. Some of them are presented in greater detail.

  11. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Orosa, José A

    2012-01-01

    There are many aspects to consider when evaluating or improving an indoor environment; thermal comfort, energy saving, preservation of materials, hygiene and health are all key aspects which can be improved by passive methods of environmental control. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments endeavours to fill the lack of analysis in this area by using over ten years of research to illustrate the effects of methods such as thermal inertia and permeable coverings; for example, the use of permeable coverings is a well known passive method, but its effects and ways to improve indoor environments have been rarely analyzed.   Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments  includes both software simulations and laboratory and field studies. Through these, the main parameters that characterize the behavior of internal coverings are defined. Furthermore, a new procedure is explained in depth which can be used to identify the real expected effects of permeable coverings such ...

  12. Comparative analysis of solution methods of the punctual kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, A.

    2003-01-01

    The following one written it presents a comparative analysis among different analytical solutions for the punctual kinetics equation, which present two variables of interest: a) the temporary behavior of the neutronic population, and b) The temporary behavior of the different groups of precursors of delayed neutrons. The first solution is based on a method that solves the transfer function of the differential equation for the neutronic population, in which intends to obtain the different poles that give the stability of this transfer function. In this section it is demonstrated that the temporary variation of the reactivity of the system can be managed as it is required, since the integration time for this method doesn't affect the result. However, the second solution is based on an iterative method like that of Runge-Kutta or the Euler method where the algorithm was only used to solve first order differential equations giving this way solution to each differential equation that conforms the equations of punctual kinetics. In this section it is demonstrated that only it can obtain a correct temporary behavior of the neutronic population when it is integrated on an interval of very short time, forcing to the temporary variation of the reactivity to change very quick way without one has some control about the time. In both methods the same change is used so much in the reactivity of the system like in the integration times, giving validity to the results graph the one the temporary behavior of the neutronic population vs. time. (Author)

  13. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.; Stines, William B.

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  14. Analytic method for solitary solutions of some partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Kaya, Dogan [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: dkaya@firat.edu.tr

    2007-10-22

    In this Letter by considering an improved tanh function method, we found some exact solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and the Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation with its fission and fusion, the Jaulent-Miodek equation.

  15. Analytic method for solitary solutions of some partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz; Kaya, Dogan

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter by considering an improved tanh function method, we found some exact solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and the Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation with its fission and fusion, the Jaulent-Miodek equation

  16. Solutions of hyperbolic equations with the CIP-BS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Takayuki; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Yabe, Takashi; Aoki, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a new numerical method, the Constrained Interpolation Profile - Basis Set (CIP-BS) method, can solve general hyperbolic equations efficiently. This method uses a simple polynomial basis set that is easily extendable to any desired higher-order accuracy. The interpolating profile is chosen so that the subgrid scale solution approaches the local real solution owing to the constraints from the spatial derivatives of the master equations. Then, introducing scalar products, the linear and nonlinear partial differential equations are uniquely reduced to the ordinary differential equations for values and spatial derivatives at the grid points. The method gives stable, less diffusive, and accurate results. It is successfully applied to the continuity equation, the Burgers equation, the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and one-dimensional shock tube problems. (author)

  17. Solution of the radiative enclosure with a hybrid inverse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Brittes da; Franca, Francis Henrique Ramos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: frfranca@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This work applies the inverse analysis to solve a three-dimensional radiative enclosure - which the surfaces are diffuse-grays - filled with transparent medium. The aim is determine the powers and locations of the heaters to attain both uniform heat flux and temperature on the design surface. A hybrid solution that couples two methods, the generalized extremal optimization (GEO) and the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is proposed. The determination of the heat sources distribution is treated as an optimization problem, by GEO algorithm , whereas the solution of the system of equation, that embodies the Fredholm equation of first kind and therefore is expected to be ill conditioned, is build up through TSVD regularization method. The results show that the hybrid method can lead to a heat flux on the design surface that satisfies the imposed conditions with maximum error of less than 1,10%. The results illustrated the relevance of a hybrid method as a prediction tool. (author)

  18. A fast method for optimal reactive power flow solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivam, G; Khan, M A [Anna Univ., Madras (IN). Coll. of Engineering

    1990-01-01

    A fast successive linear programming (SLP) method for minimizing transmission losses and improving the voltage profile is proposed. The method uses the same compactly stored, factorized constant matrices in all the LP steps, both for power flow solution and for constructing the LP model. The inherent oscillatory convergence of SLP methods is overcome by proper selection of initial step sizes and their gradual reduction. Detailed studies on three systems, including a 109-bus system, reveal the fast and reliable convergence property of the method. (author).

  19. Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G.

    2005-01-01

    The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k eff results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation

  20. Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k{sub eff} results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation.

  1. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  2. Solution methods for large systems of linear equations in BACCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, C.; Dorr, B.

    1993-05-01

    The computer programme BACCHUS is used to describe steady state and transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of a coolant in a fuel element with intact geometry in a fast breeder reactor. In such computer programmes generally large systems of linear equations with sparse matrices of coefficients, resulting from discretization of coolant conservation equations, must be solved thousands of times giving rise to large demands of main storage and CPU time. Direct and iterative solution methods of the systems of linear equations, available in BACCHUS, are described, giving theoretical details and experience with their use in the programme. Besides use of a method of lines, a Runge-Kutta-method, for solution of the partial differential equation is outlined. (orig.) [de

  3. Acceleration of monte Carlo solution by conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshihisa, Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method (CG) was applied to accelerate Monte Carlo solutions in fixed source problems. The equilibrium model based formulation enables to use CG scheme as well as initial guess to maximize computational performance. This method is available to arbitrary geometry provided that the neutron source distribution in each subregion can be regarded as flat. Even if it is not the case, the method can still be used as a powerful tool to provide an initial guess very close to the converged solution. The major difference of Monte Carlo CG to deterministic CG is that residual error is estimated using Monte Carlo sampling, thus statistical error exists in the residual. This leads to a flow diagram specific to Monte Carlo-CG. Three pre-conditioners were proposed for CG scheme and the performance was compared with a simple 1-D slab heterogeneous test problem. One of them, Sparse-M option, showed an excellent performance in convergence. The performance per unit cost was improved by four times in the test problem. Although direct estimation of efficiency of the method is impossible mainly because of the strong problem-dependence of the optimized pre-conditioner in CG, the method seems to have efficient potential as a fast solution algorithm for Monte Carlo calculations. (author)

  4. A new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation applicable to problems of a non-perturbative nature. The method works by identifying three different scales in the problem, which then are treated independently: an asymptotic scale, which depends uniquely on the form of the potential at large distances; an intermediate scale, still characterized by an exponential decay of the wavefunction; and, finally, a short distance scale, in which the wavefunction is sizable. The notion of optimized perturbation is then used in the last two regimes. We apply the method to the quantum anharmonic oscillator and find it suitable to treat both energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions, even for strong couplings

  5. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerr, R. Joseph, E-mail: rjz116@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Azmy, Yousry Y., E-mail: yyazmy@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Burlington Engineering Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  6. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerr, R. Joseph; Azmy, Yousry Y.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  7. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  8. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  9. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: fprata@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  10. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  11. Linear facility location in three dimensions - Models and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a line or a line segment in three-dimensional space, such that the sum of distances from the facility represented by the line (segment) to a given set of points is minimized. An example is planning the drilling of a mine shaft, with access to ore deposits through...... horizontal tunnels connecting the deposits and the shaft. Various models of the problem are developed and analyzed, and efficient solution methods are given....

  12. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    C Triki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PPSRP) over a T-day planning horizon and describe four heuristic methods for its solution. Even though all the proposed heuristics belong to the common partitioning-then-routing paradigm, they differ in assigning the stations to each day of the horizon. The resulting daily routing problems are then solved exactly until achieving optimalization. Moreover, an improvement procedure is also developed with the aim of ens...

  13. Method of solution mining subsurface orebodies to reduce restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, G.J.

    1984-01-24

    A method of solution mining is claimed wherein a lixiviant containing both leaching and oxidizing agents is injected into the subsurface orebody. The composition of the lixiviant is changed by reducing the level of oxidizing agent to zero so that soluble species continue to be removed from the subsurface environment. This reduces the uranium level of the ground water aquifer after termination of the lixiviant injection.

  14. Computer methods in physics 250 problems with guided solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Rubin H

    2018-01-01

    Our future scientists and professionals must be conversant in computational techniques. In order to facilitate integration of computer methods into existing physics courses, this textbook offers a large number of worked examples and problems with fully guided solutions in Python as well as other languages (Mathematica, Java, C, Fortran, and Maple). It’s also intended as a self-study guide for learning how to use computer methods in physics. The authors include an introductory chapter on numerical tools and indication of computational and physics difficulty level for each problem.

  15. A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Modified power method is applied to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. •Transfer matrix is introduced to generalize the modified power method. •All mode based population control is applied to get the higher eigenmodes. •Statistic fluctuation can be greatly reduced using accumulated tally results. •Fission source convergence is accelerated with higher mode solutions.

  16. Lower and Upper Solutions Method for Positive Solutions of Fractional Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Darzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the lower and upper solutions method and fixed-point theorems to prove the existence of positive solution to fractional boundary value problem D0+αut+ft,ut=0, 0

  17. New exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton system via an extended mapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songhua; Fang Jianping; Zheng Chunlong

    2009-01-01

    By means of an extended mapping method and a variable separation method, a series of solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and variable separation solutions to the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton system is derived.

  18. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  19. Higher order methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Aarnio, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Average microscopic reaction rates need to be estimated at each step. → Traditional predictor-corrector methods use zeroth and first order predictions. → Increasing predictor order greatly improves results. → Increasing corrector order does not improve results. - Abstract: A group of methods for burnup calculations solves the changes in material compositions by evaluating an explicit solution to the Bateman equations with constant microscopic reaction rates. This requires predicting representative averages for the one-group cross-sections and flux during each step, which is usually done using zeroth and first order predictions for their time development in a predictor-corrector calculation. In this paper we present the results of using linear, rather than constant, extrapolation on the predictor and quadratic, rather than linear, interpolation on the corrector. Both of these are done by using data from the previous step, and thus do not affect the stepwise running time. The methods were tested by implementing them into the reactor physics code Serpent and comparing the results from four test cases to accurate reference results obtained with very short steps. Linear extrapolation greatly improved results for thermal spectra and should be preferred over the constant one currently used in all Bateman solution based burnup calculations. The effects of using quadratic interpolation on the corrector were, on the other hand, predominantly negative, although not enough so to conclusively decide between the linear and quadratic variants.

  20. Properties of gases, liquids, and solutions principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2013-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume ll-Part A: Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solutions ponders on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as effective tools in examining the molecular, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first offers information on the transmission of sound waves in gases at very low pressures and the phenomenological theory of the relaxation phenomena in gases. Topics include free molecule propagation, phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes, and simultaneous multiple relaxation pro

  1. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  2. Monte Carlo methods for flux expansion solutions of transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive Monte Carlo methods, based on the use of either correlated sampling or importance sampling, to obtain global solutions to certain transport problems have recently been described. The resulting learning algorithms are capable of achieving geometric convergence when applied to the estimation of a finite number of coefficients in a flux expansion representation of the global solution. However, because of the nonphysical nature of the random walk simulations needed to perform importance sampling, conventional transport estimators and source sampling techniques require modification to be used successfully in conjunction with such flux expansion methods. It is shown how these problems can be overcome. First, the traditional path length estimators in wide use in particle transport simulations are generalized to include rather general detector functions (which, in this application, are the individual basis functions chosen for the flus expansion). Second, it is shown how to sample from the signed probabilities that arise as source density functions in these applications, without destroying the zero variance property needed to ensure geometric convergence to zero error

  3. A generalized trial solution method for solving the aerosol equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, S.; Simpson, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown how the introduction of orthogonal functions together with a time-dependent scaling factor may be used to develop a generalized trial solution method for tackling the aerosol equation. The approach is worked out in detail for the case where the initial particle size spectrum follows a γ-distribution, and it is shown to be a viable technique as long as the initial volume fraction of particulate material is not too large. The method is applied to several situations of interest, and is shown to give more accurate results (with marginally shorter computing times) than are given by the three-parameter log-normal or γ distribution trial functions. (author)

  4. A finite element solution method for quadrics parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.

    1996-08-01

    A distributed preconditioned conjugate gradient method for finite element analysis has been developed and implemented on a parallel SIMD Quadrics computer. The main characteristic of the method is that it does not require any actual assembling of all element equations in a global system. The physical domain of the problem is partitioned in cells of n p finite elements and each cell element is assigned to a different node of an n p -processors machine. Element stiffness matrices are stored in the data memory of the assigned processing node and the solution process is completely executed in parallel at element level. Inter-element and therefore inter-processor communications are required once per iteration to perform local sums of vector quantities between neighbouring elements. A prototype implementation has been tested on an 8-nodes Quadrics machine in a simple 2D benchmark problem

  5. The method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method for non-grey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayan, Fatma Nihan; Selcuk, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    A radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media was developed by incorporation of a gas spectral radiative property model, namely wide band correlated-k (WBCK) model, which is compatible with MOL solution of DOM. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by applying it to 1-D parallel plate and 2-D axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure problems containing absorbing-emitting medium and benchmarking its predictions against line-by-line solutions available in the literature. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with WBCK model produces accurate results for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics codes based on the same approach

  6. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  7. The Semianalytical Solutions for Stiff Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations by Using Variational Iteration Method and Modified Variational Iteration Method with Comparison to Exact Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tarik Atay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Variational Iteration Method (VIM and Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are used to find solutions of systems of stiff ordinary differential equations for both linear and nonlinear problems. Some examples are given to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of these methods. We compare our results with exact results. In some studies related to stiff ordinary differential equations, problems were solved by Adomian Decomposition Method and VIM and Homotopy Perturbation Method. Comparisons with exact solutions reveal that the Variational Iteration Method (VIM and the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are easier to implement. In fact, these methods are promising methods for various systems of linear and nonlinear stiff ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, VIM, or in some cases MVIM, is giving exact solutions in linear cases and very satisfactory solutions when compared to exact solutions for nonlinear cases depending on the stiffness ratio of the stiff system to be solved.

  8. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

    Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on φm2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on φmRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme φm2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme

  9. Electroerosion method for preparation of saturated solutions of ruthenium hydroxochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalev, V.A.; Andrianov, G.A.; Zhadanov, B.V.; Ryazanov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot plant for carrying out electroerosion processes using pulse current of high unit power is developed. The solution process of metallic Ru in concentrated HCl is investigated. The possibility of preparation of ruthenium hydroxochloride solutions of 300 g/l concentration is established; it gives the possibility of Ru solution under conditions similar to the process of salting out

  10. Composition and method for solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.; Watts, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that, in the solution mining of uranium ores using ammonium carbonate solutions containing hydrogen peroxide or ozone as an oxidant, the tendency of the formation being treated to become less permeable during the leaching process can be overcome by including in the leaching solution a very small concentration of sodium silicate

  11. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  12. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  13. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  14. Methods of using the quadratic assignment problem solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Kudelska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quadratic assignment problem (QAP is one of the most interesting of combinatorial optimization. Was presented by Koopman and Beckamanna in 1957, as a mathematical model of the location of indivisible tasks. This problem belongs to the class NP-hard issues. This forces the application to the solution already approximate methods for tasks with a small size (over 30. Even though it is much harder than other combinatorial optimization problems, it enjoys wide interest because it models the important class of decision problems. Material and methods: The discussion was an artificial intelligence tool that allowed to solve the problem QAP, among others are: genetic algorithms, Tabu Search, Branch and Bound. Results and conclusions: QAP did not arise directly as a model for certain actions, but he found its application in many areas. Examples of applications of the problem is: arrangement of buildings on the campus of the university, layout design of electronic components in systems with large scale integration (VLSI, design a hospital, arrangement of keys on the keyboard.

  15. Method for ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals and potassium microimpurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Kostromina, O.N.; Ogorodnikova, A.A.; Khajnakov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    A method of deep ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals (iron, nickel, copper, lead) and potassium microimpurities is developed. The method includes multiple sorption of microimpurities on titanium phosphate with their subsequent desorption by sorbent processing with a solution with a solution of 3-6 N nitric acid, first, and then with a neutral solution of 2 % sodium thiosulfate. The given method permits to increase the purification degree of sodium iodide solution by 25-30 %. 2 tabs

  16. New Exact Solutions of Time Fractional Gardner Equation by Using New Version of F -Expansion Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandir, Yusuf; Duzgun, Hasan Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we consider analytical solutions of the time fractional derivative Gardner equation by using the new version of F-expansion method. With this proposed method multiple Jacobi elliptic functions are situated in the solution function. As a result, various exact analytical solutions consisting of single and combined Jacobi elliptic functions solutions are obtained. (paper)

  17. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P J

    2013-01-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead

  18. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead.

  19. A Visualization Technique for Accessing Solution Pool in Interactive Methods of Multiobjective Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Kurasova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Interactive methods of multiobjective optimization repetitively derive Pareto optimal solutions based on decision maker’s preference information and present the obtained solutions for his/her consideration. Some interactive methods save the obtained solutions into a solution pool and, at each iteration, allow the decision maker considering any of solutions obtained earlier. This feature contributes to the flexibility of exploring the Pareto optimal set and learning about the op...

  20. Multiple Revolution Solutions for the Perturbed Lambert Problem using the Method of Particular Solutions and Picard Iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn M.; Read, Julie L.; Probe, Austin B.; Junkins, John L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method for solving the multiple revolution perturbed Lambert problem using the method of particular solutions and modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration. The method of particular solutions differs from the well-known Newton-shooting method in that integration of the state transition matrix (36 additional differential equations) is not required, and instead it makes use of a reference trajectory and a set of n particular solutions. Any numerical integrator can be used for solving two-point boundary problems with the method of particular solutions, however we show that using modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration affords an avenue for increased efficiency that is not available with other step-by-step integrators. We take advantage of the path approximation nature of modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration (nodes iteratively converge to fixed points in space) and utilize a variable fidelity force model for propagating the reference trajectory. Remarkably, we demonstrate that computing the particular solutions with only low fidelity function evaluations greatly increases the efficiency of the algorithm while maintaining machine precision accuracy. Our study reveals that solving the perturbed Lambert's problem using the method of particular solutions with modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration is about an order of magnitude faster compared with the classical shooting method and a tenth-twelfth order Runge-Kutta integrator. It is well known that the solution to Lambert's problem over multiple revolutions is not unique and to ensure that all possible solutions are considered we make use of a reliable preexisting Keplerian Lambert solver to warm start our perturbed algorithm.

  1. The extended hyperbolic function method and exact solutions of the long-short wave resonance equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2008-01-01

    The extended hyperbolic functions method for nonlinear wave equations is presented. Based on this method, we obtain a multiple exact explicit solutions for the nonlinear evolution equations which describe the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) the solitary wave solutions of bell-type for S and L, (b) the solitary wave solutions of kink-type for S and bell-type for L, (c) the solitary wave solutions of a compound of the bell-type and the kink-type for S and L, (d) the singular travelling wave solutions, (e) periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle function types, and solitary wave solutions of rational function types. The variety of structure to the exact solutions of the long-short wave equation is illustrated. The methods presented here can also be used to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in n dimensions

  2. Soliton-like solutions to the GKdV equation by extended mapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ranchao; Sun Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    In this note, many new exact solutions of the generalized KdV equation, such as rational solutions, periodic solutions like Jacobian elliptic and triangular functions, soliton-like solutions, are constructed by symbolic computation and the extended mapping method, with the auxiliary ordinary equation replaced by a more general one

  3. Multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations using a unified algebraic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2002-01-01

    A new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. Compared with most of the existing tanh methods, the Jacobi elliptic function method or other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only gives new and more general solutions, but also provides a guideline to classify the various types of the travelling wave solutions according to the values of some parameters. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) kink-shaped and bell-shaped soliton solutions, (b) rational solutions, (c) triangular periodic solutions and (d) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic wave solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations such as those considered in this paper, KdV-MKdV, Ito's fifth MKdV, Hirota, Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov, Broer-Kaup, generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma, coupled Schroedinger-KdV, (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave, (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson equations. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the soliton solutions and Jacobi doubly periodic solutions for the Hirota equation are shown by some figures. The links among our proposed method, the tanh method, extended tanh method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are clarified generally. (author)

  4. Elliptic equation rational expansion method and new exact travelling solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Wang Qi; Li Biao

    2005-01-01

    Based on a new general ansatz and a general subepuation, a new general algebraic method named elliptic equation rational expansion method is devised for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions in terms of rational special function for nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). We apply the proposed method to solve Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation and explicitly construct a series of exact solutions which include rational form solitary wave solution, rational form triangular periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions as special cases. In addition, the links among our proposed method with the method by Fan [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;20:609], are also clarified generally

  5. Methods of Uranium Determination in solutions of Tributyl Phosphate and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrement Eguiluz, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.

    1962-01-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of uranium in organic solutions of tributyl phosphate and kerosene is proposed. In this method the uranium is reextracted from the aqueous phase by reduction with cadmium in acid solution. The uranium can be determined in this solution by the usual methods. In case of very diluted solutions, a direct spectrophtometrical determination of uranium in the organic phase with dibenzoylmethane is proposed. (Author) 21 refs

  6. An Algebraic Method for Constructing Exact Solutions to Difference-Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zhang Hongqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to solve difference differential equation(s). As an example, we apply this method to discrete KdV equation and Ablowitz-Ladik lattice equation. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained with the help of Maple including soliton solutions presented by hyperbolic functions sinh and cosh, periodic solutions presented by sin and cos and rational solutions. This method can also be used to other nonlinear difference-differential equation(s).

  7. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  8. Method for Non-Invasive Determination of Chemical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul W. (Inventor); Jones, Alan (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for non-invasively determining a chemical property of an aqueous solution is provided. The method provides the steps of providing a colored solute having a light absorbance spectrum and transmitting light through the colored solute at two different wavelengths. The method further provides the steps of measuring light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different transmitted light wavelengths, and comparing the light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different wavelengths to determine a chemical property of an aqueous solution.

  9. Construct solitary solutions of discrete hybrid equation by Adomian Decomposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zhang Hongqing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the Adomian Decomposition Method to solving the differential-difference equations. A typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the Adomian Decomposition Method in solving differential-difference equation. Kink shaped solitary solution and Bell shaped solitary solution are presented. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the Adomian Decomposition Method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations.

  10. Modified harmonic balance method for the solution of nonlinear jerk equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Hasan, A. S. M. Z.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a second approximate solution of nonlinear jerk equations (third order differential equation) can be obtained by using modified harmonic balance method. The method is simpler and easier to carry out the solution of nonlinear differential equations due to less number of nonlinear equations are required to solve than the classical harmonic balance method. The results obtained from this method are compared with those obtained from the other existing analytical methods that are available in the literature and the numerical method. The solution shows a good agreement with the numerical solution as well as the analytical methods of the available literature.

  11. Further improved F-expansion method and new exact solutions of Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dengshan; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, with the aid of the symbolic computation we improve the extended F-expansion method in [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004; 22:111] and propose the further improved F-expansion method. Using this method, we have gotten many new exact solutions which we have never seen before within our knowledge of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky equation. In addition,the solutions we get are more general than the solutions that the extended F-expansion method gets.The solutions we get include Jacobi elliptic function solutions, soliton-like solutions, trigonometric function solutions and so on. Our method can also apply to other partial differential equations and can also get many new exact solutions

  12. Substep methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Aarnio, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bateman solution based depletion requires constant microscopic reaction rates. → Traditionally constant approximation is used for each depletion step. → Here depletion steps are divided to substeps which are solved sequentially. → This allows piecewise constant, rather than constant, approximation for each step. → Discretization errors are almost completely removed with only minor slowdown. - Abstract: When material changes in burnup calculations are solved by evaluating an explicit solution to the Bateman equations with constant microscopic reaction rates, one has to first predict the development of the reaction rates during the step and then further approximate these predictions with their averages in the depletion calculation. Representing the continuously changing reaction rates with their averages results in some error regardless of how accurately their development was predicted. Since neutronics solutions tend to be computationally expensive, steps in typical calculations are long and the resulting discretization errors significant. In this paper we present a simple solution to reducing these errors: the depletion steps are divided to substeps that are solved sequentially, allowing finer discretization of the reaction rates without additional neutronics solutions. This greatly reduces the discretization errors and, at least when combined with Monte Carlo neutronics, causes only minor slowdown as neutronics dominates the total running time.

  13. Solutions of differential equations with regular coefficients by the methods of Richmond and Runge-Kutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the differential equation which describe the electric field within an inhomogeneous layer of permittivity, upon which a perpendicularly-polarized plane wave is incident, are considered. Richmond's method and the Runge-Kutta method are compared for linear and exponential profiles of permittivities. These two approximate solutions are also compared with the exact solutions.

  14. Generation of new solutions of the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations by a double complex function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the solution of certain differential equations, the double complex function method, is developed, combining ordinary complex numbers and hyperbolic complex numbers. This method is applied to the theory of stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations in general relativity. A family of exact double solutions, double transformation groups, and n-soliton double solutions are obtained

  15. Fundamental solution of the problem of linear programming and method of its determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The idea of a fundamental solution to a problem in linear programming is introduced. A method of determining the fundamental solution and of applying this method to the solution of a problem in linear programming is proposed. Numerical examples are cited.

  16. A direct algebraic method applied to obtain complex solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using some exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact complex solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is implemented for the NLS equation, a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation, the coupled Schrodinger-KdV equations and the Hirota-Maccari equations. New exact complex solutions are obtained.

  17. The modified simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Efimova, Olga Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The modification of simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented. Using this method we obtain exact solutions of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with cubic source and exact solutions of third-order Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation describing nonlinear waves in liquids with gas bubbles.

  18. Radioactivity measurements of 32P solutions by calorimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, T.; Nataredja, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactivity of 32 P solution is measured with a twin-cup heat-flow microcalorimeter. In order to convert whole decay energy evolved from the 32 P solution in a glass vial into thermal power, 5 mm-thick lead container was used as a radiation absorber. Corrections for heat loss due to thermal radiation and bremsstrahlung escape as well as an effect of impurity ( 33 P) are conducted. The overall uncertainty of the nondestructive measurement as a sample is in a container is estimated to be ± 1.5 %. Discussion about estimates of uncertainties is also given in detail. (author)

  19. Numerical soliton-like solutions of the potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation by the decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Dogan; El-Sayed, Salah M.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter we present an Adomian's decomposition method (shortly ADM) for obtaining the numerical soliton-like solutions of the potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (shortly PKP) equation. We will prove the convergence of the ADM. We obtain the exact and numerical solitary-wave solutions of the PKP equation for certain initial conditions. Then ADM yields the analytic approximate solution with fast convergence rate and high accuracy through previous works. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical solutions

  20. A numerical dressing method for the nonlinear superposition of solutions of the KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trogdon, Thomas; Deconinck, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the unification of two existing numerical methods for the construction of solutions of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. The first method is used to solve the Cauchy initial-value problem on the line for rapidly decaying initial data. The second method is used to compute finite-genus solutions of the KdV equation. The combination of these numerical methods allows for the computation of exact solutions that are asymptotically (quasi-)periodic finite-gap solutions and are a nonlinear superposition of dispersive, soliton and (quasi-)periodic solutions in the finite (x, t)-plane. Such solutions are referred to as superposition solutions. We compute these solutions accurately for all values of x and t. (paper)

  1. The generalized tanh method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the generalized tanh method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, and we obtain solitons and exact solutions of some important equations of the mathematical physics.

  2. Traveling Wave Solutions of ZK-BBM Equation Sine-Cosine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a relatively new technique which is called sine-cosine method for ZK-BBM equations. Solution procedure and obtained results re-confirm the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  3. Enhanced exact solution methods for the Team Orienteering Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshtkaran, M.; Ziarati, K.; Bettinelli, A.; Vigo, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Team Orienteering Problem (TOP) is one of the most investigated problems in the family of vehicle routing problems with profits. In this paper, we propose a Branch-and-Price approach to find proven optimal solutions to TOP. The pricing sub-problem is solved by a bounded bidirectional dynamic

  4. WYD method for an eigen solution of coupled problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Harapin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing efficient and stable algorithm for finding the eigenvalues andeigenvectors is very important from the static as well as the dynamic aspectin coupled problems. Modal analysis requires first few significant eigenvectorsand eigenvalues while direct integration requires the highest value toascertain the length of the time step that satisfies the stability condition.The paper first presents the modification of the well known WYDmethod for a solution of single field problems: an efficient and numericallystable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and the correspondingeigenvectors. The modification is based on the special choice of thestarting vector. The starting vector is the static solution of displacements forthe applied load, defined as the product of the mass matrix and the unitdisplacement vector. The starting vector is very close to the theoreticalsolution, which is important in cases of small subspaces.Additionally, the paper briefly presents the adopted formulation for solvingthe fluid-structure coupled systems problems which is based on a separatesolution for each field. Individual fields (fluid and structure are solvedindependently, taking in consideration the interaction information transferbetween them at every stage of the iterative solution process. The assessmentof eigenvalues and eigenvectors for multiple fields is also presented. This eigenproblem is more complicated than the one for the ordinary structural analysis,as the formulation produces non-symmetrical matrices.Finally, a numerical example for the eigen solution coupled fluidstructureproblem is presented to show the efficiency and the accuracy ofthe developed algorithm.

  5. Computer Facilitated Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering--Similarity Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2006-01-01

    High-performance computers coupled with highly efficient numerical schemes and user-friendly software packages have helped instructors to teach numerical solutions and analysis of various nonlinear models more efficiently in the classroom. One of the main objectives of a model is to provide insight about the system of interest. Analytical…

  6. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar; Muhammet Kurulay

    2013-01-01

    A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as...

  7. Liquid-liquid mixing by gas injection in a pool configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to study the mixing process of two immiscible liquids, in a pool configuration, by bottom gas injection. The apparatus consisted of a vertical pyrex conduit of 15.2 centimeters of internal diameter. To the lower part of the conduit was attached a porous plate through which the gas was injected. The experiments were photographically recorded. The pictures were digitized and a method was developed to quantify the mixing region thickness. This method requires knowledge of the void fraction, for each liquid, as a function of the superficial gas velocity. Because of this, void fraction was measured for the bubbly and churn flow regimes, in a pool configuration for every liquid. A new correlation, based on the drift flux model, is proposed for void fraction as a function of superficial gas velocity. It has been observed that mixing can start either in bubbly or churn flow regimes, depending on the liquid pair properties. Three mechanistic models were derived to aid in correlating the data, two for bubbly flow and one for churn flow. A transition region between these two flow regimes, was deduced, but not directly measured. A set of correlations was developed from the models and it is proposed to be implemented in current codes that model Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI). The implications that the present work has on MCCI have been described. It can be deduced that mixing between the oxidic and the metallic phases will occur during the interaction

  8. Regularized variable metric method versus the conjugate gradient method in solution of radiative boundary design problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsary, F.; Pooladvand, K.; Pourshaghaghy, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an appropriate distribution of the heating elements' strengths in a radiation furnace is estimated using inverse methods so that a pre-specified temperature and heat flux distribution is attained on the design surface. Minimization of the sum of the squares of the error function is performed using the variable metric method (VMM), and the results are compared with those obtained by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) established previously in the literature. It is shown via test cases and a well-founded validation procedure that the VMM, when using a 'regularized' estimator, is more accurate and is able to reach at a higher quality final solution as compared to the CGM. The test cases used in this study were two-dimensional furnaces filled with an absorbing, emitting, and scattering gas

  9. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations Using Spectral Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pashazadeh Atabakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral homotopy analysis method (SHAM as a modification of homotopy analysis method (HAM is applied to obtain solution of high-order nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential problems. The existence and uniqueness of the solution and convergence of the proposed method are proved. Some examples are given to approve the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed method. The SHAM results show that the proposed approach is quite reasonable when compared to homotopy analysis method, Lagrange interpolation solutions, and exact solutions.

  10. A general method for enclosing solutions of interval linear equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-717 ISSN 1862-4472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval linear equations * solution set * enclosure * absolute value inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2012

  11. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Juan-Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

  12. Liquid mixing enhanced by pulse width modulation in a Y-shaped jet configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Zhong, Shan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, mixing between two fluid streams, which are injected into a planar mixing channel via a Y-shaped confluence section at the same volume flow rate, is studied experimentally. The injection of the two fluid streams is controlled by two separate solenoid valves, which are operated with a phase difference of 180°, using pulse width modulation. The experiments are conducted using water at a mean Reynolds number between 83 and 250, a range of pulsation frequencies and two duty cycles (25 and 50%). Both particle-image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence technique are used to visualize the flow patterns and to quantify the mixing degree in the mixing channel. This experiment shows that the pulsation of each jet produces vortical structures, which promotes mixing via vortex entrainment and vortex breakup, and at the same time the mixing is also greatly enhanced by sequential segmentation produced by a 180° out-of-phase pulsation of the two jets. This mixing enhancement method is effective at a Reynolds number greater than 125 with a mixing degree of 0.9 being achieved. For the Reynolds numbers studied in the present experiments, an optimal frequency exists, which corresponds to a Strouhal number in the range of 0.5-2. Furthermore, at a given mean Reynolds number a lower duty cycle is found to produce a better mixing due to the resultant higher instantaneous Reynolds number in the jet flow. It is also found that pulsation of only one jet can produce a similar mixing effect.

  13. Liquid mixing enhanced by pulse width modulation in a Y-shaped jet configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Qingfeng; Zhong Shan, E-mail: shan.zhong@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, mixing between two fluid streams, which are injected into a planar mixing channel via a Y-shaped confluence section at the same volume flow rate, is studied experimentally. The injection of the two fluid streams is controlled by two separate solenoid valves, which are operated with a phase difference of 180 Degree-Sign , using pulse width modulation. The experiments are conducted using water at a mean Reynolds number between 83 and 250, a range of pulsation frequencies and two duty cycles (25 and 50%). Both particle-image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence technique are used to visualize the flow patterns and to quantify the mixing degree in the mixing channel. This experiment shows that the pulsation of each jet produces vortical structures, which promotes mixing via vortex entrainment and vortex breakup, and at the same time the mixing is also greatly enhanced by sequential segmentation produced by a 180 Degree-Sign out-of-phase pulsation of the two jets. This mixing enhancement method is effective at a Reynolds number greater than 125 with a mixing degree of 0.9 being achieved. For the Reynolds numbers studied in the present experiments, an optimal frequency exists, which corresponds to a Strouhal number in the range of 0.5-2. Furthermore, at a given mean Reynolds number a lower duty cycle is found to produce a better mixing due to the resultant higher instantaneous Reynolds number in the jet flow. It is also found that pulsation of only one jet can produce a similar mixing effect. (paper)

  14. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeuchi/software/) for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  15. Method for separation of Cs from acid solution dissolving radionuclides and microanalysis of solution with ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2004-06-01

    The VEGA (Verification Experiments of radionuclides Gas/Aerosol release) program is being performed at JAERI to understand mechanisms of radionuclides release from irradiated fuel during severe accidents. As a part of evaluation in the program, the mass balances of released and deposited FP (Fission Products) onto the test apparatus are estimated from gamma ray measurement for acid solution leached from the apparatus, but short-life nuclides are difficult to be measured because those in the VEGA fuel have been mostly depleted due to cooling for several years. Moreover, the radionuclides without emitting gamma rays and very small quantity of elements cannot be quantified by gamma ray measurement. Therefore, a microanalysis by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry) for the acid solution leached from VEGA apparatuses is being applied to evaluate the released and deposited masses for those elements. Since Cs-134 and -137, which are major FP dissolved in the solution, have high intensity of gamma ray spectrum, they have to be removed from the solution before the microanalysis in order to avoid contamination of ICP system and to decrease exposure to gamma ray. In this report, methods for separation of Cs from acid solution were reviewed and the applicability of them to the ICP-AES analysis was discussed. The method for Cs separation using the inorganic ion exchanger, AMP (Ammonium Molybdate Phosphate) was applied to the solutions of cold and hot test and the effectiveness was examined. The results showed that more than 99.9% of Cs could be removed from the test solutions, and once removed Sb by AMP was recovered by using a complexing agent such as citric acid. Next, the method was applied to an acid solution leached from VEGA-3 apparatus, and ICP-AES analysis was performed for it. The analysis showed that amount of U, Sr and Zr were successfully quantified. Most of elements to be analyzed were measurable except for Sb, Ag and Sn, although

  16. The (′/-Expansion Method for Abundant Traveling Wave Solutions of Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the traveling wave solutions of the fifth-order Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (CDG equation by the (/-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, the trigonometric, and the rational functions. It is shown that the (/-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  17. Comparison of two solution ways of district heating control: Using analysis methods, using artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balate, J.; Sysala, T. [Technical Univ., Zlin (Czech Republic). Dept. of Automation and Control Technology

    1997-12-31

    The District Heating Systems - DHS (Centralized Heat Supply Systems - CHSS) are being developed in large cities in accordance with their growth. The systems are formed by enlarging networks of heat distribution to consumers and at the same time they interconnect the heat sources gradually built. The heat is distributed to the consumers through the circular networks, that are supplied by several cooperating heat sources, that means by power and heating plants and heating plants. The complicated process of heat production technology and supply requires the system approach when solving the concept of automatized control. The paper deals with comparison of the solution way using the analysis methods and using the artificial intelligence methods. (orig.)

  18. EXACT SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A CLASS OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING DIRECT ALGEBRAIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.

  19. Solution of (3+1-Dimensional Nonlinear Cubic Schrodinger Equation by Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Zedan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four-dimensional differential transform method has been introduced and fundamental theorems have been defined for the first time. Moreover, as an application of four-dimensional differential transform, exact solutions of nonlinear system of partial differential equations have been investigated. The results of the present method are compared very well with analytical solution of the system. Differential transform method can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and reduces the size of computational work. With this method, exact solutions may be obtained without any need of cumbersome work, and it is a useful tool for analytical and numerical solutions.

  20. The First-Integral Method and Abundant Explicit Exact Solutions to the Zakharov Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the system of Zakharov equations which involves the interactions between Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in plasma. Abundant explicit and exact solutions of the system of Zakharov equations are derived uniformly by using the first integral method. These exact solutions are include that of the solitary wave solutions of bell-type for n and E, the solitary wave solutions of kink-type for E and bell-type for n, the singular traveling wave solutions, periodic wave solutions of triangle functions, Jacobi elliptic function doubly periodic solutions, and Weierstrass elliptic function doubly periodic wave solutions. The results obtained confirm that the first integral method is an efficient technique for analytic treatment of a wide variety of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations.

  1. Exact Solutions for Fractional Differential-Difference Equations by an Extended Riccati Sub-ODE Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an extended Riccati sub-ODE method is proposed to establish new exact solutions for fractional differential-difference equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. By a fractional complex transformation, a given fractional differential-difference equation can be turned into another differential-difference equation of integer order. The validity of the method is illustrated by applying it to solve the fractional Hybrid lattice equation and the fractional relativistic Toda lattice system. As a result, some new exact solutions including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions are established. (general)

  2. A computational method for the solution of one-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    embedding parameter p ∈ [0, 1], which is considered as a 'small parameter'. Consid- erable research work has recently been conducted in applying this method to a class of linear and nonlinear equations. This method was further developed and improved by He, and applied to nonlinear oscillators with discontinuities [1], ...

  3. Free-surface viscous flow solution methods for ship hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  4. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  5. Soliton solutions of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation by homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molabahrami, A.; Khani, F.; Hamedi-Nezhad, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, the He's homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to finding the soliton solutions of the two-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation (tdKdVB) for the initial conditions was applied. Numerical solutions of the equation were obtained. The obtained solutions, in comparison with the exact solutions admit a remarkable accuracy. The results reveal that the HPM is very effective and simple

  6. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed N. Huseen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

  7. Explicit appropriate basis function method for numerical solution of stiff systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenzhen; Xiao, Hongguang; Li, Haofeng; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An explicit numerical method called the appropriate basis function method is presented. • The method differs from the power series method for obtaining approximate numerical solutions. • Two cases show the method is fit for linear and nonlinear stiff systems. • The method is very simple and effective for most of differential equation systems. - Abstract: In this paper, an explicit numerical method, called the appropriate basis function method, is presented. The explicit appropriate basis function method differs from the power series method because it employs an appropriate basis function such as the exponential function, or periodic function, other than a polynomial, to obtain approximate numerical solutions. The method is successful and effective for the numerical solution of the first order ordinary differential equations. Two examples are presented to show the ability of the method for dealing with linear and nonlinear systems of differential equations

  8. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikoglu, Aytac; Ozkol, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply

  9. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikoglu, Aytac [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkol, Ibrahim [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozkol@itu.edu.tr

    2007-12-15

    In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply.

  10. Two new solutions to the third-order symplectic integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsu, Reima

    2009-01-01

    Two new solutions are obtained for the symplecticity conditions of explicit third-order partitioned Runge-Kutta time integration method. One of them has larger stability limit and better dispersion property than the Ruth's method.

  11. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  12. Small angle neutron scattering in polyelectrolyte solutions: investigation of polymethacrylic acid solutions by contrast variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavata, D.; Pleshtil, I.; Kunchenko, A.B.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron experiments performed by the contrast (background) variation method allows to understand better the role that hydration plays in the study of macromolecules and to draw the connection between the excess scattering amplitude of hydrated molecule with its partial volume. The observed dependence of the compensation point on the degree of neutralization apparently plays an important role in the investigation of polyelectrolytes of biological origin

  13. Solution of linear ordinary differential equations by means of the method of variation of arbitrary constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif

    1997-01-01

    An alternative formula for the solution of linear differential equations of order n is suggested. When applicable, the suggested method requires fewer and simpler computations than the well-known method using Wronskians.......An alternative formula for the solution of linear differential equations of order n is suggested. When applicable, the suggested method requires fewer and simpler computations than the well-known method using Wronskians....

  14. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  15. Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Quttineh, Yousef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...

  16. Cocaine Hydrochloride Structure in Solution Revealed by Three Chiroptical Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagan, P.; Kocourková, L.; Tatarkovič, M.; Králík, F.; Kuchař, M.; Setnička, V.; Bouř, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 16 (2017), s. 2258-2265 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17012 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : analytical methods * circular dichroism * density functional calculations * Raman spectroscopy * structure elucidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  17. Efficient solution method for optimal control of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.; Chambre, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the utilization of existing fuel sources, the use of optimization techniques is becoming more important. A technique for solving systems of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial, boundary, and/or intermediate conditions is given. This method has a number of inherent advantages over existing techniques as well as being efficient in terms of computer time and space requirements. An example of computing the optimal control for a spatially dependent reactor model with and without temperature feedback is given. 10 refs

  18. Efficient solution of parabolic equations by Krylov approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical techniques for solving parabolic equations by the method of lines is addressed. The main motivation for the proposed approach is the possibility of exploiting a high degree of parallelism in a simple manner. The basic idea of the method is to approximate the action of the evolution operator on a given state vector by means of a projection process onto a Krylov subspace. Thus, the resulting approximation consists of applying an evolution operator of a very small dimension to a known vector which is, in turn, computed accurately by exploiting well-known rational approximations to the exponential. Because the rational approximation is only applied to a small matrix, the only operations required with the original large matrix are matrix-by-vector multiplications, and as a result the algorithm can easily be parallelized and vectorized. Some relevant approximation and stability issues are discussed. We present some numerical experiments with the method and compare its performance with a few explicit and implicit algorithms.

  19. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing paraquat in soil solution samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Mansell, Robert S; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed to analyze paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium dichloride) herbicide content in soil solution samples. The analytical method was compared with the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method using 14C-paraquat. Agreement obtained between the two methods was reasonable. However, the detection limit for paraquat analysis was 0.5 mg L(-1) by the HPLC method and 0.05 mg L(-1) by the LSC method. The LSC method was, therefore, 10 times more precise than the HPLC method for solution concentrations less than 1 mg L(-1). In spite of the high detection limit, the UC (nonradioactive) HPLC method provides an inexpensive and environmentally safe means for determining paraquat concentration in soil solution compared with the 14C-LSC method.

  20. Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method: Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olvera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach called the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM that is based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and the usage of time subintervals to find the approximate solution of differential equations with strong nonlinearities. We also study the convergence of our proposed EMHPM approach based on the value of the control parameter h by following the homotopy analysis method (HAM. At the end of the paper, we compare the derived EMHPM approximate solutions of some nonlinear physical systems with their corresponding numerical integration solutions obtained by using the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta method via the amplitude-time response curves.

  1. Solutions of First-Order Volterra Type Linear Integrodifferential Equations by Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa A. Agbolade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solutions of linear integrodifferential equations of Volterra type have been considered. Power series is used as the basis polynomial to approximate the solution of the problem. Furthermore, standard and Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto collocation points were, respectively, chosen to collocate the approximate solution. Numerical experiments are performed on some sample problems already solved by homotopy analysis method and finite difference methods. Comparison of the absolute error is obtained from the present method and those from aforementioned methods. It is also observed that the absolute errors obtained are very low establishing convergence and computational efficiency.

  2. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as well as a more general fractional differential equation.

  3. The Multi-Wave Method for Exact Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Pandir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we use the multi-wave method to obtain new exact solutions for generalized forms of 5th order KdV equation and fth order KdV (fKdV equation with power law nonlinearity. Computations are performed with the help of the mathematics software Mathematica. Then, periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions with free parameters are obtained by this approach. It is shown that this method is very useful and effective.

  4. A method for the solution of the RPA eigenvalue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.J.H.; De Kock, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    The RPA eigenvalue problem requires the diagonalization of a 2nx2n matrix. In practical calculations, n (the number of particle-hole basis states) can be a few hundred and the diagonalization of such a large non-symmetric matrix may take quite a long time. In this report we firstly discuss sufficient conditions for real and non-zero RPA eigenvalues. The presence of zero or imaginary eigenvalues is related to the relative importance of the groundstate correlations to the total interaction energy. We then rewrite the RPA eigenvalue problem for the cases where these conditions are fulfilled in a form which only requires the diagonalization of two symmetric nxn matrices. The extend to which this method can be applied when zero eigenvalues occur, is also discussed

  5. Singular characteristic tracking algorithm for improved solution accuracy of the discrete ordinates method with isotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo, J. I.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new method, the Singular Characteristics Tracking algorithm, is developed to account for potential non-smoothness across the singular characteristics in the exact solution of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. Numerical results show improved rate of convergence of the solution to the discrete ordinates equations in two spatial dimensions with isotropic scattering using the proposed methodology. Unlike the standard Weighted Diamond Difference methods, the new algorithm achieves local convergence in the case of discontinuous angular flux along the singular characteristics. The method also significantly reduces the error for problems where the angular flux presents discontinuous spatial derivatives across these lines. For purposes of verifying the results, the Method of Manufactured Solutions is used to generate analytical reference solutions that permit estimating the local error in the numerical solution. (authors)

  6. Modeling Solution of Nonlinear Dispersive Partial Differential Equations using the Marker Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the solution of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details

  7. Evaluation and comparison of two complexometric titration methods for determining of lanthanum in cloridric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.F.; Santos, R.L.C. dos; Goes, M.A.C. de

    1994-01-01

    The fast determination of total rare earth concentration in aqueous solutions is based on titrimetric methods using EDTA as complexing agent. This paper evaluates two among several others titrimetric methods used in the determination of lanthanum in hydrochloric acid solutions, using xylenol orange and a mixture of methyl orange and xylenol orange as indicators. The applied statistical evaluation allowed the determination of the stability, accuracy and adequacy of these methods on a given technical specification. (author). 12 refs., 03 tabs., 01 fig

  8. A New Method for Constructing Travelling Wave Solutions to the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Mao, Wang; Miao, Zhang; Wen-Liang, Zhang; Rui, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Han

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method to find the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, with the aid of the symbolic computation. Based on this method, we successfully solve the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney equation, and obtain some new solutions which can be expressed by trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. (general)

  9. On the method of solution of the differential-delay Toda equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Javier; Ablowitz, Mark J.

    1993-09-01

    The method of solution of the Toda differential-delay equation, which is a reduction of the Toda equation in 2+1 dimensions, is described. An important feature of the solution process is to obtain and study a novel Riemann-Hilbert problem. The latter problem requires factorization across an infinite number of strips with a suitable branching structure. Explicit soliton solutions are given.

  10. Adjusted permutation method for multiple attribute decision making with meta-heuristic solution approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Karimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The permutation method of multiple attribute decision making has two significant deficiencies: high computational time and wrong priority output in some problem instances. In this paper, a novel permutation method called adjusted permutation method (APM is proposed to compensate deficiencies of conventional permutation method. We propose Tabu search (TS and particle swarm optimization (PSO to find suitable solutions at a reasonable computational time for large problem instances. The proposed method is examined using some numerical examples to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The preliminary results show that both approaches provide competent solutions in relatively reasonable amounts of time while TS performs better to solve APM.

  11. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  12. Inverse scattering transform method and soliton solutions for Davey-Stewartson II equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkadiev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The inverse scattering method for Davey-Stewartson II (DS-II) equation including both soliton and continuous spectrum solutions is developed. The explicit formulae for N-soliton solutions are given. Note that our solitons decrease as |z| -2 with z tending to infinity. (author). 8 refs

  13. The Method of Subsuper Solutions for Weighted p(r-Laplacian Equation Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimei Qiu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of solutions for weighted p(r-Laplacian ordinary boundary value problems. Our method is based on Leray-Schauder degree. As an application, we give the existence of weak solutions for p(x-Laplacian partial differential equations.

  14. A Method for Generating Approximate Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard application of similarity method to find solutions of PDEs mostly results in reduction to ODEs which are not easily integrable in terms of elementary or tabulated functions. Such situations usually demand solving reduced ODEs numerically. However, there are no systematic procedures available to utilize these numerical solutions of reduced ODE to obtain the solution of original PDE. A practical and tractable approach is proposed to deal with such situations and is applied to obtain approximate similarity solutions to different cases of an initial-boundary value problem of unsteady gas flow through a semi-infinite porous medium.

  15. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  16. Exact Solutions of the Space Time Fractional Symmetric Regularized Long Wave Equation Using Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Güner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the functional variable method, exp-function method, and (G′/G-expansion method to establish the exact solutions of the nonlinear fractional partial differential equation (NLFPDE in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. The results show that these methods are very effective and powerful mathematical tools for solving nonlinear fractional equations arising in mathematical physics. As a result, these methods can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  17. Spectral methods and their implementation to solution of aerodynamic and fluid mechanic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    Fundamental concepts underlying spectral collocation methods, especially pertaining to their use in the solution of partial differential equations, are outlined. Theoretical accuracy results are reviewed and compared with results from test problems. A number of practical aspects of the construction and use of spectral methods are detailed, along with several solution schemes which have found utility in applications of spectral methods to practical problems. Results from a few of the successful applications of spectral methods to problems of aerodynamic and fluid mechanic interest are then outlined, followed by a discussion of the problem areas in spectral methods and the current research under way to overcome these difficulties.

  18. An effective method for finding special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Maochang; Fan Guihong

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting methods can be utilized to construct special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with constant coefficients. However, most of these methods are not applicable to nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. A new method is presented in this Letter, which can be used to find special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. This method is based on seeking appropriate Bernoulli equation corresponding to the equation studied. Many well-known equations are chosen to illustrate the application of this method

  19. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  20. A perturbation method for dark solitons based on a complete set of the squared Jost solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Shengmei; Yan Jiaren

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method for dark solitons is developed, which is based on the construction and the rigorous proof of the complete set of squared Jost solutions. The general procedure solving the adiabatic solution of perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger + equation, the time-evolution equation of dark soliton parameters and a formula for calculating the first-order correction are given. The method can also overcome the difficulties resulting from the non-vanishing boundary condition

  1. Two Novel Methods and Multi-Mode Periodic Solutions for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Gianni; Koch, Hans; Terracini, Susanna

    2005-04-01

    We introduce two novel methods for studying periodic solutions of the FPU β-model, both numerically and rigorously. One is a variational approach, based on the dual formulation of the problem, and the other involves computer-assisted proofs. These methods are used e.g. to construct a new type of solutions, whose energy is spread among several modes, associated with closely spaced resonances.

  2. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  3. Solution of two group neutron diffusion equation by using homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), proposed in 1992 by Shi Jun Liao and has been developed since then, is based on differential geometry as well as homotopy which is a fundamental concept in topology. It has proved to be useful for obtaining series solutions of many such problems involving algebraic, linear/non-linear, ordinary/partial differential equations, differential-integral equations, differential-difference equations, and coupled equations of them. Briefly, through HAM, it is possible to construct a continuous mapping of an initial guess approximation to the exact solution of the equation of concern. An auxiliary linear operator is chosen to construct such kind of a continuous mapping and an auxiliary parameter is used to ensure the convergence of series solution. We present the solutions of two-group neutron diffusion equation through HAM in this work. We also compare the results with that obtained by other well-known solution analytical and numeric methods.

  4. Computing multiple periodic solutions of nonlinear vibration problems using the harmonic balance method and Groebner bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolet, Aurelien; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of vibration of mechanical systems with geometric nonlinearities. The harmonic balance method is used to derive systems of polynomial equations whose solutions give the frequency component of the possible steady states. Groebner basis methods are used for computing all solutions of polynomial systems. This approach allows to reduce the complete system to an unique polynomial equation in one variable driving all solutions of the problem. In addition, in order to decrease the number of variables, we propose to first work on the undamped system, and recover solution of the damped system using a continuation on the damping parameter. The search for multiple solutions is illustrated on a simple system, where the influence of the retained number of harmonic is studied. Finally, the procedure is applied on a simple cyclic system and we give a representation of the multiple states versus frequency.

  5. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  6. The exact solutions and approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on symmetry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Litao; Bilige, Sudao; Jie, Yingmo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we successfully obtained the exact solutions and the approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Lie symmetry, the extended tanh method and the homotopy perturbation method. In first part, we obtained the symmetries of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Wu-differential characteristic set algorithm and reduced it. In the second part, we constructed the abundant exact travelling wave solutions by using the extended tanh method. These solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions respectively. It should be noted that when the parameters are taken as special values, some solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solutions. Finally, we apply the homotopy perturbation method to obtain the approximate analytic solutions based on four kinds of initial conditions.

  7. Novel method for solution of coupled radial Schrödinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, S. N.; Vaagen, J. S.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major problems in numerical solution of coupled differential equations is the maintenance of linear independence for different sets of solution vectors. A novel method for solution of radial Schrödinger equations is suggested. It consists of rearrangement of coupled equations in a way that is appropriate to avoid usual numerical instabilities associated with components of the wave function in their classically forbidden regions. Applications of the new method for nuclear structure calculations within the hyperspherical harmonics approach are given.

  8. Solution of the neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry by the decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method

  9. Solution identification and quantitative analysis of fiber-capacitive drop analyzer based on multivariate statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Qiu, Zurong; Huo, Xinming; Fan, Yuming; Li, Xinghua

    2017-03-01

    A fiber-capacitive drop analyzer is an instrument which monitors a growing droplet to produce a capacitive opto-tensiotrace (COT). Each COT is an integration of fiber light intensity signals and capacitance signals and can reflect the unique physicochemical property of a liquid. In this study, we propose a solution analytical and concentration quantitative method based on multivariate statistical methods. Eight characteristic values are extracted from each COT. A series of COT characteristic values of training solutions at different concentrations compose a data library of this kind of solution. A two-stage linear discriminant analysis is applied to analyze different solution libraries and establish discriminant functions. Test solutions can be discriminated by these functions. After determining the variety of test solutions, Spearman correlation test and principal components analysis are used to filter and reduce dimensions of eight characteristic values, producing a new representative parameter. A cubic spline interpolation function is built between the parameters and concentrations, based on which we can calculate the concentration of the test solution. Methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and saline solutions are taken as experimental subjects in this paper. For each solution, nine or ten different concentrations are chosen to be the standard library, and the other two concentrations compose the test group. By using the methods mentioned above, all eight test solutions are correctly identified and the average relative error of quantitative analysis is 1.11%. The method proposed is feasible which enlarges the applicable scope of recognizing liquids based on the COT and improves the concentration quantitative precision, as well.

  10. Evaluation of element migration from food plastic packagings into simulated solutions using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saiki, Mitiko; Wiebeck, Helio

    2005-01-01

    In the present study a radiometric method was established to determine the migration of elements from food plastic packagings to a simulated acetic acid solution. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating plastic samples with neutrons at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for a period of 16 hours under a neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 and, then to expose them to the element migration into a simulated solution. The radioactivity of the activated elements transferred to the solutions was measured to evaluate the migration. The experimental conditions were: time of exposure of 10 days at 40 deg C and 3% acetic acid solution was used as simulated solution, according to the procedure established by the National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA). The migration study was applied for plastic samples from soft drink and juice packagings. The results obtained indicated the migration of elements Co, Cr and Sb. The advantage of this methodology was no need to analyse the blank of simulantes, as well as the use of high purity simulated solutions. Besides, the method allows to evaluate the migration of the elements into the food content instead of simulated solution. The detention limits indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  11. A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2015-01-01

    The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.

  12. A Marker Method for the Solution of the Damped Burgers' Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome L.V. Lewandowski

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the solution of the damped Burgers equation is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details. The marker method is applicable to a general class of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations

  13. The Telegraph Equation and Its Solution by Reduced Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet K. Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation was formulated using Ohm’s law and solved by a recent and reliable semianalytic method, namely, the reduced differential transform method (RDTM. Using this method, it is possible to find the exact solution or a closed approximate solution of a differential equation. Three numerical examples have been carried out in order to check the effectiveness, the accuracy, and convergence of the method. The RDTM is a powerful mathematical technique for solving wide range of problems arising in science and engineering fields.

  14. General method and exact solutions to a generalized variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ., Shangai; Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    A general method to uniformly construct exact solutions in terms of special function of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented by means of a more general ansatz and symbolic computation. Making use of the general method, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan (J. Phys. A., 36 (2003) 7009) and find other new and more general solutions, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solution, soliton solutions, soliton-like solutions and Jacobi, Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. A general variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation is chosen to illustrate the method. As a result, some new exact soliton-like solutions are obtained. planets. The numerical results are given in tables. The results are discussed in the conclusion

  15. A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method for the solution of three-dimensional vortical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Helene Marie

    1992-01-01

    A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of three-dimensional rotational flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A Lagrangian particle tracking method using particle markers is added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure and provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solutions is used to integrate the Lagrangian state-vector along the particles trajectories. The Lagrangian correction technique does not require any a-priori information on the structure or position of the vortical regions. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers, used as 'accuracy boosters,' take advantage of the accurate convection description of the Lagrangian solution and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of standard Eulerian finite-volume methods. The combined solution procedures is tested in several applications. The convection of a Lamb vortex in a straight channel is used as an unsteady compressible flow preservation test case. The other test cases concern steady incompressible flow calculations and include the preservation of turbulent inlet velocity profile, the swirling flow in a pipe, and the constant stagnation pressure flow and secondary flow calculations in bends. The last application deals with the external flow past a wing with emphasis on the trailing vortex solution. The improvement due to the addition of the Lagrangian correction technique is measured by comparison with analytical solutions when available or with Eulerian solutions on finer grids. The use of the combined Eulerian/Lagrangian scheme results in substantially lower grid resolution requirements than the standard Eulerian scheme for a given solution accuracy.

  16. A new method for determining the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Lejeune, M.; Rey, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for determining the pool of radionuclides in the soil solution, available for root uptake, has been compared to existing methods. The new method is based on extracting the soil solution at a soil moisture below saturation. It uses the soaking capacity of a polyacrylamide resin deposited on a cellulose acetate membrane laid on the soil surface. The new method exhibited the best reproductibility amongst the methods tested. It allowed us to extract more 134 Cs and a similar amount of 85 Sr relative to the other methods. The correlation between the observed ratio of radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants and the radionuclide concentration of the soil solution using the new method was better than using the existing methods. Using the measurement of 134 Cs and natural potassium in the soil solution by the new method, based on a multiple regression equation involving an exponential form, the uptake of 134 Cs by bean and wheat was predicted with a 0.9 determination coefficient. As far as the uptake of 85 Sr is considered, this method was not very successful since the equation with a linear form involved a large number of parameters. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Solution of problems in calculus of variations via He's variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatari, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    In the modeling of a large class of problems in science and engineering, the minimization of a functional is appeared. Finding the solution of these problems needs to solve the corresponding ordinary differential equations which are generally nonlinear. In recent years He's variational iteration method has been attracted a lot of attention of the researchers for solving nonlinear problems. This method finds the solution of the problem without any discretization of the equation. Since this method gives a closed form solution of the problem and avoids the round off errors, it can be considered as an efficient method for solving various kinds of problems. In this research He's variational iteration method will be employed for solving some problems in calculus of variations. Some examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique

  18. The Method of Lines Solution of the Regularized Long-Wave Equation Using Runge-Kutta Time Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Bakodah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of lines approach to the numerical solution of nonlinear wave equations typified by the regularized long wave (RLW is presented. The method developed uses a finite differences discretization to the space. Solution of the resulting system was obtained by applying fourth Runge-Kutta time discretization method. Using Von Neumann stability analysis, it is shown that the proposed method is marginally stable. To test the accuracy of the method some numerical experiments on test problems are presented. Test problems including solitary wave motion, two-solitary wave interaction, and the temporal evaluation of a Maxwellian initial pulse are studied. The accuracy of the present method is tested with and error norms and the conservation properties of mass, energy, and momentum under the RLW equation.

  19. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment

  20. ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF EXISTING SOLUTION METHODS OF QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza KARAMI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP is known as one of the most difficult combinatorial optimization problems that is classified in the category of NP-hard problems. Quadratic Assignment Problem Library (QAPLIB is a full database of QAPs which contains several problems from different authors and different sizes. Many exact and meta-heuristic solution methods have been introduced to solve QAP. In this study we focus on previously introduced solution methods of QAP e.g. Branch and Bound (B&B, Simulated Annealing (SA Algorithm, Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP for dense and sparse QAPs. The codes of FORTRAN for these methods were downloaded from QAPLIB. All problems of QAPLIB were solved by the abovementioned methods. Several results were obtained from the computational experiments part. The Results show that the Branch and Bound method is able to introduce a feasible solution for all problems while Simulated Annealing Algorithm and GRASP methods are not able to find any solution for some problems. On the other hand, Simulated Annealing and GRASP methods have shorter run time comparing to the Branch and Bound method. In addition, the performance of the methods on the objective function value is discussed.

  1. Improvement of precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization and its use in plutonium solutions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.V.; Stepanov, D.A.; Nikitina, S.A.; Gogoleva, T.D.; Grigor'eva, M.G.; Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Panteleev, Yu.A.; Pevtsova, E.V.; Domkin, V.D.; Pen'kin, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization is used for analysis of pure Pu solutions. Improvement of the spectrophotometer and spectrophotometric method of analysis is done to decrease accidental constituent of relative error of the method. Influence of U, Np impurities and corrosion products on systematic constituent of error of the method, and effect of fluoride-ion on completeness of Pu oxidation in sample preparation are studied [ru

  2. Exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations using Exp-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Boz, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The Klein-Gordon, Burger-Fisher and Sharma-Tasso-Olver equations are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. The Exp-function method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations

  3. Numerical solution of sixth-order boundary-value problems using Legendre wavelet collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Haq, Sirajul; Mukhtar, Safyan; Khan, Imad

    2018-03-01

    An efficient method is proposed to approximate sixth order boundary value problems. The proposed method is based on Legendre wavelet in which Legendre polynomial is used. The mechanism of the method is to use collocation points that converts the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. For validation two test problems are discussed. The results obtained from proposed method are quite accurate, also close to exact solution, and other different methods. The proposed method is computationally more effective and leads to more accurate results as compared to other methods from literature.

  4. Applicability of the Galerkin method to the approximate solution of the multigroup diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, D.

    1970-04-01

    In the study of the nuclear reactors space-time behaviour the modal analysis is very often used though some basic mathematical problems connected with application of this methods are still unsolved. In this paper the modal analysis is identified as a set of the methods in the mathematical literature known as the Galerkin methods (or projection methods, or sometimes direct methods). Using the results of the mathematical investigations of these methods the applicability of the Galerkin type methods to the calculations of the eigenvalue and eigenvectors of the stationary and non-stationary diffusion operator, as well as for the solutions of the corresponding functional equations, is established (author)

  5. Periodic Solutions of the Duffing Harmonic Oscillator by He's Energy Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-Naggar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duffing harmonic oscillator is a common model for nonlinear phenomena in science and engineering. This paper presents He´s Energy Balance Method (EBM for solving nonlinear differential equations. Two strong nonlinear cases have been studied analytically. Analytical results of the EBM are compared with the solutions obtained by using He´s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (FAF and numerical solutions using Runge-Kutta method. The results show the presented method is potentially to solve high nonlinear oscillator equations.

  6. Iterative solution of the inverse Cauchy problem for an elliptic equation by the conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Kardashevsky, A. M.; Popov, V. V.; Prokopev, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents results of computational experiment carried out using a finite-difference method for solving the inverse Cauchy problem for a two-dimensional elliptic equation. The computational algorithm involves an iterative determination of the missing boundary condition from the override condition using the conjugate gradient method. The results of calculations are carried out on the examples with exact solutions as well as at specifying an additional condition with random errors are presented. Results showed a high efficiency of the iterative method of conjugate gradients for numerical solution

  7. Solutions manual to accompany An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Epperson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis, Second Edition An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis, Second Edition reflects the latest trends in the field, includes new material and revised exercises, and offers a unique emphasis on applications. The author clearly explains how to both construct and evaluate approximations for accuracy and performance, which are key skills in a variety of fields. A wide range of higher-level methods and solutions, including new topics such as the roots of polynomials, sp

  8. Numerical method for solution of transient, homogeneous, equilibrium, two-phase flows in one space dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1979-10-01

    A solution method is presented for transient, homogeneous, equilibrium, two-phase flows of a single-component fluid in one space dimension. The method combines a direct finite-difference procedure and the method of characteristics. The finite-difference procedure solves the interior points of the computing domain; the boundary information is provided by a separate procedure based on the characteristics theory. The solution procedure for boundary points requires information in addition to the physical boundary conditions. This additional information is obtained by a new procedure involving integration of characteristics in the hodograph plane. Sample problems involving various combinations of basic boundary types are calculated for two-phase water/steam mixtures and single-phase nitrogen gas, and compared with independent method-of-characteristics solutions using very fine characteristic mesh. In all cases, excellent agreement is demonstrated

  9. Interaction of sodium monoborate and boric acid with some mono- and disaccharides in aqueous solutions (from data on isomolar solutions method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvarts, E.M.; Ignash, R.T.; Belousova, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of sodium monoborate Na[B(OH) 4 ] and boric acid with D-glucose, D-fructose, D-saccharose and D-lactose in aqueous solution depending on the solution total concentration is studied through the method of isomolar solutions with application of conductometry and polarimetry. It is shown by the D-glucose and D-fructose examples that the method of isomolar solutions leads to results compatible with the data obtained by other methods and it may be applied to other saccharides [ru

  10. Solution of the multilayer multigroup neutron diffusion equation in cartesian geometry by fictitious borders power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Rodrigo; Petersen, Caudio Zen [Univ. Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Schramm, Marcello [Univ. Federal de Pelotas (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias; Zabadal, Jorge Rodolfo [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Tramandai (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper a solution for the one-dimensional steady state Multilayer Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation in cartesian geometry by Fictitious Borders Power Method and a perturbative analysis of this solution is presented. For each new iteration of the power method, the neutron flux is reconstructed by polynomial interpolation, so that it always remains in a standard form. However when the domain is long, an almost singular matrix arises in the interpolation process. To eliminate this singularity the domain segmented in R regions, called fictitious regions. The last step is to solve the neutron diffusion equation for each fictitious region in analytical form locally. The results are compared with results present in the literature. In order to analyze the sensitivity of the solution, a perturbation in the nuclear parameters is inserted to determine how a perturbation interferes in numerical results of the solution.

  11. Synthesis method based on solution regions for planar four bar straight line linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Rong, Yin; Cong, Mao; Jian you, Han; Tong, Yang; Juan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method for synthesizing and selecting desired four-bar straight line mechanisms based on solution regions is presented. Given two fixed pivots, the point position and direction of the target straight line, an infinite number of mechanism solutions can be produced by employing this method, both in the general case and all three special cases. Unifying the straight line direction and the displacement from the given point to the instant center into the same form with different angles as parameters, infinite mechanism solutions can be expressed with different solution region charts. The mechanism property graphs have been computed to enable the designers to find out the involved mechanism information more intuitively and avoid aimlessness in selecting optimal mechanisms

  12. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...

  13. NMR determination of chemically related metals in solution as a new method of inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    An NMR spectroscopic method for the determination of chemically related metals in solution is suggested. The metals are determined in complexes with specially selected polydentate ligands. Structural requirements to ligands, analytical properties and general limits of the application of the method are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  15. The preparation method of solid boron solution in silicon carbide in the form of micro powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampuch, R.; Stobierski, L.; Lis, J.; Bialoskorski, J.; Ermer, E.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation method of solid boron solution in silicon carbide in the form of micro power has been worked out. The method consists in introducing mixture of boron, carbon and silicon and heating in the atmosphere of inert gas to the 1573 K

  16. A Three Step Explicit Method for Direct Solution of Third Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study produces a three step discrete Linear Multistep Method for Direct solution of third order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations of the form y'''= f(x,y,y',y''). Taylor series expansion technique was adopted in the development of the method. The differential system from the basis polynomial function to ...

  17. Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmai, Tamas; Apagyi, Barnabas; Horvath, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events

  18. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the mass fraction of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality containing more than 100 g/kg of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method

  19. Exact solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations via Exp-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Exp-function method, exact solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations are obtained. The KdV equation, Burgers' equation and the combined KdV-mKdV equation are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method

  20. An induced current method for measuring zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a novel and very simple method for measuring the zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface. When a measuring electrode contacts the electrolyte solution-air interface, an electrical current will be generated due to the potential difference between the electrode-air surface and the electrolyte solution-air interface. The amplitude of the measured electric signal is linearly proportional to this potential difference; and depends only on the zeta potential at the electrolyte solution-air interface, regardless of the types and concentrations of the electrolyte. A correlation between the zeta potential and the measured voltage signal is obtained based on the experimental data. Using this equation, the zeta potential of any electrolyte solution-air interface can be evaluated quickly and easily by inserting an electrode through the electrolyte solution-air interface and measuring the electrical signal amplitude. This method was verified by comparing the obtained results of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 solutions of different pH values and concentrations with the zeta potential data reported in the published journal papers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Legendre Wavelet Operational Matrix Method for Solution of Riccati Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Legendre wavelet operational matrix method (LWM is presented for the solution of nonlinear fractional-order Riccati differential equations, having variety of applications in quantum chemistry and quantum mechanics. The fractional-order Riccati differential equations converted into a system of algebraic equations using Legendre wavelet operational matrix. Solutions given by the proposed scheme are more accurate and reliable and they are compared with recently developed numerical, analytical, and stochastic approaches. Comparison shows that the proposed LWM approach has a greater performance and less computational effort for getting accurate solutions. Further existence and uniqueness of the proposed problem are given and moreover the condition of convergence is verified.

  2. Nonlocal symmetry and explicit solutions from the CRE method of the Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Han, Bo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the integrability of the Boussinesq equation by using the truncated Painlevé expansion and the CRE method. Based on the truncated Painlevé expansion, the nonlocal symmetry and Bäcklund transformation of this equation are obtained. A prolonged system is introduced to localize the nonlocal symmetry to the local Lie point symmetry. It is proved that the Boussinesq equation is CRE solvable. The two-solitary-wave fusion solutions, single soliton solutions and soliton-cnoidal wave solutions are presented by means of the Bäcklund transformations.

  3. Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.

  4. Direct methods of solution for problems in mechanics from invariance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Direct solutions to problems in mechanics are developed from variational statements derived from the principle of invariance of the action integral under a one-parameter family of infinitesimal transformations. Exact, direct solution procedures for linear systems are developed by a careful choice of the arbitrary functions used to generate the infinitesimal transformations. It is demonstrated that the well-known methods for the solution of differential equations can be directly adapted to the required variational statements. Examples in particle and continuum mechanics are presented

  5. Method of moments solution of volume integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    An efficient higher-order method of moments (MoM) solution of volume integral equations is presented. The higher-order MoM solution is based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order geometry modeling. An unstructured mesh composed of 8-node trilinear and/or curved 27...... of magnitude in comparison to existing higher-order hierarchical basis functions. Consequently, an iterative solver can be applied even for high expansion orders. Numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement with the analytical Mie series solution for a dielectric sphere as well as with results obtained...

  6. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Using data from the train driver schedule of the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the Train Driver Recovery Problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP...... the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. Preliminarily results are encouraging, showing that nearly all tested real-life instances produce integer solutions to the LP relaxation and solutions are found within a few seconds....

  7. Finding all solutions of nonlinear equations using the dual simplex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kiyotaka; Fujioka, Tsuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Recently, an efficient algorithm has been proposed for finding all solutions of systems of nonlinear equations using linear programming. This algorithm is based on a simple test (termed the LP test) for nonexistence of a solution to a system of nonlinear equations using the dual simplex method. In this letter, an improved version of the LP test algorithm is proposed. By numerical examples, it is shown that the proposed algorithm could find all solutions of a system of 300 nonlinear equations in practical computation time.

  8. The Rational Third-Kind Chebyshev Pseudospectral Method for the Solution of the Thomas-Fermi Equation over Infinite Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tavassoli Kajani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a pseudospectral method for solving the Thomas-Fermi equation which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infinite interval. This approach is based on the rational third-kind Chebyshev pseudospectral method that is indeed a combination of Tau and collocation methods. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. Comparison with some numerical solutions shows that the present solution is highly accurate.

  9. Variable separation solutions for the Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation via the extended tanh-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefang; Dai Chaoqing; Zong Fengde

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, with the variable separation approach and based on the general reduction theory, we successfully generalize this extended tanh-function method to obtain new types of variable separation solutions for the following Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov (NNV) equation. Among the solutions, two solutions are new types of variable separation solutions, while the last solution is similar to the solution given by Darboux transformation in Hu et al 2003 Chin. Phys. Lett. 20 1413

  10. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, Wahlberg; Imre, Pazsit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a series of model transport problems, for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. Due to the non-linear character of the embedding equations, their solution can only be obtained numerically. However, this can be done via a robust and effective iteration scheme. In return, the domain of applicability is far wider than the model problems investigated in this paper. The use of the invariant embedding method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel and unexpected application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the reflected flux from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast and monotonically converging to the exact solutions. (authors)

  11. The solution of a coupled system of nonlinear physical problems using the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S A; Abdou, M A

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been applied to solve coupled nonlinear evolution equations in physics. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated by applying it to two nonlinear evolution equations, namely coupled nonlinear diffusion reaction equations and the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov Veselov system. The results obtained by this method show good agreement with the ones obtained by other methods. The proposed method is a powerful and easy to use analytic tool for nonlinear problems and does not need small parameters in the equations. The HAM solutions contain an auxiliary parameter that provides a convenient way of controlling the convergence region of series solutions. The results obtained here reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple for solving nonlinear evolution equations. The basic ideas of this approach can be widely employed to solve other strongly nonlinear problems.

  12. Maximum Likelihood and Restricted Likelihood Solutions in Multiple-Method Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhin, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    A formulation of the problem of combining data from several sources is discussed in terms of random effects models. The unknown measurement precision is assumed not to be the same for all methods. We investigate maximum likelihood solutions in this model. By representing the likelihood equations as simultaneous polynomial equations, the exact form of the Groebner basis for their stationary points is derived when there are two methods. A parametrization of these solutions which allows their comparison is suggested. A numerical method for solving likelihood equations is outlined, and an alternative to the maximum likelihood method, the restricted maximum likelihood, is studied. In the situation when methods variances are considered to be known an upper bound on the between-method variance is obtained. The relationship between likelihood equations and moment-type equations is also discussed.

  13. Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A modified Hauser–Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb–Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained

  14. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  15. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV-KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Saha, Ray

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV-Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KdV-KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV-KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation.

  16. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV–KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Ray, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV–Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KdV–KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV–KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation. (paper)

  17. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

  18. New exact solutions of coupled Boussinesq–Burgers equations by Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Ravi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we build the new analytical exact solutions of a nonlinear differential equation, specifically, coupled Boussinesq–Burgers equations by means of Exp-function method. Then, we analyze the results by plotting the three dimensional soliton graphs for each case, which exhibit the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method. The primary purpose of this paper is to employ a new approach, which allows us victorious and efficient derivation of the new analytical exact solutions for the coupled Boussinesq–Burgers equations.

  19. Determination of Periodic Solution for Tapered Beams with Modified Iteration Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mashinchi Joubari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implemented the Modified Iteration Perturbation Method (MIPM for approximating the periodic behavior of a tapered beam. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear ordinary differential equation with linear and nonlinear terms. The solution is quickly convergent and does not need to complicated calculations. Comparing the results of the MIPM with the exact solution shows that this method is effective and convenient. Also, it is predicated that MIPM can be potentially used in the analysis of strongly nonlinear oscillation problems accurately.

  20. The method of determination of micro quantities of labeled iodide in carrier free Na125 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of determination of microquantities of labelled iodide in Na 125 carrier-free solution was elaborated. This method permits to increase the sensitivity and radiation protection of the determination of labeled iodide. It includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphuric acid with molar concentration 0,03-0,04 mole/l. The extraction of I 2 is made by toluene. The coloured solution is made and optical density is measured at λ=640 nm at the 10 mm optical path .(A.A.D.)

  1. Method of solution for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, M; Russo, Q [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Almeida, M S; Bozzo, S [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    1975-03-01

    A method of solutions is presented for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tubes, based on the Von Karman similarity theory developed by Quarmby. The parameters found by Quarmby appearing in the velocity profiles and determined experimentally by different authors were approximated by polynonial functions of variable degree, as function of the Reynolds numbers. The Runge-Kutta-Nystrom method was used in the integration of the differential equations and the systematic of solution is presented in a computer program. The calculated results were compared to the experimental date and presented a deviation of 10/sup -2/%.

  2. Exact solitary wave solution for higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation using He's variational iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Monika; Bhatti, Harbax S.; Singh, Vikramjeet

    2017-11-01

    In optical communication, the behavior of the ultrashort pulses of optical solitons can be described through nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This partial differential equation is widely used to contemplate a number of physically important phenomena, including optical shock waves, laser and plasma physics, quantum mechanics, elastic media, etc. The exact analytical solution of (1+n)-dimensional higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation by He's variational iteration method has been presented. Our proposed solutions are very helpful in studying the solitary wave phenomena and ensure rapid convergent series and avoid round off errors. Different examples with graphical representations have been given to justify the capability of the method.

  3. On the nonlinear dynamics of trolling-mode AFM: Analytical solution using multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has resolved many imaging problems by a considerable reduction of the liquid-resonator interaction forces in liquid environments. The present study develops a nonlinear model of the meniscus force exerted to the nanoneedle of TR-AFM and presents an analytical solution to the distributed-parameter model of TR-AFM resonator utilizing multiple time scales (MTS) method. Based on the developed analytical solution, the frequency-response curves of the resonator operation in air and liquid (for different penetration length of the nanoneedle) are obtained. The closed-form analytical solution and the frequency-response curves are validated by the comparison with both the finite element solution of the main partial differential equations and the experimental observations. The effect of excitation angle of the resonator on horizontal oscillation of the probe tip and the effect of different parameters on the frequency-response of the system are investigated.

  4. Higher order analytical approximate solutions to the nonlinear pendulum by He's homotopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Alvarez, M L; Mendez, D I; Yebra, M S; Hernandez, A

    2009-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate the periodic solutions of a nonlinear pendulum. The method has been modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution and substituting a finite number of terms in the second-order linear differential equation. As can be seen, the modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for high values of the initial amplitude. Excellent agreement of the analytical approximate period with the exact period has been demonstrated not only for small but also for large amplitudes A (the relative error is less than 1% for A < 152 deg.). Comparison of the result obtained using this method with the exact ones reveals that this modified method is very effective and convenient.

  5. Comparison of different methods for the solution of sets of linear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilfinger, T.; Schmidt, F.

    1978-06-01

    The application of the conjugate-gradient methods as novel general iterative methods for the solution of sets of linear equations with symmetrical systems matrices led to this paper, where a comparison of these methods with the conventional differently accelerated Gauss-Seidel iteration was carried out. In additon, the direct Cholesky method was also included in the comparison. The studies referred mainly to memory requirement, computing time, speed of convergence, and accuracy of different conditions of the systems matrices, by which also the sensibility of the methods with respect to the influence of truncation errors may be recognized. (orig.) 891 RW [de

  6. A New Method to Solve Numeric Solution of Nonlinear Dynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the cubic spline function has advantages of simple forms, good convergence, approximation, and second-order smoothness. A particular class of cubic spline function is constructed and an effective method to solve the numerical solution of nonlinear dynamic system is proposed based on the cubic spline function. Compared with existing methods, this method not only has high approximation precision, but also avoids the Runge phenomenon. The error analysis of several methods is given via two numeric examples, which turned out that the proposed method is a much more feasible tool applied to the engineering practice.

  7. An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made...

  8. Solution of the equations for one-dimensional, two-phase, immiscible flow by geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronin, Ivan; Shevlyakov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    Buckley-Leverett equations describe non viscous, immiscible, two-phase filtration, which is often of interest in modelling of oil production. For many parameters and initial conditions, the solutions of these equations exhibit non-smooth behaviour, namely discontinuities in form of shock waves. In this paper we obtain a novel method for the solution of Buckley-Leverett equations, which is based on geometry of differential equations. This method is fast, accurate, stable, and describes non-smooth phenomena. The main idea of the method is that classic discontinuous solutions correspond to the continuous surfaces in the space of jets - the so-called multi-valued solutions (Bocharov et al., Symmetries and conservation laws for differential equations of mathematical physics. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1998). A mapping of multi-valued solutions from the jet space onto the plane of the independent variables is constructed. This mapping is not one-to-one, and its singular points form a curve on the plane of the independent variables, which is called the caustic. The real shock occurs at the points close to the caustic and is determined by the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions.

  9. Semi-exact solution of elastic non-uniform thickness and density rotating disks by homotopy perturbation and Adomian's decomposition methods. Part I: Elastic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojjati, M.H.; Jafari, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, two powerful analytical methods, namely homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and Adomian's decomposition method (ADM), are introduced to obtain distributions of stresses and displacements in rotating annular elastic disks with uniform and variable thicknesses and densities. The results obtained by these methods are then compared with the verified variational iteration method (VIM) solution. He's homotopy perturbation method which does not require a 'small parameter' has been used and a homotopy with an imbedding parameter p element of [0,1] is constructed. The method takes the full advantage of the traditional perturbation methods and the homotopy techniques and yields a very rapid convergence of the solution. Adomian's decomposition method is an iterative method which provides analytical approximate solutions in the form of an infinite power series for nonlinear equations without linearization, perturbation or discretization. Variational iteration method, on the other hand, is based on the incorporation of a general Lagrange multiplier in the construction of correction functional for the equation. This study demonstrates the ability of the methods for the solution of those complicated rotating disk cases with either no or difficult to find fairly exact solutions without the need to use commercial finite element analysis software. The comparison among these methods shows that although the numerical results are almost the same, HPM is much easier, more convenient and efficient than ADM and VIM

  10. Finite element method solution of simplified P3 equation for flexible geometry handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eun Hyun; Joo, Han Gyu

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain efficiently core flux solutions which would be much closer to the transport solution than the diffusion solution is, not being limited by the geometry of the core, the simplified P 3 (SP 3 ) equation is solved with the finite element method (FEM). A generic mesh generator, GMSH, is used to generate linear and quadratic mesh data. The linear system resulting from the SP 3 FEM discretization is solved by Krylov subspace methods (KSM). A symmetric form of the SP 3 equation is derived to apply the conjugate gradient method rather than the KSMs for nonsymmetric linear systems. An optional iso-parametric quadratic mapping scheme, which is to selectively model nonlinear shapes with a quadratic mapping to prevent significant mismatch in local domain volume, is also implemented for efficient application of arbitrary geometry handling. The gain in the accuracy attainable by the SP 3 solution over the diffusion solution is assessed by solving numerous benchmark problems having various core geometries including the IAEA PWR problems involving rectangular fuels and the Takeda fast reactor problems involving hexagonal fuels. The reference transport solution is produced by the McCARD Monte Carlo code and the multiplication factor and power distribution errors are assessed. In addition, the effect of quadratic mapping is examined for circular cell problems. It is shown that significant accuracy gain is possible with the SP 3 solution for the fast reactor problems whereas only marginal improvement is noted for thermal reactor problems. The quadratic mapping is also quite effective handling geometries with curvature. (author)

  11. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - Solution Method and Decision Support System Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna

    2009-01-01

    the proposed model and solution method is suitable for solving in real-time. Recovery duties are generated as resource constrained paths in duty networks, and the set partitioning problem is solved with a linear programming based branch-and-price algorithm. Dynamic column generation and problem space expansion...... driver decision support system in their operational environment. Besides solving a particular optimization problem, this thesis contributes with a description of the railway planning process, tactical crew scheduling and the real-time dispatching solutions, taking a starting point in DSB S....... Rezanova NJ, Ryan DM. The train driver recovery problem–A set partitioning based model and solution method. Computers and Operations Research, in press, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.cor.2009.03.023. 2. Clausen J, Larsen A, Larsen J, Rezanova NJ. Disruption management in the airline industry–Concepts, models...

  12. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  13. Inverse operator method for solutions of nonlinear dynamical system and application to Lorentz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1993-01-01

    The inverse operator method (IOM) for solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) is briefly described and realized by the Mathematics-Mechanization (MM) in computers. For the first time IOM and MM are successfully applied to study the chaotic behaviors of Lorentz equation

  14. Comparative numerical solutions of stiff Ordinary differential equations using magnus series expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURE KÖME

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the effect of Magnus Series Expansion Method on homogeneous stiff ordinary differential equations with different stiffness ratios. A Magnus type integrator is used to obtain numerical solutions of two different examples of stiff problems and exact and approximate results are tabulated. Furthermore, absolute error graphics are demonstrated in detail.

  15. Extending the charge-flipping method towards structure solution from incomplete data sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Steurer, W.; Chapuis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2007), s. 456-462 ISSN 0021-8898 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ab initio structure solution * density modification * maximum entropy method * intensity extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2007

  16. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions for Isothermal Magnetostatic Atmospheres by Fan Subequation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari

    2012-01-01

    ignorable coordinate corresponding to a uniform gravitational field in a plane geometry is carried out. These equations transform to a single nonlinear elliptic equation for the magnetic vector potential . This equation depends on an arbitrary function of that must be specified. With choices of the different arbitrary functions, we obtain analytical solutions of elliptic equation using the Fan subequation method.

  17. Application of finite element method in the solution of transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, J.R.; Vieira, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    It is presented the application of finite element method in the solution of second order transport equation (self-adjoint) for the even parity flux. The angular component is treated by expansion in Legendre polinomials uncoupled of the spatial component, which is approached by an expansion in base functions, interpolated in each spatial element. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Application of Modified G'/G-Expansion Method to Traveling Wave Solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yubin; Li Chao

    2009-01-01

    A modified G'/G-expansion method is presented to derive traveling wave solutions for a class of nonlinear partial differential equations called Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like equations. As a result, the hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions with parameters to the equations are obtained. When the parameters are taken as special values the solitary wave solutions can be obtained. (general)

  19. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations by (G′/G)-expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir Ahmet; Güner Özkan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the fractional complex transform and the (G′/G)-expansion method to study the nonlinear fractional differential equations and find the exact solutions. The fractional complex transform is proposed to convert a partial fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modified Riemann—Liouville derivative into its ordinary differential equation. It is shown that the considered transform and method are very efficient and powerful in solving wide classes of nonlinear fractional order equations

  20. Exact Solutions of Fractional Burgers and Cahn-Hilliard Equations Using Extended Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  1. A comparison of numerical methods for the solution of continuous-time DSGE models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra-Alvarez, Juan Carlos

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of a set of techniques that approximate the solution of continuous-time DSGE models. Using the neoclassical growth model I compare linear-quadratic, perturbation and projection methods. All techniques are applied to the HJB equation and the optimality conditions...... parameters of the model and suggest the use of projection methods when a high degree of accuracy is required....

  2. Exp-function method for constructing exact solutions of Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbas, Baris; Yusufoglu, Elcin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use the Exp-function method for the analytic treatment of Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation. New solitonary solutions are formally derived. Change of parameters, which drastically changes the characteristics of the equations, is examined. It is shown that the Exp-function method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving high-dimensional nonlinear evolutions in mathematical physics. The proposed schemes are reliable and manageable.

  3. On Solution of a Fractional Diffusion Equation by Homotopy Transform Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, A.; Hassan, S.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The homotopy analysis transform method (HATM) is applied in this work in order to find the analytical solution of fractional diffusion equations (FDE). These equations are obtained from standard diffusion equations by replacing a second-order space derivative by a fractional derivative of order α and a first order time derivative by a fractional derivative. Furthermore, some examples are given. Numerical results show that the homotopy analysis transform method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to a fractional diffusion equations.

  4. On the solution of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations by the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egido, J.L.; Robledo, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method is formulated in the Hilbert space for density and non-density dependent Hamiltonians. We apply it to the solution of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations with constraints. As a numerical application we show calculations with the finite range density dependent Gogny force. The number of iterations required to reach convergence is reduced by a factor of three to four as compared with the standard gradient method. (orig.)

  5. Asymptotic iteration method solutions to the d-dimensional Schroedinger equation with position-dependent mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuk, F.; Tekin, S.; Boztosun, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the exact solutions of the d-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a position-dependent mass m(r)=1/(1+ζ 2 r 2 ) is presented for a free particle, V(r)=0, by using the method of point canonical transformations. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding wavefunctions for the effective potential which is to be a generalized Poeschl-Teller potential are obtained within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method.

  6. Fermat collocation method for the solutions of nonlinear system of second order boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Yalcinbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical approach is proposed to obtain approximate solutions of nonlinear system of second order boundary value problem. This technique is essentially based on the truncated Fermat series and its matrix representations with collocation points. Using the matrix method, we reduce the problem system of nonlinear algebraic equations. Numerical examples are also given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented technique. The method is easy to implement and produces accurate results.

  7. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density (J c ) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with J c (77 K) values ≥2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3 . This process has also enabled J c (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires

  8. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Narges; Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza; Abdi, Khosro; Sarkar, Saeed; Minaian, Sara; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  9. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Narges [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza [Hydrometallurgy Research Unit, Research and Development Center, National Iranian Copper Industries Company, Sarcheshmeh, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Khosro [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, Saeed [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Minaian, Sara [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Hamid Reza [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-03

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  10. Solution of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by New Laplace Variational Iteration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. A. Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give a good strategy for solving some linear and nonlinear partial differential equations in engineering and physics fields, by combining Laplace transform and the modified variational iteration method. This method is based on the variational iteration method, Laplace transforms, and convolution integral, introducing an alternative Laplace correction functional and expressing the integral as a convolution. Some examples in physical engineering are provided to illustrate the simplicity and reliability of this method. The solutions of these examples are contingent only on the initial conditions.

  11. Numerical solution of the unsteady diffusion-convection-reaction equation based on improved spectral Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaqi; Zeng, Cheng; Yuan, Yupeng; Zhang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an explicit numerical algorithm based on improved spectral Galerkin method for solving the unsteady diffusion-convection-reaction equation. The principal characteristics of this approach give the explicit eigenvalues and eigenvectors based on the time-space separation method and boundary condition analysis. With the help of Fourier series and Galerkin truncation, we can obtain the finite-dimensional ordinary differential equations which facilitate the system analysis and controller design. By comparing with the finite element method, the numerical solutions are demonstrated via two examples. It is shown that the proposed method is effective.

  12. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-10-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Peng; Sun, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An iterative method for the solution of nonlinear systems using the Faber polynomials for annular sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, N.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The author gives a hybrid method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations Ax = b, where the matrix (A) is nonsingular, sparse and nonsymmetric. As in a method developed by Starke and Varga the method begins with a number of steps of the Arnoldi method to produce some information on the location of the spectrum of A. This method then switches to an iterative method based on the Faber polynomials for an annular sector placed around these eigenvalue estimates. The Faber polynomials for an annular sector are used because, firstly an annular sector can easily be placed around any eigenvalue estimates bounded away from zero, and secondly the Faber polynomials are known analytically for an annular sector. Finally the author gives three numerical examples, two of which allow comparison with Starke and Varga`s results. The third is an example of a matrix for which many iterative methods would fall, but this method converges.

  15. A transformed rational function method and exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu; Lee, J.-H.

    2009-01-01

    A direct approach to exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is proposed, by using rational function transformations. The new method provides a more systematical and convenient handling of the solution process of nonlinear equations, unifying the tanh-function type methods, the homogeneous balance method, the exp-function method, the mapping method, and the F-expansion type methods. Its key point is to search for rational solutions to variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations transformed from given partial differential equations. As an application, the construction problem of exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation is treated, together with a Baecklund transformation.

  16. An analytical method for solving exact solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation describing the dynamics of ionic currents along microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a variety of solitary wave solutions are observed for microtubules (MTs. We approach the problem by treating the solutions as nonlinear RLC transmission lines and then find exact solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations (NLEEs involving parameters of special interest in nanobiosciences and biophysics. We determine hyperbolic, trigonometric, rational and exponential function solutions and obtain soliton-like pulse solutions for these equations. A comparative study against other methods demonstrates the validity of the technique that we developed and demonstrates that our method provides additional solutions. Finally, using suitable parameter values, we plot 2D and 3D graphics of the exact solutions that we observed using our method. Keywords: Analytical method, Exact solutions, Nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs of microtubules, Nonlinear RLC transmission lines

  17. Abundant closed form solutions of the conformable time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito equation using (G‧ / G) -expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawba, Altaf Abdulkarem; Gepreel, K. A.; Abdullah, F. A.; Azmi, A.

    2018-06-01

    In current study, we use the (G‧ / G) -expansion method to construct the closed form solutions of the seventh order time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito (TFSKI) equation based on conformable fractional derivative. As a result, trigonometric, hyperbolic and rational functions solutions with arbitrary constants are obtained. When the arbitrary constants are taken some special values, the periodic and soliton solutions are obtained from the travelling wave solutions. The obtained solutions are new and not found elsewhere. The effect of the fractional order on some of these solutions are represented graphically to illustrate the behavior of the exact solutions when the parameter take some special choose.

  18. Soliton solution for nonlinear partial differential equations by cosine-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.H.A.; Soliman, A.A.; Raslan, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we established a traveling wave solution by using Cosine-function algorithm for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is used to obtain the exact solutions for five different types of nonlinear partial differential equations such as, general equal width wave equation (GEWE), general regularized long wave equation (GRLW), general Korteweg-de Vries equation (GKdV), general improved Korteweg-de Vries equation (GIKdV), and Coupled equal width wave equations (CEWE), which are the important soliton equations

  19. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-08-27

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  20. Modified micro-diffusion method for 15N-enriched soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, M.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of solutions for determination of 15 N/ 14 N isotope ratios is described, with special reference to dilute samples. A micro-diffusion method has been simplified to be more suitable for rapid isotope-ratio determination in soil solutions collected in tensionics. Ammonia expelled during micro-diffusion is captured on acidified filter discs fixed to the caps of gas-tight vials. The discs are transferred to tin capsules for shipment to the Soil Science Unit for 15 N-enrichment determination. (author)

  1. Groebner Basis Methods for Stationary Solutions of a Low-Dimensional Model for a Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Marina; Grossmann, Florian; Eckhardt, Bruno; Romanovski, Valery G.

    2014-10-01

    We use Groebner basis methods to extract all stationary solutions for the nine-mode shear flow model described in Moehlis et al. (New J Phys 6:56, 2004). Using rational approximations to irrational wave numbers and algebraic manipulation techniques we reduce the problem of determining all stationary states to finding roots of a polynomial of order 30. The coefficients differ by 30 powers of 10, so that algorithms for extended precision are needed to extract the roots reliably. We find that there are eight stationary solutions consisting of two distinct states, each of which appears in four symmetry-related phases. We discuss extensions of these results for other flows.

  2. An Adaptive Physics-Based Method for the Solution of One-Dimensional Wave Motion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shafiei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive physics-based method is developed for solving wave motion problems in one dimension (i.e., wave propagation in strings, rods and beams. The solution of the problem includes two main parts. In the first part, after discretization of the domain, a physics-based method is developed considering the conservation of mass and the balance of momentum. In the second part, adaptive points are determined using the wavelet theory. This part is done employing the Deslauries-Dubuc (D-D wavelets. By solving the problem in the first step, the domain of the problem is discretized by the same cells taking into consideration the load and characteristics of the structure. After the first trial solution, the D-D interpolation shows the lack and redundancy of points in the domain. These points will be added or eliminated for the next solution. This process may be repeated for obtaining an adaptive mesh for each step. Also, the smoothing spline fit is used to eliminate the noisy portion of the solution. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with the results available in the literature. The comparison shows excellent agreement between the obtained results and those already reported.

  3. Recovery of iron/iron oxide nanoparticles from solution: comparison of methods and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmi, James T.; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Karkamkar, Abhi

    2011-01-01

    Most methods currently being used to recover Fe 0 -core/oxide-shell nanoparticles from solutions (including the solvents they are synthesized or stored in) are potentially problematic because they may alter the particle composition (e.g., depositing salts formed from solutes) or leave the particles prone to transformations during subsequent storage and handling (e.g., due to residual moisture). In this study, several methods for recovery of nanoparticles from aqueous solution were studied to determine how they affect the structure and reactivity of the recovered materials. Simple washing of the nanoparticles during vacuum filtration (i.e., “flash drying”) can leave up to ∼17 wt% residual moisture. Modeling calculations suggest this moisture is mostly capillary or matric water held between particles and particle aggregates, which can be removed by drying for short periods at relative vapor pressures below 0.9. Flash drying followed by vacuum drying, all under N 2 , leaves no detectable residue from precipitation of solutes (detectable by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS), no significant changes in overall particle composition or structure (determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM), and negligible residual moisture (by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA). While this improved flash-drying protocol may be the preferred method for recovering nanoparticles for many purposes, we found that Fe 0 -core/oxide-shell nanoparticles still exhibit gradual aging during storage when characterized electrochemically with voltammetry.

  4. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian Multistage Game with Nonclassical Information Pattern Using a Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Joshua William

    Game theory has application across multiple fields, spanning from economic strategy to optimal control of an aircraft and missile on an intercept trajectory. The idea of game theory is fascinating in that we can actually mathematically model real-world scenarios and determine optimal decision making. It may not always be easy to mathematically model certain real-world scenarios, nonetheless, game theory gives us an appreciation for the complexity involved in decision making. This complexity is especially apparent when the players involved have access to different information upon which to base their decision making (a nonclassical information pattern). Here we will focus on the class of adversarial two-player games (sometimes referred to as pursuit-evasion games) with nonclassical information pattern. We present a two-sided (simultaneous) optimization solution method for the two-player linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) multistage game. This direct solution method allows for further interpretation of each player's decision making (strategy) as compared to previously used formal solution methods. In addition to the optimal control strategies, we present a saddle point proof and we derive an expression for the optimal performance index value. We provide some numerical results in order to further interpret the optimal control strategies and to highlight real-world application of this game-theoretic optimal solution.

  5. Fundamental solutions and dual boundary element methods for fracture in plane Cosserat elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroshchenko, Elena; Bordas, Stéphane P A

    2015-07-08

    In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate the analogue of Somigliana stress identity, which can be used to obtain the stress and couple-stress fields inside the domain from the boundary values of the displacements, microrotation and stress and couple-stress tractions. Using these newly derived fundamental solutions, the boundary integral equations of both types are formulated and solved by the boundary element method. Simultaneous use of both types of equations (approach known as the dual boundary element method (BEM)) allows problems where parts of the boundary are overlapping, such as crack problems, to be treated and to do this for general geometry and loading conditions. The high accuracy of the boundary element method for both types of equations is demonstrated for a number of benchmark problems, including a Griffith crack problem and a plate with an edge crack. The detailed comparison of the BEM results and the analytical solution for a Griffith crack and an edge crack is given, particularly in terms of stress and couple-stress intensity factors, as well as the crack opening displacements and microrotations on the crack faces and the angular distributions of stresses and couple-stresses around the crack tip.

  6. An analytic solution of projectile motion with the quadratic resistance law using the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabushita, Kazuki; Yamashita, Mariko; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of two-dimensional projectile motion in which the resistance acting on an object moving in air is proportional to the square of the velocity of the object (quadratic resistance law). It is well known that the quadratic resistance law is valid in the range of the Reynolds number: 1 x 10 3 ∼ 2 x 10 5 (for instance, a sphere) for practical situations, such as throwing a ball. It has been considered that the equations of motion of this case are unsolvable for a general projectile angle, although some solutions have been obtained for a small projectile angle using perturbation techniques. To obtain a general analytic solution, we apply Liao's homotopy analysis method to this problem. The homotopy analysis method, which is different from a perturbation technique, can be applied to a problem which does not include small parameters. We apply the homotopy analysis method for not only governing differential equations, but also an algebraic equation of a velocity vector to extend the radius of convergence. Ultimately, we obtain the analytic solution to this problem and investigate the validation of the solution

  7. Two numerical methods for the solution of two-dimensional eddy current problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddlecombe, C.S.

    1978-07-01

    A general method for the solution of eddy current problems in two dimensions - one component of current density and two of magnetic field, is reported. After examining analytical methods two numerical methods are presented. Both solve the two dimensional, low frequency limit of Maxwell's equations for transient eddy currents in conducting material, which may be permeable, in the presence of other non-conducting permeable material. Both solutions are expressed in terms of the magnetic vector potential. The first is an integral equation method, using zero order elements in the discretisation of the unknown source regions. The other is a differential equation method, using a first order finite element mesh, and the Galerkin weighted residual procedure. The resulting equations are solved as initial-value problems. Results from programs based on each method are presented showing the power and limitations of the methods and the range of problems solvable. The methods are compared and recommendations are made for choosing between them. Suggestions are made for improving both methods, involving boundary integral techniques. (author)

  8. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Solution of a partial differential equation subject to temperature overspecification by He's homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Shakeri, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the solution of an inverse problem concerning a diffusion equation with source control parameters is presented. The homotopy perturbation method is employed to solve this equation. This method changes a difficult problem into a simple problem which can be easily solved. In this procedure, according to the homotopy technique, a homotopy with an embedding parameter p element of [0,1] is constructed, and this parameter is considered a 'small parameter', so the method is called the homotopy perturbation method, which can take full advantage of the traditional perturbation method and homotopy technique. The approximations obtained by the proposed method are uniformly valid not only for small parameters, but also for very large parameters. The fact that this technique, in contrast to the traditional perturbation methods, does not require a small parameter in the system, leads to wide applications in nonlinear equations

  10. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model for arbitrary solution methods in radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modest, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases approach for radiative transfer in non-gray participating media, first developed by Hottel in the context of the zonal method, has been shown to be applicable to the general radiative equation of transfer. Within the limits of the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (non-scattering media within a black-walled enclosure) any non-gray radiation problem can be solved by any desired solution method after replacing the medium by an equivalent small number of gray media with constant absorption coefficients. Some examples are presented for isothermal media and media at radiative equilibrium, using the exact integral equations as well as the popular P-1 approximation of the equivalent gray media solution. The results demonstrate the equivalency of the method with the quadrature of spectral results, as well as the tremendous computer times savings (by a minimum of 95%) which are achieved

  11. Determination of humic acid in alkali leaching solution of uranium by spectophotrometry-COD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yu; An Wei; Chen Shusen

    2014-01-01

    It is one of the main causes of extraction emulsification or resin toxicosis during alkali leaching process in uranium metallurgy which organic matters including humic acid exist in lixiviums. In order to study the effect of humic acid in uranium metallurgy, a method for determination of content of humic acid in aqueous solution need to be established. Spectrophotometry is a simple and convenient method in humic acid analysis. However, accuracy of spectrophotometry can be reduced greatly because of interference of uranium and other elements in the humic acid solutions. Although chemical oxygen demand (COD) method is a common analysis way of organic matters in aqueous solutions, the concentration of humic acid cannot be directly measured. In this paper, COD method is related with spectrophotometry to avoid the interference of uranium and ensure the accurate analysis of humic acid. The results showed that the detection limit of the method was 1.78 mg/L and the recovery rate was 101.2%. (authors)

  12. Investigation into state of phosphomolybdovanadic heteropolyacids in aqueous solutions by the NMR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovskaya, R.I.; Fedotov, M.A.; Mastikhin, V.M.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Matveev, K.I.

    1978-01-01

    The methods of 31 P, 51 V, and 17 O NMR have been used for studying the solutions of phospho-molybdenum-vanadium heteropolyacids (HPA) with x=0,1,2,3 (HPA-x) and their mixture with changing concentration, acidity, temperature, and upon partial reduction for separating the lines corresponding to HPA with a certain x. It has been found that in aqueous solutions HPA is present as a mixture of HPA of different compositions; the relationship has been observed between chemical shifts of the lines and the solution acidity which is of a different character for HPA with different x. This allows to make a conclusion about the mechanism of HPA protonation

  13. Exact Solutions of the Time Fractional BBM-Burger Equation by Novel (G′/G-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakeel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional derivatives are used in the sense modified Riemann-Liouville to obtain exact solutions for BBM-Burger equation of fractional order. This equation can be converted into an ordinary differential equation by using a persistent fractional complex transform and, as a result, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions are attained. The performance of the method is reliable, useful, and gives newer general exact solutions with more free parameters than the existing methods. Numerical results coupled with the graphical representation completely reveal the trustworthiness of the method.

  14. The boundary element method for the solution of the multidimensional inverse heat conduction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagier, Guy-Laurent

    1999-01-01

    This work focuses on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), which consists in the determination of boundary conditions from a given set of internal temperature measurements. This problem is difficult to solve due to its ill-posedness and high sensitivity to measurement error. As a consequence, numerical regularization procedures are required to solve this problem. However, most of these methods depend on the dimension and the nature, stationary or transient, of the problem. Furthermore, these methods introduce parameters, called hyper-parameters, which have to be chosen optimally, but can not be determined a priori. So, a new general method is proposed for solving the IHCP. This method is based on a Boundary Element Method formulation, and the use of the Singular Values Decomposition as a regularization procedure. Thanks to this method, it's possible to identify and eliminate the directions of the solution where the measurement error plays the major role. This algorithm is first validated on two-dimensional stationary and one-dimensional transient problems. Some criteria are presented in order to choose the hyper-parameters. Then, the methodology is applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional, theoretical or experimental, problems. The results are compared with those obtained by a standard method and show the accuracy of the method, its generality, and the validity of the proposed criteria. (author) [fr

  15. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses. Keywords: Exp-function method, New exact traveling wave solutions, Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fractional complex transformation, Fractional order Boussinesq-like equations, Symbolic computation

  16. Born approximation to a perturbative numerical method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gh.

    1978-01-01

    A step function perturbative numerical method (SF-PN method) is developed for the solution of the Cauchy problem for the second order liniar differential equation in normal form. An important point stressed in the present paper, which seems to have been previously ignored in the literature devoted to the PN methods, is the close connection between the first order perturbation theory of the PN approach and the wellknown Born approximation, and, in general, the connection between the varjous orders of the PN corrections and the Neumann series. (author)

  17. Born approximation to a perturbative numerical method for the solution of the Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gh.

    1978-05-01

    A perturbative numerical (PN) method is given for the solution of a regular one-dimensional Cauchy problem arising from the Schroedinger equation. The present method uses a step function approximation for the potential. Global, free of scaling difficulty, forward and backward PN algorithms are derived within first order perturbation theory (Born approximation). A rigorous analysis of the local truncation errors is performed. This shows that the order of accuracy of the method is equal to four. In between the mesh points, the global formula for the wavefunction is accurate within O(h 4 ), while that for the first order derivative is accurate within O(h 3 ). (author)

  18. New numerical method for iterative or perturbative solution of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.C.; Guralnik, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    A new computational idea for continuum quantum Field theories is outlined. This approach is based on the lattice source Galerkin methods developed by Garcia, Guralnik and Lawson. The method has many promising features including treating fermions on a relatively symmetric footing with bosons. As a spin-off of the technology developed for 'exact' solutions, the numerical methods used have a special case application to perturbation theory. We are in the process of developing an entirely numerical approach to evaluating graphs to high perturbative order. (authors)

  19. Applications of integral equation methods for the numerical solution of magnetostatic and eddy current problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, C.W.

    1976-06-01

    Various integral equation methods are described. For magnetostatic problems three formulations are considered in detail, (a) the direct solution method for the magnetisation distribution in permeable materials, (b) a method based on a scalar potential and (c) the use of an integral equation derived from Green's Theorem, i.e. the so-called Boundary Integral Method (BIM). In the case of (a) results are given for two-and three-dimensional non-linear problems with comparisons against measurement. For methods (b) and (c) which both lead to a more economic use of the computer than (a) some preliminary results are given for simple cases. For eddy current problems various methods are discussed and some results are given from a computer program based on a vector potential formulation. (author)

  20. Solution of Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Multiple Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    of this paper is the use of ESDIRK integration methods for solution of the initial value problems and the corresponding sensitivity equations arising in the multiple shooting algorithm. Compared to BDF-methods, ESDIRK-methods are advantageous in multiple shooting algorithms in which restarts and frequent...... algorithm. As we consider stiff systems, implicit solvers with sensitivity computation capabilities for initial value problems must be used in the multiple shooting algorithm. Traditionally, multi-step methods based on the BDF algorithm have been used for such problems. The main novel contribution...... discontinuities on each shooting interval are present. The ESDIRK methods are implemented using an inexact Newton method that reuses the factorization of the iteration matrix for the integration as well as the sensitivity computation. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the algorithm....

  1. Solution of the Multigroup-Diffusion equation by the response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.R.E.

    1980-10-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response matrix method is made, considering its application to the solution of the multigroup diffusion equations. The one-dimensional formulation is presented and used to test some flux expansions, seeking the application of the method to the two-dimensional problem. This formulation also solves the equations that arise from the integro-differential synthesis algorithm. The slow convergence of the power method, used to solve the eigenvalue problem, and its acceleration by means of the Chebyshev polynomial method, are also studied. An algorithm for the estimation of the dominance ratio is presented, based on the residues of two successive iteration vectors. This ratio, which is not known a priori, is fundamental for the efficiency of the method. Some numerical problems are solved, testing the 1D formulation of the response matrix method, its application to the synthesis algorithm and also, at the same time, the algorithm to accelerate the source problem. (Author) [pt

  2. Application of an analytical method for solution of thermal hydraulic conservation equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakory, M.R. [Simulation, Systems & Services Technologies Company (S3 Technologies), Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed and applied for solution of two-phase flow conservation equations. The test results for application of the model for simulation of BWR transients are presented and compared with the results obtained from application of the explicit method for integration of conservation equations. The test results show that with application of the analytical method for integration of conservation equations, the Courant limitation associated with explicit Euler method of integration was eliminated. The results obtained from application of the analytical method (with large time steps) agreed well with the results obtained from application of explicit method of integration (with time steps smaller than the size imposed by Courant limitation). The results demonstrate that application of the analytical approach significantly improves the numerical stability and computational efficiency.

  3. Applications of integral equation methods for the numerical solution of magnetostatic and eddy current problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, C W

    1976-06-01

    Various integral equation methods are described. For magnetostatic problems three formulations are considered in detail, (a) the direct solution method for the magnetisation distribution in permeable materials, (b) a method based on a scalar potential, and (c) the use of an integral equation derived from Green's Theorem, i.e. the so-called Boundary Integral Method (BIM). In the case of (a) results are given for two-and three-dimensional non-linear problems with comparisons against measurement. For methods (b) and (c), which both lead to a more economical use of the computer than (a), some preliminary results are given for simple cases. For eddy current problems various methods are discussed and some results are given from a computer program based on a vector potential formulation.

  4. Numerical Solutions of the Mean-Value Theorem: New Methods for Downward Continuation of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Lü, Qingtian; Yan, Jiayong; Qi, Guang

    2018-04-01

    Downward continuation can enhance small-scale sources and improve resolution. Nevertheless, the common methods have disadvantages in obtaining optimal results because of divergence and instability. We derive the mean-value theorem for potential fields, which could be the theoretical basis of some data processing and interpretation. Based on numerical solutions of the mean-value theorem, we present the convergent and stable downward continuation methods by using the first-order vertical derivatives and their upward continuation. By applying one of our methods to both the synthetic and real cases, we show that our method is stable, convergent and accurate. Meanwhile, compared with the fast Fourier transform Taylor series method and the integrated second vertical derivative Taylor series method, our process has very little boundary effect and is still stable in noise. We find that the characters of the fading anomalies emerge properly in our downward continuation with respect to the original fields at the lower heights.

  5. Novel geochemistry-inspired method for the deep removal of vanadium from molybdate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jialiang [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Recycling and Extraction of Metals, Beijing, 100083 (China); Deng, Yuping; Zhou, Qiuyue; Qin, Peixin; Liu, Yubo [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Wang, Chengyan, E-mail: chywang@yeah.net [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A geochemistry-inspired method was developed for removal of V from molybdates. • Magnetic separation of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} adsorbent took 10 s. • Vanadium can be deeply removed in 5 min at pH of 7.0–11.0. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} adsorbent has excellent V selectivity and reusability. • A flowchart is presented for Mo/V separation in the leachate of spent HDS catalyst. - Abstract: Separation of vanadium from molybdates is an essential task for processing the leaching solution of hazardous spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalyst. In this study, the difference in the main naturally occurring mineral forms of Mo and V inspired us to develop a method for the deep removal of V from molybdate solution using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as an adsorbent. First, the adsorbent was synthesized with coprecipitation method, and then it was characterized by XRD, TEM, and VSM. The synthesized material consisted of pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles that exhibited paramagnetic property, with a saturated magnetization of 68.6 emu g{sup −1}. The V removal efficiency was investigated using batch adsorption experiments in varying conditions. Results indicated that V could be deeply removed from various concentrations of molybdate solution at pH of 7.0–11.0 within 5 min. A slight decrease was found in the adsorption ratio after the adsorbent had been reused for 4 cycles. The resulting molybdate solution contained less than 0.02 g L{sup −1} of V, which satisfies the requirement for preparing high-quality products. Finally, a process flowchart is presented for the separation of Mo and V from the leaching solution of spent HDS catalyst, based on the excellent V removal performance and rapid separation rate of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} adsorbent.

  6. Replica exchange with solute tempering: A method for sampling biological systems in explicit water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Kim, Byungchan; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, B. J.

    2005-09-01

    An innovative replica exchange (parallel tempering) method called replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) for the efficient sampling of aqueous protein solutions is presented here. The method bypasses the poor scaling with system size of standard replica exchange and thus reduces the number of replicas (parallel processes) that must be used. This reduction is accomplished by deforming the Hamiltonian function for each replica in such a way that the acceptance probability for the exchange of replica configurations does not depend on the number of explicit water molecules in the system. For proof of concept, REST is compared with standard replica exchange for an alanine dipeptide molecule in water. The comparisons confirm that REST greatly reduces the number of CPUs required by regular replica exchange and increases the sampling efficiency. This method reduces the CPU time required for calculating thermodynamic averages and for the ab initio folding of proteins in explicit water. Author contributions: B.J.B. designed research; P.L. and B.K. performed research; P.L. and B.K. analyzed data; and P.L., B.K., R.A.F., and B.J.B. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: REST, replica exchange with solute tempering; REM, replica exchange method; MD, molecular dynamics.*P.L. and B.K. contributed equally to this work.

  7. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  8. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  9. Patched based methods for adaptive mesh refinement solutions of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzman, J.

    1997-09-02

    This manuscript contains the lecture notes for a course taught from July 7th through July 11th at the 1997 Numerical Analysis Summer School sponsored by C.E.A., I.N.R.I.A., and E.D.F. The subject area was chosen to support the general theme of that year`s school which is ``Multiscale Methods and Wavelets in Numerical Simulation.`` The first topic covered in these notes is a description of the problem domain. This coverage is limited to classical PDEs with a heavier emphasis on hyperbolic systems and constrained hyperbolic systems. The next topic is difference schemes. These schemes are the foundation for the adaptive methods. After the background material is covered, attention is focused on a simple patched based adaptive algorithm and its associated data structures for square grids and hyperbolic conservation laws. Embellishments include curvilinear meshes, embedded boundary and overset meshes. Next, several strategies for parallel implementations are examined. The remainder of the notes contains descriptions of elliptic solutions on the mesh hierarchy, elliptically constrained flow solution methods and elliptically constrained flow solution methods with diffusion.

  10. Efficient numerical methods for the large-scale, parallel solution of elastoplastic contact problems

    KAUST Repository

    Frohne, Jörg

    2015-08-06

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Quasi-static elastoplastic contact problems are ubiquitous in many industrial processes and other contexts, and their numerical simulation is consequently of great interest in accurately describing and optimizing production processes. The key component in these simulations is the solution of a single load step of a time iteration. From a mathematical perspective, the problems to be solved in each time step are characterized by the difficulties of variational inequalities for both the plastic behavior and the contact problem. Computationally, they also often lead to very large problems. In this paper, we present and evaluate a complete set of methods that are (1) designed to work well together and (2) allow for the efficient solution of such problems. In particular, we use adaptive finite element meshes with linear and quadratic elements, a Newton linearization of the plasticity, active set methods for the contact problem, and multigrid-preconditioned linear solvers. Through a sequence of numerical experiments, we show the performance of these methods. This includes highly accurate solutions of a three-dimensional benchmark problem and scaling our methods in parallel to 1024 cores and more than a billion unknowns.

  11. Efficient numerical methods for the large-scale, parallel solution of elastoplastic contact problems

    KAUST Repository

    Frohne, Jö rg; Heister, Timo; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Quasi-static elastoplastic contact problems are ubiquitous in many industrial processes and other contexts, and their numerical simulation is consequently of great interest in accurately describing and optimizing production processes. The key component in these simulations is the solution of a single load step of a time iteration. From a mathematical perspective, the problems to be solved in each time step are characterized by the difficulties of variational inequalities for both the plastic behavior and the contact problem. Computationally, they also often lead to very large problems. In this paper, we present and evaluate a complete set of methods that are (1) designed to work well together and (2) allow for the efficient solution of such problems. In particular, we use adaptive finite element meshes with linear and quadratic elements, a Newton linearization of the plasticity, active set methods for the contact problem, and multigrid-preconditioned linear solvers. Through a sequence of numerical experiments, we show the performance of these methods. This includes highly accurate solutions of a three-dimensional benchmark problem and scaling our methods in parallel to 1024 cores and more than a billion unknowns.

  12. Solution method for the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-01-01

    A solution method based on a fractional step approach is developed for obtaining time-dependent solutions of the three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. The governing equations are discretized conservatively by finite volumes using a staggered mesh system. The primitive variable formulation uses the volume fluxes across the faces of each computational cell as dependent variables. This procedure, combined with accurate and consistent approximations of geometric parameters, is done to satisfy the discretized mass conservation equation to machine accuracy as well as to gain favorable convergence properties of the Poisson solver. The discretized equations are second-order-accurate in time and space and no smoothing terms are added. An approximate-factorization scheme is implemented in solving the momentum equations. A novel ZEBRA scheme with four-color ordering is devised for the efficient solution of the Poisson equation. Several two and three-dimensional solutions are compared with other numerical and experimental results to validate the present method. 23 references

  13. Comparison of four methods for determining aluminum in highly radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.

    1976-06-01

    Four methods for the accurate determination of aluminum in highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions were developed and the results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. The solutions of interest contain aluminum in concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5 M and the hydroxide (OH - ) concentrations were greater than 1.0 M. The normal atomic absorption determination was highly inaccurate for these samples so citrate was used as a complexant to improve the results. A fluoride titration was carried out in an ethanol-water matrix using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. A thermometric titration proved successful in determining both the OH - and aluminum concentrations of the samples. Finally, a titrimetric method using a pH electrode to determine OH - d aluminum was checked and compared with the other methods. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and the agreement of the results was very good. For all four methods the accuracy was around 100 percent and the precision varied from approximately +-2 percent for the fluoride electrode determination to approximately +-10 percent for the atomic absorption determination. On the basis of the work performed, conclusions were drawn about the strengths and weaknesses of each method and whether or not the method was suitable for routine use in analytical laboratories

  14. Solutions of interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials using a new ranking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurhakimah Ab.; Abdullah, Lazim; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab.; Ahmad, Noor'Ani

    2015-10-01

    A few years ago, a ranking method have been introduced in the fuzzy polynomial equations. Concept of the ranking method is proposed to find actual roots of fuzzy polynomials (if exists). Fuzzy polynomials are transformed to system of crisp polynomials, performed by using ranking method based on three parameters namely, Value, Ambiguity and Fuzziness. However, it was found that solutions based on these three parameters are quite inefficient to produce answers. Therefore in this study a new ranking method have been developed with the aim to overcome the inherent weakness. The new ranking method which have four parameters are then applied in the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials, covering the interval type-2 of fuzzy polynomial equation, dual fuzzy polynomial equations and system of fuzzy polynomials. The efficiency of the new ranking method then numerically considered in the triangular fuzzy numbers and the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Finally, the approximate solutions produced from the numerical examples indicate that the new ranking method successfully produced actual roots for the interval type-2 fuzzy polynomials.

  15. He's variational iteration method applied to the solution of the prey and predator problem with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufoglu, Elcin; Erbas, Baris

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, a mathematical model of the problem of prey and predator is presented and He's variational iteration method is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method and homotopy perturbation method. Comparison of the methods show that He's variational iteration method is a powerful method for obtaining approximate solutions to nonlinear equations and their systems

  16. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  17. Application of 1 D Finite Element Method in Combination with Laminar Solution Method for Pipe Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, O. I.; Dudar, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The features of application of the 1D dimensional finite element method (FEM) in combination with the laminar solutions method (LSM) for the calculation of underground ventilating networks are considered. In this case the processes of heat and mass transfer change the properties of a fluid (binary vapour-air mix). Under the action of gravitational forces it leads to such phenomena as natural draft, local circulation, etc. The FEM relations considering the action of gravity, the mass conservation law, the dependence of vapour-air mix properties on the thermodynamic parameters are derived so that it allows one to model the mentioned phenomena. The analogy of the elastic and plastic rod deformation processes to the processes of laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe is described. Owing to this analogy, the guaranteed convergence of the elastic solutions method for the materials of plastic type means the guaranteed convergence of the LSM for any regime of a turbulent flow in a rough pipe. By means of numerical experiments the convergence rate of the FEM - LSM is investigated. This convergence rate appeared much higher than the convergence rate of the Cross - Andriyashev method. Data of other authors on the convergence rate comparison for the finite element method, the Newton method and the method of gradient are provided. These data allow one to conclude that the FEM in combination with the LSM is one of the most effective methods of calculation of hydraulic and ventilating networks. The FEM - LSM has been used for creation of the research application programme package “MineClimate” allowing to calculate the microclimate parameters in the underground ventilating networks.

  18. A new sub-equation method applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using a new coupled Riccati equations, a direct algebraic method, which was applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations, is improved. And the exact travelling wave solutions of the complex KdV equation, Boussinesq equation and Klein-Gordon equation are investigated using the improved method. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to construct exact travelling wave solutions for other nonlinear complex equations.

  19. New Traveling Wave Solutions of the Higher Dimensional Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation by the Exp-Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct new analytical solutions of the (3+1-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsev equation by the Exp-function method. Plentiful exact traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are effectively obtained by the method. The obtained results show that the Exp-function method is effective and straightforward mathematical tool for searching analytical solutions with arbitrary parameters of higher-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation.

  20. A two-dimensional method of manufactured solutions benchmark suite based on variations of Larsen's benchmark with escalating order of smoothness of the exact solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Azmy, Yousry Y.

    2011-01-01

    The quantification of the discretization error associated with the spatial discretization of the Discrete Ordinate(DO) equations in multidimensional Cartesian geometries is the central problem in error estimation of spatial discretization schemes for transport theory as well as computer code verification. Traditionally ne mesh solutions are employed as reference, because analytical solutions only exist in the absence of scattering. This approach, however, is inadequate when the discretization error associated with the reference solution is not small compared to the discretization error associated with the mesh under scrutiny. Typically this situation occurs if the mesh of interest is only a couple of refinement levels away from the reference solution or if the order of accuracy of the numerical method (and hence the reference as well) is lower than expected. In this work we present a Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) benchmark suite with variable order of smoothness of the underlying exact solution for two-dimensional Cartesian geometries which provides analytical solutions aver- aged over arbitrary orthogonal meshes for scattering and non-scattering media. It should be emphasized that the developed MMS benchmark suite rst eliminates the aforementioned limitation of ne mesh reference solutions since it secures knowledge of the underlying true solution and second that it allows for an arbitrary order of smoothness of the underlying ex- act solution. The latter is of importance because even for smooth parameters and boundary conditions the DO equations can feature exact solution with limited smoothness. Moreover, the degree of smoothness is crucial for both the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the discretization error for any spatial discretization scheme. (author)

  1. Solution of Point Reactor Neutron Kinetics Equations with Temperature Feedback by Singularly Perturbed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The singularly perturbed method (SPM is proposed to obtain the analytical solution for the delayed supercritical process of nuclear reactor with temperature feedback and small step reactivity inserted. The relation between the reactivity and time is derived. Also, the neutron density (or power and the average density of delayed neutron precursors as the function of reactivity are presented. The variations of neutron density (or power and temperature with time are calculated and plotted and compared with those by accurate solution and other analytical methods. It is shown that the results by the SPM are valid and accurate in the large range and the SPM is simpler than those in the previous literature.

  2. System and method for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2014-01-28

    A system and method for laser desorption of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a suspended solvent to form a testing solution are described. The method can include providing a specimen supported by a desorption region of a specimen stage and desorbing an analyte from a target site of the specimen with a laser beam centered at a radiation wavelength (.lamda.). The desorption region is transparent to the radiation wavelength (.lamda.) and the sampling probe and a laser source emitting the laser beam are on opposite sides of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The system can also be arranged where the laser source and the sampling probe are on the same side of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The testing solution can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  3. Solution of axisymmetric transient inverse heat conduction problems using parameter estimation and multi block methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, A.; Hannani, S.K.; Farhanieh, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a comparison between two iterative inverse techniques to solve simultaneously two unknown functions of axisymmetric transient inverse heat conduction problems in semi complex geometries is presented. The multi-block structured grid together with blocked-interface nodes is implemented for geometric decomposition of physical domain. Numerical scheme for solution of transient heat conduction equation is the finite element method with frontal technique to solve algebraic system of discrete equations. The inverse heat conduction problem involves simultaneous unknown time varying heat generation and time-space varying boundary condition estimation. Two parameter-estimation techniques are considered, Levenberg-Marquardt scheme and conjugate gradient method with adjoint problem. Numerically computed exact and noisy data are used for the measured transient temperature data needed in the inverse solution. The results of the present study for a configuration including two joined disks with different heights are compared to those of exact heat source and temperature boundary condition, and show good agreement. (author)

  4. Numerical Methods for Solution of the Extended Linear Quadratic Control Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Frison, Gianluca; Gade-Nielsen, Nicolai Fog

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the extended linear quadratic control problem, its efficient solution, and a discussion of how it arises in the numerical solution of nonlinear model predictive control problems. The extended linear quadratic control problem is the optimal control problem corresponding...... to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system that constitute the majority of computational work in constrained nonlinear and linear model predictive control problems solved by efficient MPC-tailored interior-point and active-set algorithms. We state various methods of solving the extended linear quadratic control problem...... and discuss instances in which it arises. The methods discussed in the paper have been implemented in efficient C code for both CPUs and GPUs for a number of test examples....

  5. The GSC method for constructing the entropy solution of hyperbolic conservation laws and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we introduce briefly the Geometrical Shock Correction (GSC) method and consider various fields of applications, with special emphasis on two-phase flow problems in porous media. Some test problems are taken from this field. GSC is a very efficient numerical method for constructing the entropy solution of the Cauchy problem of scalar hyperboli conservation laws (with source term) in one space dimension and in specific two-dimensional cases. The novelty consists in constructing the solution at an arbitrary fixed time t=T>0 in one time step, based on transporting the initial values along characteristics and, if shocks appear, on a correction of the multivalued relation by a geometrical averaging technique. (orig.) With 7 figs [de

  6. Modelling with the master equation solution methods and applications in social and natural sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the theory and practical applications of the Master equation approach, which provides a powerful general framework for model building in a variety of disciplines. The aim of the book is to not only highlight different mathematical solution methods, but also reveal their potential by means of practical examples. Part I of the book, which can be used as a toolbox, introduces selected statistical fundamentals and solution methods for the Master equation. In Part II and Part III, the Master equation approach is applied to important applications in the natural and social sciences. The case studies presented mainly hail from the social sciences, including urban and regional dynamics, population dynamics, dynamic decision theory, opinion formation and traffic dynamics; however, some applications from physics and chemistry are treated as well, underlining the interdisciplinary modelling potential of the Master equation approach. Drawing upon the author’s extensive teaching and research experience...

  7. Methods for partial differential equations qualitative properties of solutions, phase space analysis, semilinear models

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Marcelo R

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an overview of different topics related to the theory of partial differential equations. Selected exercises are included at the end of each chapter to prepare readers for the “research project for beginners” proposed at the end of the book. It is a valuable resource for advanced graduates and undergraduate students who are interested in specializing in this area. The book is organized in five parts: In Part 1 the authors review the basics and the mathematical prerequisites, presenting two of the most fundamental results in the theory of partial differential equations: the Cauchy-Kovalevskaja theorem and Holmgren's uniqueness theorem in its classical and abstract form. It also introduces the method of characteristics in detail and applies this method to the study of Burger's equation. Part 2 focuses on qualitative properties of solutions to basic partial differential equations, explaining the usual properties of solutions to elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations for the archetypes...

  8. Continuous analog of Newton's method for determination of quasistationary solutions of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, L.I.; Puzynin, I.V.; Puzynina, T.P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is a part of further development of investigations in which a numerical solution method of the Schroedinger equation for the case of a discrete spectrum has been developed and applied. The suggested algorithm (CAMEN scheme) is generalized and applied to quasistationary solutions of the Schroedinger equation system. Some specific features of the CAMEN scheme realization (such as establishing boundary conditions are observed while calculating quasistationary levels of hydrogen mesic molecules. The calculations have been carried out for energies and wave functions of quasistationary states of hydrogen mesic molecules. The choice of the initial approximation, the accuracy of calculations and characteristics of the convergence of the method have been investigated. The CAMEN algorithm has been realized in the form of the FORTRAN program packet. The CAMEN scheme can be also used for solving scatering problems

  9. The Analytical Solution of Some Fractional Ordinary Differential Equations by the Sumudu Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the rudiments of fractional calculus and the consequent applications of the Sumudu transform on fractional derivatives. Once this connection is firmly established in the general setting, we turn to the application of the Sumudu transform method (STM to some interesting nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations (FODEs. Finally, we use the solutions to form two-dimensional (2D graphs, by using the symbolic algebra package Mathematica Program 7.

  10. Approximate solution of generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system via homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Juhong [School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China); Dept. of Information Engineering, Coll. of Lishui Professional Tech., Zhejiang (China); Zheng Chunlong [School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China); Shanghai Inst. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Univ., SH (China)

    2010-04-15

    Using the homotopy perturbation method, a class of nonlinear generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs systems (GGLH) is considered. Firstly, by introducing a homotopic transformation, the nonlinear problem is changed into a system of linear equations. Secondly, by selecting a suitable initial approximation, the approximate solution with arbitrary degree accuracy to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system is derived. Finally, another type of homotopic transformation to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system reported in previous literature is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  11. Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations by the method of summation of divergent series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, G.A.; Korovin, Ya.S.; Khisamutdinov, M.V.; Shmojlov, V.I.

    2015-01-01

    A method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations has been proposed on the basis on the summation of the corresponding continued fractions. The proposed algorithm for solving systems of linear algebraic equations is classified as direct algorithms providing an exact solution in a finite number of operations. Examples of solving systems of linear algebraic equations have been presented and the effectiveness of the algorithm has been estimated [ru

  12. A method for the approximate solutions of the unsteady boundary layer equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Sattar, Md.

    1990-12-01

    The approximate integral method proposed by Bianchini et al. to solve the unsteady boundary layer equations is considered here with a simple modification to the scale function for the similarity variable. This is done by introducing a time dependent length scale. The closed form solutions, thus obtained, give satisfactory results for the velocity profile and the skin friction to a limiting case in comparison with the results of the past investigators. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  13. Exact traveling wave solutions of the bbm and kdv equations using (G'/G)-expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, I.; Nazar, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the traveling wave solutions involving parameters of the Benjamin Bona-Mahony (BBM) and KdV equations in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions by using the (G'/G)-expansion method, where G = G(zeta) satisfies a second order linear ordinary differential equation. When the parameters are taken special values, the Solitary was are derived from the traveling waves. (author)

  14. On the solutions of electrohydrodynamic flow with fractional differential equations by reproducing kernel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgül Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we investigate electrodynamic flow. For several values of the intimate parameters we proved that the approximate solution depends on a reproducing kernel model. Obtained results prove that the reproducing kernel method (RKM is very effective. We obtain good results without any transformation or discretization. Numerical experiments on test examples show that our proposed schemes are of high accuracy and strongly support the theoretical results.

  15. Solution of second order linear fuzzy difference equation by Lagrange's multiplier method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Prasad Mondal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we execute the solution procedure for second order linear fuzzy difference equation by Lagrange's multiplier method. In crisp sense the difference equation are easy to solve, but when we take in fuzzy sense it forms a system of difference equation which is not so easy to solve. By the help of Lagrange's multiplier we can solved it easily. The results are illustrated by two different numerical examples and followed by two applications.

  16. Wind power plants and the landscape: Analysis of conflict and methods of solution - practical examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brux, H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict between wind power plants and the appearance of the landscape is explained. Legal regulations forcing one to take it into account are pointed out. After an introduction into the theoretical basis, methods of solution for the operation of aesthetic landscape judgments are introduced by examples from planning practice. Finally, the frequently unused possibilities of site optimisation with the aid of applied biology and landscape planning are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  17. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations by using Sine-Cosine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufoglu, E.; Bekir, A.; Alp, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we establish exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. The sine-cosine method is used to construct periodic and solitary wave solutions of the Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations. These solutions may be important of significance for the explanation of some practical physical problems

  18. Cementation of the solid radioactive waste with polymer-cement solutions using the method of impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of solid radioactive waste (SRW), i.e. inclusion of solid radioactive waste into cement matrix without cavities - is one of the main technological processes used for conditioning low and intermediate level radioactive waste. At FSUE 'Radon' the industrialized method of impregnation has been developed and since 2003 has been using for cementation of solid radioactive waste. The technology is that the polymer-cement solution, having high penetrating properties, is supplied under pressure through a tube to the bottom of the container in which solid radioactive waste has preliminarily been placed. The polymer-cement solution is evenly moving upwards through the channels between the particles of solid radioactive waste, fills the voids in the bulk volume of the waste and hardens, forming a cement compound, the amount of which is equal to the original volume. The aim of the investigation was a selection of a cement solution suitable for SRW impregnation (including fine particles) without solution depletion and bottom layers stuffing. It has been chosen a polymer: PHMG (polyhexamethylene-guanidine), which is a stabilizing and water-retaining component of the cement solution. The experiments confirm that the polymer increases the permeability of the cement solution by a 2-2.5 factor, the viscosity by a 1.2 factor, the stability of the consistency by a 1.5-1.7 factor, and extends the operating range of the W/C ratio to 0.5-1.1. So it is possible to penetrate a volume of SRW bigger by a 1.5-2.0 factor. It has been proved, that PHMG polymer increases strength and frost-resistance of the final compounds by a 1.8-2.7 factor, and contributes to fast strength development at the beginning of hardening and it decreases Cs-137 leashing rate by a 1.5-2 factor

  19. Iterative and multigrid methods in the finite element solution of incompressible and turbulent fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, N.; Taylor, C.

    1999-07-01

    Multigrid and iterative methods are used to reduce the solution time of the matrix equations which arise from the finite element (FE) discretisation of the time-independent equations of motion of the incompressible fluid in turbulent motion. Incompressible flow is solved by using the method of reduce interpolation for the pressure to satisfy the Brezzi-Babuska condition. The k-l model is used to complete the turbulence closure problem. The non-symmetric iterative matrix methods examined are the methods of least squares conjugate gradient (LSCG), biconjugate gradient (BCG), conjugate gradient squared (CGS), and the biconjugate gradient squared stabilised (BCGSTAB). The multigrid algorithm applied is based on the FAS algorithm of Brandt, and uses two and three levels of grids with a V-cycling schedule. These methods are all compared to the non-symmetric frontal solver. Copyright

  20. Numerical multistep methods for the efficient solution of quantum mechanics and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z.A.; Simos, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the recent development in the numerical integration of the Schroedinger equation and related systems of ordinary differential equations with oscillatory solutions, such as the N-body problem. We examine several types of multistep methods (explicit, implicit, predictor-corrector, hybrid) and several properties (P-stability, trigonometric fitting of various orders, phase fitting, high phase-lag order, algebraic order). We analyze the local truncation error and the stability of the methods. The error for the Schroedinger equation is also presented, which reveals the relation of the error to the energy. The efficiency of the methods is evaluated through the integration of five problems. Figures are presented and analyzed and some general conclusions are made. Code written in Maple is given for the development of all methods analyzed in this paper. Also the subroutines written in Matlab, that concern the integration of the methods, are presented.

  1. Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.

  2. On the economical solution method for a system of linear algebraic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Awrejcewicz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a novel optimal and exact method of solving large systems of linear algebraic equations. In the approach under consideration, the solution of a system of algebraic linear equations is found as a point of intersection of hyperplanes, which needs a minimal amount of computer operating storage. Two examples are given. In the first example, the boundary value problem for a three-dimensional stationary heat transfer equation in a parallelepiped in ℝ3 is considered, where boundary value problems of first, second, or third order, or their combinations, are taken into account. The governing differential equations are reduced to algebraic ones with the help of the finite element and boundary element methods for different meshes applied. The obtained results are compared with known analytical solutions. The second example concerns computation of a nonhomogeneous shallow physically and geometrically nonlinear shell subject to transversal uniformly distributed load. The partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations with the error of O(hx12+hx22. The linearization process is realized through either Newton method or differentiation with respect to a parameter. In consequence, the relations of the boundary condition variations along the shell side and the conditions for the solution matching are reported.

  3. THE USE OF THE PATENT ANALYSIS METHOD FOR FINDING ANALOGUES AND PROTOTYPES OF RECEIVED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the issue of the patent analysis efficiency, which is a necessary stage of seaching analogues and prototypes to obtain technical solutions. The article presents the results of analyzing the present automation systems for finding necessary information in the patent databases and identifies their advantages and disadvantages. It gives a description of the “Intellect” system, which is an example of software systems for the conceptual design stage support. Materials and Methods The article presents some of the possible ways to organize the patents-analogues search process and specific features of searching analogues and prototypes for the generated parametric structure scheme of the technical solution, which is the result of the synthesis of a new information-measuring and control system element in the “Intellect” system. The description of the proposed search query forming method is given. The article gives the structure of the patent passport, which must be stored in a database to organize the process of searcing analogues and prototypes. There given a description of algorithms for automatic adding a patent to the database, recalculating the weights while adding a patent by experts, identifying the fact of using different physical and technical effects in a patent. Results The final part of the article contains an example of the results of testing the developed subsystem implementing the proposed method. According to the test results it is concluded that the selected software and algorithmic solutions are effective.

  4. The Method of Manufactured Solutions for RattleSnake A SN Radiation Transport Solver Inside the MOOSE Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaqi

    2012-01-01

    The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) is an accepted technique to verify that a numerical discretization for the radiation transport equation has been implemented correctly. This technique offers a few advantages over other methods such as benchmark problems or analytical solutions. The solution can be manufactured such that properties for the angular flux are either stressed or preserved. For radiation transport, these properties can include desired smoothness, positiveness and arbitrary order of anisotropy in angle. Another advantage is that the angular flux solution can be manufactured for multidimensional problems where analytical solutions are difficult to obtain in general.

  5. Asymptotic Method of Solution for a Problem of Construction of Optimal Gas-Lift Process Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikrat A. Aliev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model in oil extraction by gas-lift method for the case when the reciprocal value of well's depth represents a small parameter is considered. Problem of optimal mode construction (i.e., construction of optimal program trajectories and controls is reduced to the linear-quadratic optimal control problem with a small parameter. Analytic formulae for determining the solutions at the first-order approximation with respect to the small parameter are obtained. Comparison of the obtained results with known ones on a specific example is provided, which makes it, in particular, possible to use obtained results in realizations of oil extraction problems by gas-lift method.

  6. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drying is frequently used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets. Simulation-based control strategy development for such a drying process requires a detailed model. First, the drying of wet granules is modelled using a Population Balance Model. A growth term based on a reduced model was used......, which describes the decrease of the moisture content, to follow the moisture content distribution for a batch of granules. Secondly, different solution methods for solving the PBM are compared. The effect of grid size (discretization methods) is analyzed in terms of accuracy and calculation time. All...

  7. Low-complexity computation of plate eigenmodes with Vekua approximations and the method of particular solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Gilles; Daudet, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    This paper extends the method of particular solutions (MPS) to the computation of eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of thin plates, in the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. Specific approximation schemes are developed, with plane waves (MPS-PW) or Fourier-Bessel functions (MPS-FB). This framework also requires a suitable formulation of the boundary conditions. Numerical tests, on two plates with various boundary conditions, demonstrate that the proposed approach provides competitive results with standard numerical schemes such as the finite element method, at reduced complexity, and with large flexibility in the implementation choices.

  8. Constant current coulometric method for the determination of uranium in active process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Talnikar, S.G.; Paranjape, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of uranium in the range of 2.5-5 mg by constant current coulometry is described. The procedure is based on the modified version of the DAVIES - GRAY method, wherein uranium, after the reduction step, is oxidized by adding a known amount of potassium dichromate, and the excess of dichromate is determined by titration with Fe 2+ solution. Fe 2+ ions needed for the titration are generated in situ with 100% current efficiency by electrolytic reduction of Fe 3+ . The method is found to be accurate with a coefficient of variation better than 0.2%. (author)

  9. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. The critically mixed methods of resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented [fr

  10. Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This international Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the uranium content in uranyl nitrate product solutions of nuclear grade quality at concentrations above 100 g/l of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method. Uranyl nitrate is converted into uranium octoxide (U 3 O 8 ) by ignition in air to constant mass at 900 deg. C ± 10 deg. C. Calculation of the uranium content in the sample using a gravimetric conversion factor which depends on the isotopic composition of the uranium. The isotopic composition is determined by mass spectrometry

  11. Solution methods for compartment models of transport through the environment using numerical inversion of Laplace transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratt, T.J.

    1989-05-01

    Compartment models for the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere are conventionally solved using a numerical time-stepping procedure. This report examines an alternative method based on the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms, which is potentially more efficient and accurate for some classes of problem. The central problem considered is the most efficient and robust technique for solving the Laplace-transformed rate equations. The conclusion is that Gaussian elimination is the most efficient and robust solution method. A general compartment model has been implemented on a personal computer and used to solve a realistic case including radionuclide decay chains. (author)

  12. A new sensitive method of dissociation constants determination based on the isohydric solutions principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowski, Tadeusz; Pilarski, Bogusław; Asuero, Agustin G; Dobkowska, Agnieszka

    2010-10-15

    The paper provides a new formulation and analytical proposals based on the isohydric solutions concept. It is particularly stated that a mixture formed, according to titrimetric mode, from a weak acid (HX, C(0)mol/L) and a strong acid (HB, Cmol/L) solutions, assumes constant pH, independently on the volumes of the solutions mixed, provided that the relation C(0)=C+C(2)·10(pK(1)) is valid, where pK(1)=-log K(1), K(1) the dissociation constant for HX. The generalized formulation, referred to the isohydric solutions thus obtained, was extended also to more complex acid-base systems. Particularly in the (HX, HB) system, the titration occurs at constant ionic strength (I) value, not resulting from presence of a basal electrolyte. This very advantageous conjunction of the properties provides, among others, a new, very sensitive method for verification of pK(1) value. The new method is particularly useful for weak acids HX characterized by low pK(1) values. The method was tested experimentally on four acid-base systems (HX, HB), in aqueous and mixed-solvent media and compared with the literature data. Some useful (linear and hyperbolic) correlations were stated and applied for validation of pK(1) values. Finally, some practical applications of analytical interest of the isohydricity (pH constancy) principle as one formulated in this paper were enumerated, proving the usefulness of such a property which has its remote roots in the Arrhenius concept. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and evaluation of methods for safeguards use of solution monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.; Wangen, L.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the effort to develop, implement, and evaluate data analysis methods for solution-monitoring measurements in the plutonium nitrate storage at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The intent is to address TRP-specific issues to some extent, as well as to anticipate the data analysis needs at future reprocessing plants (especially the new Rokkasho reprocessing plant (RRP)) in Japan. The essential difference between a plant like TRP and a more modern plant like RRP is that one expects more and better instrumentation in the tanks in a modern plant. Because the TRP solution monitoring hardware is scheduled to be upgraded, the authors de-emphasized the effort to handle information-poor plants like TRP. This report mostly describes the analysis methods and software for finding and identifying all key tank events. To a large extent they have to experiment with several candidate methods for implementing their analysis objectives. Therefore, they chose to use a prototyping software system called S-PLUS, which is an object-oriented statistical programming and graphics package. The intent is to eventually implement selected portions of their current solution-monitoring toolkit in a more robust and user-friendly system. The authors describe their current software system as being far more than they needed for their own in-house use (menus are provided for the user who doesn't want to type any S-PLUS commands), but less than is needed for a fieldable system. Mostly as a result of working on this project, they have come to conclude that solution monitoring is a potentially very valuable asset to nuclear safeguards at a modern reprocessing plant

  14. Application of a space-time CE/SE (Conversation Element/Solution Element) method to the numerical solution of chromatographic separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    including convection-difmsion-reaction PDEs are numerically solved using the two methods on the same spatial grid. Even though the CE/SE method uses a simple stencil structure and is developed on a simple mathematical basis (i.e., Gauss' divergence theorem), accurate and computationally-efficient solutions...

  15. Regularization and computational methods for precise solution of perturbed orbit transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn Michele

    The author has developed a suite of algorithms for solving the perturbed Lambert's problem in celestial mechanics. These algorithms have been implemented as a parallel computation tool that has broad applicability. This tool is composed of four component algorithms and each provides unique benefits for solving a particular type of orbit transfer problem. The first one utilizes a Keplerian solver (a-iteration) for solving the unperturbed Lambert's problem. This algorithm not only provides a "warm start" for solving the perturbed problem but is also used to identify which of several perturbed solvers is best suited for the job. The second algorithm solves the perturbed Lambert's problem using a variant of the modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration initial value solver that solves two-point boundary value problems. This method converges over about one third of an orbit and does not require a Newton-type shooting method and thus no state transition matrix needs to be computed. The third algorithm makes use of regularization of the differential equations through the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and extends the domain of convergence over which the modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration two-point boundary value solver will converge, from about one third of an orbit to almost a full orbit. This algorithm also does not require a Newton-type shooting method. The fourth algorithm uses the method of particular solutions and the modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration initial value solver to solve the perturbed two-impulse Lambert problem over multiple revolutions. The method of particular solutions is a shooting method but differs from the Newton-type shooting methods in that it does not require integration of the state transition matrix. The mathematical developments that underlie these four algorithms are derived in the chapters of this dissertation. For each of the algorithms, some orbit transfer test cases are included to provide insight on accuracy and efficiency of these

  16. On solution to the problem of criticality by alternative Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2005-03-01

    The problem of criticality for the neutron transport equation is analyzed. The problem is transformed into an equivalent problem in a suitable set of complex functions, and the existence and uniqueness of its solution is demonstrated. The source iteration method is discussed. It is shown that the final result of the iterative process is strongly affected by the insufficient accuracy of the individual iterations. A modified method is suggested to circumvent this problem based on the theory of positive operators; the criticality problem is solved by the Monte Carlo method constructing special random process and variable so that the difference between the result and the true value can be arbitrarily small. The efficiency of this alternative method is analysed

  17. Coherent spectroscopic methods for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moguilnaya, T.; Suminov, Y.; Botikov, A.; Ignatov, S.; Kononenko, A.; Agibalov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed the new automatic method that combines the method of forced luminescence and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This method is used for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution. We carried out the statistical spectral analysis of pathogens, genetically modified soy and nano-particles of silver in water from different regions in order to determine the statistical errors of the method. We studied spectral characteristics of these objects in water to perform the initial identification with 95% probability. These results were used for creation of the model of the device for monitor of pathogenic organisms and working model of the device to determine the genetically modified soy in meat.

  18. Enriched Meshfree Method for an Accurate Numerical Solution of the Motz Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Tak Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an enriched meshfree solution of the Motz problem. The Motz problem has been known as a benchmark problem to verify the efficiency of numerical methods in the presence of a jump boundary data singularity at a point, where an abrupt change occurs for the boundary condition. We propose a singular basis function enrichment technique in the context of partition of unity based meshfree method. We take the leading terms of the local series expansion at the point singularity and use them as enrichment functions for the local approximation space. As a result, we obtain highly accurate leading coefficients of the Motz problem that are comparable to the most accurate numerical solution. The proposed singular enrichment technique is highly effective in the case of the local series expansion of the solution being known. The enrichment technique that is used in this study can be applied to monotone singularities (of type rα with α<1 as well as oscillating singularities (of type rαsin⁡(ϵlog⁡r. It is the first attempt to apply singular meshfree enrichment technique to the Motz problem.

  19. CO2 capture in amine solutions: modelling and simulations with non-empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Wanda; Pietrucci, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Absorption in aqueous amine solutions is the most advanced technology for the capture of CO2, although suffering from drawbacks that do not allow exploitation on large scale. The search for optimum solvents has been pursued with empirical methods and has also motivated a number of computational approaches over the last decade. However, a deeper level of understanding of the relevant chemical reactions in solution is required so as to contribute to this effort. We present here a brief critical overview of the most recent applications of computer simulations using ab initio methods. Comparison of their outcome shows a strong dependence on the structural models employed to represent the molecular systems in solution and on the strategy used to simulate the reactions. In particular, the results of very recent ab initio molecular dynamics augmented with metadynamics are summarized, showing the crucial role of water, which has been so far strongly underestimated both in the calculations and in the interpretation of experimental data. Indications are given for advances in computational approaches that are necessary if meant to contribute to the rational design of new solvents.

  20. CO2 capture in amine solutions: modelling and simulations with non-empirical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, Wanda; Pietrucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Absorption in aqueous amine solutions is the most advanced technology for the capture of CO 2 , although suffering from drawbacks that do not allow exploitation on large scale. The search for optimum solvents has been pursued with empirical methods and has also motivated a number of computational approaches over the last decade. However, a deeper level of understanding of the relevant chemical reactions in solution is required so as to contribute to this effort. We present here a brief critical overview of the most recent applications of computer simulations using ab initio methods. Comparison of their outcome shows a strong dependence on the structural models employed to represent the molecular systems in solution and on the strategy used to simulate the reactions. In particular, the results of very recent ab initio molecular dynamics augmented with metadynamics are summarized, showing the crucial role of water, which has been so far strongly underestimated both in the calculations and in the interpretation of experimental data. Indications are given for advances in computational approaches that are necessary if meant to contribute to the rational design of new solvents. (topical review)

  1. Factors influencing hydroquinone degradation in aqueous solution using a modified microelectrolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Li, Tingting; Xiong, Houfeng; Zou, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    The discharge of hydroquinone (HQ), an important chemical raw material, to natural waters poses different ecological threats to aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the removal performance of traditional and modified microelectrolysis methods in aqueous solutions. The traditional microelectrolysis packing was modified by adding manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) powder as additives. The factors affecting the removal performance of HQ, such as catalytic metal type, mass fraction of additive, reaction time, and initial pH, were examined. The results showed that the Mn modified packing exhibited the best performance compared to Zn and Cu powder. The removal rate of HQ using Mn modified packing can reach 94% after 4 h. In addition, 9% of Mn packing has a higher removal rate than other mass fractions. The acidic solution pH shows a more favorable degradation than a neutral and alkaline solution. The intermediates of HQ degradation by modified microelectrolysis were identified and then the pathway of HQ degradation was proposed. Our result indicates that Mn as catalytic metal holds promising potential to enhance HQ removal in water using the microelectrolysis method.

  2. Upscaling solute transport in naturally fractured porous media with the continuous time random walk method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, S.; Cortis, A.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-04-01

    Solute transport in fractured porous media is typically 'non-Fickian'; that is, it is characterized by early breakthrough and long tailing and by nonlinear growth of the Green function-centered second moment. This behavior is due to the effects of (1) multirate diffusion occurring between the highly permeable fracture network and the low-permeability rock matrix, (2) a wide range of advection rates in the fractures and, possibly, the matrix as well, and (3) a range of path lengths. As a consequence, prediction of solute transport processes at the macroscale represents a formidable challenge. Classical dual-porosity (or mobile-immobile) approaches in conjunction with an advection-dispersion equation and macroscopic dispersivity commonly fail to predict breakthrough of fractured porous media accurately. It was recently demonstrated that the continuous time random walk (CTRW) method can be used as a generalized upscaling approach. Here we extend this work and use results from high-resolution finite element-finite volume-based simulations of solute transport in an outcrop analogue of a naturally fractured reservoir to calibrate the CTRW method by extracting a distribution of retention times. This procedure allows us to predict breakthrough at other model locations accurately and to gain significant insight into the nature of the fracture-matrix interaction in naturally fractured porous reservoirs with geologically realistic fracture geometries.

  3. Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William

    2016-01-01

    This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...

  4. On solution to the problem of reactor kinetics with delayed neutrons by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, Jan

    2013-07-01

    The initial value problem is addressed for the neutron transport equation and for the system of equations that describe the behaviour of emitters of delayed neutrons. Examination of the solution to this problem is based on several main assumptions concerning the behaviour of macroscopic effective cross-sections describing the reaction of the neutron with the medium, the temperature of medium and the remaining parameters of the equations. Formulation of these assumptions is adequately general and is in agreement with the properties of all known models of the physical quantities involved. Among others, the assumptions admit dependence of the macroscopic effective cross-sections and temperature on spatial coordinates and time that can be arbitrary to a great extent. The problem starts from a set of integro-differential equations. This problem is first transposed into the equivalent problem of solving a linear integral equation for neutron flux. This integral equation is solved by the method of successive iterations and its uniqueness is demonstrated. Numeric solution to the integral equation by Monte Carlo method consists in finding a functional of the exact solution. For this, a random process is set up and some random variables are proposed. Then it is demonstrated that each of these variables is an unbiased estimator of that functional. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Acoustic Cavitation in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles by the Spectrofluorometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sazgarnia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. When a liquid is irradiated with high intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. The existence of particles in a liquid provides nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and leads to a decrease in the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. Materials and Methods. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Results. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Conclusion. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors in sonodynamic therapy. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a certain range of conditions in medical ultrasound fields.

  6. Modified Tumescent Solution for Creating Working Space During Endoscopic Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yong; Zhao, Wen-Xin; Wang, Bo; Yan, Shou-Yi; Wen, Jia

    2018-04-01

    To study the feasibility of gas-liquid mixing tumescent solution for creating a working space (WS) in endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET). A prospective study was performed on 186 patients with thyroid tumor who had undergone ET via chest and breast approach. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive traditional tumescent solution as group A and modified tumescent solution (gas-liquid mixing tumescent solution) as group B. This study compares the following surgical outcome parameters between the 2 groups, including changes of blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation before and after creating a WS, time for creating a WS, operative time, hemorrhage volume for creating a WS, overall hemorrhage volume, overall postoperative drainage volume, postoperative pain score, postoperative hospitalization, number of retrieved lymph nodes, total serum calcium, serum parathyroid hormone, and cases of transient and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. No postoperative bleeding, permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, incision and surgical site infection, air embolism, flap injury occurred in both groups. The mean time for creating a WS and the whole operation in group B was significantly shorter than that in group A ( P .05). The clinical application of gas-liquid mixing tumescent solution can effectively reduce the time for creating a WS and whole operative time, and worthy of being widely used in ET as a safe and effective technique.

  7. Positive solution of non-square fully Fuzzy linear system of equation in general form using least square method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ezzati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the least square method for computing the positive solution of a non-square fully fuzzy linear system. To this end, we use Kaffman' arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers \\cite{17}. Here, considered existence of exact solution using pseudoinverse, if they are not satisfy in positive solution condition, we will compute fuzzy vector core and then we will obtain right and left spreads of positive fuzzy vector by introducing constrained least squares problem. Using our proposed method, non-square fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  8. WATSFAR: numerical simulation of soil WATer and Solute fluxes using a FAst and Robust method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevoisier, David; Voltz, Marc

    2013-04-01

    To simulate the evolution of hydro- and agro-systems, numerous spatialised models are based on a multi-local approach and improvement of simulation accuracy by data-assimilation techniques are now used in many application field. The latest acquisition techniques provide a large amount of experimental data, which increase the efficiency of parameters estimation and inverse modelling approaches. In turn simulations are often run on large temporal and spatial domains which requires a large number of model runs. Eventually, despite the regular increase in computing capacities, the development of fast and robust methods describing the evolution of saturated-unsaturated soil water and solute fluxes is still a challenge. Ross (2003, Agron J; 95:1352-1361) proposed a method, solving 1D Richards' and convection-diffusion equation, that fulfil these characteristics. The method is based on a non iterative approach which reduces the numerical divergence risks and allows the use of coarser spatial and temporal discretisations, while assuring a satisfying accuracy of the results. Crevoisier et al. (2009, Adv Wat Res; 32:936-947) proposed some technical improvements and validated this method on a wider range of agro- pedo- climatic situations. In this poster, we present the simulation code WATSFAR which generalises the Ross method to other mathematical representations of soil water retention curve (i.e. standard and modified van Genuchten model) and includes a dual permeability context (preferential fluxes) for both water and solute transfers. The situations tested are those known to be the less favourable when using standard numerical methods: fine textured and extremely dry soils, intense rainfall and solute fluxes, soils near saturation, ... The results of WATSFAR have been compared with the standard finite element model Hydrus. The analysis of these comparisons highlights two main advantages for WATSFAR, i) robustness: even on fine textured soil or high water and solute

  9. Methods for the solution of the two-dimensional radiation-transfer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Mihalas, D.; Olson, G.

    1982-01-01

    We use the variable Eddington factor (VEF) approximation to solve the time-dependent two-dimensional radiation transfer equation. The transfer equation and its moments are derived for an inertial frame of reference in cylindrical geometry. Using the VEF tensor to close the moment equations, we manipulate them into a combined moment equation that results in an energy equation, which is automatically flux limited. There are two separable facets in this method of solution. First, given the variable Eddington tensor, we discuss the efficient solution of the combined moment matrix equation. The second facet of the problem is the calculation of the variable Eddington tensor. Several options for this calculation, as well as physical limitations on the use of locally-calculated Eddington factors, are discussed

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  11. Method of denitrification and stabilization of radioactive aqueous solutions of radioisotope nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecak, V.; Matous, V.

    1983-01-01

    The method is solved of denitrification and of the stabilization of aqueous solutions of radioactive isotopes produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The aqueous solution is first mixed with the vitreous component, most frequently phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate or boric acid and if needed with the addition of alkalis, possibly with clarifying or anti-foam components, e.g., arsenic trioxide, antimony or cerium oxide. The mixture is further adjusted with ammonia to pH 5 - 9. The liquid mixture is then thermally and pyrolytically processed, e.g., by calcinator or fluid-bed reactor or by pot melting at temperatures of 3O0 to 900 degC while of a powder product or glass melt is formed in the presence of gaseous emissions composed of nitrous oxide - nitrogen. The resulting product is further processed by containerization or is sealed in a metal matrix. (B.S.)

  12. A method for fast determination of psoralens in oral solutions of phytomedicines using liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Adriana Elias; Honda, Neli Kiko; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima

    2004-10-29

    A method for sample preparation and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) has been developed for routine analysis of psoralen and bergapten, photosensitizing compounds, in oral solutions of phytomedicines employed in Brazil for some illnesses. The linearity, accuracy, the inter- and intra-day precision of the procedure were evaluated. Calibration curves for psoralen and bergapten were linear in the range of 1.0-600.0 microg ml(-1) and 1.0-400.0 microg ml(-1) respectively. The recoveries of the psoralens in the oral solutions analysed were 94.43-99.97%. The percentage coefficient of variation (CV) of the quantitative analysis of the psoralens in the products analysis was within 5%. In inter-equipment study was employed gas chromatography-flame ionization (CG-FID) detection.

  13. Exact solution to the Coulomb wave using the linearized phase-amplitude method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kiyokawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author shows that the amplitude equation from the phase-amplitude method of calculating continuum wave functions can be linearized into a 3rd-order differential equation. Using this linearized equation, in the case of the Coulomb potential, the author also shows that the amplitude function has an analytically exact solution represented by means of an irregular confluent hypergeometric function. Furthermore, it is shown that the exact solution for the Coulomb potential reproduces the wave function for free space expressed by the spherical Bessel function. The amplitude equation for the large component of the Dirac spinor is also shown to be the linearized 3rd-order differential equation.

  14. Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.; Olson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)

  15. Optimization and analysis of large chemical kinetic mechanisms using the solution mapping method - Combustion of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael; Wang, Hai; Rabinowitz, Martin J.

    1992-01-01

    A method of systematic optimization, solution mapping, as applied to a large-scale dynamic model is presented. The basis of the technique is parameterization of model responses in terms of model parameters by simple algebraic expressions. These expressions are obtained by computer experiments arranged in a factorial design. The developed parameterized responses are then used in a joint multiparameter multidata-set optimization. A brief review of the mathematical background of the technique is given. The concept of active parameters is discussed. The technique is applied to determine an optimum set of parameters for a methane combustion mechanism. Five independent responses - comprising ignition delay times, pre-ignition methyl radical concentration profiles, and laminar premixed flame velocities - were optimized with respect to thirteen reaction rate parameters. The numerical predictions of the optimized model are compared to those computed with several recent literature mechanisms. The utility of the solution mapping technique in situations where the optimum is not unique is also demonstrated.

  16. Presentation of some methods for the solution of the monoenergetic neutrons transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle G, E. del.

    1978-01-01

    The neutrons transport theory problems whose solution has been reached were collected in order to show that the transport equation is so complicated that different techniques were developed so as to give approximative numerical solutions to problems concerning the practical application. Such a technique, which had not been investigated in the literature dealing with these problems, is described here. The results which were obtained through this technique in undimensional problems of criticity are satisfactory and speaking in a conceptual way this method is extremely simple because it times. There is no limitation to deal with problems related neutrons sources with an arbitrary distribution and in principle the application of this technique can be extended to unhomogeneous environments. (author)

  17. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    2010-01-01

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Based on data from the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the train driver recovery problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP is formulated as a set...... branching strategy using the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. The LP relaxation of the TDRP possesses strong integer properties. We present test scenarios generated from the historical real-life operations data of DSB S-tog A/S. The numerical results show that all but one tested instances...... partitioning problem. We define a disruption neighbourhood by identifying a small set of drivers and train tasks directly affected by the disruption. Based on the disruption neighbourhood, the TDRP model is formed and solved. If the TDRP solution provides a feasible recovery for the drivers within...

  18. New exact solutions of (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation via the new sine-Gordon equation expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Yan Zhenya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation is investigated using a sine-Gordon equation expansion method, which was presented via a generalized sine-Gordon reduction equation and a new transformation. As a consequence, it is shown that the method is more powerful to obtain many types of new doubly periodic solutions of (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation. In particular, solitary wave solutions are also given as simple limits of doubly periodic solutions

  19. Study On Analytical Methods Of Tellurium Content In Natriiodide (Na131I) Radiopharmaceutical Solution Produced In The Dalat Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Cam Hoa; Duong Van Dong; Nguyen Thi Thu; Chu Van Khoa

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the practical methods for analyzing of Tellurium content in Na 131 I solution produced at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. We studied analytical methods to control Tellurium content in final Na 131 I solution product used in medical purposes by three methods such as: spot test, gamma spectrometric and spectrophotometric methods. These investigation results are shown that the spot test method is suitable for controlling Tellurium trace in the final product. This spot test can be determinate Tellurium trace less than 10 ppm and are used to quality control of Na 131 I solution using in medical application. (author)

  20. Formulations to overcome the divergence of iterative method of fixed-point in nonlinear equations solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rodríguez Calderón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When we need to determine the solution of a nonlinear equation there are two options: closed-methods which use intervals that contain the root and during the iterative process reduce the size of natural way, and, open-methods that represent an attractive option as they do not require an initial interval enclosure. In general, we know open-methods are more efficient computationally though they do not always converge. In this paper we are presenting a divergence case analysis when we use the method of fixed point iteration to find the normal height in a rectangular channel using the Manning equation. To solve this problem, we propose applying two strategies (developed by authors that allow to modifying the iteration function making additional formulations of the traditional method and its convergence theorem. Although Manning equation is solved with other methods like Newton when we use the iteration method of fixed-point an interesting divergence situation is presented which can be solved with a convergence higher than quadratic over the initial iterations. The proposed strategies have been tested in two cases; a study of divergence of square root of real numbers was made previously by authors for testing. Results in both cases have been successful. We present comparisons because are important for seeing the advantage of proposed strategies versus the most representative open-methods.

  1. Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm equation by means of the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm (CH) equation are sought. In this work, the homotopy analysis method (HAM), one of the most effective method, is applied to obtain the soliton wave solutions with and without continuity of first derivatives at crest

  2. Methods for constructing exact solutions of partial differential equations mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Meleshko, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    Differential equations, especially nonlinear, present the most effective way for describing complex physical processes. Methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations play an important role in applied mathematics and mechanics. This book aims to provide scientists, engineers and students with an easy-to-follow, but comprehensive, description of the methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations.

  3. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah; Ellahi, Rahmat; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar

    2018-03-01

    We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses.

  4. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... the two methods with respect to time and repeatability of the results. Derived isotherms are further used as direct input in the building simulation software BSim, which is capable of predicting indoor environment parameters by solving coupled, transient heat and moisture transport equations using finite...

  5. Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)

  6. Inverse operator method for solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations and some typical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1993-01-01

    The inverse operator method (IOM) is described briefly. We have realized the IOM for the solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations by the mathematics-mechanization (MM) with computers. They can then offer a new and powerful method applicable to many areas of physics. We have applied them successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of some nonlinear dynamical equations. As typical examples, the well-known Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation and two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by using the IOM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with those given by Runge-Kutta method. So the IOM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear physics and many other fields

  7. Numerical solution of multi group-Two dimensional- Adjoint equation with finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Khalafi, H.; Shahriari, M.; Minoochehr

    2008-01-01

    Adjoint equation is used for perturbation theory in nuclear reactor design. For numerical solution of adjoint equation, usually two methods are applied. These are Finite Element and Finite Difference procedures. Usually Finite Element Procedure is chosen for solving of adjoint equation, because it is more use able in variety of geometries. In this article, Galerkin Finite Element method is discussed. This method is applied for numerical solving multi group, multi region and two dimensional (X, Y) adjoint equation. Typical reactor geometry is partitioned with triangular meshes and boundary condition for adjoint flux is considered zero. Finally, for a case of defined parameters, Finite Element Code was applied and results were compared with Citation Code

  8. A new method of solution for one-dimensional quasi-neutral bounded plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, M.; Kuhn, S.

    2010-08-01

    A new method is proposed for calculating the potential distribution Φ(z) in a one-dimensional quasi-neutral bounded plasma; Φ(z) is assumed to satisfy a quasi-neutrality condition (plasma equation) of the form ni{Φ(z)} = ne(Φ), where the electron density ne is a given function of Φ and the ion density ni is expressed in terms of trajectory integrals of the ion kinetic equation. While previous methods relied on formally solving a global integral equation (Riemann, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 13, 2006, paper no. 013503; Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 16, 2009, paper no. 093503), the present method is characterized by piecewise analytic solution of the plasma equation in reasonably small intervals of z. As a first concrete application, Φ(z) is found analytically through order z4 near the center of a collisionless Tonks-Langmuir discharge with a cold-ion source.

  9. Solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem in slab geometry by modified power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Matemática Aplicada; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Tavares, Matheus G., E-mail: rodrigozanette@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudiopetersen@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: matheus.gulartetavares@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Matemática

    2017-07-01

    We describe in this work the application of the modified power method for solve the multigroup neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem in slab geometry considering two-dimensions for nuclear reactor global calculations. It is well known that criticality calculations can often be best approached by solving eigenvalue problems. The criticality in nuclear reactors physics plays a relevant role since establishes the ratio between the numbers of neutrons generated in successive fission reactions. In order to solve the eigenvalue problem, a modified power method is used to obtain the dominant eigenvalue (effective multiplication factor (K{sub eff})) and its corresponding eigenfunction (scalar neutron flux), which is non-negative in every domain, that is, physically relevant. The innovation of this work is solving the neutron diffusion equation in analytical form for each new iteration of the power method. For solve this problem we propose to apply the Finite Fourier Sine Transform on one of the spatial variables obtaining a transformed problem which is resolved by well-established methods for ordinary differential equations. The inverse Fourier transform is used to reconstruct the solution for the original problem. It is known that the power method is an iterative source method in which is updated by the neutron flux expression of previous iteration. Thus, for each new iteration, the neutron flux expression becomes larger and more complex due to analytical solution what makes propose that it be reconstructed through an polynomial interpolation. The methodology is implemented to solve a homogeneous problem and the results are compared with works presents in the literature. (author)

  10. Discontinuous finite element and characteristics methods for neutrons transport equation solution in heterogeneous grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, E.

    2006-01-01

    The principal goal of this manuscript is devoted to the investigation of a new type of heterogeneous mesh adapted to the shape of the fuel pins (fuel-clad-moderator). The new heterogeneous mesh guarantees the spatial modelling of the pin-cell with a minimum of regions. Two methods are investigated for the spatial discretization of the transport equation: the discontinuous finite element method and the method of characteristics for structured cells. These methods together with the new representation of the pin-cell result in an appreciable reduction of calculation points. They allow an exact modelling of the fuel pin-cell without spatial homogenization. A new synthetic acceleration technique based on an angular multigrid is also presented for the speed up of the inner iterations. These methods are good candidates for transport calculations for a nuclear reactor core. A second objective of this work is the application of method of characteristics for non-structured geometries to the study of double heterogeneity problem. The letters is characterized by fuel material with a stochastic dispersion of heterogeneous grains, and until now was solved with a model based on collision probabilities. We propose a new statistical model based on renewal-Markovian theory, which makes possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the problem and to avoid the approximations of the collision probability model. The numerical solution of this model is guaranteed by the method of characteristics. (author)

  11. Five-equation and robust three-equation methods for solution verification of large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rabijit; Xing, Tao

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the recently developed general framework for solution verification methods for large eddy simulation (LES) using implicitly filtered LES of periodic channel flows at friction Reynolds number of 395 on eight systematically refined grids. The seven-equation method shows that the coupling error based on Hypothesis I is much smaller as compared with the numerical and modeling errors and therefore can be neglected. The authors recommend five-equation method based on Hypothesis II, which shows a monotonic convergence behavior of the predicted numerical benchmark ( S C ), and provides realistic error estimates without the need of fixing the orders of accuracy for either numerical or modeling errors. Based on the results from seven-equation and five-equation methods, less expensive three and four-equation methods for practical LES applications were derived. It was found that the new three-equation method is robust as it can be applied to any convergence types and reasonably predict the error trends. It was also observed that the numerical and modeling errors usually have opposite signs, which suggests error cancellation play an essential role in LES. When Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based error estimation method is applied, it shows significant error in the prediction of S C on coarse meshes. However, it predicts reasonable S C when the grids resolve at least 80% of the total turbulent kinetic energy.

  12. Vaporization study on vanadium-oxygen solid solution by mass spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, W.; Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji

    1986-01-01

    The vapor pressures over vanadium-oxygen solid solution (0.001 ≤ O/V ≤ 0.145) were measured by mass-spectrometric method in the temperature range of 1,855 ∼ 2,117 K. The main vapor species were observed to be V(g) and VO(g). The vapor pressure of V(g) is higher than that of VO(g) over the solid solutions with all O/V ratios except for O/V = 0.145. The vapor pressure of V(g) is nearly independent of O/V ratio. The vapor pressure of VO(g) decreases with decreasing O/V ratio. The oxygen partial pressure was calculated as a function of temperature and O/V ratio from the vapor pressures of V(g) and VO(g), from which the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of oxygen in the solid solution were determined. The partial molar enthalpy of oxygen was observed to be independent of composition, suggesting the presence of very weak interaction between interstitial oxygens. The compositional dependence of the partial molar entropy of oxygen can be explained by assuming the occupation of the octahedral site in bcc vanadium lattice by the interstitial oxygens. The excess partial molar entropy of oxygen was compared with the value derived from the sum of the contributions from the volume expansion, electronic heat capacity and vibrational terms. (author)

  13. Preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions based on artificial compressibility method for solution of incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejranfar, Kazem; Parseh, Kaveh

    2017-09-01

    The preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions based on the artificial compressibility (AC) method are implemented at artificial boundaries for the solution of two- and three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in the generalized curvilinear coordinates. The compatibility equations and the corresponding characteristic variables (or the Riemann invariants) are mathematically derived and then applied as suitable boundary conditions in a high-order accurate incompressible flow solver. The spatial discretization of the resulting system of equations is carried out by the fourth-order compact finite-difference (FD) scheme. In the preconditioning applied here, the value of AC parameter in the flow field and also at the far-field boundary is automatically calculated based on the local flow conditions to enhance the robustness and performance of the solution algorithm. The code is fully parallelized using the Concurrency Runtime standard and Parallel Patterns Library (PPL) and its performance on a multi-core CPU is analyzed. The incompressible viscous flows around a 2-D circular cylinder, a 2-D NACA0012 airfoil and also a 3-D wavy cylinder are simulated and the accuracy and performance of the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions applied at the far-field boundaries are evaluated in comparison to the simplified boundary conditions and the non-preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions. It is indicated that the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions considerably improve the convergence rate of the solution of incompressible flows compared to the other boundary conditions and the computational costs are significantly decreased.

  14. Approximate solution of the transport equation by methods of Galerkin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaranta, J.

    1977-01-01

    Questions of the existence, uniqueness, and convergence of approximate solutions of transport equations by methods of the Galerkin type (where trial and weighting functions are the same) are discussed. The results presented do not exclude the infinite-dimensional case. Two strategies can be followed in the variational approximation of the transport operator: one proceeds from the original form of the transport equation, while the other is based on the partially symmetrized equation. Both principles are discussed in this paper. The transport equation is assumed in a discretized multigroup form

  15. The algebraic method of the scattering inverse problem solution under untraditional statements

    CERN Document Server

    Popushnoj, M N

    2001-01-01

    The algebraic method of the scattering inverse problem solution under untraditional statements is proposed consistently in this review, in the framework of which some quantum theory od scattering charged particles problem were researched afterwards. The inverse problem of scattering theory of charged particles on the complex plane of the Coulomb coupling constant (CCC) is considered. A procedure of interaction potential restoration is established for the case when the energy, orbital moment quadrate and CCC are linearly dependent. The relation between one-parametric problems of the potential scattering of charged particles is investigated

  16. Method of determining local distribution of water or aqueous solutions penetrated into plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Joks, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Penetrating water is labelled with tritium and the distribution is autoradiographically monitored. The discovery consists in that the plastic with the penetrating water or aqueous solution is cooled with liquid nitrogen and under the stream of liquid nitrogen the plastic is cut and exposed on the autoradiographic film in the freezer at temperatures from -15 to -30 degC. The autoradiogram will show the distribution of water in the whole area of the section. The described method may be used to detect water distribution also in filled plastics. (J.P.)

  17. Kernel method for air quality modelling. II. Comparison with analytic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorimer, G S; Ross, D G

    1986-01-01

    The performance of Lorimer's (1986) kernel method for solving the advection-diffusion equation is tested for instantaneous and continuous emissions into a variety of model atmospheres. Analytical solutions are available for comparison in each case. The results indicate that a modest minicomputer is quite adequate for obtaining satisfactory precision even for the most trying test performed here, which involves a diffusivity tensor and wind speed which are nonlinear functions of the height above ground. Simulations of the same cases by the particle-in-cell technique are found to provide substantially lower accuracy even when use is made of greater computer resources.

  18. Construction of a path of MHD equilibrium solutions by an iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Fumio.

    1979-09-01

    This paper shows a constructive proof of the existence of a path of solutions to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem expressed by -Δu = lambda u + in Ω, and u = -1 on deltaΩ where Ω is a two-dimensional domain with a boundary deltaΩ. This problem arises from the ideal MHD equilibria in tori. The existence proof is based on the principle of contraction mappings, which is widely employed in nonlinear problems such as those associated with bifurcation phenomena. Some comments are also given on the application of the present iteration techniques to numerical method. (author)

  19. Exact soliton solutions of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We give a more generalized treatment of the 1D generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GGPE with variable term coefficients. External harmonic trapping potential is fully considered and the nonlinear interaction term is of arbitrary polytropic index of superfluid wave function. We also eliminate the interdependence between variable coefficients of the equation terms avoiding the restrictions that occur in some other works. The exact soliton solutions of the GGPE are obtained through the delicate combined utilization of modified lens-type transformation and F-expansion method with dominant features like soliton type properties highlighted.

  20. Methodically finding solutions of equipments for carrying out experiments in materials testing and research. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, D.; Nachtweide, D.; Kuntze, G.

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with the development of industrial products the development of test equipments is of special kind, which is demonstrated by methodical proceeding for finding solutions and by potentialities for technical design and production of test equipment engineering. Some general principles are turned out and explained by several realized examples of design belonging to the sphere of materials testing in den Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) representative of other problems. User are large scientific institutes independent of university, scientific institutes as members of university just as test stands and quality control offices of industrial works. (orig.) [de

  1. Modeling the growth and interaction of stylolite networks, using the discrete element method for pressure solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, N.; Sparks, D. W.; Aharonov, E.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure solution (also termed chemical compaction) is considered the most important ductile deformation mechanism operating in the Earth's upper crust. This mechanism is a major player in a variety of geological processes, including evolution of sedimentary basins, hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers, earthquake recurrence cycles, and fault healing. Pressure solution in massive rocks often localizes into solution seams or stylolites. Field observations of stylolites often show elastic/brittle interactions in regions between pressure solution features, including and shear fractures, veins and pull-apart features. To understand these interactions, we use a grain-scale model based on the Discrete Element Method that allows granular dissolution at stressed contacts between grains. The new model captures both the slow chemical compaction process and the more abrupt brittle fracturing and sliding between grains. We simulate a sample of rock as a collection of particles, each representing either a grain or a unit of rock, bonded to each other with breakable cement. We apply external stresses to this sample, and calculate elastic and frictional interactions between the grains. Dissolution is modeled by an irreversible penetration of contacting grains into each other at a rate that depends on the contact stress and an adjustable rate constant. Experiments have shown that dissolution rates at grain contacts are greatly enhanced when there is a mineralogical contrast. Therefore, we dissolution rate constant can be increased to account for an amount of impurities (e.g. clay in a quartz or calcite sandstone) that can accumulate on dissolving contacts. This approach allows large compaction and shear strains within the rock, while allowing examination of local grain-scale heterogeneity. For example, we will describe the effect of pressure solution on the distribution of contact forces magnitudes and orientations. Contact forces in elastic granular packings are inherently

  2. A new water permeability measurement method for unsaturated tight materials using saline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinsky, Laurent; Talandier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Relative water permeability of material in a radioactive waste disposal is a key parameter to simulate and predict saturation state evolution. In this paper we present a new measurement method and the results obtained for Callovo-Oxfordian (Cox) clay-stone, host rock of the underground Andra laboratory at Bure (Meuse/Haute-Marne). Relative water permeability of such a low permeability rock as Cox clay-stone has been measured up to now by an indirect method. It consists in submitting a rock sample to successive relative humidity steps imposed by saline solutions. The transient mass variation during each step and the mass at hydric equilibrium are interpreted generally by using an inverse analysis method. The water relative permeability function of water saturation is derived from water diffusion coefficient evolution and water retention curve. The proposed new method consists in directly measuring the water flux across a flat cylindrical submitted to a relative humidity gradient. Two special cells have been developed. The tightness of the lateral sample surface is insured by crushing a polyurethane ring surrounding the sample set in an aluminium device placed over a Plexiglas vessel filled with a saline solution. One of the cells is designed to allow humidity measurement in the cell. These cells can also be used to measure the relative humidity produced by a saline solution or by an unsaturated material. During a permeability measurement, the cell with the sample to be tested is continuously weighted in a Plexiglas box in which a saline solution imposes a different relative humidity at the upper sample face. The experimental set-up is shown on Figure 1. The mean permeability of the sample is proportional to the rate of mass variation when steady state is reached. The result of one test is shown on Figure 2(a). Twenty four permeability measurements have been performed on four argillite samples of 15 mm in height and

  3. Application of Homotopy-Perturbation Method to Nonlinear Ozone Decomposition of the Second Order in Aqueous Solutions Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, D.D; Miansari, Mo; B, Ganjavi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) is introduced to solve nonlinear equations of ozone decomposition in aqueous solutions. HPM deforms a di¢ cult problem into a simple problem which can be easily solved. The effects of some parameters such as temperature to the solutions are consid......In this paper, homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) is introduced to solve nonlinear equations of ozone decomposition in aqueous solutions. HPM deforms a di¢ cult problem into a simple problem which can be easily solved. The effects of some parameters such as temperature to the solutions...

  4. An explicit approximate solution to the Duffing-harmonic oscillator by a cubication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Mendez, D.I.; Fernandez, E.; Marini, S.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a Duffing-harmonic oscillator are investigated by an approximated method based on the 'cubication' of the initial nonlinear differential equation. In this cubication method the restoring force is expanded in Chebyshev polynomials and the original nonlinear differential equation is approximated by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain explicit approximate formulas for the frequency and the solution as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the Jacobi elliptic function, respectively. These explicit formulas are valid for all values of the initial amplitude and we conclude this cubication method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes. Excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones is demonstrated and discussed and the relative error for the approximate frequency is as low as 0.071%. Unlike other approximate methods applied to this oscillator, which are not capable to reproduce exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency when A tends to zero, the cubication method used in this Letter predicts exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency not only when A tends to infinity, but also when A tends to zero. Finally, a closed-form expression for the approximate frequency is obtained in terms of elementary functions. To do this, the relationship between the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the arithmetic-geometric mean as well as Legendre's formula to approximately obtain this mean are used.

  5. Numerical solution of stiff burnup equation with short half lived nuclides by the Krylov subspace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro; Sugimura, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The Krylov subspace method is applied to solve nuclide burnup equations used for lattice physics calculations. The Krylov method is an efficient approach for solving ordinary differential equations with stiff nature such as the nuclide burnup with short lived nuclides. Some mathematical fundamentals of the Krylov subspace method and its application to burnup equations are discussed. Verification calculations are carried out in a PWR pin-cell geometry with UO 2 fuel. A detailed burnup chain that includes 193 fission products and 28 heavy nuclides is used in the verification calculations. Shortest half life found in the present burnup chain is approximately 30 s ( 106 Rh). Therefore, conventional methods (e.g., the Taylor series expansion with scaling and squaring) tend to require longer computation time due to numerical stiffness. Comparison with other numerical methods (e.g., the 4-th order Runge-Kutta-Gill) reveals that the Krylov subspace method can provide accurate solution for a detailed burnup chain used in the present study with short computation time. (author)

  6. Application of homotopy analysis method and inverse solution of a rectangular wet fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Srikumar; Bhowmik, Arka; Das, Ranjan; Repaka, Ramjee; Martha, Subash C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solution of a wet fin with is obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM). • Present HAM results have been well-validated with literature results. • Inverse analysis is done using genetic algorithm. • Measurement error of ±10–12% (approx.) is found to yield satisfactory reconstructions. - Abstract: This paper presents the analytical solution of a rectangular fin under the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the fin surface and the fin tip, and estimates the unknown thermal and geometrical configurations of the fin using inverse heat transfer analysis. The local temperature field is obtained by using homotopy analysis method for insulated and convective fin tip boundary conditions. Using genetic algorithm, the thermal and geometrical parameters, viz., thermal conductivity of the material, surface heat transfer coefficient and dimensions of the fin have been simultaneously estimated for the prescribed temperature field. Earlier inverse studies on wet fin have been restricted to the analysis of nonlinear governing equation with either insulated tip condition or finite tip temperature only. The present study developed a closed-form solution with the consideration of nonlinearity effects in both governing equation and boundary condition. The study on inverse optimization leads to many feasible combination of fin materials, thermal conditions and fin dimensions. Thus allows the flexibility for designing a fin under wet conditions, based on multiple combinations of fin materials, fin dimensions and thermal configurations to achieve the required heat transfer duty. It is further determined that the allowable measurement error should be limited to ±10–12% in order to achieve satisfactory reconstruction

  7. Comparison of three-dimensional poisson solution methods for particle-based simulation and inhomogeneous dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-07-01

    Particle-based simulation represents a powerful approach to modeling physical systems in electronics, molecular biology, and chemical physics. Accounting for the interactions occurring among charged particles requires an accurate and efficient solution of Poisson's equation. For a system of discrete charges with inhomogeneous dielectrics, i.e., a system with discontinuities in the permittivity, the boundary element method (BEM) is frequently adopted. It provides the solution of Poisson's equation, accounting for polarization effects due to the discontinuity in the permittivity by computing the induced charges at the dielectric boundaries. In this framework, the total electrostatic potential is then found by superimposing the elemental contributions from both source and induced charges. In this paper, we present a comparison between two BEMs to solve a boundary-integral formulation of Poisson's equation, with emphasis on the BEMs' suitability for particle-based simulations in terms of solution accuracy and computation speed. The two approaches are the collocation and qualocation methods. Collocation is implemented following the induced-charge computation method of D. Boda et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 034901 (2006)]. The qualocation method is described by J. Tausch et al. [IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 20, 1398 (2001)]. These approaches are studied using both flat and curved surface elements to discretize the dielectric boundary, using two challenging test cases: a dielectric sphere embedded in a different dielectric medium and a toy model of an ion channel. Earlier comparisons of the two BEM approaches did not address curved surface elements or semiatomistic models of ion channels. Our results support the earlier findings that for flat-element calculations, qualocation is always significantly more accurate than collocation. On the other hand, when the dielectric boundary is discretized with curved surface elements, the

  8. Solutions of the Taylor-Green Vortex Problem Using High-Resolution Explicit Finite Difference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2013-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics code that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations was applied to the Taylor-Green vortex problem to examine the code s ability to accurately simulate the vortex decay and subsequent turbulence. The code, WRLES (Wave Resolving Large-Eddy Simulation), uses explicit central-differencing to compute the spatial derivatives and explicit Low Dispersion Runge-Kutta methods for the temporal discretization. The flow was first studied and characterized using Bogey & Bailley s 13-point dispersion relation preserving (DRP) scheme. The kinetic energy dissipation rate, computed both directly and from the enstrophy field, vorticity contours, and the energy spectra are examined. Results are in excellent agreement with a reference solution obtained using a spectral method and provide insight into computations of turbulent flows. In addition the following studies were performed: a comparison of 4th-, 8th-, 12th- and DRP spatial differencing schemes, the effect of the solution filtering on the results, the effect of large-eddy simulation sub-grid scale models, and the effect of high-order discretization of the viscous terms.

  9. Solution combustion method for synthesis of nanostructured hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junjie; Dong, Xiaochen; Bian, Mengmeng [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhang, Yao; Sun, Yue [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • We report a synthesis of HA, Fap and Clap vio a modified solution combustion method. The nucleation of β-TCP was inhibited in the abundant-calcium system (Ca/P = 2.3>>1.67) in this study. F{sup −} brushed into the structure of HA and replace the position of OH{sup −} is easier than that of Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAP), fluorapatite (Fap) and chlorapatite (Clap) were prepared by solution combustion method with further annealing at 800 °C. The characterization and structural features of the synthesized powders were evaluated by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Characterization results from XRD and Rietveld analysis revealed that OH{sup −} in the HAP lattice were gradually substituted with the increase of F{sup −} and Cl{sup −} content and totally substituted at the molar concentration of 0.28 and 0.6, respectively. The results from FI-IR have also confirmed the incorporation of substituted anions in the apatite structure.

  10. On the application of finite element method in the solution of steady state diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.

    1982-01-01

    The solution of the steady state neutron diffusion equation is obtained by using the finite element method. Specifically the variational approach is used for one dimensional problems and the weighted residual method (Galerkin) for one and two dimensional problems. The spatial domain is divided into retangular elements and the neutron flux is approximated by linear (one dimensional case), and bilinear (two-dimensional case) functions. Numerical results are obtained with a FORTRAN IV computer program and compared with those obtained by the finite difference CITATION code. The results show that linear or bilinear functions, do not satisfactorily describe the differential parameters in highly heterogeneous reactor cases, but provide good results for integral parameters such as multiplication factor. (Author) [pt

  11. The method of fundamental solutions for computing acoustic interior transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleefeld, Andreas; Pieronek, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) in two different versions with focus on the computation of approximate acoustic interior transmission eigenvalues in 2D for homogeneous media. Our approach is mesh- and integration free, but suffers in general from the ill-conditioning effects of the discretized eigenoperator, which we could then successfully balance using an approved stabilization scheme. Our numerical examples cover many of the common scattering objects and prove to be very competitive in accuracy with the standard methods for PDE-related eigenvalue problems. We finally give an approximation analysis for our framework and provide error estimates, which bound interior transmission eigenvalue deviations in terms of some generalized MFS output.

  12. Solution of Dirac equation for modified Poschl Teller plus trigonometric Scarf potential using Romanovsky polynomials method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prastyaningrum, I.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The approximation analytical solution of Dirac equation for Modified Poschl Teller plus Trigonometric Scarf Potential are investigated numerically in terms of finite Romanovsky Polynomial. The combination of two potentials are substituted into Dirac Equation then the variables are separated into radial and angular parts. The Dirac equation is solved by using Romanovsky Polynomial Method. The equation that can reduce from the second order of differential equation into the differential equation of hypergeometry type by substituted variable method. The energy spectrum is numerically solved using Matlab 2011. Where the increase in the radial quantum number nr and variable of modified Poschl Teller Potential causes the energy to decrease. The radial and the angular part of the wave function also visualized with Matlab 2011. The results show, by the disturbance of a combination between this potential can change the wave function of the radial and angular part. (paper)

  13. Numerical Solution and Simulation of Second-Order Parabolic PDEs with Sinc-Galerkin Method Using Maple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Secer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient solution algorithm for sinc-Galerkin method has been presented for obtaining numerical solution of PDEs with Dirichlet-type boundary conditions by using Maple Computer Algebra System. The method is based on Whittaker cardinal function and uses approximating basis functions and their appropriate derivatives. In this work, PDEs have been converted to algebraic equation systems with new accurate explicit approximations of inner products without the need to calculate any numeric integrals. The solution of this system of algebraic equations has been reduced to the solution of a matrix equation system via Maple. The accuracy of the solutions has been compared with the exact solutions of the test problem. Computational results indicate that the technique presented in this study is valid for linear partial differential equations with various types of boundary conditions.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and hydrogen uptake studies of magnesium nanoparticles by solution reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather, Sami ullah

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of magnesium nanoparticles synthesized by solution reduction method with and without TOPO. - Highlights: • Simple and convenient method of preparing Mg nanoparticles. • Characterized by XRD, SEM, FESEM and TEM. • Trioctylphosphine oxide offers a greater control over the size of the particles. • Hydrogen uptake of samples at different temperatures and pressure of 4.5 MPa. - Abstract: Facile and simple, surfactant-mediated solution reduction method was used to synthesize monodisperse magnesium nanoparticles. Little amount of magnesium oxide nanoparticles were also formed due to the presence of TOPO and easy oxidation of magnesium, eventhough, all precautions were taken to avoid oxidation of the sample. Precise size control of particles was achieved by carefully varying the concentration ratio of two different types of surfactants, – trioctylphosphine oxide and hexadecylamine. Recrystallized magnesium nanoparticle samples with and without TOPO were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The peak diameters of particles were estimated from size distribution analysis of the morphological data. The particles synthesized in the presence and absence of TOPO found to have diameters 46.5 and 34.8 nm, respectively. This observed dependence of particle size on the presence of TOPO offers a convenient method to control the particle size by simply using appropriate surfactant concentrations. Exceptional enhancement in hydrogen uptake and kinetics in synthesized magnesium nanoparticles as compared to commercial magnesium sample was due to the smaller particle size and improved morphology. Overall hydrogen uptake not affected by the little variation in particle size with and without TOPO

  15. New numerical methods for open-loop and feedback solutions to dynamic optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipto

    The topic of the first part of this research is trajectory optimization of dynamical systems via computational swarm intelligence. Particle swarm optimization is a nature-inspired heuristic search method that relies on a group of potential solutions to explore the fitness landscape. Conceptually, each particle in the swarm uses its own memory as well as the knowledge accumulated by the entire swarm to iteratively converge on an optimal or near-optimal solution. It is relatively straightforward to implement and unlike gradient-based solvers, does not require an initial guess or continuity in the problem definition. Although particle swarm optimization has been successfully employed in solving static optimization problems, its application in dynamic optimization, as posed in optimal control theory, is still relatively new. In the first half of this thesis particle swarm optimization is used to generate near-optimal solutions to several nontrivial trajectory optimization problems including thrust programming for minimum fuel, multi-burn spacecraft orbit transfer, and computing minimum-time rest-to-rest trajectories for a robotic manipulator. A distinct feature of the particle swarm optimization implementation in this work is the runtime selection of the optimal solution structure. Optimal trajectories are generated by solving instances of constrained nonlinear mixed-integer programming problems with the swarming technique. For each solved optimal programming problem, the particle swarm optimization result is compared with a nearly exact solution found via a direct method using nonlinear programming. Numerical experiments indicate that swarm search can locate solutions to very great accuracy. The second half of this research develops a new extremal-field approach for synthesizing nearly optimal feedback controllers for optimal control and two-player pursuit-evasion games described by general nonlinear differential equations. A notable revelation from this development

  16. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained

  17. An n -material thresholding method for improving integerness of solutions in topology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Seth; Engineering); Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Engineering)

    2016-01-01

    It is common in solving topology optimization problems to replace an integer-valued characteristic function design field with the material volume fraction field, a real-valued approximation of the design field that permits "fictitious" mixtures of materials during intermediate iterations in the optimization process. This is reasonable so long as one can interpolate properties for such materials and so long as the final design is integer valued. For this purpose, we present a method for smoothly thresholding the volume fractions of an arbitrary number of material phases which specify the design. This method is trivial for two-material design problems, for example, the canonical topology design problem of specifying the presence or absence of a single material within a domain, but it becomes more complex when three or more materials are used, as often occurs in material design problems. We take advantage of the similarity in properties between the volume fractions and the barycentric coordinates on a simplex to derive a thresholding, method which is applicable to an arbitrary number of materials. As we show in a sensitivity analysis, this method has smooth derivatives, allowing it to be used in gradient-based optimization algorithms. Finally, we present results, which show synergistic effects when used with Solid Isotropic Material with Penalty and Rational Approximation of Material Properties material interpolation functions, popular methods of ensuring integerness of solutions.

  18. A linear complementarity method for the solution of vertical vehicle-track interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Feng; Zhong, Wan-Xie

    2018-02-01

    A new method is proposed for the solution of the vertical vehicle-track interaction including a separation between wheel and rail. The vehicle is modelled as a multi-body system using rigid bodies, and the track is treated as a three-layer beam model in which the rail is considered as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and both the sleepers and the ballast are represented by lumped masses. A linear complementarity formulation is directly established using a combination of the wheel-rail normal contact condition and the generalised-α method. This linear complementarity problem is solved using the Lemke algorithm, and the wheel-rail contact force can be obtained. Then the dynamic responses of the vehicle and the track are solved without iteration based on the generalised-α method. The same equations of motion for the vehicle and track are adopted at the different wheel-rail contact situations. This method can remove some restrictions, that is, time-dependent mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the coupled system, multiple equations of motion for the different contact situations and the effect of the contact stiffness. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for simulating the vehicle-track interaction including a separation between wheel and rail.

  19. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıç, Emre, E-mail: emre.kilic@tum.de; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.

  20. Approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations via the enhanced Adomian decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, an enhanced Adomian decomposition method which introduces the h-curve of the homotopy analysis method into the standard Adomian decomposition method is proposed. Some examples prove that this method can derive successfully approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations.

  1. Solution of two-dimensional equations of neutron transport in 4P0-approximation of spherical harmonics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polivanskij, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The method to solve two-dimensional equations of neutron transport using 4P 0 -approximation is presented. Previously such approach was efficiently used for the solution of one-dimensional problems. New an attempt is made to apply the approach to solution of two-dimensional problems. Algorithm of the solution is given, as well as results of test neutron-physical calculations. A considerable as compared with diffusion approximation is shown. 11 refs

  2. A method for recovering and separating palladium, technetium, rhodium and ruthenium contained in solutions resulting from nuclear fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for recovering and separating technetium and metals of the platinum group, i.e. palladium, rhodium and ruthenium existing as fission products. The method according to the invention is characterized by contacting a residuary acid aqueous solution provided by nuclear fuel recycling with successive carbon beds which have adsorbed different chelating agents specific for the metals to be recovered in order that said metals be selectively chelated and extracted from the solution. This method is suitable for recovering the above metals from solutions provided by reprocessing spent fuels [fr

  3. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted

  4. Sparse grid spectral methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations with periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, F.

    1997-11-01

    This thesis deals with the extension of sparse grid techniques to spectral methods for the solution of partial differential equations with periodic boundary conditions. A review on boundary and initial-boundary value problems and a discussion on numerical resolution is used to motivate this research. Spectral methods are introduced by projection techniques, and by three model problems: the stationary and the transient Helmholtz equations, and the linear advection equation. The approximation theory on the hyperbolic cross is reviewed and its close relation to sparse grids is demonstrated. This approach extends to non-periodic problems. Various Sobolev spaces with dominant mixed derivative are introduced to provide error estimates for Fourier approximation and interpolation on the hyperbolic cross and on sparse grids by means of Sobolev norms. The theorems are immediately applicable to the stability and convergence analysis of sparse grid spectral methods. This is explicitly demonstrated for the three model problems. A variant of the von Neumann condition is introduced to simplify the stability analysis of the time-dependent model problems. The discrete Fourier transformation on sparse grids is discussed together with its software implementation. Results on numerical experiments are used to illustrate the performance of the new method with respect to the smoothness properties of each example. The potential of the method in mathematical modelling is estimated and generalizations to other sparse grid methods are suggested. The appendix includes a complete Fortran90 program to solve the linear advection equation by the sparse grid Fourier collocation method and a third-order Runge-Kutta routine for integration in time. (author)

  5. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-07-21

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted.

  6. Modeling the solute transport by particle-tracing method with variable weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Particle-tracing method is usually used to simulate the solute transport in fracture media. In this method, the concentration at one point is proportional to number of particles visiting this point. However, this method is rather inefficient at the points with small concentration. Few particles visit these points, which leads to violent oscillation or gives zero value of concentration. In this paper, we proposed a particle-tracing method with variable weights. The concentration at one point is proportional to the sum of the weights of the particles visiting it. It adjusts the weight factors during simulations according to the estimated probabilities of corresponding walks. If the weight W of a tracking particle is larger than the relative concentration C at the corresponding site, the tracking particle will be splitted into Int(W/C) copies and each copy will be simulated independently with the weight W/Int(W/C) . If the weight W of a tracking particle is less than the relative concentration C at the corresponding site, the tracking particle will be continually tracked with a probability W/C and the weight will be adjusted to be C. By adjusting weights, the number of visiting particles distributes evenly in the whole range. Through this variable weights scheme, we can eliminate the violent oscillation and increase the accuracy of orders of magnitudes.

  7. A method of solution of the elastic-plastic thermal stress problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalski, P.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the work is an improvement of the numerical technique for calculating the thermal stress distribution in an elastic-plastic structural element. The work consists of two parts. In the first a new method of solution of the thermal stress problem for the elastic-plastic body is presented. In the second a particular numerical technique, based on the above method, for calculating the stress and strain fields is proposed. A new mathematical approach consists in treating the stress and strain fields as mathematical objects defined in the space-time domain. The methods commonly applied use the stress and strain fields defined in the space domain and establish the relations between them at a given instant t. They reduce the problem to the system of ordinary differential equations with respect to time, which are usually solved with a step-by-step technique. The new method reduces the problem to the system of nonlinear algebraic equations. In the work the Hilbert space of admissible tensor fields is constructed. This space is the orthogonal sum of two subspaces: of statically admissible and kinematically admissible fields. Two alternative orthogonality conditions, which correspond to the equilibrium and compatibility equations with the appropriate boundary conditions, are derived. The results of the work are to be used for construction of the computer program for calculation the stress and strain fields in the elastic-plastic body with a prescribed temperature field in the interior and appropriate displacement and force conditions on the boundary

  8. Carbamazepine-Fumaric Acid Co-Crystal Screening Using Solution Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim Syarifah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-crystals is a multi-component system which connected by non-covalent interactions, present physically as a solid form under ambient conditions. Nowadays, co-crystal has becoming as an alternative approach to improve the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs especially for a weakly ionisable groups or neutral compounds. In this study the co-crystal screening was carried out for carbamazepine (CBZ and fumaric acid (FUM co-crystal former (CCF using non-stoichiometric method (addition of CBZ to CCF saturated solution and stoichiometric method (evaporation of 1:1 molar ratio of CBZ to CCF in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, propanol, ethanol and formic acid solvent systems. The crystals produced from the screening were characterized using Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR. The PXRD analysis had confirmed that the co-crystal was successfully formed in both methods for all of the solvent system studied with an exception to formic acid in the stoichiometric method where no crystal was found precipitate. The findings from this study revealed that Form A and Form B of CBZ-FUM co-crystal had been successfully formed from different solvent systems.

  9. Solution of the diffusion equations for several groups by the finite elements method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo S, C.

    1975-01-01

    The code DELFIN has been implemented for the solution of the neutrons diffusion equations in two dimensions obtained by applying the approximation of several groups of energy. The code works with any number of groups and regions, and can be applied to thermal reactors as well as fast reactor. Providing it with the diffusion coefficients, the effective sections and the fission spectrum we obtain the results for the systems multiplying constant and the flows of each groups. The code was established using the method of finite elements, which is a form of resolution of the variational formulation of the equations applying the Ritz-Galerkin method with continuous polynomial functions by parts, in one case of the Lagrange type with rectangular geometry and up to the third grade. The obtained results and the comparison with the results in the literature, permit to reach the conclusion that it is convenient, to use the rectangular elements in all the cases where the geometry permits it, and demonstrate also that the finite elements method is better than the finite differences method. (author)

  10. Controlled growth of epitaxial CeO2 thin films with self-organized nanostructure by chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Chemical solution deposition is a versatile technique to grow oxide thin films with self-organized nanostructures. Morphology and crystallographic orientation control of CeO2 thin films grown on technical NiW substrates by a chemical solution deposition method are achieved in this work. Based...

  11. SIVA/DIVA- INITIAL VALUE ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SOLUTION VIA A VARIABLE ORDER ADAMS METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The SIVA/DIVA package is a collection of subroutines for the solution of ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single precision and double precision arithmetic. These solutions are applicable to stiff or nonstiff differential equations of first or second order. SIVA/DIVA requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable order Adams predictor-corrector methods. There is an option for the direct integration of second order equations which can make integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Other capabilities of SIVA/DIVA include: monitoring a user supplied function which can be separate from the derivative; dynamically controlling the step size; displaying or not displaying output at initial, final, and step size change points; saving the estimated local error; and reverse communication where subroutines return to the user for output or computation of derivatives instead of automatically performing calculations. The user must supply SIVA/DIVA with: 1) the number of equations; 2) initial values for the dependent and independent variables, integration stepsize, error tolerance, etc.; and 3) the driver program and operational parameters necessary for subroutine execution. SIVA/DIVA contains an extensive diagnostic message library should errors occur during execution. SIVA/DIVA is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and is machine independent. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 120K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1983 and last updated in 1987.

  12. Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues. The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:24620852

  13. Standardization of a 89Sr solution from a BIPM intercomparison using a liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, P.A.L.; Loureiro, J.S.; Bernardes, E.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure to standardize 89 Sr (as strontium chloride) solutions, within the frame of a BIPM intercomparison, by the CIEMAT/NIST method was presented for Instagel Plus, HiSafe III and Ultima Gold liquid scintillation cocktails. The stability was studied for two types of samples: those obtained by direct addition of the 89 Sr solution and those by the extra addition of 0.5 ml of HCl (0.1 mol l -1 ) to the cocktails. The results only showed good stability with the three scintillants used when additional HCl was added to the cocktails. The activities per unit mass determined for 89 Sr were: 26.344 kBq g -1 for Instagel Plus; 26.335 kBq g -1 for HiSafe III; and 26.310 kBq g -1 for Ultima Gold (at a reference time of 2000.10.01, 00 h UT) with a total uncertainty of 0.5% in each case (k=1)

  14. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  15. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Approximate Solutions of Delay Differential Equations with Constant and Variable Coefficients by the Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olvera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We expand the application of the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM to solve delay differential equations (DDEs with constant and variable coefficients. This EMHPM is based on a sequence of subintervals that provide approximate solutions that require less CPU time than those computed from the dde23 MATLAB numerical integration algorithm solutions. To address the accuracy of our proposed approach, we examine the solutions of several DDEs having constant and variable coefficients, finding predictions with a good match relative to the corresponding numerical integration solutions.

  17. The problem of complex eigensystems in the semianalytical solution for advancement of time in solute transport simulations: a new method using real arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Amjad M.J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    In the numerical modeling of groundwater solute transport, explicit solutions may be obtained for the concentration field at any future time without computing concentrations at intermediate times. The spatial variables are discretized and time is left continuous in the governing differential equation. These semianalytical solutions have been presented in the literature and involve the eigensystem of a coefficient matrix. This eigensystem may be complex (i.e., have imaginary components) due to the asymmetry created by the advection term in the governing advection-dispersion equation. Previous investigators have either used complex arithmetic to represent a complex eigensystem or chosen large dispersivity values for which the imaginary components of the complex eigenvalues may be ignored without significant error. It is shown here that the error due to ignoring the imaginary components of complex eigenvalues is large for small dispersivity values. A new algorithm that represents the complex eigensystem by converting it to a real eigensystem is presented. The method requires only real arithmetic.

  18. Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Tomczak, Dorota; Czapski, Janusz; Młynarczyk, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Elderberries are a source of dietary supplements and bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins. These dyes are used in food technology. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in colour parameters, anthocyanin contents and sensory attributes in solutions of elderberry juice concentrates during storage in a model system and to determine predictability of sensory attributes of colour in solutions based on regression equations using the response surface methodology. The experiment was carried out according to the 3-level factorial design for three factors. Independent variables included pH, storage time and temperature. Dependent variables were assumed to be the components and colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* system, pigment contents and sensory attributes. Changes in colour components X, Y, Z and colour parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and h* were most dependent on pH values. Colour lightness L* and tone h* increased with an increase in experimental factors, while the share of the red colour a* and colour saturation C* decreased. The greatest effect on the anthocyanin concentration was recorded for storage time. Sensory attributes deteriorated during storage. The highest correlation coefficients were found between the value of colour tone h* and anthocyanin contents in relation to the assessment of the naturalness and desirability of colour. A high goodness-of-fit of the model to data and high values of R2 for regression equations were obtained for all responses. The response surface method facilitates optimization of experimental factor values in order to obtain a specific attribute of the product, but not in all cases of the experiment. Within the tested range of factors, it is possible to predict changes in anthocyanin content and the sensory attributes of elderberry juice concentrate solutions as food dye, on the basis of the lack of a fit test. The highest stability of dyes and colour of elderberry solutions was found in the samples at pH 3.0, which confirms

  19. SOLUTION OF TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEM BY THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman TAŞGETİREN

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of temperature distribution is generally the first step in the design of machine elements subjected to ubnormal temperatures in their service life and for selection of materials. During this heat transfer analysis, the boundary and enviromental conditions must be modeled realistically and the geometry must be well represented. A variety of materials deviating from simple constant property isotropic material to composit materials having different properties according to direction of reinforcements are to be analysed. Then, the finite element method finds a large application area due to its use of same notation in heat transfer analysis and mechanical analysis of elements. In this study, the general formulation of two dimensional transient heat conduction is developed and a sample solution is given for arectangular bar subjected to convection baundary condition.

  20. A New Efficient Analytical Method for Picolinate Ion Measurements in Complex Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazols, M.; Dodi, A. [CEA Cadarache, Lab Anal Radiochim and Chim, DEN, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on the development of a new simple but sensitive, fast and quantitative liquid chromatography method for picolinate ion measurement in high ionic strength aqueous solutions. It involves cation separation over a chromatographic CS16 column using methane sulfonic acid as a mobile phase and detection by UV absorbance (254 nm). The CS16 column is a high-capacity stationary phase exhibiting both cation exchange and RP properties. It allows interaction with picolinate ions which are in their zwitterionic form at the pH of the mobile phase (1.3-1.7). Analysis is performed in 30 min with a detection limit of about 0.05 {mu}M and a quantification limit of about 0.15 {mu}M. Moreover, this analytical technique has been tested efficiently on complex aqueous samples from an effluent treatment facility. (authors)

  1. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  2. Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems

    KAUST Repository

    Almeida, Regina C.

    2010-08-01

    A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Highly sensitive methanol chemical sensor based on undoped silver oxide nanoparticles prepared by a solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Khan, S.B.; Asiri, A.M.; Jamal, A.; Faisal, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared silver oxide nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple solution method using reducing agents in alkaline medium. The resulting NPs were characterized by UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. They were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode to give a sensor with a fast response towards methanol in liquid phase. The sensor also displays good sensitivity and long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical response. The calibration plot is linear (r 2 = 0.8294) over the 0.12 mM to 0.12 M methanol concentration range. The sensitivity is ∼ 2.65 μAcm -2 mM -1 , and the detection limit is 36.0 μM (at a SNR of 3). We also discuss possible future prospective uses of this metal oxide semiconductor nanomaterial in terms of chemical sensing. (author)

  4. A Fast Condensing Method for Solution of Linear-Quadratic Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    consider a condensing (or state elimination) method to solve an extended version of the LQ control problem, and we show how to exploit the structure of this problem to both factorize the dense Hessian matrix and solve the system. Furthermore, we present two efficient implementations. The first......In both Active-Set (AS) and Interior-Point (IP) algorithms for Model Predictive Control (MPC), sub-problems in the form of linear-quadratic (LQ) control problems need to be solved at each iteration. The solution of these sub-problems is usually the main computational effort. In this paper we...... implementation is formally identical to the Riccati recursion based solver and has a computational complexity that is linear in the control horizon length and cubic in the number of states. The second implementation has a computational complexity that is quadratic in the control horizon length as well...

  5. Solution combustion method for synthesis of nanostructured hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Dong, Xiaochen; Bian, Mengmeng; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Yao; Sun, Yue; Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP), fluorapatite (Fap) and chlorapatite (Clap) were prepared by solution combustion method with further annealing at 800 °C. The characterization and structural features of the synthesized powders were evaluated by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Characterization results from XRD and Rietveld analysis revealed that OH- in the HAP lattice were gradually substituted with the increase of F- and Cl- content and totally substituted at the molar concentration of 0.28 and 0.6, respectively. The results from FI-IR have also confirmed the incorporation of substituted anions in the apatite structure.

  6. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  7. Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems

    KAUST Repository

    Almeida, Regina C.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Penalty methods for the numerical solution of American multi-asset option problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Skavhaug, Ola; Tveito, Aslak

    2008-12-01

    We derive and analyze a penalty method for solving American multi-asset option problems. A small, non-linear penalty term is added to the Black-Scholes equation. This approach gives a fixed solution domain, removing the free and moving boundary imposed by the early exercise feature of the contract. Explicit, implicit and semi-implicit finite difference schemes are derived, and in the case of independent assets, we prove that the approximate option prices satisfy some basic properties of the American option problem. Several numerical experiments are carried out in order to investigate the performance of the schemes. We give examples indicating that our results are sharp. Finally, the experiments indicate that in the case of correlated underlying assets, the same properties are valid as in the independent case.

  9. A new generalized expansion method and its application in finding explicit exact solutions for a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Zahran, M.A.; Fan Engui

    2004-01-01

    A generalized expansion method is proposed to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for general variable coefficients non-linear evolution equations. The new approach admits the following types of solutions (a) polynomial solutions, (b) exponential solutions, (c) rational solutions, (d) triangular periodic wave solutions, (e) hyperbolic and solitary wave solutions and (f) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. The efficiency of the method has been demonstrated by applying it to a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation. Then, new and rich variety of exact explicit solutions have been found

  10. Anisotropic perylenediimide/polycarbonate composites produced by a single batch solution based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobruchowska, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.dobruchowska@tu.koszalin.pl [Department of Molecular Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Institute of Technology and Education, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Marszalek, Tomasz; Ulanski, Jacek [Department of Molecular Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-01

    The continuous anisotropic organic semiconductor/dielectric composites consisting of a top, unidirectionally oriented crystalline layer of perylenediimide derivative (2,9-di(pent-3-yl)-anthra[1,9-def:6,5,10-d′e′f′]diisoquinoline-1,3,8, 10-tetrone) (PTCDI-C5(3)) and a bottom layer of poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) support were obtained in a one batch solution process, with the use of the so called the zone-casting method. Scanning electron microscopy images have shown that the top PTCDI-C5(3) layer is made of long, parallel crystallites in the form of ribbons that exhibit birefringence when placed between a pair of crossed polarisers in the optical microscope. Furthermore, the polarised UV–Vis absorbance and photoluminescence experiments revealed that the alignment of the PTCDI-C5(3) molecules is caused by π–π interactions between the conjugated perylene cores, and their stacks are parallel to the long axis of the crystallites and to the polymer surface. The high value of the calculated polarisation ratio, which equals 0.64, constitutes a confirmation of a high degree of molecular order within the semiconducting component of the zone-cast composites. - Highlights: • Bi-layer composites were produced by a single batch solution based method. • The top-layer was made of an n-type organic semiconductor — perylene derivative. • Polarised absorbance and photoluminescence were used to study optical anisotropy. • High polarisation ratio of 0.64 was obtained for the top-layer of the composite.

  11. An evaluation of solution algorithms and numerical approximation methods for modeling an ion exchange process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Sunyoung; Huang, Jingfang; Boyer, Treavor H.; Miller, Cass T.

    2010-07-01

    The focus of this work is on the modeling of an ion exchange process that occurs in drinking water treatment applications. The model formulation consists of a two-scale model in which a set of microscale diffusion equations representing ion exchange resin particles that vary in size and age are coupled through a boundary condition with a macroscopic ordinary differential equation (ODE), which represents the concentration of a species in a well-mixed reactor. We introduce a new age-averaged model (AAM) that averages all ion exchange particle ages for a given size particle to avoid the expensive Monte-Carlo simulation associated with previous modeling applications. We discuss two different numerical schemes to approximate both the original Monte-Carlo algorithm and the new AAM for this two-scale problem. The first scheme is based on the finite element formulation in space coupled with an existing backward difference formula-based ODE solver in time. The second scheme uses an integral equation based Krylov deferred correction (KDC) method and a fast elliptic solver (FES) for the resulting elliptic equations. Numerical results are presented to validate the new AAM algorithm, which is also shown to be more computationally efficient than the original Monte-Carlo algorithm. We also demonstrate that the higher order KDC scheme is more efficient than the traditional finite element solution approach and this advantage becomes increasingly important as the desired accuracy of the solution increases. We also discuss issues of smoothness, which affect the efficiency of the KDC-FES approach, and outline additional algorithmic changes that would further improve the efficiency of these developing methods for a wide range of applications.

  12. Numerical solution of the helmholtz equation for the superellipsoid via the galerkin method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hy Dinh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to find the numerical solution of the Dirichlet problem for the Helmholtz equation for a smooth superellipsoid. The superellipsoid is a shape that is controlled by two parameters. There are some numerical issues in this type of an analysis; any integration method is affected by the wave number k, because of the oscillatory behavior of the fundamental solution. In this case we could only obtain good numerical results for super ellipsoids that were more shaped like super cones, which is a narrow range of super ellipsoids. The formula for these shapes was: $x=cos(xsin(y^{n},y=sin(xsin(y^{n},z=cos(y$ where $n$ varied from 0.5 to 4. The Helmholtz equation, which is the modified wave equation, is used in many scattering problems. This project was funded by NASA RI Space Grant for testing of the Dirichlet boundary condition for the shape of the superellipsoid. One practical value of all these computations can be getting a shape for the engine nacelles in a ray tracing the space shuttle. We are researching the feasibility of obtaining good convergence results for the superellipsoid surface. It was our view that smaller and lighter wave numbers would reduce computational costs associated with obtaining Galerkin coefficients. In addition, we hoped to significantly reduce the number of terms in the infinite series needed to modify the original integral equation, all of which were achieved in the analysis of the superellipsoid in a finite range. We used the Green's theorem to solve the integral equation for the boundary of the surface. Previously, multiple surfaces were used to test this method, such as the sphere, ellipsoid, and perturbation of the sphere, pseudosphere and the oval of Cassini Lin and Warnapala , Warnapala and Morgan .

  13. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  14. Reprint of Solution of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model for image segmentation by generalized relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambra, Pasqua; Tartaglione, Gaetano

    2015-04-01

    Image segmentation addresses the problem to partition a given image into its constituent objects and then to identify the boundaries of the objects. This problem can be formulated in terms of a variational model aimed to find optimal approximations of a bounded function by piecewise-smooth functions, minimizing a given functional. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are a set of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations with varying coefficients. Numerical solution of the above system often relies on alternating minimization techniques involving descent methods coupled with explicit or semi-implicit finite-difference discretization schemes, which are slowly convergent and poorly scalable with respect to image size. In this work we focus on generalized relaxation methods also coupled with multigrid linear solvers, when a finite-difference discretization is applied to the Euler-Lagrange equations of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model. We show that non-linear Gauss-Seidel, accelerated by inner linear iterations, is an effective method for large-scale image analysis as those arising from high-throughput screening platforms for stem cells targeted differentiation, where one of the main goal is segmentation of thousand of images to analyze cell colonies morphology.

  15. Solution of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model for image segmentation by generalized relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambra, Pasqua; Tartaglione, Gaetano

    2015-03-01

    Image segmentation addresses the problem to partition a given image into its constituent objects and then to identify the boundaries of the objects. This problem can be formulated in terms of a variational model aimed to find optimal approximations of a bounded function by piecewise-smooth functions, minimizing a given functional. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are a set of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations with varying coefficients. Numerical solution of the above system often relies on alternating minimization techniques involving descent methods coupled with explicit or semi-implicit finite-difference discretization schemes, which are slowly convergent and poorly scalable with respect to image size. In this work we focus on generalized relaxation methods also coupled with multigrid linear solvers, when a finite-difference discretization is applied to the Euler-Lagrange equations of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model. We show that non-linear Gauss-Seidel, accelerated by inner linear iterations, is an effective method for large-scale image analysis as those arising from high-throughput screening platforms for stem cells targeted differentiation, where one of the main goal is segmentation of thousand of images to analyze cell colonies morphology.

  16. Generalization of the Numerov method for solution of N-d breakup problem in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, V.M.; Vlahovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    A new computational method for solving the configuration-space Faddeev equations for three-nucleon systems has been developed. This method is based on the spline decomposition in the angular variable and a generalization of the Numerov method for the hyperradius. The s-wave calculations of the inelasticity and phase shift as well as breakup amplitudes for n-d and p-d breakup scatterings for lab energies 14.1 and 42.0 MeV were performed with the Malfliet-Tjon I-III potential. In the case of n-d breakup scattering the results are in good agreement with those of the benchmark solution [J. L. Friar, B. F. Gibson, G. Berthold, W. Gloeckle, Th. Cornelius, H. Witala, J. Haidenbauer, Y. Koike, G. L. Payne, J. A. Tjon, and W. M. Kloet, Phys. Rev. C 42, 1838 (1990); J. L. Friar, G. L. Payne, W. Gloeckle, D. Hueber, and H. Witala, Phys. Rev. C 51, 2356 (1995)]. In the case of p-d quartet breakup scattering disagreement for the inelasticities reaches up to 6% as compared with those of the Pisa group [A. Kievsky, M. Viviani, and S. Rosati, Phys. Rev. C 64, 024002 (2001)]. The calculated p-d amplitudes fulfill the optical theorem with a good precision

  17. Measurement of hydroxyl radical production in ultrasonic aqueous solutions by a novel chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Zhujun; Yang, Chunyan

    2008-07-01

    Measurement methods for ultrasonic fields are important for reasons of safety. The investigation of an ultrasonic field can be performed by detecting the yield of hydroxyl radicals resulting from ultrasonic cavitations. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for detecting hydroxyl radicals by a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-K5[Cu(HIO6)2](DPC). The yield of hydroxyl radicals is calculated directly by the relative CL intensity according to the corresponding concentration of H2O2. This proposed CL method makes it possible to perform an in-line and real-time assay of hydroxyl radicals in an ultrasonic aqueous solution. With flow injection (FI) technology, this novel CL reaction is sensitive enough to detect ultra trace amounts of H2O2 with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 4.1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The influences of ultrasonic output power and ultrasonic treatment time on the yield of hydroxyl radicals by an ultrasound generator were also studied. The results indicate that the amount of hydroxyl radicals increases with the increase of ultrasonic output power (< or = 15 W mL(-1)). There is a linear relationship between the time of ultrasonic treatment and the yield of H2O2. The ultrasonic field of an ultrasonic cleaning baths has been measured by calculating the yield of hydroxyl radicals.

  18. Stabilized Discretization in Spline Element Method for Solution of Two-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the poor geometric adaptability of spline element method, a geometric precision spline method, which uses the rational Bezier patches to indicate the solution domain, is proposed for two-dimensional viscous uncompressed Navier-Stokes equation. Besides fewer pending unknowns, higher accuracy, and computation efficiency, it possesses such advantages as accurate representation of isogeometric analysis for object boundary and the unity of geometry and analysis modeling. Meanwhile, the selection of B-spline basis functions and the grid definition is studied and a stable discretization format satisfying inf-sup conditions is proposed. The degree of spline functions approaching the velocity field is one order higher than that approaching pressure field, and these functions are defined on one-time refined grid. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed through the Nitsche variational principle in weak form due to the lack of interpolation properties of the B-splines functions. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified with some examples.

  19. A method of fundamental solutions in poroelasticity to model the stress field in geothermal reservoirs

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Matthias Albert

    2015-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the numerical methods needed in the context of developing a reliable simulation tool to promote the use of renewable energy. One very promising source of energy is the heat stored in the Earth’s crust, which is harnessed by so-called geothermal facilities. Scientists from fields like geology, geo-engineering, geophysics and especially geomathematics are called upon to help make geothermics a reliable and safe energy production method. One of the challenges they face involves modeling the mechanical stresses at work in a reservoir. The aim of this thesis is to develop a numerical solution scheme by means of which the fluid pressure and rock stresses in a geothermal reservoir can be determined prior to well drilling and during production. For this purpose, the method should (i) include poroelastic effects, (ii) provide a means of including thermoelastic effects, (iii) be inexpensive in terms of memory and computational power, and (iv) be flexible with regard to the locations of data ...

  20. Fast solution of neutron diffusion problem by reduced basis finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunyu, Zhang; Gong, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •An extremely efficient method is proposed to solve the neutron diffusion equation with varying the cross sections. •Three orders of speedup is achieved for IAEA benchmark problems. •The method may open a new possibility of efficient high-fidelity modeling of large scale problems in nuclear engineering. -- Abstract: For the important applications which need carry out many times of neutron diffusion calculations such as the fuel depletion analysis and the neutronics-thermohydraulics coupling analysis, fast and accurate solutions of the neutron diffusion equation are demanding but necessary. In the present work, the certified reduced basis finite element method is proposed and implemented to solve the generalized eigenvalue problems of neutron diffusion with variable cross sections. The order reduced model is built upon high-fidelity finite element approximations during the offline stage. During the online stage, both the k eff and the spatical distribution of neutron flux can be obtained very efficiently for any given set of cross sections. Numerical tests show that a speedup of around 1100 is achieved for the IAEA two-dimensional PWR benchmark problem and a speedup of around 3400 is achieved for the three-dimensional counterpart with the fission cross-sections, the absorption cross-sections and the scattering cross-sections treated as parameters.

  1. Study on CexLa1-xO2 Buffer Layer used in Coated Conductors by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, Hongli; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Developing multi-functional single buffer layer is one of the most important challenges for simplification of coated conductors configuration. Ladoped CeO2 films were prepared by chemical solution method. And surface morphology and texture quality of the La-doped CeO2 films were investigated...... method. It suggects that Ce0.9La0.1O2 film prepared by chemical solution route have a promising prospect for the simplification of coated conductors configuration....

  2. Collection of proceedings of the international conference on programming and mathematical methods for solution of physical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Traditional International Conference on programming and mathematical methods for solution of physical problems took place in Dubna in Jun, 14-19, 1993. More than 160 scientists from 14 countries participated in the Conference. They presented about 120 reports, the range of problems including computerized information complexes, experimental data acquisition and processing systems, mathematical simulation and calculation experiment in physics, analytical and numerical methods for solution of physical problems

  3. On the performance of quantum chemical methods to predict solvatochromic effects. The case of acrolein in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aidas, Kestutis; Møgelhøj, Andreas; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The performance of the Hartree–Fock method and the three density functionals B3LYP, PBE0, and CAM-B3LYP is compared to results based on the coupled cluster singles and doubles model in predictions of the solvatochromic effects on the vertical n¿* and ¿* electronic excitation energies of acrolein...... of acrolein in vapor phase and aqueous solution. The gas-to-aqueous solution shift of the n¿* excitation energy is well reproduced by using all density functional methods considered. However, the B3LYP and PBE0 functionals completely fail to describe the ¿* electronic transition in solution, whereas...... the recent CAM-B3LYP functional performs well also in this case. The ¿* excitation energy of acrolein in water solution is found to be very dependent on intermolecular induction and nonelectrostatic interactions. The computed excitation energies of acrolein in vacuum and solution compare well to experimental...

  4. Computation of solution equilibria: A guide to methods in potentiometry, extraction, and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloun, M.; Havel, J.; Hogfeldt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Although this book contains a very good review of computation methods applicable to equilibrium systems, most of the book is dedicated to the description and evaluation of computer programs available for doing such calculations. As stated in the preface, the authors (two computniks and a user of graphical and computer methods) have joined forces in order to present the reader with the points of view of both the creator and user of modern computer program tools available for the study of solution equilibria. The successful presentation of such a complicated amalgamation of concepts is greatly aided by the structure of the book, which begins with a brief but thorough discussion of equilibrium concepts in general, followed by an equally brief discussion of experimental methods used to study equilibria with potentiometric, extraction, and spectroscopic methods. These sections would not be sufficient to teach these topics to the beginner but offer an informative presentation of concepts in relation to one another to those already familiar with basic equilibrium concepts. The importance of evaluating and analyzing the suitability of data for further analysis is then presented before an in depth (by a chemist's standards) look at the individual parts that make up a detailed equilibrium analysis program. The next one-third of the book is an examination of specific equilibrium problems and the programs available to study them. These are divided into chapters devoted to potentiometric, extraction, and spectroscopic methods. The format is to discuss a variety of programs, one at a time, including the parts of the program, the types of problems to which it has been applied, and the program's limitations. A number of problems are then presented, which are representative of the type of questions that are normally addressed by research projects in the area

  5. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Wells

    Full Text Available To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1 determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2 conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3 determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method, then DPD dilution methods (2.4-19% error, then test strips (5.2-48% error; precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources, and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed. Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5-11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14-37 for test strips and $33-609 for titration

  6. Determination of average molecular weights on organic reactor coolants. II.-Freezing point depression method for diphenyl-ether solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, M.

    1965-01-01

    In order to reduce limitations of solubility, the cryoscopic method developed for benzene solutions of polyphenyl mixtures has been extended to diphenyl-ether solutions by introducing some modifications imposed by the physico-chemical properties of this solvent. The Nernsto theory of Beckman's method has been revised, taking into account the heat-transfer characteristics of the system, and the results of that analysis have been used to fix upon the design parameters of a cryoscopic apparatus for measurements on diphenyl-ether solutions. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Solution of the linearly anisotropic neutron transport problem in a infinite cylinder combining the decomposition and HTSN methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Glenio A.; Bodmann, Bardo; Bogado, Sergio; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions for neutron transport in cylindrical geometry is available for isotropic problems, but to the best of our knowledge for anisotropic problems are not available, yet. In this work, an analytical solution for the neutron transport equation in an infinite cylinder assuming anisotropic scattering is reported. Here we specialize the solution, without loss of generality, for the linearly anisotropic problem using the combined decomposition and HTS N methods. The key feature of this method consists in the application of the decomposition method to the anisotropic problem by virtue of the fact that the inverse of the operator associated to isotropic problem is well know and determined by the HTS N approach. So far, following the idea of the decomposition method, we apply this operator to the integral term, assuming that the angular flux appearing in the integrand is considered to be equal to the HTS N solution interpolated by polynomial considering only even powers. This leads to the first approximation for an anisotropic solution. Proceeding further, we replace this solution for the angular flux in the integral and apply again the inverse operator for the isotropic problem in the integral term and obtain a new approximation for the angular flux. This iterative procedure yields a closed form solution for the angular flux. This methodology can be generalized, in a straightforward manner, for transport problems with any degree of anisotropy. For the sake of illustration, we report numerical simulations for linearly anisotropic transport problems. (author)

  8. Immobilization of plutonium from solutions on porous matrices by the method of high temperature sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardova, A.K.; Filippov, E.A. [All Research Institute of Chemical Technologies, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolenko, Y.B. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of investigations of plutonium immobilization from solutions on inorganic matrices with the purpose of producing a solid waste form. High-temperature sorption is described which entails the adsorption of radionuclides from solutions on porous, inorganic matrices, as for example silica gel. The solution is brought to a boil with additional thermal process (calcination) of the saturated granules.

  9. Advances in the discrete ordinates and finite volume methods for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems in participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    Many methods are available for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems in participating media. Among these, the discrete ordinates method (DOM) and the finite volume method (FVM) are among the most widely used ones. They provide a good compromise between accuracy and computational requirements, and they are relatively easy to integrate in CFD codes. This paper surveys recent advances on these numerical methods. Developments concerning the grid structure (e.g., new formulations for axisymmetrical geometries, body-fitted structured and unstructured meshes, embedded boundaries, multi-block grids, local grid refinement), the spatial discretization scheme, and the angular discretization scheme are described. Progress related to the solution accuracy, solution algorithm, alternative formulations, such as the modified DOM and FVM, even-parity formulation, discrete-ordinates interpolation method and method of lines, and parallelization strategies is addressed. The application to non-gray media, variable refractive index media, and transient problems is also reviewed. - Highlights: • We survey recent advances in the discrete ordinates and finite volume methods. • Developments in spatial and angular discretization schemes are described. • Progress in solution algorithms and parallelization methods is reviewed. • Advances in the transient solution of the radiative transfer equation are appraised. • Non-gray media and variable refractive index media are briefly addressed

  10. Method of simultaneous continuous determination of transfer rates of iron and chromium into solution during Fe-Cr alloys dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirinov, T.I.; Florianovich, G.M.; Skuratnik, Ya.B.

    1978-01-01

    Radiometry method of simultaneous continuous registration of transfer rates of iron and chromium into solution from Fe-Cr alloys with various composition has been developed. Using gamma-spectrometer components of Fe-Cr alloys can be determined with high sensitivity in separate samples according to Fe 59 and Cr 51 radioactive labels, obtained by neutron activation. The above method is applied to estimate Fe and Cr transfer rates into H 2 SO 4 solution at the temperature of 50 deg from Fe - 28% Cr alloy during its active dissolution. It is established, that beginning with some seconds of alloy and solution contact, its components transfer into the solution in the same composition, as in the alloy. The method enables to determine Fe with the accuracy of up to 5% and Cr with that of up to 10%

  11. Traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation via the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali; Roshid, Harun-Or-

    2014-01-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) play a vital role to reveal the internal mechanism of complex physical phenomena. In this work, the exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation is studied by using the new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions. It is shown that the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Jr, 02.30.Ik.

  12. A conservative finite difference method for the numerical solution of plasma fluid equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, P.; Dorr, M.R.; Wake, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of a system of plasma fluid equations. The fluid model is similar to those employed in the simulation of high-density, low-pressure plasmas used in semiconductor processing. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons, together with an internal energy equation, coupled via Poisson's equation to a system of Euler equations for each ion species augmented with electrostatic force, collisional, and source/sink terms. The time integration of the full system is performed using an operator splitting that conserves space charge and avoids dielectric relaxation timestep restrictions. The integration of the individual ion species and electrons within the time-split advancement is achieved using a second-order Godunov discretization of the hyperbolic terms, modified to account for the significant role of the electric field in the propagation of acoustic waves, combined with a backward Euler discretization of the parabolic terms. Discrete boundary conditions are employed to accommodate the plasma sheath boundary layer on underresolved grids. The algorithm is described for the case of a single Cartesian grid as the first step toward an implementation on a locally refined grid hierarchy in which the method presented here may be applied on each refinement level

  13. A new method to assess the statistical convergence of monte carlo solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Accurate Monte Carlo confidence intervals (CIs), which are formed with an estimated mean and an estimated standard deviation, can only be created when the number of particle histories N becomes large enough so that the central limit theorem can be applied. The Monte Carlo user has a limited number of marginal methods to assess the fulfillment of this condition, such as statistical error reduction proportional to 1/√N with error magnitude guidelines and third and fourth moment estimators. A new method is presented here to assess the statistical convergence of Monte Carlo solutions by analyzing the shape of the empirical probability density function (PDF) of history scores. Related work in this area includes the derivation of analytic score distributions for a two-state Monte Carlo problem. Score distribution histograms have been generated to determine when a small number of histories accounts for a large fraction of the result. This summary describes initial studies of empirical Monte Carlo history score PDFs created from score histograms of particle transport simulations. 7 refs., 1 fig

  14. A method for the determination of free nitric acid in aqueous plutonium nitrate solutions - potassium fluoride method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Plutonium IV and VI, and certain other hydrolysable metals which may be present, are converted to non-interfering species by the addition of the sample to potassium fluoride solution. The free acid is then titrated with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. (author)

  15. Higher-order approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators by modified He's homotopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Fernandez, E; Neipp, C; Belendez, T

    2008-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order analytical approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. The approximate formulae obtained show excellent agreement with the exact solutions, and are valid for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation, including the limiting cases of amplitude approaching zero and infinity. For the relativistic oscillator, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 1.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.65% for two iterations with two harmonics and as low as 0.18% when three harmonics are considered in the second approximation. For the Duffing-harmonic oscillator the relative error is as low as 0.078% when the second approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by the harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient

  16. Data Quality Control: Challenges, Methods, and Solutions from an Eco-Hydrologic Instrumentation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, D.; Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dastrup, D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few decades, advances in electronic dataloggers and in situ sensor technology have revolutionized our ability to monitor air, soil, and water to address questions in the environmental sciences. The increased spatial and temporal resolution of in situ data is alluring. However, an often overlooked aspect of these advances are the challenges data managers and technicians face in performing quality control on millions of data points collected every year. While there is general agreement that high quantities of data offer little value unless the data are of high quality, it is commonly understood that despite efforts toward quality assurance, environmental data collection occasionally goes wrong. After identifying erroneous data, data managers and technicians must determine whether to flag, delete, leave unaltered, or retroactively correct suspect data. While individual instrumentation networks often develop their own QA/QC procedures, there is a scarcity of consensus and literature regarding specific solutions and methods for correcting data. This may be because back correction efforts are time consuming, so suspect data are often simply abandoned. Correction techniques are also rarely reported in the literature, likely because corrections are often performed by technicians rather than the researchers who write the scientific papers. Details of correction procedures are often glossed over as a minor component of data collection and processing. To help address this disconnect, we present case studies of quality control challenges, solutions, and lessons learned from a large scale, multi-watershed environmental observatory in Northern Utah that monitors Gradients Along Mountain to Urban Transitions (GAMUT). The GAMUT network consists of over 40 individual climate, water quality, and storm drain monitoring stations that have collected more than 200 million unique data points in four years of operation. In all of our examples, we emphasize that scientists

  17. Approximate Analytical Solutions for Mathematical Model of Tumour Invasion and Metastasis Using Modified Adomian Decomposition and Homotopy Perturbation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhasimah Mahiddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified decomposition method (MDM and homotopy perturbation method (HPM are applied to obtain the approximate solution of the nonlinear model of tumour invasion and metastasis. The study highlights the significant features of the employed methods and their ability to handle nonlinear partial differential equations. The methods do not need linearization and weak nonlinearity assumptions. Although the main difference between MDM and Adomian decomposition method (ADM is a slight variation in the definition of the initial condition, modification eliminates massive computation work. The approximate analytical solution obtained by MDM logically contains the solution obtained by HPM. It shows that HPM does not involve the Adomian polynomials when dealing with nonlinear problems.

  18. Solitary wave solutions of the fourth order Boussinesq equation through the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Hj Mohd Ali, Norhashidah

    2014-01-01

    The exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is an ascending method for obtaining exact and solitary wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. In this article, we implement the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method to build solitary wave solutions to the fourth order Boussinesq equation. The procedure is simple, direct and useful with the help of computer algebra. By using this method, we obtain solitary wave solutions in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and elementary functions. The results show that the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is straightforward and effective mathematical tool for the treatment of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.

  19. Application of radioanalytical methods in the quantification of solute transport in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornik, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present habilitation thesis is elaborated as a compilation of published scientific papers supplemented with a commentary. The primary objective of the work was to bring the results and knowledge applicable to the further development of application possibilities of nuclear analytical chemistry, especially in the field of radioindication methods and application of positron emitters in connection with the positron emission tomography (PET) as well. In the work, these methods and techniques are developed mainly in the context of the solution of environmental issues related to the analysis and remediation of contaminated or degraded environment (water and soil), but also partially in the field of plant production or plant research. In terms of the achieved results and knowledge, the work is divided into three separated sections. The first part is dedicated to the application of radioindication methods, as well as others, non-radioanalytical methods and approaches in the characterization of plant biomass (biomass of terrestrial and aquatic mosses, and waste plant biomass) as alternative sorbents served to the separation and removal of (radio)toxic metals from contaminated or waste waters, as well as in the quantification and description of the sorption processes proceed under conditions of batch or continuous flow systems. The second part describes the results concerning on the quantification and visual description of the processes of (radio)toxic metals and microelements uptake and translocation in plant tissues using radioisotopes (β- and γ-emitters) of these metals and application of the methods of direct gamma spectrometry and autoradiography as well. The main aim of these experiments was to evaluate the possibilities of utilization of selected plant species in phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters, as well as the possibilities affecting the effectiveness of uptake and translocation of these metals in the plant tissues mainly in dependence on their

  20. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  1. A variational numerical method based on finite elements for the nonlinear solution characteristics of the periodically forced Chen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabeel M.; Sunny, D. A.; Aqeel, M.

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems and their solutions are very sensitive to initial conditions and therefore need to be approximated carefully. In this article, we present and analyze nonlinear solution characteristics of the periodically forced Chen system with the application of a variational method based on the concept of finite time-elements. Our approach is based on the discretization of physical time space into finite elements where each time-element is mapped to a natural time space. The solution of the system is then determined in natural time space using a set of suitable basis functions. The numerical algorithm is presented and implemented to compute and analyze nonlinear behavior at different time-step sizes. The obtained results show an excellent agreement with the classical RK-4 and RK-5 methods. The accuracy and convergence of the method is shown by comparing numerically computed results with the exact solution for a test problem. The presented method has shown a great potential in dealing with the solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems and thus can be utilized in delineating different features and characteristics of their solutions.

  2. Method of stripping plutonium from tributyl phosphate solution which contains dibutyl phosphate-plutonium stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenfeld, W.; Schmieder, H.

    1976-01-01

    Fast breeder fuel elements which have been highly burnt-up are reprocessed by extracting uranium and plutonium into an organic solution containing tributyl phosphate. The tributyl phosphate degenerates at least partially into dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate, which form stable complexes with tetravalent plutonium in the organic solution. This tetravalent plutonium is released from its complexed state and stripped into aqueous phase by contacting the organic solution with an aqueous phase containing tetravalent uranium. 6 claims, 1 drawing figure

  3. A method for valuing architecture-based business transformation and measuring the value of solutions architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise and Solution Architecture are key in today’s business environment. It is surprising that the foundation and business case for these activities are nonexistent; the financial value for the business of these activities is largely undetermined. To determine business value of enterprise and solution architecture, this thesis shows how to measure and quantify, in business terms, the value of enterprise architecture-based on business transformation and the value of solution architecture.

  4. New Analytical Solution of the Equilibrium Ampere's Law Using the Walker's Method: a Didactic Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A. N. Laurindo; Ojeda-González, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.; Caritá, L. A.

    2018-02-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the analytical solution of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation or generalized Ampere's law, which is important in the studies of self-consistent 2.5-D solution for current sheet structures. A detailed mathematical development is presented to obtain the generating function as shown by Walker (RSPSA 91, 410, 1915). Therefore, we study the general solution of the GS equation in terms of the Walker's generating function in details without omitting any step. The Walker's generating function g( ζ) is written in a new way as the tangent of an unspecified function K( ζ). In this trend, the general solution of the GS equation is expressed as exp(- 2Ψ) = 4| K '( ζ)|2/cos2[ K( ζ) - K( ζ ∗)]. In order to investigate whether our proposal would simplify the mathematical effort to find new generating functions, we use Harris's solution as a test, in this case K( ζ) = arctan(exp( i ζ)). In summary, one of the article purposes is to present a review of the Harris's solution. In an attempt to find a simplified solution, we propose a new way to write the GS solution using g( ζ) = tan( K( ζ)). We also present a new analytical solution to the equilibrium Ampere's law using g( ζ) = cosh( b ζ), which includes a generalization of the Harris model and presents isolated magnetic islands.

  5. A novel method for determining the solubility of small molecules in aqueous media and polymer solvent systems using solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Hala M; Chen, Xin; Aburub, Aktham; Mishra, Dinesh; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    To explore the application of solution calorimetry for measuring drug solubility in experimentally challenging situations while providing additional information on the physical properties of the solute material. A semi-adiabatic solution calorimeter was used to measure the heat of dissolution of prednisolone and chlorpropamide in aqueous solvents and of griseofulvin and ritonavir in viscous solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone and N-ethylpyrrolidone. Dissolution end point was clearly ascertained when heat generation stopped. The heat of solution was a linear function of dissolved mass for all drugs (solution of 9.8 ± 0.8, 28.8 ± 0.6, 45.7 ± 1.6 and 159.8 ± 20.1 J/g were obtained for griseofulvin, ritonavir, prednisolone and chlorpropamide, respectively. Saturation was identifiable by a plateau in the heat signal and the crossing of the two linear segments corresponds to the solubility limit. The solubilities of prednisolone and chlopropamide in water by the calorimetric method were 0.23 and 0.158 mg/mL, respectively, in agreement with the shake-flask/HPLC-UV determined values of 0.212 ± 0.013 and 0.169 ± 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. For the higher solubility and high viscosity systems of griseofulvin and ritonavir in NEP/PVP mixtures, respectively, solubility values of 65 and 594 mg/g, respectively, were obtained. Solution calorimetry offers a reliable method for measuring drug solubility in organic and aqueous solvents. The approach is complementary to the traditional shake-flask method, providing information on the solid properties of the solute. For highly viscous solutions, the calorimetric approach is advantageous.

  6. A Note on the Solutions of the Van der Pol and Duffing Equations Using a Linearisation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandile S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel application of the successive linearisation method to the classical Van der Pol and Duffing oscillator equations. By recasting the governing equations as nonlinear eigenvalue problems we obtain accurate values of the frequency and amplitude. We demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to obtain the limit cycle and bifurcation diagrams of the governing equations. Comparison with exact and other results in the literature shows that the method is accurate and effective in finding solutions of nonlinear equations with oscillatory solutions, nonlinear eigenvalue problems, and other nonlinear problems with bifurcations.

  7. Solutions of Heat-Like and Wave-Like Equations with Variable Coefficients by Means of the Homotopy Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomari, A. K.; Noorani, M. S. M.; Nazar, R.

    2008-01-01

    We employ the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to obtain approximate analytical solutions to the heat-like and wave-like equations. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ, which provides a convenient way of controlling the convergence region of series solutions. The analysis is accompanied by several linear and nonlinear heat-like and wave-like equations with initial boundary value problems. The results obtained prove that HAM is very effective and simple with less error than the Adomian decomposition method and the variational iteration method

  8. A numerical method for osmotic water flow and solute diffusion with deformable membrane boundaries in two spatial dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lingxing; Mori, Yoichiro

    2017-12-01

    Osmotic forces and solute diffusion are increasingly seen as playing a fundamental role in cell movement. Here, we present a numerical method that allows for studying the interplay between diffusive, osmotic and mechanical effects. An osmotically active solute obeys a advection-diffusion equation in a region demarcated by a deformable membrane. The interfacial membrane allows transmembrane water flow which is determined by osmotic and mechanical pressure differences across the membrane. The numerical method is based on an immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction and a Cartesian grid embedded boundary method for the solute. We demonstrate our numerical algorithm with the test case of an osmotic engine, a recently proposed mechanism for cell propulsion.

  9. Path integral solutions of the master equation. [Lagrangian function, Ehrenfest-type theorem, Cauchy method, inverse functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etim, E; Basili, C [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1978-08-21

    The lagrangian in the path integral solution of the master equation of a stationary Markov process is derived by application of the Ehrenfest-type theorem of quantum mechanics and the Cauchy method of finding inverse functions. Applied to the non-linear Fokker-Planck equation the authors reproduce the result obtained by integrating over Fourier series coefficients and by other methods.

  10. Traveling wave solutions of a biological reaction-convection-diffusion equation model by using $(G'/G$ expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Javadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  11. Effect of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on the floral decoration of zinc oxide synthesized by solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Khang, Gilson; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2008-01-01

    Effect of the structure-directing agent on the floral (depicting flower) morphological variation of ZnO is systematically studied and presented here. Flowery decorated (resembling flower) zinc oxide structure composed of hexagonal nanorods (sharp tips and wider bases) was synthesized at 90 deg. C using zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide at various concentrations of hydroxylamine hydrochloride for 12 h by solution method. Single crystalline nature with the wurtzite hexagonal phase remained unaltered with increasing concentration of hydroxylamine hydrochloride while the morphology changes from nanorod to plate like structure. Photoelectron spectroscopic measurement presented spectra close to the standard bulk ZnO, with an O 1s peak composed of surface adsorbed O-H group, O 2- in the oxygen vacancies on ZnO structure and ZnO. At higher concentration (0.8 M), surface adsorbed O-H group increases while other component decreases because of the changes in the nucleation and surface energy. Results clearly indicate that hydroxylamine hydrochloride works as a structure-directing agent without affecting other properties

  12. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C.

    2016-01-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO 2 at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO 2 is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO 2 is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO 3 separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  13. Approximate Solutions of Schrodinger Equation with Some Diatomic Molecular Interactions Using Nikiforov-Uvarov Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ituen B. Okon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a tool of conventional Nikiforov-Uvarov method to determine bound state solutions of Schrodinger equation with quantum interaction potential called Hulthen-Yukawa inversely quadratic potential (HYIQP. We obtained the energy eigenvalues and the total normalized wave function. We employed Hellmann-Feynman Theorem (HFT to compute expectation values r-2, r-1, T, and p2 for four different diatomic molecules: hydrogen molecule (H2, lithium hydride molecule (LiH, hydrogen chloride molecule (HCl, and carbon (II oxide molecule. The resulting energy equation reduces to three well-known potentials which are as follows: Hulthen potential, Yukawa potential, and inversely quadratic potential. The bound state energies for Hulthen and Yukawa potentials agree with the result reported in existing literature. We obtained the numerical bound state energies of the expectation values by implementing MATLAB algorithm using experimentally determined spectroscopic constant for the different diatomic molecules. We developed mathematica programming to obtain wave function and probability density plots for different orbital angular quantum number.

  14. Nonlinear evolution-type equations and their exact solutions using inverse variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A H; Khalique, C M

    2005-01-01

    We present the role of invariants in obtaining exact solutions of differential equations. Firstly, conserved vectors of a partial differential equation (p.d.e.) allow us to obtain reduced forms of the p.d.e. for which some of the Lie point symmetries (in vector field form) are easily concluded and, therefore, provide a mechanism for further reduction. Secondly, invariants of reduced forms of a p.d.e. are obtainable from a variational principle even though the p.d.e. itself does not admit a Lagrangian. In this latter case, the reductions carry all the usual advantages regarding Noether symmetries and double reductions. The examples we consider are nonlinear evolution-type equations such as the Korteweg-deVries equation, but a detailed analysis is made on the Fisher equation (which describes reaction-diffusion waves in biology, inter alia). Other diffusion-type equations lend themselves well to the method we describe (e.g., the Fitzhugh Nagumo equation, which is briefly discussed). Some aspects of Painleve properties are also suggested

  15. Approximate solutions of the two-dimensional integral transport equation by collision probability methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard

    1977-01-01

    A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the Interface Current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones which are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is made by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: the first uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion; the second uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark pr

  16. Preparation and characterizations of polyaniline (PANI)/ZnO nanocomposites film using solution casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Faheem; Kumar, Shalendra; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M.S.; Su-Yeon, Lee; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Park, Dae-Won; Koo, Bon Heun; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)-ZnO nanoparticles composites film has been successfully fabricated by solution casting technique on glass substrate in which ZnO nanopowder was prepared via auto combustion method and used as inorganic materials. The as-grown nanocomposites film has been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for their structural and morphological characterizations. X-ray diffraction studies of as-grown film showed the reflection of ZnO nanoparticles along with a broad peak of PANI. The AFM study of the film shows the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the polymer matrix which was further supported by roughness measurement. TEM images showed that the size of ZnO nanoparticles in the nanocomposites increase from ∼ 35 nm to ∼ 45 nm, indicating the interaction of nanoparticles with PANI molecular chains. FTIR spectra showed a band at 501 cm -1 due to ZnO nanoparticles while the hydrogen bonding between the amine group of PANI and ZnO nanoparticles had been confirmed from the presence of the absorption band at 1148 cm -1 .

  17. Numerical solution of the Neutron Transport Equation using discontinuous nodal methods at X-Y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in discrete-ordinates and X-Y geometry by developing and using the strong discontinuous and strong modified discontinuous nodal finite element schemes. The strong discontinuous and modified strong discontinuous nodal finite element schemes go from two to ten interpolation parameters per cell. They are describing giving a set D c and polynomial space S c corresponding for each scheme BDMO, RTO, BL, BDM1, HdV, BDFM1, RT1, BQ and BDM2. The solution is obtained solving the neutron transport equation moments for each nodal scheme by developing the basis functions defined by Pascal triangle and the Legendre moments giving in the polynomial space S c and, finally, looking for the non singularity of the resulting linear system. The linear system is numerically solved using a computer program for each scheme mentioned . It uses the LU method and forward and backward substitution and makes a partition of the domain in cells. The source terms and angular flux are calculated, using the directions and weights associated to the S N approximation and solving the angular flux moments to find the effective multiplication constant. The programs are written in Fortran language, using the dynamic allocation of memory to increase efficiently the available memory of the computing equipment. (Author)

  18. Adaptive solution of the multigroup diffusion equation on irregular structured grids using a conforming finite element method formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragusa, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method for performing spatially adaptive computations in the framework of multigroup diffusion on 2-D and 3-D Cartesian grids is investigated. The numerical error, intrinsic to any computer simulation of physical phenomena, is monitored through an a posteriori error estimator. In a posteriori analysis, the computed solution itself is used to assess the accuracy. By efficiently estimating the spatial error, the entire computational process is controlled through successively adapted grids. Our analysis is based on a finite element solution of the diffusion equation. Bilinear test functions are used. The derived a posteriori error estimator is therefore based on the Hessian of the numerical solution. (authors)

  19. Trial function method and exact solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Rui; Zhang Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the trial function method is extended to study the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. On the basis of a generalized traveling wave transformation and a trial function, we investigate the exact envelope traveling wave solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. Taking advantage of solutions to trial function, we successfully obtain exact solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients under constraint conditions. (general)

  20. Explicit Solutions for the (2 + 1-Dimensional Jaulent–Miodek Equation Using the Integrating Factors Method in an Unbounded Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Sadat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prove that the integrating factors can be used as a reduction method. Analytical solutions of the Jaulent–Miodek (JM equation are obtained using integrating factors as an extension of a recent work where, through hidden symmetries, the JM was reduced to ordinary differential equations (ODEs. Some of these ODEs had no quadrature. We here derive several new solutions for these non-solvable ODEs.