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Sample records for solution interfaces probed

  1. Electron transfer reactions to probe the electrode/solution interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitanio, F.; Guerrini, E.; Colombo, A.; Trasatti, S. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2008-07-01

    The reactions that occur at the interface between an electrode and an electrolyte were examined with particular reference to the interaction of different electrode surfaces with redox couples. A semi-integration or convolution technique was used to study the kinetics of electron transfer on different electrode materials with different hydrophilic behaviour, such as Boron-Doped-Diamond (BDD), Au and Pt. Standard reversible redox couples were also investigated, including (Fe3+/2+, Fe(CN)63-/4-, Ru(NH3)63+/2+, Co(NH3)63+/2+, Ir4+/3+, V4+/5+ and V3+/2+). The proposed method proved to be simple, straightforward and reliable since the obtained kinetic information was in good agreement with data in the literature. It was concluded that the kinetics of the electrode transfer reactions depend on the chemical nature of the redox couple and electrode material. The method should be further extended to irreversible couples and other electrode materials such as mixed oxide electrodes. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Detecting order and lateral pressure at biomimetic interfaces using a mechanosensitive second-harmonic-generation probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, Giuseppe; Beckwith, Joseph S; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan; Vauthey, Eric

    2018-04-04

    A planarizable push-pull molecular probe with mechanosensitive properties was investigated at several biomimetic interfaces, consisting of different phospholipid monolayers located between dodecane and an aqueous buffer solution, using the interface-specific surface-second-harmonic-generation (SSHG) technique. Whereas the SSHG spectra recorded at liquid-disordered interfaces were similar to the absorption spectra in bulk solutions, those measured at liquid-ordered phases exhibited a remarkable shift towards lower energies to an extent depending on the surface pressure of the phospholipid monolayer. On the basis of quantum-chemical calculations, this effect was accounted for by the planarization of the mechanosensitive probe. Polarization-resolved SSHG measurements revealed that the average orientation of the probe at the interface is an even more sensitive reporter of lateral pressure and order than the spectral shape. Additionally, time-resolved SSHG measurements pointed to slower dynamics upon intercalation inside the phospholipid monolayer, most likely due to the more constrained environment. This study demonstrates that the concept of mechanosensitive optical probes can be further exploited when combined with a surface-selective nonlinear optical technique.

  3. Experimental approaches for probing interfaces and grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, E.V.; Marcus, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses its attention on several research efforts performed by the authors and colleagues whose primary aim is probing interfacial and grain boundary properties. The first investigations described pertain to impurity segregation induced embrittlement which were modeled using thermodynamic considerations and were characterized by fracture testing using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Localized interface chemical characterization is essential in this research. The second investigation focuses on interface/impurity interaction determination. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), a structure characterization tool, was used to determine the local environment of impurities in metal-impurity-metal laminate composites, where the impurities were in monolayer to submonolayer interface concentrations. The third study pertains to the interface fracture in metal-matrix (metal/metal oxide/graphite) composites where a correlation was made between electronic states and fracture path

  4. Interface Evolution During Transient Pressure Solution Creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, D. K.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.; Renard, F.; Jamtveit, B.; Feder, J.

    When aggregates of small grains are pressed together in the presence of small amounts of solvent the aggregate compacts and the grains tend to stick together. This hap- pens to salt and sugar in humid air, and to sediments when buried in the Earths crust. Stress concentration at the grain contacts cause local dissolution, diffusion of the dissolved material out of the interface and deposition on the less stressed faces of the grains{1}. This process, in geology known as pressure solution, plays a cen- tral role during compaction of sedimentary basins{1,2}, during tectonic deformation of the Earth's crust{3}, and in strengthening of active fault gouges following earth- quakes{4,5}. Experimental data on pressure solution has so far not been sufficiently accurate to understand the transient processes at the grain scale. Here we present ex- perimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady state inter- face microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, cumulative creep strain and the characteristic size of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. A sim- ilar transient phenomenon is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep) and is explained here using an analogy with spinodal dewetting. 1 Weyl, P. K., Pressure solution and the force of crystallization - a phenomenological theory. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2001-2025 (1959). 2 Heald, M. T., Cementation of Simpson and St. Peter Sandstones in parts of Okla- homa, Arkansas and Missouri, J. Geol. Chicago, 14, 16-30 (1956). 3 Schwartz, S., Stöckert, B., Pressure solution in siliciclastic HP-LT metamorphic rocks constraints on the state of stress in deep levels of accretionary complexes. Tectonophysics, 255, 203-209 (1996). 4 Renard, F., Gratier, J.P., Jamtveit, B., Kinetics of crack-sealing, intergranular pres- sure solution, and compaction around active faults. J. Struct. Geol., 22, 1395-1407, (2000). 5 Miller, S. A., BenZion, Y., Burg, J. P.,A three-dimensional fluid-controlled earth

  5. Braided Multi-Electrode Probes (BMEPs) for Neural Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gyo

    Although clinical use of invasive neural interfaces is very limited, due to safety and reliability concerns, the potential benefits of their use in brain machine interfaces (BMIs) seem promising and so they have been widely used in the research field. Microelectrodes as invasive neural interfaces are the core tool to record neural activities and their failure is a critical issue for BMI systems. Possible sources of this failure are neural tissue motions and their interactions with stiff electrode arrays or probes fixed to the skull. To overcome these tissue motion problems, we have developed novel braided multi-electrode probes (BMEPs). By interweaving ultra-fine wires into a tubular braid structure, we obtained a highly flexible multi-electrode probe. In this thesis we described BMEP designs and how to fabricate BMEPs, and explore experiments to show the advantages of BMEPs through a mechanical compliance comparison and a chronic immunohistological comparison with single 50microm nichrome wires used as a reference electrode type. Results from the mechanical compliance test showed that the bodies of BMEPs have 4 to 21 times higher compliance than the single 50microm wire and the tethers of BMEPs were 6 to 96 times higher compliance, depending on combinations of the wire size (9.6microm or 12.7microm), the wire numbers (12 or 24), and the length of tether (3, 5 or 10 mm). Results from the immunohistological comparison showed that both BMEPs and 50microm wires anchored to the skull caused stronger tissue reactions than unanchored BMEPs and 50microm wires, and 50microm wires caused stronger tissue reactions than BMEPs. In in-vivo tests with BMEPs, we succeeded in chronic recordings from the spinal cord of freely jumping frogs and in acute recordings from the spinal cord of decerebrate rats during air stepping which was evoked by mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) stimulation. This technology may provide a stable and reliable neural interface to spinal cord

  6. Measurement of resistance to solute transport across surfactant-laden interfaces using a Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Edward P.; Nivaggioli, Thierry; Hatton, T. Alan

    1994-01-01

    A noninvasive fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique is under development to measure interfacial transport in two phase systems without disturbing the interface. The concentration profiles of a probe solute are measured in both sides of the interface by argon-ion laser, and the system relaxation is then monitored by a microscope-mounted CCD camera.

  7. Novel HPGe Probe solution for Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, J.; Pirard, B.; Menaa, N.; Quirin, P.; Flamanc, J.; Marian, V.; Lampert, M.O. [CANBERRA France, Parc des Tanneries, 1, chemin de la roseraie, 67380 Lingolsheim (France)

    2015-07-01

    In situ measurement is a privileged way of monitoring radioactive contamination compared to analyzing samples in a distant, specialized laboratory. Scintillators based spectrometers offer small footprints and are easy to easy to use, however they do not provide an accurate nuclide identification capability and activities measurement because notably of their limited energy resolution, for instance when low minimum detectable activity (MDA) are required, or in complex mixture of sources. On the other hand, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors provide unmatched nuclide identification capability with the lowest MDA but they are not always of practical use on the field because the crystal needs to be cooled down to liquid nitrogen temperature, increasing the overall weight, bulkiness and complexity of the measurement. This paper presents the configuration and performance of a novel turnkey and compact HPGe solution developed by Canberra for radionuclide identification under harsh environments. Radio-contaminations surveys now can be undertaken outdoor under various weather conditions, in contaminated areas, underground or underwater locations (including under sea water), with fast on site deployment. The spectrometer is also designed in a small diameter tubular shape to offer minimal footprint for an operation in narrow and confined spaces. Besides, this innovative design does not mitigate the performances nor the reliability experienced with standard laboratory-grade HPGe spectrometers. This achievement relies on advanced technologies such as the encapsulation of the crystal in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) which provides higher robustness and does not requires thermal cycles faced with regular HPGe equipment. It also relies on a low vibration, low consumption electrical cooler so that no liquid nitrogen is being used. The detector is connected to a state-of-the-art digital spectroscopy suite embedded in an autonomous acquisition station monitoring the cryo-cooler and

  8. Kinetics of Surfactant Desorption at an Air–Solution Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Morgan, C. E.; Breward, C. J. W.; Griffiths, I. M.; Howell, P. D.; Penfold, J.; Thomas, R. K.; Tucker, I.; Petkov, J. T.; Webster, J. R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of re-equilibration of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate at the air-solution interface have been studied using neutron reflectivity. The experimental arrangement incorporates a novel flow cell in which the subphase

  9. Probing the hydration water diffusion of macromolecular surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortony, Julia H; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Franck, John M; Pavlova, Anna; Hunt, Jasmine; Han, Songi; Kausik, Ravinath

    2011-01-01

    We probe the translational dynamics of the hydration water surrounding the macromolecular surfaces of selected polyelectrolytes, lipid vesicles and intrinsically disordered proteins with site specificity in aqueous solutions. These measurements are made possible by the recent development of a new instrumental and methodological approach based on Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This technique selectively amplifies 1 H NMR signals of hydration water around a spin label that is attached to a molecular site of interest. The selective 1 H NMR amplification within molecular length scales of a spin label is achieved by utilizing short-distance range (∼r -3 ) magnetic dipolar interactions between the 1 H spin of water and the electron spin of a nitroxide radical-based label. Key features include the fact that only minute quantities (<10 μl) and dilute (≥100 μM) sample concentrations are needed. There is no size limit on the macromolecule or molecular assembly to be analyzed. Hydration water with translational correlation times between 10 and 800 ps is measured within ∼10 A distance of the spin label, encompassing the typical thickness of a hydration layer with three water molecules across. The hydration water moving within this time scale has significant implications, as this is what is modulated whenever macromolecules or molecular assemblies undergo interactions, binding or conformational changes. We demonstrate, with the examples of polymer complexation, protein aggregation and lipid-polymer interaction, that the measurements of interfacial hydration dynamics can sensitively and site specifically probe macromolecular interactions.

  10. A sensitive fluorescent probe for the polar solvation dynamics at protein-surfactant interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priya; Choudhury, Susobhan; Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yongwoong; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Jhimli; Das, Ranjan; Ahn, Kyo-Han; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-05-17

    Relaxation dynamics at the surface of biologically important macromolecules is important taking into account their functionality in molecular recognition. Over the years it has been shown that the solvation dynamics of a fluorescent probe at biomolecular surfaces and interfaces account for the relaxation dynamics of polar residues and associated water molecules. However, the sensitivity of the dynamics depends largely on the localization and exposure of the probe. For noncovalent fluorescent probes, localization at the region of interest in addition to surface exposure is an added challenge compared to the covalently attached probes at the biological interfaces. Here we have used a synthesized donor-acceptor type dipolar fluorophore, 6-acetyl-(2-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)(methyl)amino)naphthalene) (ACYMAN), for the investigation of the solvation dynamics of a model protein-surfactant interface. A significant structural rearrangement of a model histone protein (H1) upon interaction with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as revealed from the circular dichroism (CD) studies is nicely corroborated in the solvation dynamics of the probe at the interface. The polarization gated fluorescence anisotropy of the probe compared to that at the SDS micellar surface clearly reveals the localization of the probe at the protein-surfactant interface. We have also compared the sensitivity of ACYMAN with other solvation probes including coumarin 500 (C500) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylamino-styryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). In comparison to ACYMAN, both C500 and DCM fail to probe the interfacial solvation dynamics of a model protein-surfactant interface. While C500 is found to be delocalized from the protein-surfactant interface, DCM becomes destabilized upon the formation of the interface (protein-surfactant complex). The timescales obtained from this novel probe have also been compared with other femtosecond resolved studies and molecular dynamics simulations.

  11. Physicochemistry of the plasma-electrolyte solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Saito, Kenji; Takemura, Yu-ichiro; Shirai, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric rf plasma discharge was successfully investigated using NaOH or HCl electrolyte solutions as a counter electrode at different pH values. The emission intensities of solution components, self bias, and electron density strongly depend on the pH value of electrolyte. An addition of ethanol to the electrolyte solutions enhanced the dehydration, which markedly promoted the emissions of solution components as well as electrons from the solution. An acidification of the solution was always observed after the plasma exposure and two coexisting mechanisms were proposed to give a reasonable interpretation. The plasma-electrolyte interface was discussed based on a model of hydrogen cycle

  12. Probing the Binding Interfaces of Protein Complexes Using Gas-Phase H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Brown, Jeffery M; Haselmann, Kim F

    2016-01-01

    Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub-milliseco......Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub......-millisecond time span after electrospray ionization by ND3 gas can provide structural insights into protein conformers present in solution. Here, we have explored the use of gas-phase HDX-MS for probing the higher-order structure and binding interfaces of protein complexes originating from native solution...

  13. International workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummacher, S.; Gudat, W.

    1986-05-01

    The present 'book of abstracts' consists of the abstracts of 23 lectures, held at the international workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes', April 1986, Bad Honnef, FRG. The subjects are: The use of photoemission in the study of interfaces and adsorbates, EEL spectroscopy applications, spin polarization, photoionization processes and EXAFS. (BHO)

  14. Understanding proton-conducting perovskite interfaces using atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel R.

    Proton-conducting ceramics are under intense scientific investigation for a number of exciting applications, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, hydrogen separation membranes, membrane reactors, and sensors. However, commercial application requires deeper understanding and improvement of proton conductivity in these materials. It is well-known that proton conductivity in these materials is often limited by highly resistive grain boundaries (GBs). While these conductivity-limiting GBs are still not well understood, it is hypothesized that their blocking nature stems from the formation of a positive (proton-repelling) space-charge zone. Furthermore, it has been observed that the strength of the blocking behavior can change dramatically depending on the fabrication process used to make the ceramic. This thesis applies laser-assisted atom probe tomography (LAAPT) to provide new insights into the GB chemistry and resulting space-charge behavior of BaZr0.9Y0.1O 3--delta (BZY10), a prototypical proton-conducting ceramic. LAAPT is an exciting characterization technique that allows for three-dimensional nm-scale spatial resolution and very high chemical resolution (up to parts-per-million). While it is challenging to quantitatively apply LAAPT to complex, multi-cation oxide materials, this thesis successfully develops a method to accurately quantify the stoichiometry of BZY10 and maintain minimal quantitative cationic deviation at a laser energies of approximately 10--20 pJ. With the analysis technique specifically optimized for BZY10, GB chemistry is then examined for BZY10 samples prepared using four differing processing methods: (1) spark plasma sintering (SPS), (2) conventional sintering using powder prepared by solid-state reaction followed by high-temperature annealing (HT), (3) conventional sintering using powder prepared by solid-state reaction with NiO used as a sintering aid (SSR-Ni), and (4) solid-state reactive sintering directly from BaCO3, ZrO2, and Y2O3

  15. Second harmonic generation study of malachite green adsorption at the interface between air and an electrolyte solution: observing the effect of excess electrical charge density at the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinsuk; Kim, Mahn Won

    2010-03-11

    Understanding the differential adsorption of ions at the interface of an electrolyte solution is very important because it is closely related, not only to the fundamental aspects of biological systems, but also to many industrial applications. We have measured the excess interfacial negative charge density at air-electrolyte solution interfaces by using resonant second harmonic generation of oppositely charged probe molecules. The excess charge density increased with the square root of the bulk electrolyte concentration. A new adsorption model that includes the electrostatic interaction between adsorbed molecules is proposed to explain the measured adsorption isotherm, and it is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M A; D' Auria, R; Kuo, I W; Krisch, M J; Starr, D E; Bluhm, H; Tobias, D J; Hemminger, J C

    2008-04-23

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of x-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F{sup -} to K{sup +} atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, and this is consistent with the depletion of F{sup -} at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at a potassium fluoride aqueous solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.

  17. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graetzel, Michael; Janssen, René A. J.; Mitzi, David B.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their solar-power conversion efficiencies. The nanometre (electron) and micrometre (photon) scale interfaces between the crystalline domains that make up solution-processed solar cells are crucial for efficient charge transport. These interfaces include large surface area junctions between photoelectron donors and acceptors, the intralayer grain boundaries within the absorber, and the interfaces between photoactive layers and the top and bottom contacts. Controlling the collection and minimizing the trapping of charge carriers at these boundaries is crucial to efficiency. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetzel, Michael; Janssen, René A J; Mitzi, David B; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-08-16

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their solar-power conversion efficiencies. The nanometre (electron) and micrometre (photon) scale interfaces between the crystalline domains that make up solution-processed solar cells are crucial for efficient charge transport. These interfaces include large surface area junctions between photoelectron donors and acceptors, the intralayer grain boundaries within the absorber, and the interfaces between photoactive layers and the top and bottom contacts. Controlling the collection and minimizing the trapping of charge carriers at these boundaries is crucial to efficiency.

  19. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graetzel, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their solar-power conversion efficiencies. The nanometre (electron) and micrometre (photon) scale interfaces between the crystalline domains that make up solution-processed solar cells are crucial for efficient charge transport. These interfaces include large surface area junctions between photoelectron donors and acceptors, the intralayer grain boundaries within the absorber, and the interfaces between photoactive layers and the top and bottom contacts. Controlling the collection and minimizing the trapping of charge carriers at these boundaries is crucial to efficiency. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Solute-solvent interactions and dynamics probed by THz light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Gerhard; Böhm, Fabian; Ma, Chun-Yu; Havenith, Martina

    The THz range (1-12 THz, 30-400 cm-1) is especially suited to probe changes in the solvent dynamics induced by solutes of different character (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, charged, neutral). In recent years we have investigated a large variety of such solutes and found characteristic spectral fingerprints for ions, but also for uncharged solutes, such as alcohols. We will present a status report on our current understanding of the observed spectral changes and how they relate to physico-chemical parameters like hydration shell size or the lifetime of an excited intermolecular oscillation. In addition, we will show, that in some cases the spectral changes are closely related to the partition function yielding access to a microscopic understanding of macroscopic thermodynamic functions. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (Ruhr-Universität, EXC1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  1. Smart mobility solution with multiple input Output interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Aartika; Deb, Sujay; Ranjan, Prabhat; Sardar, Arghya

    2017-07-01

    Smart wheelchairs are commonly used to provide solution for mobility impairment. However their usage is limited primarily due to high cost owing from sensors required for giving input, lack of adaptability for different categories of input and limited functionality. In this paper we propose a smart mobility solution using smartphone with inbuilt sensors (accelerometer, camera and speaker) as an input interface. An Emotiv EPOC+ is also used for motor imagery based input control synced with facial expressions in cases of extreme disability. Apart from traction, additional functions like home security and automation are provided using Internet of Things (IoT) and web interfaces. Although preliminary, our results suggest that this system can be used as an integrated and efficient solution for people suffering from mobility impairment. The results also indicate a decent accuracy is obtained for the overall system.

  2. Study of solute segregation at interfaces using Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial segregation, often confined to within a few atomic distances of the interface, can strongly influence the processing and properties of metals and ceramics. The thinness of such solute-enriched regions can cause them to be particularly suitable for study using surface sensitive microanalytical techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The application of AES to studies of interfacial segregation in metals and ceramics is briefly reviewed, and several examples are presented. 43 references, 14 figures

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICON-SILICON DIOXIDE INTERFACE USING PROBE ELECTROMETRY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Pilipenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of submicron design standards into microelectronic industry and a decrease of the gate dielectric thickness raise the importance of the analysis of microinhomogeneities in the silicon-silicon dioxide system. However, there is very little to no information on practical implementation of probe electrometry methods, and particularly scanning Kelvin probe method, in the interoperational control of real semiconductor manufacturing process. The purpose of the study was the development of methods for nondestructive testing of semiconductor wafers based on the determination of electrophysical properties of the silicon-silicon dioxide interface and their spatial distribution over wafer’s surface using non-contact probe electrometry methods.Traditional C-V curve analysis and scanning Kelvin probe method were used to characterize silicon- silicon dioxide interface. The samples under testing were silicon wafers of KEF 4.5 and KDB 12 type (orientation <100>, diameter 100 mm.Probe electrometry results revealed uniform spatial distribution of wafer’s surface potential after its preliminary rapid thermal treatment. Silicon-silicon dioxide electric potential values were also higher after treatment than before it. This potential growth correlates with the drop in interface charge density. At the same time local changes in surface potential indicate changes in surface layer structure.Probe electrometry results qualitatively reflect changes of interface charge density in silicon-silicon dioxide structure during its technological treatment. Inhomogeneities of surface potential distribution reflect inhomogeneity of damaged layer thickness and can be used as a means for localization of interface treatment defects.

  4. Probing Electrochemical Reactions at a Plasma-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    shift in the absorption spectrum. However, unlike conventional electrochemical systems with a solid cathode , the electrons enter the solution with...yields of the well-understood reduction of silver (Ag+) were measured. In electrochemistry, metals are electrodeposited on a substrate and the weight is...nanoparticles, which can disperse and in some cases dissolve. In order to measure the weight in a manner similar to electrodeposition experiments, we

  5. Supramolecular chemistry at the liquid/solid interface probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyter, S. De; Uji-i, H.; Mamdouh, W.; Miura, A.; Zhang, J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.; Chen, Z.; Wurthner, F.; Schuurmans, N.; Esch, J. van; Feringa, B.L.; Dulcey, A.E.; Percec, V.; Schryver, F.C. De

    2006-01-01

    The liquid/solid interface provides an ideal environment to investigate self-assembly phenomena, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is one of the preferred methodologies to probe the structure and the properties of physisorbed monolayers on the nanoscale. Physisorbed monolayers are of

  6. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Stephan, E-mail: lotze@amolf.nl; Versluis, Jan [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bakker, Huib J., E-mail: bakker@amolf.nl [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  7. Brain-computer interfaces for EEG neurofeedback: peculiarities and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, René J; Mokom, Zacharais N; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback training procedures designed to alter a person's brain activity have been in use for nearly four decades now and represent one of the earliest applications of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The majority of studies using neurofeedback technology relies on recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and applies neurofeedback in clinical contexts, exploring its potential as treatment for psychopathological syndromes. This clinical focus significantly affects the technology behind neurofeedback BCIs. For example, in contrast to other BCI applications, neurofeedback BCIs usually rely on EEG-derived features with only a minimum of additional processing steps being employed. Here, we highlight the peculiarities of EEG-based neurofeedback BCIs and consider their relevance for software implementations. Having reviewed already existing packages for the implementation of BCIs, we introduce our own solution which specifically considers the relevance of multi-subject handling for experimental and clinical trials, for example by implementing ready-to-use solutions for pseudo-/sham-neurofeedback. © 2013.

  8. Observation of carbon growth and interface structures in methanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Kimio

    2015-11-01

    In the deposition of carbon on the surface of a tungsten tip in methanol solution by electrolysis, the growth structure of the carbon films, the interface state, and the dissolution of carbon atoms into the tungsten matrix of the substrate have been investigated with the atomic events by field ion microscopy (FIM). The carbon films preferentially condense on the W{111} plane. The interfacial reaction at the carbon atom-tungsten substrate interface is vigorous and the carbon atoms also readily dissolve into the substrate matrix to form a tungsten-carbon complex. The reaction depth of the deposited carbon depends on the magnitude of electrolytic current and the treatment duration in the methanol solution. In this work, the resolution depth of carbon was found to be approximately 270 atomic layers below the top layer of the tungsten substrate by a field evaporation technique. In the case of a low electrolytic current, the tungsten substrate surface is entirely covered with carbon atoms having a pseudomorphic structure. The field-electron emission characteristics were also evaluated for various coverages of the carbon film formed on the substrate.

  9. Forces between a rigid probe particle and a liquid interface. II. The general case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagastine, R R; White, L R

    2002-03-15

    The semianalytic theory developed previously (Chan, D. Y. C., Dagastine, R. R., and White, L. R., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 236, 141 (2001)) to predict the force curve of an AFM measurement at a liquid interface using a colloidal probe has been expanded to incorporate a general force law with both attractive and repulsive forces. Expressions for the gradient of the force curve are developed to calculate the point at which the probe particle on the cantilever will spontaneously jump in toward the liquid interface. The calculation of the jump instability is reduced to a straightforward embroidery of the simple algorithms presented in Chan et al. In a variety of sample calculations using force laws including van der Waals, electrostatic, and hydrophobic forces for both oil/water and bubble/water interfaces, we have duplicated the general behaviors observed in several AFM investigations at liquid interfaces. The behavior of the drop as a Hookean spring and the numerical difficulties of a full numerical calculation of F(deltaX) are also discussed.

  10. Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface

  11. Kinetics of Surfactant Desorption at an Air–Solution Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Morgan, C. E.

    2012-12-18

    The kinetics of re-equilibration of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate at the air-solution interface have been studied using neutron reflectivity. The experimental arrangement incorporates a novel flow cell in which the subphase can be exchanged (diluted) using a laminar flow while the surface region remains unaltered. The rate of the re-equilibration is relatively slow and occurs over many tens of minutes, which is comparable with the dilution time scale of approximately 10-30 min. A detailed mathematical model, in which the rate of the desorption is determined by transport through a near-surface diffusion layer into a diluted bulk solution below, is developed and provides a good description of the time-dependent adsorption data. A key parameter of the model is the ratio of the depth of the diffusion layer, H c, to the depth of the fluid, Hf, and we find that this is related to the reduced Péclet number, Pe*, for the system, via Hc/Hf = C/Pe*1/2. Although from a highly idealized experimental arrangement, the results provide an important insight into the "rinse mechanism", which is applicable to a wide variety of domestic and industrial circumstances. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Cost and Performance Report for Tri-Service Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Membrane Interface Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The SCAPS ion trap mass spectrometer-Membrane Interface Probe (ITMS-MIP) system was developed to respond to the need for real-time, in situ measurements of subsurface volatile organic compounds (VOC...

  13. Fabrication and Microassembly of a mm-Sized Floating Probe for a Distributed Wireless Neural Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyungwoo Yeon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new class of wireless neural interfaces is under development in the form of tens to hundreds of mm-sized untethered implants, distributed across the target brain region(s. Unlike traditional interfaces that are tethered to a centralized control unit and suffer from micromotions that may damage the surrounding neural tissue, the new free-floating wireless implantable neural recording (FF-WINeR probes will be stand-alone, directly communicating with an external interrogator. Towards development of the FF-WINeR, in this paper we describe the micromachining, microassembly, and hermetic packaging of 1-mm3 passive probes, each of which consists of a thinned micromachined silicon die with a centered Ø(diameter 130 μm through-hole, an Ø81 μm sharpened tungsten electrode, a 7-turn gold wire-wound coil wrapped around the die, two 0201 surface mount capacitors on the die, and parylene-C/Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS coating. The fabricated passive probe is tested under a 3-coil inductive link to evaluate power transfer efficiency (PTE and power delivered to a load (PDL for feasibility assessment. The minimum PTE/PDL at 137 MHz were 0.76%/240 μW and 0.6%/191 μW in the air and lamb head medium, respectively, with coil separation of 2.8 cm and 9 kΩ receiver (Rx loading. Six hermetically sealed probes went through wireless hermeticity testing, using a 2-coil inductive link under accelerated lifetime testing condition of 85 °C, 1 atm, and 100%RH. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF of the probes at 37 °C is extrapolated to be 28.7 years, which is over their lifetime.

  14. In situ scanning probe spectroscopy at nanoscale solid/liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Hugelmann, M.; Hugelmann, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry provides unique features for the preparation of low-dimensional structures, but in situ spectroscopy with atomic/molecular resolution at such structures is at present not well established yet. This paper shows that in situ scanning probe spectroscopy at solid/liquid interfaces can be utilized to study electronic properties at nanoscale, if appropriate conditions are applied. Tunneling spectroscopy provides information about tunneling barrier heights and electronic states in the tunneling gap, as shown on Au(1 1 1) substrates, contact spectroscopy allows for transport measurements at single nanostructures, as shown at Au/n-Si(1 1 1) nanodiodes. The influence of the electrolytic environment on spectroscopic investigations is not a principal limitation, but offers additional degrees of freedom, which allow, for example, spectroscopic studies of potential dependent surface phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy as Molecular Probe of the Macroscopic Metal-Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kiefer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal-liquid interfaces are of the utmost importance in a number of scientific areas, including electrochemistry and catalysis. However, complicated analytical methods and sample preparation are usually required to study the interfacial phenomena. We propose an infrared spectroscopic approach that enables investigating the molecular interactions at the interface, but needing only minimal or no sample preparation. For this purpose, the internal reflection element (IRE is wetted with a solution as first step. Second, a small plate of the metal of interest is put on top and pressed onto the IRE. The tiny amount of liquid that is remaining between the IRE and the metal is sufficient to produce an IR spectrum with good signal to noise ratio, from which information about molecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, can be deduced. Proof-of-concept experiments were carried out with aqueous salt and acid solutions and an aluminum plate.

  16. An effective colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for bisulfite in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xi; Zhang, Tao; Du, Zhi-Fang; Cao, Xiang-Jian; Chen, Ming-Yu; Hu, Sheng-Wen; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    We have developed the first two-photon colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe, BICO, for the detection of bisulfite (HSO 3 − ) in aqueous solution. The probe contains coumarin and benzimidazole moieties and can detect HSO 3 − based on the Michael addition reaction with a limit of detection 5.3 × 10 −8  M in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The probe was used to detect bisulfite in tap water, sugar and dry white wine. Moreover, test strips were made and used easily. We successfully applied the probe to image living cells, using one-photon fluorescence imaging. BICO overcomes the limitations in sensitivity of previously reported probes and the solvation effect of bisulfite, which demonstrates its excellent value in practical application. - Highlights: • A colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe was developed. • The probe could detect bisulfite in PBS buffer solution and real samples. • Bisulfite test paper was made to naked-eye detect bisulfite. • This probe successfully used to living cell imaging in ratiometric manner

  17. An effective colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for bisulfite in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xi [Institute of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Tao [Institute of Developmental Biology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Du, Zhi-Fang; Cao, Xiang-Jian; Chen, Ming-Yu [Institute of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Sheng-Wen [Institute of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [Institute of Developmental Biology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [Institute of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-12

    We have developed the first two-photon colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe, BICO, for the detection of bisulfite (HSO{sub 3}{sup −}) in aqueous solution. The probe contains coumarin and benzimidazole moieties and can detect HSO{sub 3}{sup −} based on the Michael addition reaction with a limit of detection 5.3 × 10{sup −8} M in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The probe was used to detect bisulfite in tap water, sugar and dry white wine. Moreover, test strips were made and used easily. We successfully applied the probe to image living cells, using one-photon fluorescence imaging. BICO overcomes the limitations in sensitivity of previously reported probes and the solvation effect of bisulfite, which demonstrates its excellent value in practical application. - Highlights: • A colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe was developed. • The probe could detect bisulfite in PBS buffer solution and real samples. • Bisulfite test paper was made to naked-eye detect bisulfite. • This probe successfully used to living cell imaging in ratiometric manner.

  18. Non-uniform Solute Segregation at Semi-Coherent Metal/Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Samrat; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Fluss, Michael J.; Hsiung, Luke L.; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-08-01

    The properties and performance of metal/oxide nanocomposites are governed by the structure and chemistry of the metal/oxide interfaces. Here we report an integrated theoretical and experimental study examining the role of interfacial structure, particularly misfit dislocations, on solute segregation at a metal/oxide interface. We find that the local oxygen environment, which varies significantly between the misfit dislocations and the coherent terraces, dictates the segregation tendency of solutes to the interface. Depending on the nature of the solute and local oxygen content, segregation to misfit dislocations can change from attraction to repulsion, revealing the complex interplay between chemistry and structure at metal/oxide interfaces. These findings indicate that the solute chemistry at misfit dislocations is controlled by the dislocation density and oxygen content. Fundamental thermodynamic concepts - the Hume-Rothery rules and the Ellingham diagram - qualitatively predict the segregation behavior of solutes to such interfaces, providing design rules for novel interfacial chemistries.

  19. In situ composition measurements of Bunsen reaction solution by radiation probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shinji; Nagaya, Yasunobu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Measuring equipments are integral to chemical process controls. A stable hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur thermochemical water-splitting process is relatively difficult because of lack of existing in situ composition measurement techniques for multiple components and corrosive solution. Composition regulations of Bunsen reaction solution is particularly important, since a closed cycle system provided with this process causes that the many streams with different composition return to this section. Accordingly Bunsen solution becomes changeable composition. Radiation probes have a potential for applications to determine this multiple component solution while the non-contact approach avoids the corrosive issues. Moreover the probes have features of the promptness, contact-less and sequential use. Laboratory scale experiments to evaluate these possibilities of the measurement were conducted with use of simulated Bunsen solution, HIx solution and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, containing HI, I2, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O and sealed radiation sources. Radiations were counted, which were interacted with the solutions in various compositions around room temperature contained in vessels. For HIx solution, the obtained counting rates were correlated with hydrogen volume concentrations; moreover, the application of the Monte Carlo method suggests possibilities that the detector responses for HIx solution by the radiation probes are predictable. For H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, iodine atoms had significant influences on the relationship between output values of two gamma-ray density meters, cesium source as higher energy and barium source as lower energy. This results suggest that the neutron ray probe, the gamma-ray probes of both lower energy and higher energy have possibilities to determine the composition of Bunsen solution of HIx and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. (orig.)

  20. A highly sensitive fluorescent probe based on BODIPY for Hg2+ in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Junwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive fluorescent probe based on BODIPY and hydrazine for Hg2+ was designed and synthesized.This probe could detect mercury ions in aqueous solutions within 5 min.With the increase of Hg2+ mole concentration,an obvious red shift of UV-Vis absorption wavelength was observed and the fluorescence intensity significantly enhanced.It was found that the fluorescence intensity of an aqueous solution containing 0.1 μmol/L Hg2+ is much stronger than that of blank solution,which indicats that the fluorescent probe has high sensitivity.In addition,other metal ions could not cause the change of fluorescent spectra,which means this probe has good selectivity,as well.

  1. Thermal interface material characterization for cryogenic electronic packaging solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; McCusker, K.; Van Dyke, J.; Isler, B.; Christiansen, M.

    2017-12-01

    As applications of superconducting logic technologies continue to grow, the need for efficient and reliable cryogenic packaging becomes crucial to development and testing. A trade study of materials was done to develop a practical understanding of the properties of interface materials around 4 K. While literature exists for varying interface tests, discrepancies are found in the reported performance of different materials and in the ranges of applied force in which they are optimal. In considering applications extending from top cooling a silicon chip to clamping a heat sink, a range of forces from approximately 44 N to approximately 445 N was chosen for testing different interface materials. For each range of forces a single material was identified to optimize the thermal conductance of the joint. Of the tested interfaces, indium foil clamped at approximately 445 N showed the highest thermal conductance. Results are presented from these characterizations and useful methodologies for efficient testing are defined.

  2. Probing Spin Crossover in a Solution by Paramagnetic NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexander A; Denisov, Gleb L; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Novikov, Valentin V

    2017-12-18

    Spin transitions in spin-crossover compounds are now routinely studied in the solid state by magnetometry; however, only a few methods exist for studies in solution. The currently used Evans method, which relies on NMR spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility, requires the availability of a very pure sample of the paramagnetic compound and its exact concentration. To overcome these limitations, we propose an alternative NMR-based technique for evaluating spin-state populations by only using the chemical shifts of a spin-crossover compound; those can be routinely obtained for a solution that contains unknown impurities and paramagnetic admixtures or is contaminated otherwise.

  3. Refraction at a curved dielectric interface - Geometrical optics solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-W.; Sheshadri, M. S.; Mittra, R.; Jamnejad, V.

    1982-01-01

    The transmission of a spherical or plane wave through an arbitrarily curved dielectric interface is solved by the geometrical optics theory. The transmitted field is proportional to the product of the conventional Fresnel's transmission coefficient and a divergence factor (DF), which describes the cross-sectional variation (convergence or divergence) of a ray pencil as the latter propagates in the transmitted region. The factor DF depends on the incident wavefront, the curvatures of the interface, and the relative indices of the two media. Explicit matrix formulas for calculating DF are given, and its physical significance is illustrated via examples.

  4. STABILITY OF A CYLINDRICAL SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE: EFFECT OF GEOMETRY, ELECTROSTATICS, AND HYDRODYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B O; Sun, Hui; Zhou, Shenggao

    The solute-solvent interface that separates biological molecules from their surrounding aqueous solvent characterizes the conformation and dynamics of such molecules. In this work, we construct a solvent fluid dielectric boundary model for the solvation of charged molecules and apply it to study the stability of a model cylindrical solute-solvent interface. The motion of the solute-solvent interface is defined to be the same as that of solvent fluid at the interface. The solvent fluid is assumed to be incompressible and is described by the Stokes equation. The solute is modeled simply by the ideal-gas law. All the viscous force, hydrostatic pressure, solute-solvent van der Waals interaction, surface tension, and electrostatic force are balanced at the solute-solvent interface. We model the electrostatics by Poisson's equation in which the solute-solvent interface is treated as a dielectric boundary that separates the low-dielectric solute from the high-dielectric solvent. For a cylindrical geometry, we find multiple cylindrically shaped equilibrium interfaces that describe polymodal (e.g., dry and wet) states of hydration of an underlying molecular system. These steady-state solutions exhibit bifurcation behavior with respect to the charge density. For their linearized systems, we use the projection method to solve the fluid equation and find the dispersion relation. Our asymptotic analysis shows that, for large wavenumbers, the decay rate is proportional to wavenumber with the proportionality half of the ratio of surface tension to solvent viscosity, indicating that the solvent viscosity does affect the stability of a solute-solvent interface. Consequences of our analysis in the context of biomolecular interactions are discussed.

  5. An induced current method for measuring zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a novel and very simple method for measuring the zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface. When a measuring electrode contacts the electrolyte solution-air interface, an electrical current will be generated due to the potential difference between the electrode-air surface and the electrolyte solution-air interface. The amplitude of the measured electric signal is linearly proportional to this potential difference; and depends only on the zeta potential at the electrolyte solution-air interface, regardless of the types and concentrations of the electrolyte. A correlation between the zeta potential and the measured voltage signal is obtained based on the experimental data. Using this equation, the zeta potential of any electrolyte solution-air interface can be evaluated quickly and easily by inserting an electrode through the electrolyte solution-air interface and measuring the electrical signal amplitude. This method was verified by comparing the obtained results of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 solutions of different pH values and concentrations with the zeta potential data reported in the published journal papers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Robotic and user interface solutions for hazardous and remote applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is developing novel robotic and user interface systems to assist in the cleanup activities undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Under DOE's EM-50 funding and administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), CMU has developed a novel asbestos pipe-insulation abatement robot system, called BOA, and a novel generic user interface control and training console, dubbed RoboCon. The use of BOA will allow the speedier abatement of the vast DOE piping networks clad with hazardous and contaminated asbestos insulation by which overall job costs can be reduced by as much as 50%. RoboCon will allow the DOE to evaluate different remote and robotic system technologies from the overall man-machine performance standpoint, as well as provide a standardized training platform for training site operators in the operation of remote and robotic equipment

  7. RIS modality interfaces. From proprietary solutions to DICOM worklist management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, D.; Kotter, E.; Langer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiologic information systems (RIS) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are becoming increasingly widespread. This leads to new demands on the integration of the individual, formerly independent information systems (RIS, modalities, PACS). Possible ways of integrating individual systems are introduced. Besides the detailed description of different realizations of system communication, its role in the PACS at the university hospital in Freiburg is explained. The integration of different information systems still requires the use of proprietary interfaces. An appropriate integration generally has been realized in Freiburg. In the near future DICOM basic worklist management will standardize system integration and render an interdepartmental workflow concept possible. Even though an available communication standard exists, not all problems in the RIS-modality interface are solved. Different data models in the various RI systems and modalities demand certain degrees of freedom in the standard. Thus a satisfactory workflow cannot be guaranteed even when all involved systems conform with the standard. (orig.) [de

  8. Design solutions to interface flow problems. Figures - Tables - Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation

  9. Atom-probe tomographic study of interfaces of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, S., E-mail: e0954@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Asahi, R.; Itoh, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Ohishi, K. [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Isheim, D.; Seidman, D. N. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The heterophase interfaces between the CdS buffer layer and the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) absorption layers are one of the main factors affecting photovoltaic performance of CZTS cells. We have studied the compositional distributions at heterophase interfaces in CZTS cells using three-dimensional atom-probe tomography. The results demonstrate: (a) diffusion of Cd into the CZTS layer; (b) segregation of Zn at the CdS/CZTS interface; and (c) a change of oxygen and hydrogen concentrations in the CdS layer depending on the heat treatment. Annealing at 573 K after deposition of CdS improves the photovoltaic properties of CZTS cells probably because of the formation of a heterophase epitaxial junction at the CdS/CZTS interface. Conversely, segregation of Zn at the CdS/CZTS interface after annealing at a higher temperature deteriorates the photovoltaic properties.

  10. Studies of extractant molecules in solution and at liquid-liquid interfaces: structural and mechanistic aspects of synergy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaden, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reported herein provide new important insights into cation recognition and complexation in solution as well as liquid-liquid extraction, with a particular focus on the microscopic events taking place at the interface between two immiscible liquids. Preliminary studies concerned the representation of the trivalent rare earth cations La 3+ , Eu 3+ and Yb 3+ in force field simulations, probing structural and energetic features on an experimentally characterized model system based on substituted pyridine dicarboxamide ligands. Complexation of such cations by a novel calixarene derivative was investigated showing unexpected features, such as the position of the cation in the complex. Independent experimental studies published subsequently support these findings. Another part of the work is related to industrial liquid-liquid extraction systems using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as co-solvent, extractant, surfactant and synergist. We investigate 1) concentration effects simulating up to 60 TBP at a water/chloroform interface, 2) acidity using a neutral and ionic model of HNO 3 and 3) synergistic aspects of mixed TBP/calixarene extraction systems. These simulations provide the first microscopic insights into such issues. We finally addressed the topic of solute transfer across the water/chloroform interface. The potential of mean force for such a process has been calculated by both standard methods and novel approaches [fr

  11. Human-computer interfaces applied to numerical solution of the Plateau problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias Fabris, Antonio; Soares Bandeira, Ivana; Ramos Batista, Valério

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a code in Matlab to solve the Problem of Plateau numerically, and the code will include human-computer interface. The Problem of Plateau has applications in areas of knowledge like, for instance, Computer Graphics. The solution method will be the same one of the Surface Evolver, but the difference will be a complete graphical interface with the user. This will enable us to implement other kinds of interface like ocular mouse, voice, touch, etc. To date, Evolver does not include any graphical interface, which restricts its use by the scientific community. Specially, its use is practically impossible for most of the Physically Challenged People.

  12. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  13. The Use Of Scanning Probe Microscopy To Investigate Crystal-Fluid Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orme, C A; Giocondi, J L

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a natural drive to extend the investigation of dynamic surfaces in fluid environments to higher resolution characterization tools. Various aspects of solution crystal growth have been directly visualized for the first time. These include island nucleation and growth using transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy; elemental step motion using scanning probe microscopy; and the time evolution of interfacial atomic structure using various diffraction techniques. In this lecture we will discuss the use of one such in situ method, scanning probe microscopy, as a means of measuring surface dynamics during crystal growth and dissolution. We will cover both practical aspects of imaging such as environmental control, fluid flow, and electrochemical manipulation, as well as the types of physical measurements that can be made. Measurements such as step motion, critical lengths, nucleation density, and step fluctuations, will be put in context of the information they provide about mechanistic processes at surfaces using examples from metal and mineral crystal growth

  14. The effect of probe choice and solution conditions on the apparent photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizel, Andrew C; Remucal, Christina K

    2017-08-16

    Excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter ( 3 DOM) are quantified directly with the species-specific probes trans,trans-hexadienoic acid (HDA) and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), and indirectly with the singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) probe furfuryl alcohol (FFA). Although previous work suggests that these probe compounds may be sensitive to solution conditions, including dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and pH, and may quantify different 3 DOM subpopulations, the probes have not been systematically compared. Therefore, we quantify the apparent photoreactivity of diverse environmental waters using HDA, TMP, and FFA. By conducting experiments under ambient [DOC] and pH, with standardized [DOC] and pH, and with solid phase extraction isolates, we demonstrate that much of the apparent dissimilarity in photochemical measurements is attributable to solution conditions, rather than intrinsic differences in 3 DOM production. In general, apparent quantum yields (Φ 1 O 2 ≥ Φ 3 DOM,TMP ≫ Φ 3 DOM,HDA ) and pseudo-steady state concentrations ([ 1 O 2 ] ss > [ 3 DOM] ss,TMP > [ 3 DOM] ss,HDA ) show consistent relationships in all waters under standardized conditions. However, intrinsic differences in 3 DOM photoreactivity are apparent between DOM from diverse sources, as seen in the higher Φ 1 O 2 and lower Φ 3 DOM,TMP of wastewater effluents compared with oligotrophic lakes. Additionally, while conflicting trends in photoreactivity are observed under ambient conditions, all probes observe quantum yields increasing from surface wetlands to terrestrially influenced waters to oligotrophic lakes under standardized conditions. This work elucidates how probe selection and solution conditions influence the apparent photoreactivity of environmental waters and confirms that 3 DOM or 1 O 2 probes cannot be used interchangeably in waters that vary in [DOC], pH, or DOM source.

  15. Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grätzel, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Mitzi, D.B.; Sargent, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility. Rapid progress in their development has increased their

  16. Probing alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures of peptides at solid/liquid interfaces with SFG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jie; Sniadecki, Jason J; Even, Mark A; Chen, Zhan

    2005-03-29

    We demonstrated that sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy can distinguish different secondary structures of proteins or peptides adsorbed at solid/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectrum for tachyplesin I at the polystyrene (PS)/solution interface has a fingerprint peak corresponding to the B1/B3 mode of the antiparallel beta-sheet. This peak disappeared upon the addition of dithiothreitol, which can disrupt the beta-sheet structure. The SFG spectrum indicative of the MSI594 alpha-helical structure was observed at the PS/MSI594 solution interface. This research validates SFG as a powerful technique for revealing detailed secondary structures of interfacial proteins and peptides.

  17. Spectral Solutions of Self-adjoint Elliptic Problems with Immersed Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchmuty, G.; Klouček, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a spectral representation of solutions of self-adjoint elliptic problems with immersed interfaces. The interface is assumed to be a simple non-self-intersecting closed curve that obeys some weak regularity conditions. The problem is decomposed into two problems, one with zero interface data and the other with zero exterior boundary data. The problem with zero interface data is solved by standard spectral methods. The problem with non-zero interface data is solved by introducing an interface space H Γ (Ω) and constructing an orthonormal basis of this space. This basis is constructed using a special class of orthogonal eigenfunctions analogously to the methods used for standard trace spaces by Auchmuty (SIAM J. Math. Anal. 38, 894–915, 2006). Analytical and numerical approximations of these eigenfunctions are described and some simulations are presented.

  18. Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-02-10

    van der Waals homo- and heterostructures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. We investigated the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm(-1) and the intensity can vary by a factor of ∼5 for twisting angles near 0° and 60°, where the stacking is a mixture of high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus sensitive to twisting. For twisting angles between 20° and 40°, the interlayer coupling is nearly constant because the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating nonuniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2 and potentially other two-dimensional materials and heterostructures.

  19. A study of the electrode/solution interface during electrochemical reactions by digital holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENHAO CHEN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital holography was used to study in situ the dynamic changes of the electrode/solution interface and the solution near the electrode during the anodic process of iron in a sulfuric acid solution. The effects of chloride, bromide and iodine ions on this process were also investigated. The magnetic field also has effects on the process. The effects are discussed in combination with SEM results.

  20. A new scaling for the rotational diffusion of molecular probes in polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jing; Chen, Anpu; Zhao, Nanrong

    2017-12-13

    In the present work, we propose a new scaling form for the rotational diffusion coefficient of molecular probes in semi-dilute polymer solutions, based on a theoretical study. The mean-field theory for depletion effect and semi-empirical scaling equation for the macroscopic viscosity of polymer solutions are properly incorporated to specify the space-dependent concentration and viscosity profiles in the vicinity of the probe surface. Following the scheme of classical fluid mechanics, we numerically evaluate the shear torque exerted on the probes, which then allows us to further calculate the rotational diffusion coefficient D r . Particular attention is given to the scaling behavior of the retardation factor R rot ≡ D/D r with D being the diffusion coefficient in pure solvent. We find that R rot has little relevance to the macroscopic viscosity of the polymer solution, while it can be well featured by the characteristic length scale r h /δ, i.e. the ratio between the hydrodynamic radius of the probe r h and the depletion thickness δ. Correspondingly, we obtain a novel scaling form for the rotational retardation factor, following R rot = exp[a(r h /δ) b ] with rather robust parameters of a ≃ 0.51 and b ≃ 0.56. We apply the theory to an extensive calculation for various probes in specific polymer solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dextran. Our theoretical results show good agreements with the experimental data, and clearly demonstrate the validity of the new scaling form. In addition, the difference of the scaling behavior between translational and rotational diffusions is clarified, from which we conclude that the depletion effect plays a more significant role on the local rotational diffusion rather than the long-range translation diffusion.

  1. Physical chemistry of the interface between oxide and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior and properties of small oxide particles in aqueous suspension are dominated by the physico-chemistry of their surface. It is electrostatically charged and strongly solvated. The origin of the surface charge is discussed through the MUSIC model [Hiemstra 1996], allowing to estimate the acid-base behavior of surface oxygen atoms. The stability of aqueous dispersions of particles is analysed following the DLVO model, with a special attention on the hydration layers allowing the peptization of flocs. Different adsorption mechanisms of metal cations are presented in terms of coordination chemistry (outer- and inner-sphere complexes) emphasizing the coordinating ability of the surface towards metal complexes in solution. The anion adsorption is also studied in relation with some interesting consequences on spinel iron oxide nano-particles. (author)

  2. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop

  3. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1995-09-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.

  4. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology: challenges, solutions and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology. (paper)

  5. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology: challenges, solutions and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-08-01

    DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology.

  6. A Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) Technique for the Measurement of Solute Transport Across Surfactant-Laden Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Edward P.; Hatton, T. Alan

    1996-01-01

    The technique of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been applied to the measurement of interfacial transport in two-phase systems. FRAP exploits the loss of fluorescence exhibited by certain fluorophores when over-stimulated (photobleached), so that a two-phase system, originally at equilibrium, can be perturbed without disturbing the interface by strong light from an argon-ion laser and its recovery monitored by a microscope-mounted CCD camera as it relaxes to a new equilibrium. During this relaxation, the concentration profiles of the probe solute are measured on both sides of the interface as a function of time, yielding information about the transport characteristics of the system. To minimize the size of the meniscus between the two phases, a photolithography technique is used to selectively treat the glass walls of the cell in which the phases are contained. This allows concentration measurements to be made very close to the interface and increases the sensitivity of the FRAP technique.

  7. Probing multivalency in ligand–receptor-mediated adhesion of soft, biomimetic interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schmidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many biological functions at cell level are mediated by the glycocalyx, a dense carbohydrate-presenting layer. In this layer specific interactions between carbohydrate ligands and protein receptors are formed to control cell–cell recognition, cell adhesion and related processes. The aim of this work is to shed light on the principles of complex formation between surface anchored carbohydrates and receptor surfaces by measuring the specific adhesion between surface bound mannose on a concanavalin A (ConA layer via poly(ethylene glycol-(PEG-based soft colloidal probes (SCPs. Special emphasis is on the dependence of multivalent presentation and density of carbohydrate units on specific adhesion. Consequently, we first present a synthetic strategy that allows for controlled density variation of functional groups on the PEG scaffold using unsaturated carboxylic acids (crotonic acid, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid as grafting units for mannose conjugation. We showed by a range of analytic techniques (ATR–FTIR, Raman microscopy, zeta potential and titration that this synthetic strategy allows for straightforward variation in grafting density and grafting length enabling the controlled presentation of mannose units on the PEG network. Finally we determined the specific adhesion of PEG-network-conjugated mannose units on ConA surfaces as a function of density and grafting type. Remarkably, the results indicated the absence of a molecular-level enhancement of mannose/ConA interaction due to chelate- or subsite-binding. The results seem to support the fact that weak carbohydrate interactions at mechanically flexible interfaces hardly undergo multivalent binding but are simply mediated by the high number of ligand–receptor interactions.

  8. Modeling the liquid-liquid interface and the transfer of a solute by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayoun, Marc

    1990-11-01

    Molecular Dynamics method and Lennard-Jones potential functions have been employed to model Liquid-Liquid Interfaces. The variation of the miscibilities between the two liquids is obtained by changing the interaction between the two atomic species. The resulting interfaces have a thickness of about three atomic diameters and are stable on the time scale of the simulation. They have been characterized by the density and pressure profiles. The interfacial tension has also been computed and is of the order of magnitude of experimental values. The diffusion process is anisotropic in the interfacial region: the transverse diffusion coefficient (parallelly to the interface) is higher than the normal one. A qualitative explanation of this behaviour is suggested by considering the pressure tensor. The second part of this work, performed by Molecular Dynamics in the canonical ensemble, is devoted to the kinetic study of the transfer of a solute through the interface. A model of a symmetric interface with an atomic solute has been used. The interaction potential between the solute and the solvents has been built in order to obtain an activation barrier to the transfer. We have computed the mean force exerted by the solvent on the solute as a function of its distance to the interface. The resulting mean force potential corresponds to a free energy difference. The height of the energy barrier involved is about 4 kT. The potential energy and entropy profiles have also been calculated and discussed. The diffusion coefficient of the solute has been computed by equilibrium and non-equilibrium methods. We deduced the friction coefficient of the solvent, which is essential to determine the Kramers transmission coefficient. This coefficient is compared to the one obtained by simulation. Finally, the solute transfer rate constant has been calculated. (author) [fr

  9. Oligonucleotides as probes for studying polymerization reactions in dilute aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V.; Orgel, L. E.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    We have prepared a [32P]-labled oligonucleotide probe carrying a free primary amine at its 3'-terminus. This probe is used to initiate polymerization of aziridine (ethyleneimine) in aqueous solution. The nature of the oligomeric products and the kinetics of their formation are then monitored by gel electrophoresis. Our results are generally consistent with those obtained using conventional techniques. We have also investigated the effect of polyanionic templates on the rate of oligomerization of aziridine. We find that water-soluble polyanions generally accelerate the polymerization. The sodium salt of polymethacrylic acid is the most effective of the templates that we studied. The methods introduced in this paper should be applicable to a variety of polymerization reactions in aqueous solution. They should greatly simplify the screening of potentially prebiotic polymerization reactions.

  10. Analytical Solution of Interface Effect on the Strength of Combined Model Composed of Different Geologic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the special combined structure of surrounding rock in western mining area of China, a micromechanical model with variable parameters containing contact interface was proposed firstly. Then, the derived stresses in coal and rock near the interface were analyzed on the basis of the harmonized strain relation, and the analytical solutions with respect to stress states near the interface were drawn up. The triaxial compressive strength of coal and rock was further determined in case the contact interface was in the horizontal position. Moreover, effects of stiffness ratio, interface angle, and stress level on the strength of two bodies near the contact area were expounded in detail. Results indicate that additional stresses which have significant effect on the strength of combined model are derived due to the adhesive effect of contact interface and lithological differences between geologic bodies located on both sides. The interface effect on the strength of combined body is most associated with the stiffness, interface angle, and the stress level. These conclusions are also basically valid for three-body model and even for the multibody model and lay important theory foundation to guide the stability study of soft strata composed of different geologic bodies.

  11. Dynamic Sensing of Localized Corrosion at the Metal/Solution Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenhao Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is employed to detect localized corrosion at the metal/solution interface in the potentiodynamic sweep of the iron electrode in solutions. During the electrochemical reactions, local variations of the electrolyte’s refractive index, which correlate with the concentration of dissolved species, change the optical path length (OPL of the object beam when the beam passes through the electrolyte. The distribution of the OPL difference was obtained to present the concentration change of the metal ions visually, which enable direct evidence of corrosion processes. The OPL difference distribution shows localized and general corrosion during the anodic dissolution of the iron electrode in solutions with and without chloride ions, respectively. This method provides an approach for dynamic detection of localized corrosion at the metal/solution interface.

  12. Study of the physicochemical properties of the interface between titanium dioxide and various aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazilier, C.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of ion exchange capacity of titanium dioxide in view of high temperature water purification and radioactive effluent processing because of its resistance to heat and radiations. Titanium dioxide is obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of Ti (IV) and is characterized by analytical physical chemistry methods. Interface between Ti0 2 and simple aqueous solutions (electrolytes) is more particularly studied by potentiometry [fr

  13. Interactions of U(VI), Nd, and Th(IV) at the Calcite-solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.A.; Dran, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The interactions of U(VI), Nd, and Th(IV) at the calcite-solution interface at controlled pCO 2 (g) have been investigated by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive (EDS) analyses of reacted calcite. Uranium precipitation at the calcite-solution interface was observed only for those experiments in which the initial [U(VI)] was greater than the solubility of rutherfordine, UO 2 CO 3 (s). At pH 8.0, flat radial uranium and calcium zoned precipitates form at the mineral-solution interface. At pH 4.3, uranium forms an anastomosing precipitate throughout the calcite surface. RBS analyses confirmed the SEM analyses showing that uranium forms a solid phase within the calcite surface, but formation of an uranium-calcium solid solution at depth is limited. In sharp contrast to U(VI), Nd is concentrated in the solid phase as individual neodymium-calcium carbonate crystals. Calcite and pure orthorhombic neodymium carbonate crystals dissolve at the expense of the formation of a more stable neodymium-calcium solid solution. In the presence of calcite, a thorium-calcium solid solution forms by exchanging Th for Ca in the calcite structure. Thorium precipitates in two linear trends which intersect each other at approximately 105deg C and 75deg C, parallel to calcite rhombohedral cleavage faces. (orig.)

  14. Probing the accuracy and precision of Hirshfeld atom refinement with HARt interfaced with Olex2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Fugel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR is a novel X-ray structure refinement technique that employs aspherical atomic scattering factors obtained from stockholder partitioning of a theoretically determined tailor-made static electron density. HAR overcomes many of the known limitations of independent atom modelling (IAM, such as too short element–hydrogen distances, r(X—H, or too large atomic displacement parameters (ADPs. This study probes the accuracy and precision of anisotropic hydrogen and non-hydrogen ADPs and of r(X—H values obtained from HAR. These quantities are compared and found to agree with those obtained from (i accurate neutron diffraction data measured at the same temperatures as the X-ray data and (ii multipole modelling (MM, an established alternative method for interpreting X-ray diffraction data with the help of aspherical atomic scattering factors. Results are presented for three chemically different systems: the aromatic hydrocarbon rubrene (orthorhombic 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene, a co-crystal of zwitterionic betaine, imidazolium cations and picrate anions (BIPa, and the salt potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHOx. The non-hydrogen HAR-ADPs are as accurate and precise as the MM-ADPs. Both show excellent agreement with the neutron-based values and are superior to IAM-ADPs. The anisotropic hydrogen HAR-ADPs show a somewhat larger deviation from neutron-based values than the hydrogen SHADE-ADPs used in MM. Element–hydrogen bond lengths from HAR are in excellent agreement with those obtained from neutron diffraction experiments, although they are somewhat less precise. The residual density contour maps after HAR show fewer features than those after MM. Calculating the static electron density with the def2-TZVP basis set instead of the simpler def2-SVP one does not improve the refinement results significantly. All HARs were performed within the recently introduced HARt option implemented in the Olex2 program. They are easily

  15. Probing the accuracy and precision of Hirshfeld atom refinement with HARt interfaced with Olex2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugel, Malte; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Hupf, Emanuel; Overgaard, Jacob; Hathwar, Venkatesha R; Macchi, Piero; Turner, Michael J; Howard, Judith A K; Dolomanov, Oleg V; Puschmann, Horst; Iversen, Bo B; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Grabowsky, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a novel X-ray structure refinement technique that employs aspherical atomic scattering factors obtained from stockholder partitioning of a theoretically determined tailor-made static electron density. HAR overcomes many of the known limitations of independent atom modelling (IAM), such as too short element-hydrogen distances, r ( X -H), or too large atomic displacement parameters (ADPs). This study probes the accuracy and precision of anisotropic hydrogen and non-hydrogen ADPs and of r ( X -H) values obtained from HAR. These quantities are compared and found to agree with those obtained from (i) accurate neutron diffraction data measured at the same temperatures as the X-ray data and (ii) multipole modelling (MM), an established alternative method for interpreting X-ray diffraction data with the help of aspherical atomic scattering factors. Results are presented for three chemically different systems: the aromatic hydro-carbon rubrene (orthorhombic 5,6,11,12-tetra-phenyl-tetracene), a co-crystal of zwitterionic betaine, imidazolium cations and picrate anions (BIPa), and the salt potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHOx). The non-hydrogen HAR-ADPs are as accurate and precise as the MM-ADPs. Both show excellent agreement with the neutron-based values and are superior to IAM-ADPs. The anisotropic hydrogen HAR-ADPs show a somewhat larger deviation from neutron-based values than the hydrogen SHADE-ADPs used in MM. Element-hydrogen bond lengths from HAR are in excellent agreement with those obtained from neutron diffraction experiments, although they are somewhat less precise. The residual density contour maps after HAR show fewer features than those after MM. Calculating the static electron density with the def2-TZVP basis set instead of the simpler def2-SVP one does not improve the refinement results significantly. All HARs were performed within the recently introduced HARt option implemented in the Olex2 program. They are easily launched

  16. High-Order Finite-Difference Solution of the Poisson Equation with Interface Jump Conditions II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alexandre; Nave, Jean-Christophe; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2010-11-01

    The Poisson equation with jump discontinuities across an interface is of central importance in Computational Fluid Dynamics. In prior work, Marques, Nave, and Rosales have introduced a method to obtain fourth-order accurate solutions for the constant coefficient Poisson problem. Here we present an extension of this method to solve the variable coefficient Poisson problem to fourth-order of accuracy. The extended method is based on local smooth extrapolations of the solution field across the interface. The extrapolation procedure uses a combination of cubic Hermite interpolants and a high-order representation of the interface using the Gradient-Augmented Level-Set technique. This procedure is compatible with the use of standard discretizations for the Laplace operator, and leads to modified linear systems which have the same sparsity pattern as the standard discretizations. As a result, standard Poisson solvers can be used with only minimal modifications. Details of the method and applications will be presented.

  17. Electronic Properties of Functional Biomolecules at Metal/Aqueous Solution Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Kuznetsov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    in electronic properties and stochastic single-molecule features and can be probed by new methods which approach the single-molecule level. Olle of these is in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in which single-molecule electronic properties directly in aqueous solution are probed. In situ STM combined...... with physical electrochemistry, single-crystal electrodes, and spectroscopic methods is now a new dimension in interfacial bioelectrochemistry. We overview first same approaches to spectroscopic single-molecule imaging, including fluorescence spectroscopy, chemical reaction dynamics, atomic force microscopy...

  18. On NO3-H2O interactions in aqueous solutions and at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Roeselova, Martina; Garrett, Bruce C.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Constrained molecular dynamics technique was employed to investigate the transport of a nitrate ion across the water liquid/vapor interface. We developed the nitrate ion-water polarizable potential capable of describing well the solvation properties of the hydrated nitrate ion. The computed free energy profile for the transfer of the nitrate ion across the air/water interface increases monotonically as the nitrate ion approaches the Gibbs dividing surface from the bulk liquid side. The computed density profiles of 1M KNO3 salt solution slab indicate that the nitrate and potassium ions are both found below the aqueous interface. Upon analyzing the results, we can conclude that the probability of finding the nitrate anion at the aqueous interface is quite small

  19. A note on the standard electron transfer potential at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 0034-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions * interfacial electron transfer * standard electron trasfer potential * homogeneous electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  20. Solutal convection induced by dissolution. Influence on erosion dynamics and interface shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Michael; Philippi, Julien; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Rock fractures invaded by a water flow, are often subjected to dissolution, which let grow and evolve the initial fracture network, by evacuating the eroded minerals under a solute form. In the case of fast kinetic of dissolution, local erosion rate is set by the advection of the solute. The erosion velocity decreases indeed with the solute concentration at the interface and vanishes when this concentration reaches the saturation value. Even in absence of an imposed or external flow, advection can drive the dissolution, when buoyancy effects due to gravity induce a solutal convection flow, which controls the erosive dynamics and modifies the shape of the dissolving interface. Here, we investigate using model experiments with fast dissolving materials and numerical simulations in simplified situations, solutal convection induced by dissolution. Results are interpreted regarding a linear stability analysis of the corresponding solutal Rayleigh-Benard instability. A dissolving surface is suspended above a water height, initially at rest. In a first step, solute flux is transported through a growing diffusion layer. Then after an onset time, once the layer exceeds critical width, convection flow starts under the form of falling plumes. A dynamic equilibrium results in average from births and deaths of intermittent plumes, setting the size of the solute concentration boundary layer at the interface and thus the erosion velocity. Solutal convection can also induce a pattern on the dissolving interface. We show experimentally with suspended and inclined blocks of salt and sugar, that in a linear stage, the first wavelength of the dissolution pattern corresponds to the wavelength of the convection instability. Then pattern evolves to more complex shapes due to non-linear interactions between the flow and the eroded interface. More generally, we inquire what are the conditions to observe a such solutal convection instability in geological situations and if the properties of

  1. Crystalline self-assembly of organic molecules with metal ions at the air-aqueous solution interface. A grazing incidence X-ray scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, I.; Buller, R.; Kjær, K.

    2002-01-01

    The advent of intense X-rays from synchrotron sources made possible to probe, at the molecular level, the structural aspects of self-assemblies generated at interfaces. Here we present the two-dimensional (2-D) packing arrangements of two-, three- and multi-component organo-metallic self......-assemblies formed via interfacial reaction at the air-aqueous solution interface, as determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIRD) and X-ray specular reflectivity techniques. GIXD yields structural information on the crystalline part of the Langmuir film, including the ions and counterions lateral order...... of metal ions bound to the polar head groups of amphipilic molecules; use of bolaamphiphiles to generate oriented thin films with metal ions arranged in periodic layers; delineation of differences in the lateral organization of metal ions at interfaces as induced by racemates and enantiomerically pure...

  2. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules

  3. Colloidal probe dynamics in gelatin solution during the sol-gel transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Xu, Guozhi; Ou, Xiaogang; Sun, Weixiang; Wang, Tao; Tong, Zhen

    2018-05-16

    The dynamics of the colloidal probes in a gelatin solution during the time-dependent sol-gel transition was investigated by multi-particle tracking. The relationship between the relaxation of the medium at the critical gel point and the mean square displacement of the probes was elucidated. Based on this understanding, the critical gel point of gelatin and the corresponding critical exponent n were unambiguously determined by the loss angle criterion and the time-cure superposition. The shift factors of the latter are further used to estimate the time/length-scale evolution of the gelatin during the sol-gel transition. The growth of the medium length scale crossed with the two measuring length scales successively at the pre-gel regime. Coinciding with the length-scale crossovers, the probability density function (PDF) of the probe displacements displayed two transient peaks of non-Gaussianity. In the post-gel regime, the third peak of Gaussianity suggested inhomogeneity in the gel network. The non-Gaussianity results from the bifurcation of diffusivity. The present work showed that the non-Gaussian dynamics of the probes are not the direct equivalence of that of the medium, but an effect of length-scale coupling.

  4. Direct Probing of the Dielectric Scavenging-Layer Interface in Oxide Filamentary-Based Valence Change Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Umberto; Op de Beeck, Jonathan; Clima, Sergiu; Luebben, Michael; Koenraad, Paul M; Goux, Ludovic; Valov, Ilia; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2017-03-29

    A great improvement in valence change memory performance has been recently achieved by adding another metallic layer to the simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure. This metal layer is often referred to as oxygen exchange layer (OEL) and is introduced between one of the electrodes and the oxide. The OEL is believed to induce a distributed reservoir of defects at the metal-insulator interface thus providing an unlimited availability of building blocks for the conductive filament (CF). However, its role remains elusive and controversial owing to the difficulties to probe the interface between the OEL and the CF. Here, using Scalpel SPM we probe multiple functions of the OEL which have not yet been directly measured, for two popular VCMs material systems: Hf/HfO 2 and Ta/Ta 2 O 5 . We locate and characterize in three-dimensions the volume containing the oxygen exchange layer and the CF with nanometer lateral resolution. We demonstrate that the OEL induces a thermodynamic barrier for the CF and estimate the minimum thickness of the OEL/oxide interface to guarantee the proper switching operations is ca. 3 nm. Our experimental observations are combined to first-principles thermodynamics and defect kinetics to elucidate the role of the OEL for device optimization.

  5. Probing Conditions at Ionized/Molecular Gas Interfaces With High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kyle Franklin

    2017-08-01

    Regions of star formation and star death in our Galaxy trace the cycle of gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas in dense molecular clouds collapses to form stars, and stars at the end of their lives return the gas that made up their outer layers back out into the Galaxy. Hot stars generate copious amounts of ultraviolet photons which interact with the surrounding medium and dominate the energetics, ionization state, and chemistry of the gas. The interface where molecular gas is being dissociated into neutral atomic gas by far-UV photons from a nearby hot source is called a photodissociation or photon-dominated region (PDR). PDRs are found primarily in star forming regions where O and B stars serve as the source of UV photons, and in planetary nebulae where the hot core of the dying star acts as the UV source. The main target of this dissertation is molecular hydrogen (H2), the most abundant molecule in the Universe, made from hydrogen formed during the Big Bang. H2 makes up the overwhelming majority of molecules found in the ISM and in PDRs. Far-UV radiation absorbed by H2 will excite an electron in the molecule. The molecule then either dissociates ( 10% of the time; Field et al. 1966) or decays into excited rotational and vibrational ("rovibrational") levels of the electronic ground state. These excited rovibrational levels then decay via a radiative cascade to the ground rovibrational state (v = 0, J = 0), giving rise to a large number of transitions observable in emission from the mid-IR to the optical (Black & van Dishoeck, 1987). These transitions provide an excellent probe of the excitation and conditions within the gas. These transitions are also observed in warm H2, such as in shocks, where collisions excite H2 to higher rovibrational levels. High resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, with its ability to see through dust, and avoid telluric absorption and emission, serves as an effective tool to detect emission from ions, atoms, and molecules

  6. Probing ion-specific effects on aqueous acetate solutions: Ion pairing versus water structure modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Lange, Kathrin M; Conrad, Gerrit; Yamamoto, Kenji; Schwanke, Christoph; Hodeck, Kai F; Dantz, Marcus; Brandenburg, Tim; Suljoti, Edlira; Aziz, Emad F

    2014-05-01

    The effect of monovalent cations (Li(+), K(+), NH4 (+), Na(+)) on the water structure in aqueous chloride and acetate solutions was characterized by oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) of a liquid microjet. We show ion- and counterion dependent effects on the emission spectra of the oxygen K-edge, which we attribute to modifications of the hydrogen bond network of water. For acetates, ion pairing with carboxylates was also probed selectively by XAS and RIXS. We correlate our experimental results to speciation data and to the salting-out properties of the cations.

  7. Electrochemical preparation of uranium and plutonium measuring probes for alpha spectroscopy from organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, W.; Beutmann, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method for preparation of uranium and plutonium measuring probes for α-spectrometry is described. The method is based on electrodeposition from isopropanol and especially from ethanol and methanol solution. It was shown that a definite additions of a little amount of water lead to an increase of the deposition rate. It is possible to reach a 100% deposition in ethanol after an electrolysis time of 3 minutes for uranium and 30 minutes for plutonium with voltages of 150-200 V. (author)

  8. Scanning electrochemical microscopy determination of hydrogen flux at liquid|liquid interface with potentiometric probe

    OpenAIRE

    Jedraszko, Justyna; Nogala, Wojciech; Adamiak, Wojciech; Girault, Hubert H.; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy potentiometric determination of local hydrogen concentration and its flux next to the liquid|liquid interface was demonstrated. This method is based on the shift of open circuit potential of Pt-based reversible hydrogen electrode. The detection system was verified with a system generating hydrogen under galvanostatic conditions. Then, it was applied to aqueous|1,2-dichloroethane interface where hydrogen is produced with decamethylferrocene as electron donor.

  9. Ion clustering in aqueous salt solutions near the liquid/vapor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KI solutions are used to study the effects of salts on the properties of the liquid/vapor interface. The simulations use the models which include both charge transfer and polarization effects. Pairing and the formation of larger ion clusters occurs both in the bulk and surface region, with a decreased tendency to form larger clusters near the interface. An analysis of the roughness of the surface reveals that the chloride salts, which have less tendency to be near the surface, have a roughness that is less than pure water, while the iodide salts, which have a greater surface affinity, have a larger roughness. This suggests that ions away from the surface and ions near the surface affect the interface in opposite ways.

  10. Assorted interactions of amino acids prevailing in aqueous vitamin C solutions probed by physicochemical and ab-initio contrivances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.

  11. A new variable temperature solution-solid interface scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbekam, Abdolreza; Mazur, Ursula; Hipps, K W

    2014-10-01

    We present a new solution-solid (SS) interface scanning tunneling microscope design that enables imaging at high temperatures with low thermal drift and with volatile solvents. In this new design, distinct from the conventional designs, the entire microscope is surrounded in a controlled-temperature and controlled-atmosphere chamber. This allows users to take measurements at high temperatures while minimizing thermal drift. By incorporating an open solution reservoir in the chamber, solvent evaporation from the sample is minimized; allowing users to use volatile solvents for temperature dependent studies at high temperatures. The new design enables the user to image at the SS interface with some volatile solvents for long periods of time (>24 h). An increase in the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric scanner in the lateral direction as a function of temperature is addressed. A temperature dependent study of cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP) at the toluene/Au(111) interface has been performed with this instrument. It is demonstrated that the lattice parameters remain constant within experimental error from 24 °C to 75 °C. Similar quality images were obtained over the entire temperature range. We report the unit cell of CoOEP at the toluene/Au(111) interface (based on two molecules per unit cell) to be A = (1.36 ± 0.04) nm, B = (2.51 ± 0.04) nm, and α = 97° ± 2°.

  12. The crystallization of a solid solution in a solvent and the stability of a growth interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmejac, Yves

    1971-03-01

    The potential uses of germanium-silicon alloys as thermoelectric generators in hitherto unexploited temperature ranges initiated the present study. Many delicate problems are encountered in the classical methods of preparation. An original technique was sought for crystallization in a metallic solvent. The thermodynamic equilibria between the various phases of the ternary System used were studied in order to justify the method used. The conditions (temperature and composition) were determined in which the cooling of a ternary liquid mixture induces the precipitation of a binary solid solution with the desired composition. If large crystals are to be obtained from the solid solution, metallic solvent precipitation must be replaced by a mono-directional solvent crystallization. The combined effect of a certain number of simple physical phenomena on the stability of a crystal liquid interface was studied: the morphological stability of the crystal growth interface is the first step towards obtaining perfect crystals. (author) [fr

  13. On weak solutions to a diffuse interface model of a binary mixture of compressible fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2016), s. 173-183 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Euler-Cahn-Hilliard system * weak solution * diffuse interface model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.781, year: 2016 http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=12093

  14. Characterization of solid-solution interface by potentiometric titration and electrophoretic mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindecker, C.; Drot, R.; Fourest, B.; Simoni, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study of nuclear waste storage in deep geological sites involves the understanding of processes which could produce a possible dispersion or retention of radioelements. The dispersion of solid particles in aqueous solution is consequently important to be characterized. In this bi-phased system it is necessary to determine the characteristics of the solid-solution interface. The method used of this study is the techniques of potentiometric titration applied to heterogeneous systems. The material studied were phosphate matrices which were synthesized in the laboratory. The dependence of their surface change upon the nature of the electrolytes was investigated

  15. Vibrational dynamics of aqueous hydroxide solutions probed using broadband 2DIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Aritra; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We employed ultrafast transient absorption and broadband 2DIR spectroscopy to study the vibrational dynamics of aqueous hydroxide solutions by exciting the O–H stretch vibrations of the strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxide solvation shell water and probing the continuum absorption of the solvated ion between 1500 and 3800 cm −1 . We observe rapid vibrational relaxation processes on 150–250 fs time scales across the entire probed spectral region as well as slower vibrational dynamics on 1–2 ps time scales. Furthermore, the O–H stretch excitation loses its frequency memory in 180 fs, and vibrational energy exchange between bulk-like water vibrations and hydroxide-associated water vibrations occurs in ∼200 fs. The fast dynamics in this system originate in strong nonlinear coupling between intra- and intermolecular vibrations and are explained in terms of non-adiabatic vibrational relaxation. These measurements indicate that the vibrational dynamics of the aqueous hydroxide complex are faster than the time scales reported for long-range transport of protons in aqueous hydroxide solutions

  16. Probing functional groups at the gas-aerosol interface using heterogeneous titration reactions: a tool for predicting aerosol health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, Ari; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Guillemin, Michel; Riediker, Michael; Demirdjian, Benjamin; Rossi, Michel J

    2010-12-17

    The complex chemical and physical nature of combustion and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in general precludes the complete characterization of both bulk and interfacial components. The bulk composition reveals the history of the growth process and therefore the source region, whereas the interface controls--to a large extent--the interaction with gases, biological membranes, and solid supports. We summarize the development of a soft interrogation technique, using heterogeneous chemistry, for the interfacial functional groups of selected probe gases [N(CH(3))(3), NH(2)OH, CF(3)COOH, HCl, O(3), NO(2)] of different reactivity. The technique reveals the identity and density of surface functional groups. Examples include acidic and basic sites, olefinic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sites, and partially and completely oxidized surface sites. We report on the surface composition and oxidation states of laboratory-generated aerosols and of aerosols sampled in several bus depots. In the latter case, the biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, signaling oxidative stress caused by aerosol exposure, was isolated. The increase in biomarker levels over a working day is correlated with the surface density N(i)(O3) of olefinic and/or PAH sites obtained from O(3) uptakes as well as with the initial uptake coefficient, γ(0), of five probe gases used in the field. This correlation with γ(0) suggests the idea of competing pathways occurring at the interface of the aerosol particles between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for oxidative stress and cellular antioxidants.

  17. Solution of the mathematical adjoint equations for an interface current nodal formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Taiwo, T.A.; Khalil, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two techniques for solving the mathematical adjoint equations of an interface current nodal method are described. These techniques are the ''similarity transformation'' procedure and a direct solution scheme. A theoretical basis is provided for the similarity transformation procedure originally proposed by Lawrence. It is shown that the matrices associated with the mathematical and physical adjoint equations are similar to each other for the flat transverse leakage approximation but not for the quadratic leakage approximation. It is also shown that a good approximate solution of the mathematical adjoint for the quadratic transverse leakage approximation is obtained by applying the similarity transformation for the flat transverse leakage approximation to the physical adjoint solution. The direct solution scheme, which was developed as an alternative to the similarity transformation procedure, yields the correct mathematical adjoint solution for both flat and quadratic transverse leakage approximations. In this scheme, adjoint nodal equations are cast in a form very similar to that of the forward equations by employing a linear transformation of the adjoint partial currents. This enables the use of the forward solution algorithm with only minor modifications for solving the mathematical adjoint equations. By using the direct solution scheme as a reference method, it is shown that while the results computed with the similarity transformation procedure are approximate, they are sufficiently accurate for calculations of global and local reactivity changes resulting from coolant voiding in a liquid-metal reactor

  18. In situ adsorption of bovine submaxillary mucin at the mica/aqueous solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, E.; Proust, J.E.; Baszkin, A.; Boissonnade, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    An in situ adsorption measurement method at the mica/protein solution interface is described. An apparatus especially constructed for this purpose permits direct and continuous measurement of total adsorption (reversible and irreversible) of 14 C-labelled proteins. Bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), extracted from salivary glands, was acetylated with (CH 3 14 CO) 2 O. The results show the increase of BSM adsorbed on mica surfaces with its concentration in solution and adsorption time. Pseudo plateaux are obtained for all concentrations studied, indicating the formation of thick layers. The loosely bound fraction of adsorbed mucin is proportional to the bulk concentration in solution. The amount of BSM adsorbed increases in the neighbourhood of the isoelectric point of BSM (pH 3). (Auth.)

  19. Probing the liquid crystal alignment interface and switching dynamics in a slab waveguide architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotjen, Henry G.; Kolacz, Jakub; Myers, Jason D.; Frantz, Jesse A.; Bekele, Robel Y.; Naciri, Jawad; Spillmann, Christopher M.

    2018-02-01

    A non-mechanical refractive laser beam steering device has been developed to provide continuous, two-dimensional steering of infrared beams. The technology implements a dielectric slab waveguide architecture with a liquid crystal (LC) cladding. With voltage control, the birefringence of the LC can be leveraged to tune the effective index of the waveguide under an electrode. With a clever prism electrode design a beam coupled into the waveguide can be deflected continuously in two dimensions as it is coupled out into free space. The optical interaction with LC in this beamsteerer is unique from typical LC applications: only the thin layer of LC (100s of nm) near the alignment interface interacts with the beam's evanescent field. Whereas most LC interactions take place over short path lengths (microns) in the bulk of the material, here we can interrogate the behavior of LC near the alignment interface over long path lengths (centimeters). In this work the beamsteerer is leveraged as a tool to study the behavior of LC near the alignment layer in contrast to the bulk material. We find that scattering is substantially decreased near the alignment interface due to the influence of the surface anchoring energy to suppress thermal fluctuations. By tracking the position of the deflected beam with a high speed camera, we measure response times of the LC near the interface in off-to-on switching ( ms) and on-to-off switching ( 100ms). Combined, this work will provide a path for improved alignment techniques, greater optical throughput, and faster response times in this unique approach to non-mechanical beamsteering.

  20. Probing low noise at the MOS interface with a spin-orbit qubit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jock, Ryan Michael; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Mounce, Andrew; Srinivasa, Vanita; Ward, Daniel Robert; Anderson, John Moses; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Rudolph, Martin; Pluym, Tammy; Gamble, John King,; Baczewski, Andrew David; Witzel, Wayne; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2017-07-01

    The silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) material system is technologically important for the implementation of electron spin-based quantum information technologies. Researchers predict the need for an integrated platform in order to implement useful computation, and decades of advancements in silicon microelectronics fabrication lends itself to this challenge. However, fundamental concerns have been raised about the MOS interface (e.g. trap noise, variations in electron g-factor and practical implementation of multi-QDs). Furthermore, two-axis control of silicon qubits has, to date, required the integration of non-ideal components (e.g. microwave strip-lines, micro-magnets, triple quantum dots, or introduction of donor atoms). In this paper, we introduce a spin-orbit (SO) driven singlet- triplet (ST) qubit in silicon, demonstrating all-electrical two-axis control that requires no additional integrated elements and exhibits charge noise properties equivalent to other more model, but less commercially mature, semiconductor systems. We demonstrate the ability to tune an intrinsic spin-orbit interface effect, which is consistent with Rashba and Dresselhaus contributions that are remarkably strong for a low spin-orbit material such as silicon. The qubit maintains the advantages of using isotopically enriched silicon for producing a quiet magnetic environment, measuring spin dephasing times of 1.6 μs using 99.95% 28Si epitaxy for the qubit, comparable to results from other isotopically enhanced silicon ST qubit systems. This work, therefore, demonstrates that the interface inherently provides properties for two-axis control, and the technologically important MOS interface does not add additional detrimental qubit noise. isotopically enhanced silicon ST qubit systems

  1. New field of actinides solution chemistry; electrochemical study on actinide ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Zenko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kudo, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Science, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kihara, Sorin [Kyoto Inst. of Technolgy, Dept. of Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A novel electrochemical method on the basis of a controlled electrolysis has been developed for the study of the ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). The controlled-potential electrolysis for ITIES (CPEITIES) was applied to the transfer of actinide ions, and Gibbs energies for the transfer of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Am{sup 3+} from aqueous solution (w) to nitrobenzene solution (nb) were determined to be 71.7 and 113 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. The ion transfer potentials for the facilitated transfer of UO{sub 2{sup +}} and Am{sup 3+} from w to nb in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphoryl)methane were determined, from which the stability constants of UO{sub 2}(BDPPM){sub 3}{sup 2+} and Am(BDPPM){sub 3}{sup 3+} complexes involved in the facilitated ion transfer reaction, were calculated to be 10{sup 23.9} and 10{sup 27.5}, respectively. On the basis of the results of CPEITIES, a feasibility of a new separation method, i.e., an electrolytic ion transfer separation, of actinide ions is evaluated. (author)

  2. Application of Delaunay tessellation for the characterization of solute-rich clusters in atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, W.; Philippe, T.; Vurpillot, F.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an original method for cluster selection in Atom Probe Tomography designed to be applied to large datasets. It is based on the calculation of the Delaunay tessellation generated by the distribution of atoms of a selected element. It requires a single input parameter from the user. Furthermore, no prior knowledge of the material is needed. The sensitivity of the proposed Delaunay cluster selection is demonstrated by its application on simulated APT datasets. A strong advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is reinforced by the availability of an analytical model for the distribution of Delaunay cells circumspheres, which is used to control the accuracy of the cluster selection procedure. Another advantage of the Delaunay cluster selection is the direct calculation of a sharp envelope for each identified cluster or precipitate, which leads to the more appropriate morphology of the objects as they are reconstructed in the APT dataset. -- Research Highligthts: →Original method for cluster selection in Atom Probe Tomography. →Delaunay tessellation generated by the distribution of solute atoms. →Direct calculation of a sharp envelope for each identified cluster or precipitate. →Delaunay cluster selection demonstrated by its application on simulated APT datasets.

  3. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  4. Probing ion-specific effects on aqueous acetate solutions: Ion pairing versus water structure modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Petit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of monovalent cations (Li+, K+, NH4+, Na+ on the water structure in aqueous chloride and acetate solutions was characterized by oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, X-ray emission spectroscopy, and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS of a liquid microjet. We show ion- and counterion dependent effects on the emission spectra of the oxygen K-edge, which we attribute to modifications of the hydrogen bond network of water. For acetates, ion pairing with carboxylates was also probed selectively by XAS and RIXS. We correlate our experimental results to speciation data and to the salting-out properties of the cations.

  5. A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide as a fluorescent probe for Ag+ in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanmei; Zhou, Hua; Ma, Tongsen; Zhang, Junli; Niu, Jingyang

    2012-03-01

    A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide was designed and synthesized as fluorescent probe. The probe showed high selectivity for Ag+ over other metal ions such as Pb2+, Na+, K+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Cr3+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Al3+ and Mg2+ in aqueous solution. A new fluorescence emission was observed at 682 nm in the presence of Ag+ ion. The fluorescence intensity quenched with increasing the concentration of Ag+ at 682 nm. The method of job's plot confirmed the 1:2 complex between Ag+ and probe, and the mechanism was proposed.

  6. Highly anisotropic mobility in solution processed TIPS-pentacene film studied by independently driven four GaIn probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Shinya; Takahashi, Kohtaro; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamada, Hiroko; Miyahara, Ryosuke; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    We have studied in-plane anisotropy in the field-effect mobility of solution-processed organic semiconductor 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene by using independently driven four gallium indium (Ga-In) probes. Liquid-metal Ga-In probes are highly effective for reproducible conductivity measurements of organic thin films. We demonstrated that a high mobility anisotropy of 44 was obtained by using a square four-probe method and a feedback circuit to keep the channel potential constant. The present method minimized the influences of the contact resistance and the insensitivity of anisotropy in a linear arrangement in two-dimensional field-effect transistors.

  7. Biomimetic synthesis and morphological control of metal carbonates at the air/solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shichoon; Cho, Kilwon; Son, Younggon

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic approaches can provide a means of fabricating nanostructured materials under environmentally benign conditions. In this paper, we synthesized metal carbonate films, such as calcite, strontianite, malachite, and hydrozincite films, at the air-solution interface of solutions containing corresponding metal ions by using inflowing CO 2 from the atmosphere. The addition of acidic polymers, fulfilling the role of an acidic protein in biomineralization, provided CaCO 3 nanofibers, SrCO 3 nanofibers oriented in a specific direction, and copper carbonate and zinc carbonate hydroxide thin films. The metal carbonates prepared in this study were used as precursors for the formation of metal oxide nanocrystals via pyrolysis. This work showed that various metal carbonates and metal oxides with nanostructures can be prepared by using atmospheric CO 2 . - Highlights: ► Biomimetic synthesis of metal carbonate nanofilms at the air/solution interface. ► The reaction between metal ions and carbonate ions derived from CO 2 in the air. ► Calcium, strontium, copper and zinc carbonates were formed. ► The morphologies of the nanofilms were controlled by adding the acidic polymer. ► Nanostructured metal oxides were prepared by pyrolysis of the metal carbonates.

  8. Voltammetry for the charge transfer at two immiscible electrolyte solutions interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, S.; Suzuki, M.; Maeda, K.; Ogura, K.; Matsui, M.; Yoshida, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The voltammetry for the charge transfer (VCT) at the interface of immicible solutions is a very powerful method for understanding the dynamic features of the charge transfer because of its unmatched advantage that the transfer energy and the number of charges transferred can be measured simultaneously and in situ. In the present paper, several novel systems for electron transfer are outlined, and the following topics are discussed based on results obtained by the current scan polarography at the solution dropping electrode developed as a technique for VCT: the relation between the half-wave potential in VCT for ion transfer and the characteristics of the ion transferred; the relation between the half-wave potential in VCT for electron transfer and the electrochemical nature of a redox couple added in water and that added in organic solution; and the ion transfer through a liquid membrane promoted by electron transfer. Observations are presented and discussion is made on the characteristics of ion transfer polarograms, those of electron transfer polarograms, and ion transfer promoted by electron transfer at a liquid/membrane interface. (N.K.)

  9. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  10. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  11. Atom probe tomography of intermetallic phases and interfaces formed in dissimilar joining between Al alloys and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, B.; Springer, H.; Duarte, M.J.; De Graeve, I.; De Strycker, J.; Raabe, D.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    While Si additions to Al are widely used to reduce the thickness of the brittle intermetallic seam formed at the interface during joining of Al alloys to steel, the underlying mechanisms are not clarified yet. The developed approach for the site specific atom probe tomography analysis revealed Si enrichments at grain and phase boundaries between the θ (Fe 4 Al 13 ) and η (Fe 2 Al 5 ) phase, up to about ten times that of the concentration in Al. The increase in Si concentration could play an important role for the growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases formed for example in hot-dip aluminizing of steel. - Highlights: •Si additions to Al reduce thickness of intermetallic seam in joining with steel. •Approach developed for the site specific APT analysis of the intermetallic seam •Si enrichment at grain and phase boundaries possibly affects growth of intermetallics.

  12. Probing the Electrode–Neuron Interface With Focused Cochlear Implant Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants are highly successful neural prostheses for persons with severe or profound hearing loss who gain little benefit from hearing aid amplification. Although implants are capable of providing important spectral and temporal cues for speech perception, performance on speech tests is variable across listeners. Psychophysical measures obtained from individual implant subjects can also be highly variable across implant channels. This review discusses evidence that such variability reflects deviations in the electrode–neuron interface, which refers to an implant channel's ability to effectively stimulate the auditory nerve. It is proposed that focused electrical stimulation is ideally suited to assess channel-to-channel irregularities in the electrode–neuron interface. In implant listeners, it is demonstrated that channels with relatively high thresholds, as measured with the tripolar configuration, exhibit broader psychophysical tuning curves and smaller dynamic ranges than channels with relatively low thresholds. Broader tuning implies that frequency-specific information intended for one population of neurons in the cochlea may activate more distant neurons, and a compressed dynamic range could make it more difficult to resolve intensity-based information, particularly in the presence of competing noise. Degradation of both types of cues would negatively affect speech perception. PMID:20724356

  13. The nesprin-cytoskeleton interface probed directly on single nuclei is a mechanically rich system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikov, Daniel A; Brady, Sonia K; Ko, Ung Hyun; Shin, Jennifer H; de Pereda, Jose M; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Sung, Hak-Joon; Lang, Matthew J

    2017-09-03

    The cytoskeleton provides structure and plays an important role in cellular function such as migration, resisting compression forces, and transport. The cytoskeleton also reacts to physical cues such as fluid shear stress or extracellular matrix remodeling by reorganizing filament associations, most commonly focal adhesions and cell-cell cadherin junctions. These mechanical stimuli can result in genome-level changes, and the physical connection of the cytoskeleton to the nucleus provides an optimal conduit for signal transduction by interfacing with nuclear envelope proteins, called nesprins, within the LINC (linker of the nucleus to the cytoskeleton) complex. Using single-molecule on single nuclei assays, we report that the interactions between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, thought to be nesprin-cytoskeleton interactions, are highly sensitive to force magnitude and direction depending on whether cells are historically interfaced with the matrix or with cell aggregates. Application of ∼10-30 pN forces to these nesprin linkages yielded structural transitions, with a base transition size of 5-6 nm, which are speculated to be associated with partial unfoldings of the spectrin domains of the nesprins and/or structural changes of histones within the nucleus.

  14. Quantitative Studies on PDMS-PDMS Interface Bonding with Piranha Solution and its Swelling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Lai Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost yet effective method of irreversible bonding between two elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS interfaces using Piranha solution is investigated. Piranha solutions at a weight ratio of 3:1 using different acids and hydrogen peroxide were attempted. The average tensile strengths of the device bonded with concentrated sulfuric acid-based piranha solution and nitric acid-based piranha solution were found to be 200 ± 20 kPa and 100 ± 15 kPa respectively. A PDMS surface treated with Piranha Solution demonstrated an increase in hydrophilicity. In addition, relatively straightforward swelling studies of PDMS using a weight loss method with common organic solvents were also investigated. Experimental results show that hexane, toluene, ethyl acetate, n-propyl alcohol and acetone swell PDMS significantly over a duration of up to 1 h and above; PDMS samples reached a steady state of swelling only after 5 min of immersion in other solvents. This will enable researchers to develop devices for the future according to the interaction between the material and the solvents in contact.

  15. Interfacial properties at the organic-metal interface probed using quantum well states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Kai; Nakayama, Yasuo; Wang, Chin-Yung; Hsu, Jer-Chia; Pan, Chih-Hao; Machida, Shin-ichi; Pi, Tun-Wen; Ishii, Hisao; Tang, S.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the interfacial properties between the long-chain normal-alkane molecule n-CH3(CH2)42CH3 [tetratetracontane (TTC)] and uniform Ag films using the Ag quantum well states. The entire quantum well state energy band dispersions were observed to shift toward the Fermi level with increasing adsorption coverage of TTC up to 1 monolayer (ML). However, the energy shifts upon deposition of 1 ML of TTC are approximately inversely dependent on the Ag film thickness, indicating a quantum-size effect. In the framework of the pushback and image-force models, we applied the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule with the modified Coulomb image potential for the phase shift at the TTC/Ag interface to extract the dielectric constant for 1 ML of TTC.

  16. Total internal reflection second-harmonic generation: probing the alkane water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conboy, J.C.; Daschbach, J.L.; Richmond, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Total internal reflection Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been used to study a series of neat n-alkane/water interfaces. Polarization and incident angular-dependent measurements of the SH response show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Analysis of the incident and polarization angular-dependent SH response allows for determination of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules comprising the interfacial region. Based on Kleinman symmetry, the measured surface nonlinear susceptibilities suggest a high degree of interfacial order for octane and decane with less order indicated by the odd carbon n-alkanes examined, heptane and nonane. The SH response in reflection and transmission has been measured under a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) of the fundamental. The measured nonlinear susceptibilities in each case are found to be identical. (orig.)

  17. Helium Ion Microscopy: A Promising Tool for Probing Biota-Mineral Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, R.; Zaharescu, D. G.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The study of biogeochemical interfaces in soil requires powerful technologies that can enhance our ability to characterize mineral surfaces and interacting organisms at micro- to nanoscale resolutions. We aim to demonstrate potential applications of Helium Ion Microscopy in the earth and ecological sciences using, as an example, samples from a field experiment. We assessed samples deployed for one year along climatic and topographic gradients in two Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs): a desert to mixed conifer forest gradient (Catalina CZO) and a humid hardwood forest (Calhoun CZO). Sterile ground rock (basalt, quartz, and granite; 53-250 µm) was sealed into nylon mesh bags and buried in the surface soils of both CZOs. We employed helium ion and scanning electron microscopies to compare retrieved ground rock samples with sterile unreacted mineral controls in conjunction with the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA. Our work showed early colonization of mesh bag materials by fungal and bacterial organisms from the field systems and identified morphological changes in mineral grains following exposure to the soil environment. Biological specimens observed on grain surfaces exhibited contrasting features depending on mineral type and ecosystem location, including fungal hyphae that varied in length, diameter, and surface morphologies. We also present imagery that provides evidence for incipient stages of mineral transformation at the fungal-mineral interface. Our findings demonstrate that helium ion microscopy can be successfully used to characterize grain features and biological agents of weathering in experimental field samples, representing a promising avenue for research in the biogeosciences. Future directions of this work will couple high resolution imaging with measures of aqueous and solid geochemistry, fungal morphological characterization, and microbial profiling to better understand mineral

  18. Physico-chemistry of actinides and other radioelements in solutions and at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the 61 papers (transparencies used during the presentations and posters) presented at the 1999 PRACTIS days, held February 17-18, 2000 in Villeneuve-les-Avignon. The content comprises 9 conferences dealing with 1)simulation of solvation, coordination and liquid-liquid extraction of rare earth and uranyl cations 2)overview on the complexation selectivity of actinides(III) and rare earths(III) by aromatic poly-nitrogenous ligands 3)detection, characterization and interaction between supramolecular aggregates of extractants: macroscopic consequences on the stability and on the macroscopic behaviour 4)chemistry of technetium in reducing medium: application to researches on radioactive waste management 5) separations by pyro-chemistry (CEA program) 6)overview on the Goethite operation 7)use of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy to the determination of sorption sites at the interfaces 8)dissolution of uranium dioxide in an argillaceous water: results in oxidizing and reducing conditions 9)treatment and storage of radioactive wastes from weapon-grade plutonium production in Russia and other countries. A large part of the conference was devoted to poster sessions on the following topics: physico-chemistry in homogeneous solutions (22 posters), transfer kinetics of actinides and rare earths between liquid phases and separations (9 posters), physico-chemistry of the solid-solution interface (9 posters), simulation and molecular dynamics (5 posters), uranium dioxide and other oxides (1 poster), long-lived fission products (6 posters). (O.M.)

  19. Influence of interface reactions on the YBCO films grown by fluorine-free solution route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Wu, Wei; Tang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of full-stacked coated conductors by all-chemical-solution routes exhibit a great potential in view of further reducing the cost and increasing the throughput for industrialization. Growth of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconducting films by fluorine-free metal organic deposition routes (FF......-MOD) which are environmental friendly has attracted more attentions recently. In this work, comparison study was performed on the YBCO-Ag superconducting thin films deposited on two types of single crystal substrates, LaAlO3 and Ce0.9La0.9O2−y/YSZ. The structural characterization and superconducting...... properties studies reveal that the interface reactions between the YBCO-Ag film and the CLO cap layer play an essential role on the nucleation and growth of YBCO-Ag films from the FF solution. Weak texture caused by serious interface reactions at high growth temperature is the main explanations for the poor...

  20. Equilibrium of adsorption of mixed milk protein/surfactant solutions at the water/air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsmar, C; Grigoriev, D O; Xu, F; Aksenenko, E V; Fainerman, V B; Leser, M E; Miller, R

    2008-12-16

    Ellipsometry and surface profile analysis tensiometry were used to study and compare the adsorption behavior of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)/C10DMPO, beta-casein (BCS)/C10DMPO and BCS/C12DMPO mixtures at the air/solution interface. The adsorption from protein/surfactant mixed solutions is of competitive nature. The obtained adsorption isotherms suggest a gradual replacement of the protein molecules at the interface with increasing surfactant concentration for all studied mixed systems. The thickness, refractive index, and the adsorbed amount of the respective adsorption layers, determined by ellipsometry, decrease monotonically and reach values close to those for a surface covered only by surfactant molecules, indicating the absence of proteins from a certain surfactant concentration on. These results correlate with the surface tension data. A continuous increase of adsorption layer thickness was observed up to this concentration, caused by the desorption of segments of the protein and transforming the thin surface layer into a rather diffuse and thick one. Replacement and structural changes of the protein molecules are discussed in terms of protein structure and surface activity of surfactant molecules. Theoretical models derived recently were used for the quantitative description of the equilibrium state of the mixed surface layers.

  1. Adsorption of asparagine on the gold electrode and air/solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slojkowska, R.; Palys, B.; Jurkiewicz-Herbich, M.

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of asparagine (Asn) on a gold electrode from 0.1 M LiClO 4 aqueous solutions was investigated. The experimental data obtained from ac impedance measurements were analyzed to determine the dependence of adsorption parameters, i.e. the standard Gibbs energy of adsorption (ΔG 0 ), maximal value of surface excess concentration (Γ max ) of Asn and parameter of interactions in the adsorbed layer (A) on the electrode potential. The relatively large value of Gibbs energy of adsorption (∼ -47 kJ mol -1 ) gives the evidence of a very strong adsorption of Asn at the polycrystalline Au electrode. The comparison of the adsorption behavior of Asn at the air/solution and the Au/solution interfaces points out to the significant electronic interactions of adsorbate molecules with the Au electrode, since the adsorption of Asn on a free surface (from the same solutions) is very week. The analysis of the electrochemical data as well as the infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) results reveal that Asn molecules are anchored to the Au surface through oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group COO - and through the amide carbonyl group

  2. Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer of actinyl ions at the aqueous/organic solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Okugaki, Tomohiko; Kasuno, Megumi; Kubota, Hiroki; Maeda, Kohji; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko; Kihara, Sorin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Standard Gibbs free energies for ion-transfer of tri- to hexavalent actinide ions. → Determination is based on distribution method combined with ion-transfer voltammetry. → Organic solvents examined are nitrobenzene, DCE, benzonitrile, acetophenone and NPOE. → Gibbs free energies of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) are similar to each other. → Gibbs free energies of Np(V) is very large, comparing with ordinary monovalent cations. - Abstract: Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of actinyl ions (AnO 2 z+ ; z = 2 or 1; An: U, Np, or Pu) between an aqueous solution and an organic solution were determined based on distribution method combined with voltammetry for ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The organic solutions examined were nitrobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, benzonitrile, acetophenone, and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether. Irrespective of the type of organic solutions, ΔG tr 0 of UO 2 2+ ,NpO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 2+ were nearly equal to each other and slightly larger than that of Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of NpO 2 + was extraordinary large compared with those of ordinary monovalent cations. The dependence of ΔG tr 0 of AnO 2 z+ on the type of organic solutions was similar to that of H + or Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of An 3+ and An 4+ were also discussed briefly.

  3. FLUORESCENCE PROBING OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS BY CROSS-LINKED POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES) IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, J B F N

    Pyrene has been used as a fluorescence probe to investigate the conformational behavior of cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) in aqueous solutions. Binding of pyrene to hydrophobic microdomains, formed by the polysoaps, is reflected by a change in the ratio I-1/I-3 of the

  4. Molecular Structure of Salt Solutions: A New View of the Interface with Implications for Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 43 (2001), s. 10468-10472 ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : air-solution interface * salt solutions * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.379, year: 2001

  5. Stratigraphic controls on fluid and solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface of an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Lazareva, Olesya; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crespo, Kyle; Chan, Clara S.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow stratigraphic features, such as infilled paleovalleys, modify fresh groundwater discharge to coastal waters and fluxes of saltwater and nutrients across the sediment–water interface. We quantify the spatial distribution of shallow surface water–groundwater exchange and nitrogen fluxes near a paleovalley in Indian River Bay, Delaware, using a hand resistivity probe, conventional seepage meters, and pore-water samples. In the interfluve (region outside the paleovalley) most nitrate-rich fresh groundwater discharges rapidly near the coast with little mixing of saline pore water, and nitrogen transport is largely conservative. In the peat-filled paleovalley, fresh groundwater discharge is negligible, and saltwater exchange is deep (∼1 m). Long pore-water residence times and abundant sulfate and organic matter promote sulfate reduction and ammonium production in shallow sediment. Reducing, iron-rich fresh groundwater beneath paleovalley peat discharges diffusely around paleovalley margins offshore. In this zone of diffuse fresh groundwater discharge, saltwater exchange and dispersion are enhanced, ammonium is produced in shallow sediments, and fluxes of ammonium to surface water are large. By modifying patterns of groundwater discharge and the nature of saltwater exchange in shallow sediments, paleovalleys and other stratigraphic features influence the geochemistry of discharging groundwater. Redox reactions near the sediment–water interface affect rates and patterns of geochemical fluxes to coastal surface waters. For example, at this site, more than 99% of the groundwater-borne nitrate flux to the Delaware Inland Bays occurs within the interfluve portion of the coastline, and more than 50% of the ammonium flux occurs at the paleovalley margin.

  6. Interface-Targeting Strategy Enables Two-Photon Fluorescent Lipid Droplet Probes for High-Fidelity Imaging of Turbid Tissues and Detecting Fatty Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifang; Tian, Minggang; Feng, Ruiqing; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Ruoyao; Li, Xuechen; Liu, Zhiqiang; He, Xiuquan; Sun, Jing Zhi; Yu, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-04

    Lipid droplets (LDs) with unique interfacial architecture not only play crucial roles in protecting a cell from lipotoxicity and lipoapoptosis but also closely relate with many diseases such as fatty liver and diabetes. Thus, as one of the important applied biomaterials, fluorescent probes with ultrahigh selectivity for in situ and high-fidelity imaging of LDs in living cells and tissues are critical to elucidate relevant physiological and pathological events as well as detect related diseases. However, available probes only utilizing LDs' waterless neutral cores but ignoring the unique phospholipid monolayer interfaces exhibit low selectivity. They cannot differentiate neutral cores of LDs from intracellular other lipophilic microenvironments, which results in extensively cloud-like background noise and severely limited their bioapplications. Herein, to design LD probes with ultrahigh selectivity, the exceptional interfacial architecture of LDs is considered adequately and thus an interface-targeting strategy is proposed for the first time. According to the novel strategy, we have developed two amphipathic fluorescent probes (N-Cy and N-Py) by introducing different cations into a lipophilic fluorophore (nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)). Consequently, their cationic moiety precisely locates the interfaces through electrostatic interaction and simultaneously NBD entirely embeds into the waterless core via hydrophobic interaction. Thus, high-fidelity and background-free fluorescence imaging of LDs are expectably realized in living cells in situ. Moreover, LDs in turbid tissues like skeletal muscle slices have been clearly imaged (up to 82 μm depth) by a two-photon microscope. Importantly, using N-Cy, we not only intuitively monitored the variations of LDs in number, size, and morphology but also clearly revealed their abnormity in hepatic tissues resulting from fatty liver. Therefore, these unique probes provide excellent imaging tools for elucidating LD

  7. Direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions by surface-engineered nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2017-06-30

    Detecting biomarkers from complex sample solutions is the key objective of molecular diagnostics. Being able to do so in a simple approach that does not require laborious sample preparation, sophisticated equipment and trained staff is vital for point-of-care applications. Here, we report on the specific detection of the breast cancer biomarker sHER2 directly from serum and saliva samples by a nanorod-based homogeneous biosensing approach, which is easy to operate as it only requires mixing of the samples with the nanorod probes. By careful nanorod surface engineering and homogeneous assay design, we demonstrate that the formation of a protein corona around the nanoparticles does not limit the applicability of our detection method, but on the contrary enables us to conduct in-situ reference measurements, thus further strengthening the point-of-care applicability of our method. Making use of sandwich assays on top of the nanorods, we obtain a limit of detection of 110 pM and 470 pM in 10-fold diluted spiked saliva and serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, our results open up numerous applications in direct protein biomarker quantification, specifically in point-of-care settings where resources are limited and ease-of-use is of essence.

  8. Direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions by surface-engineered nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Schotter, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers from complex sample solutions is the key objective of molecular diagnostics. Being able to do so in a simple approach that does not require laborious sample preparation, sophisticated equipment and trained staff is vital for point-of-care applications. Here, we report on the specific detection of the breast cancer biomarker sHER2 directly from serum and saliva samples by a nanorod-based homogeneous biosensing approach, which is easy to operate as it only requires mixing of the samples with the nanorod probes. By careful nanorod surface engineering and homogeneous assay design, we demonstrate that the formation of a protein corona around the nanoparticles does not limit the applicability of our detection method, but on the contrary enables us to conduct in-situ reference measurements, thus further strengthening the point-of-care applicability of our method. Making use of sandwich assays on top of the nanorods, we obtain a limit of detection of 110 pM and 470 pM in 10-fold diluted spiked saliva and serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, our results open up numerous applications in direct protein biomarker quantification, specifically in point-of-care settings where resources are limited and ease-of-use is of essence.

  9. Multimodal Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Investigations of a Photovoltaic WSe2/MoS2 Type-II Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Yann; Bendiab, Nedjma; Grévin, Benjamin

    2018-01-10

    Atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have become a new platform for the development of next-generation optoelectronic and light-harvesting devices. Here, we report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) investigation carried out on a type-II photovoltaic heterojunction based on WSe 2 monolayer flakes and a bilayer MoS 2 film stacked in vertical configuration on a Si/SiO 2 substrate. Band offset characterized by a significant interfacial dipole is pointed out at the WSe 2 /MoS 2 vertical junction. The photocarrier generation process and phototransport are studied by applying a differential technique allowing to map directly two-dimensional images of the surface photovoltage (SPV) over the vertical heterojunctions (vHJ) and in its immediate vicinity. Differential SPV reveals the impact of chemical defects on the photocarrier generation and that negative charges diffuse in the MoS 2 a few hundreds of nanometers away from the vHJ. The analysis of the SPV data confirms unambiguously that light absorption results in the generation of free charge carriers that do not remain coulomb-bound at the type-II interface. A truly quantitative determination of the electron-hole (e-h) quasi-Fermi levels splitting (i.e., the open-circuit voltage) is achieved by measuring the differential vacuum-level shift over the WSe 2 flakes and the MoS 2 layer. The dependence of the energy-level splitting as a function of the optical power reveals that Shockley-Read-Hall processes significantly contribute to the interlayer recombination dynamics. Finally, a newly developed time-resolved mode of the KPFM is applied to map the SPV decay time constants. The time-resolved SPV images reveal the dynamics of delayed recombination processes originating from photocarriers trapping at the SiO 2 /TMDC interfaces.

  10. Electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes with ultra-sensitivity for Ga"3"+ or Al"3"+ detection in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chae, Pil Seok

    2017-01-01

    Three electronically tuned fluorescent probes (1–3) were synthesized by conjugating a fluorescent unit to N,N-bis-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. Probe 1 bearing an electron-deficient naphthalenedimide unit did not give a fluorescence response to the presence of various metal ions including monovalent metal ions (Na"+, K"+, and Ag"+), divalent metal ions (Ca"2"+, Cd"2"+, Co"2"+, Ni"2"+, Cu"2"+, Hg"2"+, Pb"2"+, and Zn"2"+) and trivalent metal ions (Al"3"+, Ga"3"+, Fe"3"+, and Cr"3"+) in an aqueous solution. By contrast, probes 2 and 3 possessing 1,8-naphthalimide and pyrene fluorophores, respectively, exhibited selective fluorescent “OFF-ON” behaviors as a result of Ga"3"+/Al"3"+ binding among the diverse metal ions, suggesting the importance of fluorophore electronic character with regard to metal ion sensing. The ethylenediamine analog of probe 3, corresponding to probe 4, was unable to yield a significant change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of any metal ions tested here, revealing the essential role of two hydroxyl groups for metal ion binding. A high association constant of K_a = 2.99 × 10"5 M"−"1 was obtained for probe 3 with Ga"3"+, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM. This LOD is the lowest value known for Ga"3"+ detection using chemical sensors. Along with an increase in aggregate sizes, PET suppression of probes upon metal ion binding was the primary contributor to the enhancement in fluorescence emission necessary for the sensitive detection of the target ions. The probe-metal ion complexes were fully characterized via TEM, FE-SEM, "1H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy techniques and DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Three electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes (probes 1, 2, and 3) were developed for metal ion-sensing. • Probes 2 and 3 exhibited AIE behavior with increasing water-content. • Probes 2 and 3 displayed a selective fluorescence “OFF-ON“ behavior for Ga"3"+ detection with the LOD of 10 nM. • PET

  11. Entropy of adsorption of mixed surfactants from solutions onto the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-W.; Chen, J.-H.; Zhou, N.-F.

    1995-01-01

    The partial molar entropy change for mixed surfactant molecules adsorbed from solution at the air/water interface has been investigated by surface thermodynamics based upon the experimental surface tension isotherms at various temperatures. Results for different surfactant mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, decylpyridinium chloride and sodium alkylsulfonates have shown that the partial molar entropy changes for adsorption of the mixed surfactants were generally negative and decreased with increasing adsorption to a minimum near the maximum adsorption and then increased abruptly. The entropy decrease can be explained by the adsorption-orientation of surfactant molecules in the adsorbed monolayer and the abrupt entropy increase at the maximum adsorption is possible due to the strong repulsion between the adsorbed molecules.

  12. Multivalent-Counterion-Induced Surfactant Multilayer Formation at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Solid-Solution Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun; Xu, Hui; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Sivia, Devinderjit S

    2015-06-23

    Surface multilayer formation from the anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture of sodium dodecyl dioxyethylene sulfate, SLES, and monododecyl dodecaethylene glycol, C12E12, by the addition of multivalent Al(3+) counterions at the solid-solution interface is observed and characterized by neutron reflectivity, NR. The ability to form surface multilayer structures on hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica and cellulose surfaces is demonstrated. The surface multilayer formation is more pronounced and more well developed on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica surfaces than on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. The less well developed multilayer formation on the cellulose surfaces is attributed to the greater surface inhomogeneities of the cellulose surface which partially inhibit lateral coherence and growth of the multilayer domains at the surface. The surface multilayer formation is associated with extreme wetting properties and offers the potential for the manipulation of the solid surfaces for enhanced adsorption and control of the wetting behavior.

  13. SFG study on potential-dependent structure of water at Pt electrode/electrolyte solution interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hidenori; Okada, Tsubasa; Uosaki, Kohei [Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2008-10-01

    Structure of water at Pt/electrolyte solution interface was investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Two broad peaks were observed in OH stretching region at ca. 3200 cm{sup -1} and ca. 3400 cm{sup -1}, which are known to be due to the symmetric OH stretching (U{sub 1}) of tetrahedrally coordinated, i.e., strongly hydrogen bonded 'ice-like' water, and the asymmetric OH stretching (U{sub 3}) of water molecules in a more random arrangement, i.e., weakly hydrogen bonded 'liquid-like' water, respectively. The SFG intensity strongly depended on electrode potential. Several possibilities are suggested for the potential dependence of the SFG intensity. (author)

  14. Synthesis and electroplating of high resolution insulated carbon nanotube scanning probes for imaging in liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N A; Noh, J H; Lassiter, M G; Guo, S; Kalinin, S V; Rack, P D

    2012-04-13

    High resolution and isolated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is in demand for continued development of energy storage and conversion systems involving chemical reactions at the nanoscale as well as an improved understanding of biological systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have large aspect ratios and, if leveraged properly, can be used to develop high resolution SPM probes. Isolation of SPM probes can be achieved by depositing a dielectric film and selectively etching at the apex of the probe. In this paper the fabrication of a high resolution and isolated SPM tip is demonstrated using electron beam induced etching of a dielectric film deposited onto an SPM tip with an attached CNT at the apex.

  15. Dansyl-8-aminoquinoline as a sensitive pH fluorescent probe with dual-responsive ranges in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shuyu; Ma, Liguo; Zhao, Meili; Deng, Lengfang; Yang, Liting; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-04-24

    A sensitive pH fluorescent probe based on dansyl group, dansyl-8-aminoquinoline (DAQ), has been synthesized. The probe showed dual-responsive ranges to pH changes, one range from 2.00 to 7.95 and another one from 7.95 to 10.87 in aqueous solution, as it showed pKa values of 5.73 and 8.56 under acid and basic conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the pH response mechanism of the probe was explored successfully by using NMR spectra. The results indicated that the responses of DAQ to pH changes should attribute to the protonation of the nitrogen atom in the dimethylamino group and deprotonation of sulfonamide group. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Determination of Schottky barrier heights and Fermi-level unpinning at the graphene/n-type Si interfaces by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Zeng, Jian-Jhou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interface characteristics of graphene/n-type Si devices are measured. • The actual work function of graphene is examined with the Kelvin probe. • An analysis is conducted according to the Schottky–Mott limit. • The Fermi energy level at the graphene/n-type Si interfaces is unpinned. • The Schottky barrier value is dependent on the work function of graphene. - Abstract: The interface characteristics of graphene/n-type Si samples using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements are investigated. XPS makes it possible to extract a reliable Schottky barrier value. For graphene/n-type Si samples with (without) sulfide treatment, the Schottky barrier height is 0.86 (0.78) eV. The Schottky barrier height was increased from 0.78 to 0.86 eV, indicating that sulfide treatment is effective in passivating the surface of Si (owing to the formation of Si–S bonds). To determine the Fermi-level pinning/unpinning at the graphene/n-type Si interfaces with sulfide treatment, an analysis is conducted according to the Schottky–Mott limit and the actual work function of graphene is examined with the Kelvin probe. It is shown that the Fermi energy level is unpinned and the Schottky barrier value is dependent on the work function of graphene. Investigation of graphene/n-type Si interfaces is important, and providing the other technique for surface potential control is possible

  17. Regular multi-sequences copolymers study at interfaces and in solution; Etude des copolymeres multisequences reguliers aux interfaces et en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclerc, E.

    1996-11-15

    In this study are described the conformations which are taken by multi-sequences copolymers in various situations. The phase diagram of copolymers near an interface defined by two non-miscible liquids has been given, respectively for a strongly adsorbing interface and for a weakly adsorbing interface. The passage between these two extreme conditions has revealed the existence of a lot of intermediate conditions. Copolymers have also been studied with several solvents of different quality. The formation of folded structures described by micellar structures have been studied according to the size of the respective sequences in a ``good`` solvent and in a ``bad`` solvent. The obtention of ``flower`` micelles is due to very strict conditions on the solvent quality and on the sequences size. The phase diagram of the different micellar structures has then been established. Jointly to this theoretical study, an experimental work has been developed on a model protein: the {beta} casein. The main characteristic parameters of the aggregates formed by the protein have been established by experiments of small angle neutrons scattering. The interactions which are present between macromolecules are strongly attractive at low concentration (formation of micelles) and repulsive when the concentration increases. Some resemblances exist between the micelles formed by the copolymers and the aggregates formed by the {beta} casein. (O.M.) 141 refs.

  18. Bloch Modes and Evanescent Modes of Photonic Crystals: Weak Form Solutions Based on Accurate Interface Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Saba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution of Maxwell’s equations, computes the Fourier components of periodic structures composed of distinct homogeneous material domains from a triangulated mesh representation of the inter-material interfaces; this allows substantially more accurate representations of the geometry of complex photonic crystals than the conventional representation by a cubic voxel grid. Our method works for general two-phase composite materials, consisting of bi-anisotropic materials with tensor-valued dielectric and magnetic permittivities ε and μ and coupling matrices ς. We demonstrate for the Bragg mirror and a simple cubic crystal closely related to the Kelvin foam that relatively small numbers of Fourier components are sufficient to yield good convergence of the eigenvalues, making this method viable, despite its computational complexity. As an application, we use the single gyroid crystal to demonstrate that the consideration of both conventional and evanescent Bloch modes is necessary to predict the key features of the reflectance spectrum by analysis of the band structure, in particular for light incident along the cubic [111] direction.

  19. Communication of technical building systems. Interfaces, protocols and solutions; Kommunikation technischer Gebaeudesysteme. Schnittstellen, Protokolle und Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 18 of the anthology about building control the communication between and with technical building systems is described. After the basics have been explained in the previous chapter interfaces, protocols and solutions are presented in this part. The following aspects are discussed: homogeneous and heterogeneous building automation systems, communication in the field of building automation, demands and characteristic numbers, open communication between heterogeneous systems, announcement and award procedures, protocol selection, FND - firm neutral data transmission system, PROFIBUS, ISP (InterOperable Systems Project) and Fieldbus Foundation with ``profile``; EIB (European Installation Bus), the standard bus for building system technology, BACNet (Building Automation Control Network) and EcheLON, open systems for building automation. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 18 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control geht auf das Thema der Kommunikation zwischen und mit technischen Gebaeudesystemen ein. Nachdem im vorherigen Kapitel die Grundlagen besprochen wurden, wird im vorliegenden Teil auf Schnittstellen, Protokolle und Loesungen eingegangen. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgenden Themenbereiche angesprochen: Homogene und heterogene GA-Systeme; Kommunikation in der Gebaeudeautomation; Anforderungen und Kennwert; offene Kommunikation heterogener Systeme; Ausschreibungs- und Vergabeprozeduren; Protokollauswahl; FND, das firmenneutrale Datenuebertragungsprotokoll; PROFIBUS, ISP und Fieldbus Foundation mit `Profil`; EIB, der Standardbus fuer die Gebaeudesystemtechnik; BACNet und EcheLON; Offene Systeme fuer die Gebaeudeautomation. (BWI)

  20. Probing the Energy Level Alignment and the Correlation with Open-Circuit Voltage in Solution-Processed Polymeric Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Dan; Li, Ho-Wa; Cheng, Yuanhang; Guan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Taili; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2016-03-23

    Energy level alignment at the organic donor and acceptor interface is a key to determine the photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells, but direct probing of such energy alignment is still challenging especially for solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films. Here we report a systematic investigation on probing the energy level alignment with different approaches in five commonly used polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ systems. We find that by tuning the weight ratio of polymer to PCBM the electronic features from both polymer and PCBM can be obtained by photoemission spectroscopy. Using this approach, we find that some of the BHJ blends simply follow vacuum level alignment, but others show strong energy level shifting as a result of Fermi level pinning. Independently, by measuring the temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage (VOC), we find that the effective energy gap (Eeff), the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer donor (EHOMO-D) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the PCBM acceptor (ELUMO-A), obtained by photoemission spectroscopy in all polymer:PCBM blends has an excellent agreement with the extrapolated VOC at 0 K. Consequently, the photovoltage loss of various organic BHJ photovoltaic devices at room temperature is in a range of 0.3-0.6 V. It is believed that the demonstrated direct measurement approach of the energy level alignment in solution-processed organic BHJ will bring deeper insight into the origin of the VOC and the corresponding photovoltage loss mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells.

  1. Probing liquation cracking and solidification through modeling of momentum, heat, and solute transport during welding of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Chakraborty, S.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-01-01

    A transport phenomena-based mathematical model is developed to understand liquation cracking in weldments during fusion welding. Equations of conservation of mass, momentum, heat, and solute transport are numerically solved considering nonequilibrium solidification and filler metal addition to determine the solid and liquid phase fractions in the solidifying region and the solute distribution in the weld pool. An effective partition coefficient that considers the local interface velocity and the undercooling is used to simulate solidification during welding. The calculations show that convection plays a dominant role in the solute transport inside the weld pool. The predicted weld-metal solute content agreed well with the independent experimental observations. The liquation cracking susceptibility in Al-Cu alloy weldments could be reliably predicted by the model based on the computed solidifying weld-metal composition and solid fraction considering nonequilibrium solidification

  2. Use of ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopies to explore the light-induced dynamics of peridinin in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papagiannakis, E.; Vengris, M.; Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hiller, R.G.; van Grondelle, R.

    2006-01-01

    Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible region. Dispersed pump-probe measurements show that the decay of the initially excited

  3. Graphene quantum dot (GQD)-induced photovoltaic and photoelectric memory elements in a pentacene/GQD field effect transistor as a probe of functional interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Cho, Seongeun; Kim, Hyeran; Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jouhahn; Ko, Hyungduk; Chang, Mincheol; Park, Byoungnam

    2017-09-01

    Electric field-induced charge trapping and exciton dissociation were demonstrated at a penatcene/grapheme quantum dot (GQD) interface using a bottom contact bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) as an electrical nano-probe. Large threshold voltage shift in a pentacene/GQD FET in the dark arises from field-induced carrier trapping in the GQD layer or GQD-induced trap states at the pentacene/GQD interface. As the gate electric field increases, hysteresis characterized by the threshold voltage shift depending on the direction of the gate voltage scan becomes stronger due to carrier trapping associated with the presence of a GQD layer. Upon illumination, exciton dissociation and gate electric field-induced charge trapping simultaneously contribute to increase the threshold voltage window, which can potentially be exploited for photoelectric memory and/or photovoltaic devices through interface engineering.

  4. Theory of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A A

    2015-02-21

    This work aims to extend the study of the formation of the electric double layer at the interface defined by a solution and an ion-exchange membrane on the basis of the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations, including different values of the counter-ion diffusion coefficient and the dielectric constant in the solution and membrane phases. The network simulation method is used to obtain the time evolution of the electric potential, the displacement electric vector, the electric charge density and the ionic concentrations at the interface between a binary electrolyte solution and a cation-exchange membrane with total co-ion exclusion. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the interfacial electric potential and the surface electric charge are compared with analytical solutions derived in the limit of the shortest times by considering the Poisson equation for a simple cationic diffusion process. The steady-state results are justified from the Gouy-Chapman theory for the diffuse double layer in the limits of similar and high bathing ionic concentrations with respect to the fixed-charge concentration inside the membrane. Interesting new physical insights arise from the interpretation of the process of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface on the basis of a membrane model with total co-ion exclusion.

  5. Field effects in graphene in an interface contact with aqueous solutions of acetic acid and potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, A. V.; Butko, V. Yu.; Lebedev, S. P.; Lebedev, A. A.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the creation of new promising chemical sensors, it is very important to study the influence of the interface between graphene and aqueous solutions of acids and alkalis on the transistor characteristics of graphene. Transistor structures on the basis of graphene grown by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide were created and studied. For the interface of graphene with aqueous solutions of acetic acid and potassium hydroxide in the transistor geometry, with a variation in the gate-to-source voltage, the field effect corresponding to the hole type of charge carriers in graphene was observed. It is established that an increase in the concentration of molecular ions in these solutions leads to an increase in the dependence of the resistance of the transistor on the gate voltage.

  6. Interface investigation of solution processed high- κ ZrO2/Si MOS structure by DLTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, Ksr Koteswara

    The interfacial region is dominating due to the continuous downscaling and integration of high- k oxides in CMOS applications. The accurate characterization of high- k oxides/semiconductor interface has the significant importance towards its usage in memory and thin film devices. The interface traps at the high - k /semiconductor interface can be quantified by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with better accuracy in contrast to capacitance-voltage (CV) and conductance technique. We report the fabrication of high- k ZrO2 films on p-Si substrate by a simple and inexpensive sol-gel spin-coating technique. Further, the ZrO2/Si interface is characterized through DLTS. The flat-band voltage (VFB) and the density of slow interface states (oxide trapped charges) extracted from CV characteristics are 0.37 V and 2x10- 11 C/cm2, respectively. The activation energy, interface state density and capture cross-section quantified by DLTS are EV + 0.42 eV, 3.4x1011 eV- 1 cm- 2 and 5.8x10- 18 cm2, respectively. The high quality ZrO2 films own high dielectric constant 15 with low leakage current density might be an appropriate insulating layer in future electronic application. The low value of interface state density and capture cross-section are the indication of high quality interface and the defect present at the interface may not affect the device performance to a great extent. The DLTS study provides a broad understanding about the traps present at the interface of spin-coated ZrO2/Si.

  7. Probing Ionic Liquid Aqueous Solutions Using Temperature of Maximum Density Isotope Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a new development of an extensive research program that is investigating for the first time shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD of aqueous solutions caused by ionic liquid solutes. In the present case we have compared the shifts caused by three ionic liquid solutes with a common cation—1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium coupled with acetate, ethylsulfate and tetracyanoborate anions—in normal and deuterated water solutions. The observed differences are discussed in terms of the nature of the corresponding anion-water interactions.

  8. Investigating the effects of smoothness of interfaces on stability of probing nano-scale thin films by neutron reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Jahromi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the reflectometry methods which are used for determining the phase of complex reflection coefficient such as Reference Method and Variation of Surroundings medium are based on solving the Schrödinger equation using a discontinuous and step-like scattering optical potential. However, during the deposition process for making a real sample the two adjacent layers are mixed together and the interface would not be discontinuous and sharp. The smearing of adjacent layers at the interface (smoothness of interface, would affect the the reflectivity, phase of reflection coefficient and reconstruction of the scattering length density (SLD of the sample. In this paper, we have investigated the stability of Reference Method in the presence of smooth interfaces. The smoothness of interfaces is considered by using a continuous function scattering potential. We have also proposed a method to achieve the most reliable output result while retrieving the SLD of the sample.

  9. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little...

  10. A highly selective turn-on fluorescent probe for Al3+ in aqueous solution based on quinoline Schiff-base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng-Cheng; Fang, Hao; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Wu, Fang-Ying

    2017-06-01

    A new Al3+-specific fluorescent probe NQ was designed and synthesized from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 2-aminoquinoline. Upon the addition of Al3+, the fluorescent intensity of NQ was significantly enhanced compared with other examined metal ions in aqueous solution. The result of a Job’s plot indicated the formation of a 1:1 complex between the probe and Al3+, and the possible binding mode of the system between NQ and Al3+ was clarified by IR analysis and 1H NMR titration. Moreover, other metal ions examined had little effect on the detection of Al3+. The detection limit of NQ for Al3+ detection was 1.98 μM, which is lower than the level (7.4 μM) in drinking water defined by the World Health Organization. In addition, the fluorescent probe NQ could be recyclable simply through treatment with a proper reagent such as F-, and could also be used for the detection of Al3+ in real samples.

  11. Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange (DMS-HDX) as a Probe of Protein Conformation in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaolong; Campbell, J Larry; Chernushevich, Igor; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Wilson, Derek J

    2016-06-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is an ion mobility technique that has been adopted chiefly as a pre-filter for small- to medium-sized analytes (DMS-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectroscopy (FAIMS)-the application of DMS to intact biomacromolecules remains largely unexplored. In this work, we employ DMS combined with gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (DMS-HDX) to probe the gas-phase conformations generated from proteins that were initially folded, partially-folded, and unfolded in solution. Our findings indicate that proteins with distinct structural features in solution exhibit unique deuterium uptake profiles as function of their optimal transmission through the DMS. Ultimately we propose that DMS-HDX can, if properly implemented, provide rapid measurements of liquid-phase protein structural stability that could be of use in biopharmaceuticals development. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Temperature dependant thermal and mechanical properties of a metal-phase change layer interface using the time resolved pump probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, V; Battaglia, J-L; Kusiak, A; Rossignol, C; Wiemer, C

    2011-01-01

    Time Resolved Pump Probe (TRPP) technique has been implemented to study the thermal and mechanical properties of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) film deposited on a silicon substrate. According to the knowledge of the thermal properties of the GST layer, the temperature dependant Thermal Boundary Resistance (TBR) at the metal-GST interface is evaluated. Measuring the acoustic oscillation and more particularly its damping leads to characterize the adhesion at the metal - GST interface. This quantity can be efficiently related to the temperature dependent TBR in the 25 deg. C - 400 deg. C range. The TBR increases with temperature and follows the changes of the crystalline structure of materials. A linear relation between the acoustic reflection coefficient and the logarithm of the thermal boundary resistance is found.

  13. Probing electronic and vibrational properties at the electrochemical interface using SFG spectroscopy: Methanol electro-oxidation on Pt(1 1 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, F.; Busson, B.; Tadjeddine, A.

    2005-02-01

    We report the study of methanol electro-oxidation on Pt(1 1 0) using infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. The use of this technique enables to probe the vibrational and electronic properties of the interface simultaneously in situ. We have investigated the vibrational properties of the interface in the CO ads internal stretch spectral region (1700-2150 cm -1) over a wide range of potentials. The analysis of the evolution of the C-O stretch line shape, which is related to the interference between the vibrational and electronic parts of the non-linear response, with the potential allows us to show that the onset of bulk methanol oxidation corresponds to the transition from a negatively to a positively charged surface.

  14. Formation of magnetite (Fe3O4)in aqueous media and properties of the interface magnetite/solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regazzoni, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of Fe 3 O 4 particles in aqueous media and the properties of the Fe 3 O 4 /aqueous solution interface are studied. This system is of particular interest in nuclear reactor chemistry, since Fe 3 O 4 was identified as the main component of the corrosion products of nuclear power plants cooled with pressurized water, of the Atucha I and II, and Embalse type. Four methods for the synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 are described: a) controlled oxidation of Fe(OH) 2 in the presence of NaNO 3 at 25 deg C; b) controlled oxidation of Fe(OH) 2 in the presence of NaNO 3 and N 2 H 4 and at 100 deg C; c) alkalinization of a F 2+ and Fe 3+ solutions at 80 deg C; d) simultaneous oxidation and alkalinization of a Fe 2+ . The interfacial properties of Fe 3 O 4 particles suspended in aqueous solutions of indifferent electrolytes are described. These properties are essential for the activity transport associated with the corrosion products. Finally, the adsorption of H 3 BO 3 , Hsub(n)PO 4 sup(n-3) and n Co(II) in the Fe 3 O 4 /solution interface at 30 deg C. It is concluded that the adsorbed species are chemically bonded to surface metal ions. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Integral solution of equiaxed solidification with an interface kinetics model for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naterer, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a one-dimensional analysis of energy and species transport during binary dendritic solidification is presented and compared to experimental results. The paper's objective is a continuation of previous studies of solidification control for the waste management of nuclear materials in the underground disposal concept. In the present analysis, interface kinetics at the solid - liquid interface accounts for recalescent thermal behaviour during solidification. The theoretical results were compared to available experimental results and the agreement appears fair although some discrepancies have been attributed to uncertainties with thermophysical properties. (author)

  16. Monolayer field effect transistor as a probe of electronic defects in organic semiconducting layers at organic/inorganic hetero-junction interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a large negative threshold voltage observed in monolayer (ML) field effect transistors (FETs) is explored using in-situ electrical measurements through confining the thickness of an active layer to the accumulation layer thickness. Using ML pentacene FETs combined with gated multiple-terminal devices and atomic force microscopy, the effect of electronic and structural evolution of a ML pentacene film on the threshold voltage in an FET, proportional to the density of deep traps, was probed, revealing that a large negative threshold voltage found in ML FETs results from the pentacene/SiO_2 and pentacene/metal interfaces. More importantly, the origin of the threshold voltage difference between ML and thick FETs is addressed through a model in which the effective charge transport layer is transitioned from the pentacene layer interfacing with the SiO_2 gate dielectric to the upper layers with pentacene thickness increasing evidenced by pentacene coverage dependent threshold voltage measurements. - Highlights: • The origin of a large negative threshold voltage in accumulation layer is revealed. • Electronic localized states at the nanometer scale are separately probed from the bulk. • The second monolayer becomes the effective charge transport layer governing threshold voltage.

  17. Monolayer field effect transistor as a probe of electronic defects in organic semiconducting layers at organic/inorganic hetero-junction interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam, E-mail: metalpbn@hongik.ac.kr

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a large negative threshold voltage observed in monolayer (ML) field effect transistors (FETs) is explored using in-situ electrical measurements through confining the thickness of an active layer to the accumulation layer thickness. Using ML pentacene FETs combined with gated multiple-terminal devices and atomic force microscopy, the effect of electronic and structural evolution of a ML pentacene film on the threshold voltage in an FET, proportional to the density of deep traps, was probed, revealing that a large negative threshold voltage found in ML FETs results from the pentacene/SiO{sub 2} and pentacene/metal interfaces. More importantly, the origin of the threshold voltage difference between ML and thick FETs is addressed through a model in which the effective charge transport layer is transitioned from the pentacene layer interfacing with the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric to the upper layers with pentacene thickness increasing evidenced by pentacene coverage dependent threshold voltage measurements. - Highlights: • The origin of a large negative threshold voltage in accumulation layer is revealed. • Electronic localized states at the nanometer scale are separately probed from the bulk. • The second monolayer becomes the effective charge transport layer governing threshold voltage.

  18. A mathematical model and numerical solution of interface problems for steady state heat conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Muradoglu Seyidmamedov

    2006-01-01

    (isolation Ωδ tends to zero. For each case, the local truncation errors of the used conservative finite difference scheme are estimated on the nonuniform grid. A fast direct solver has been applied for the interface problems with piecewise constant but discontinuous coefficient k=k(x. The presented numerical results illustrate high accuracy and show applicability of the given approach.

  19. DLTS Analysis and Interface Engineering of Solution Route Fabricated Zirconia Based MIS Devices Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have fabricated low-temperature sol-gel spin-coated and oxygen (O2) plasma treated ZrO2 thin film-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. To understand the impact of plasma treatment on the Si/ZrO2 interface, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were performed. It is reported that the interface state density ( D it) comes down to 7.1 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 from 4 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, after plasma treatment. The reduction in D it is around five times and can be attributed to the passivation of oxygen vacancies near the Si/ZrO2 interface, as they try to relocate near the interface. The energy level position ( E T) of interfacial traps is estimated to be 0.36 eV below the conduction band edge. The untreated ZrO2 film displayed poor leakage behavior due to the presence of several traps within the film and at the interface; O2 plasma treated films show improved leakage current density as they have been reduced from 5.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 1.98 × 10-9 A/cm2 for gate injection mode and 6.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 6.3 × 10-10 A/cm2 for substrate injection mode at 1 V. Hence, we suggest that plasma treatment might be useful in future device fabrication technology.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the calcite/solution interface as a means to explore surface modifications induced by nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Sascha; Schmidt, Moritz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Surface Processes; Spijker, P. [Aalto Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Applied Physics; Voitchovsky, K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.

    2016-07-01

    The reactivity of calcite, one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust, is determined by the molecular details of its interface with the contacting solution. Recently, it has been found that trace concentrations of NaNO{sub 3} severely affect calcite's (104) surface and its reactivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveal density profiles of different ions near calcite's surface, with NO{sub 3}{sup -} able to reach closer to the surface than CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and in higher concentrations. Additionally, incorporation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} into the surface significantly disturbs the water structure at the interface.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of structure and vibrational spectra at zwitterionoic lipid/aqueous KCl, NaCl, and CaCl2 solution interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Shirai, Shinnosuke; Okumura, Tomoaki; Morita, Akihiro

    2018-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of KCl, NaCl, and CaCl2 solution/dipalmytoylphosphatidylcholine lipid interfaces were performed to analyze heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectra in relation to the interfacial water structure. The present MD simulation well reproduces the experimental spectra and elucidates a specific cation effect on the interfacial structure. The K+, Na+, and Ca2+ cation species penetrate in the lipid layer more than the anions in this order, due to the electrostatic interaction with negative polar groups of lipid, and the electric double layer between the cations and anions cancels the intrinsic orientation of water at the water/lipid interface. These mechanisms explain the HD-VSFG spectrum of the water/lipid interface and its spectral perturbation by adding the ions. The lipid monolayer reverses the order of surface preference of the cations at the solution/lipid interface from that at the solution/air interface.

  2. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  3. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  4. Determination of three-dimensional interfacial strain - A novel method of probing interface structure with X-ray Bragg-surface diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.-C.; Chu, C.-H.; Chang, H.-C.; Wu, B.-K.; Chen, Y.-R.; Cheng, C.-W.; Chiu, M.-S.; Shen, Y.-C.; Wu, H.-H.; Hung, Y.-S.; Chang, S.-L.; Hong, M.-H.; Tang, M.-T.; Stetsko, Yu.P.

    2007-01-01

    A new X-ray diffraction technique is developed to probe structural variations at the interfaces between epitaxy thin films and single-crystal substrates. The technique utilizes three-wave Bragg-surface diffraction, where a symmetric Bragg reflection and an asymmetric surface reflection are involved. The propagation of the latter along the interfaces conveys structural information about the interfacial region between the substrate and epi-layers. The sample systems of Au/GaAs(001) are subject to the three-wave diffraction investigation using synchrotron radiation. The GaAs three-wave Bragg-surface diffractions (006)/(11-bar3) and (006)/(1-bar1-bar3), are employed. The images of the surface diffracted waves are recorded with an image plate. The obtained images show relative positions of diffraction spots near the image of the interfacial boundary, which give the variation of lattice constant along the surface normal and in-plane directions. With the aid of grazing-incidence diffraction, three-dimensional mapping of strain field at the interfaces is possible. Details about this diffraction technique and the analysis procedures are discussed

  5. Corrosion at the Polymer-Metal Interface in Artificial Seawater Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia M. Anderson-Wile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer components for liquid sealing applications are employed in a variety of potentially corrosive environments, such as seawater. Frequently, corrosion of the metal is found at or adjacent to the rubber-metal interface rather than at a noncontact area. The corrosion of different metal alloys (titanium, bronze, nickel, aluminum, 316 stainless steel, and 4130 steel in combination with rubber O-rings (Buna-N and EPDM of varying internal diameters and cross-sectional shapes in seawater over a period of four years is described herein. The corrosion of some metals (i.e., 4130 stainless steel was found to be accelerated through interaction with Buna-N rubber O-rings. Theories to account for corrosion at the polymer-metal interface, especially with respect to polymer composition and O-ring size and shape, are discussed.

  6. Long Range Polymer Chain Dynamics of Highly Flexible Polysiloxane in Solution Probed by Pyrene Excimer Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine L. Thoma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-(3-aminopropylmethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS with 20.3 mol % of (3-aminopropylmethyl siloxane monomer has been labeled randomly with 1-pyreneacetyl groups to generate a series of polysiloxanes (Py-PDMS with pyrenyl contents ranging from 0.7 mol % to 5.2 mol % of the total number of structural units. The remainder of the amino groups were acetylated to avoid intra-chain quenching of the excited singlet states of pyrene via exciplex formation with free amino groups while allowing the formation of excimers to proceed. The fluorescence spectra and temporal decays of the Py-PDMS samples were acquired in tetrahydrofuran (THF, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, and dioxane. blob, the average rate constant for intra-chain pyrene excimer formation, was determined from the analysis of the fluorescence decays. blob was found to equal 1.16 (±0.13 × 109, 1.14 (±0.12 × 109, and 0.99 (±0.10 × 109 s−1 in THF, DMF, and dioxane, respectively, at room temperature. They are the largest values found to date for any polymeric backbone in these solvents. The qualitative relationship found here between blob and the chemical structures of the polymers indicates that the luminescence characteristics of randomly labeled polymers is a very useful method to probe the long range dynamics of chains of almost any polymer that is amenable to substitution by a lumophore.

  7. Design solutions to interface flow problems: Text - List of symbols - References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermeability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation

  8. What are the current solutions for interfacing supercritical fluid chromatography and mass spectrometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillarme, Davy; Desfontaine, Vincent; Heinisch, Sabine; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2018-04-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is considered today as one of the most popular detection methods, due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. In particular, this detector has become the gold standard for the analysis of complex mixtures such as biological samples. The first successful SFC-MS hyphenation was reported in the 80's, and since then, several ionization sources, mass analyzers and interfacing technologies have been combined. Due to the specific physicochemical properties and compressibility of the SFC mobile phase, directing the column effluent into the ionization source is more challenging than in LC. Therefore, some specific interfaces have to be employed in SFC-MS, to i) avoid (or at least limit) analytes precipitation due to CO 2 decompression, when the SFC mobile phase is not anymore under backpressure control, ii) achieve adequate ionization yield, even with a low proportion of MeOH in the mobile phase and iii) preserve the chromatographic integrity (i.e. maintaining retention, selectivity, and efficiency). The goal of this review is to describe the various SFC-MS interfaces and highlight the most favorable ones in terms of reliability, flexibility, sensitivity and user-friendliness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural properties of glucose-dimethylsulfoxide solutions probed by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Marco; Gallina, Maria Elena; Sassi, Paola; Morresi, Assunta

    2009-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to achieve a molecular level description of solvation properties in glucose-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. The analysis of Raman spectra confirms the importance of the dipole-dipole interaction in determining structural properties of pure DMSO; the overall intermolecular structure is maintained in the whole 20-75 °C temperature range investigated. The blueshift of the CH stretching modes observed at higher temperatures points out that CH3⋯O contacts contribute to the cohesive energy of the DMSO liquid system. The addition of glucose perturbs the intermolecular ordering of DMSO owing to the formation of stable solute-solvent hydrogen bonds. The average number of OH⋯OS contacts (3.2±0.3) and their corresponding energy (˜20 kJ/mol) were estimated. Besides, the concentration dependence of the CH stretching bands and the behavior of the noncoincidence effect on the SO band, suggest that the dipole-dipole and CH3⋯O interactions among DMSO molecules are disfavored within the glucose solvation layer. These findings contribute to improve our understanding about the microscopic origin of solvent properties of DMSO toward more complex biomolecular systems.

  10. Account of volume heat capacity on interface in numerical solution of the Stephen problem using the strained coordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latynin, V.A.; Reshetov, V.A.; Karaseva, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical solution of the Stephen problem by the strained coordinate method is presented for an one-dimensional sphere. Differential formulae of heat fluxes from moving interfaces do not take into account volume heat capacities of the front nodes. Calculations, carried out according to these balanced formulae, as well as according to those usually used, have shown that the balanced formulae permit to reduce approximately by an order the number of nodes on the sphere radius, if similar accuracy of heat balance of the whole process of melting or crystallization is observed. 2 refs.; 1 fig

  11. Impedance response characteristics of iron oxide interface in the EDTA solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, Tosio; Higuchi, Shigeo; Kataoka, Ichiro; Ito, Hisao.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between the dissolution and the surface conditions of Fe 3 O 4 were studied in the various conditions of EDTA solutions by means of the A · C impedance measurement. From the experimental results obtained, surface layer of Fe 3 O 4 electrode can be expressed with electrical equivalent circuit that have capacitance and reaction resistance in the electrical double layer. In the Na 2 SO 4 solution without occuring dissolution, reaction resistance was estimated as 314 kΩ · cm 2 and capacitance was 203 μF/cm 2 . In the EDTA solutions, reaction resistance decreases along with dissolution of Fe 3 O 4 . The factors to make decrease reaction resistance are EDTA concentration, pH and temperature of the solutions. In contrast with this, the factor to increase it is dissolved oxygen in the solutions. The reciprocal value of reaction resistance agrees well with the rate of dissolution. On the other hand, when the electrode potential was maintained under the cathodic polarization in the EDTA solutions, impedances of electrode surface showed the lower value than that in the immersion condition. And apparent resistance came near to 0 at the potential of -2.0 V in all the range of frequency. Fe 3 O 4 electrodes pretreated with the cathodic polarization exhibited the characteristic impedance response that were caused by the change of electrode surface and the deposites such as iron hydroxide. (author)

  12. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) as a probe of macromolecule adsorption kinetics at functionalized interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Michael A; de Cuendias, Anne; Gayet, Florence; Shirley, Ian M; Mackenzie, Stuart R; Haddleton, David M; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-05-01

    Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) has been employed to study the interfacial adsorption kinetics of coumarin-tagged macromolecules onto a range of functionalized planar surfaces. Such studies are valuable in designing polymers for complex systems where the degree of interaction between the polymer and surface needs to be tailored. Three tagged synthetic polymers with different functionalities are examined: poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) (PSPMA), and a mannose-modified glycopolymer. Adsorption transients at the silica/water interface are found to be characteristic for each polymer, and kinetics are deduced from the initial rates. The chemistry of the adsorption interfaces has been varied by, first, manipulation of silica surface chemistry via the bulk pH, followed by surfaces modified by poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) and cellulose, giving five chemically different surfaces. Complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has been used for additional surface characterization of adsorbed layers and functionalized interfaces to allow adsorption rates to be interpreted more fully. Adsorption rates for PSPMA and the glycopolymer are seen to be highly surface sensitive, with significantly higher rates on cellulose-modified surfaces, whereas PAA shows a much smaller rate dependence on the nature of the adsorption surface.

  13. Proximity Band Structure and Spin Textures on Both Sides of Topological-Insulator/Ferromagnetic-Metal Interface and Their Charge Transport Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Tejada, Juan Manuel; Dolui, Kapildeb; Lazić, Predrag; Chang, Po-Hao; Smidstrup, Søren; Stradi, Daniele; Stokbro, Kurt; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2017-09-13

    The control of recently observed spintronic effects in topological-insulator/ferromagnetic-metal (TI/FM) heterostructures is thwarted by the lack of understanding of band structure and spin textures around their interfaces. Here we combine density functional theory with Green's function techniques to obtain the spectral function at any plane passing through atoms of Bi 2 Se 3 and Co or Cu layers comprising the interface. Instead of naively assumed Dirac cone gapped by the proximity exchange field spectral function, we find that the Rashba ferromagnetic model describes the spectral function on the surface of Bi 2 Se 3 in contact with Co near the Fermi level E F 0 , where circular and snowflake-like constant energy contours coexist around which spin locks to momentum. The remnant of the Dirac cone is hybridized with evanescent wave functions from metallic layers and pushed, due to charge transfer from Co or Cu layers, a few tenths of an electron-volt below E F 0 for both Bi 2 Se 3 /Co and Bi 2 Se 3 /Cu interfaces while hosting distorted helical spin texture wounding around a single circle. These features explain recent observation of sensitivity of spin-to-charge conversion signal at TI/Cu interface to tuning of E F 0 . Crucially for spin-orbit torque in TI/FM heterostructures, few monolayers of Co adjacent to Bi 2 Se 3 host spectral functions very different from the bulk metal, as well as in-plane spin textures (despite Co magnetization being out-of-plane) due to proximity spin-orbit coupling in Co induced by Bi 2 Se 3 . We predict that out-of-plane tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Cu/Bi 2 Se 3 /Co vertical heterostructure can serve as a sensitive probe of the type of spin texture residing at E F 0 .

  14. Power electronic solutions for interfacing offshore wind turbine generators to medium voltage DC collection grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael T.

    Here in the early 21st century humanity is continuing to seek improved quality of life for citizens throughout the world. This global advancement is providing more people than ever with access to state-of-the-art services in areas such as transportation, entertainment, computing, communication, and so on. Providing these services to an ever-growing population while considering the constraints levied by continuing climate change will require new frontiers of clean energy to be developed. At the time of this writing, offshore wind has been proven as both a politically and economically agreeable source of clean, sustainable energy by northern European nations with many wind farms deployed in the North, Baltic, and Irish Seas. Modern offshore wind farms are equipped with an electrical system within the farm itself to aggregate the energy from all turbines in the farm before it is transmitted to shore. This collection grid is traditionally a 3-phase medium voltage alternating current (MVAC) system. Due to reactive power and other practical constraints, it is preferable to use a medium voltage direct current (MVDC) collection grid when siting farms >150 km from shore. To date, no offshore wind farm features an MVDC collection grid. However, MVDC collection grids are expected to be deployed with future offshore wind farms as they are sited further out to sea. In this work it is assumed that many future offshore wind farms may utilize an MVDC collection grid to aggregate electrical energy generated by individual wind turbines. As such, this work presents both per-phase and per-pole power electronic converter systems suitable for interfacing individual wind turbines to such an MVDC collection grid. Both interfaces are shown to provide high input power factor at the wind turbine while providing DC output current to the MVDC grid. Common mode voltage stress and circulating currents are investigated, and mitigation strategies are provided for both interfaces. A power sharing

  15. The pair potential approach for interfaces: Fundamental problems and practical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggs, A.C.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1987-09-01

    A fundamental problem in the use of a central pair-force model for defect problems is that it omits three-body and higher terms which are necessarily present in real systems. Electronic fluctuation effects are also usually omitted. While these can be small in the simple metals, they are significant in noble and transition metals, as shown by a simple real space argument. To guage the importance of their effects in interface problems, the structure of a simple sum 5 twist boundary is examined, with the atoms described by both pair- and three-center interactions and as a function of the relative strength of the two. 15 refs

  16. Stability of exact solutions describing two-layer flows with evaporation at the interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekezhanova, V B [Institute of Computational Modelling SB RAS, Akademgorodok, 50/44, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Goncharova, O N, E-mail: bekezhanova@mail.ru, E-mail: gon@math.asu.ru [Altai State University, Lenina 61, Barnaul, 656049 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new exact solution of the equations of free convection has been constructed in the framework of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation of the Navier–Stokes equations. The solution describes the joint flow of an evaporating viscous heat-conducting liquid and gas-vapor mixture in a horizontal channel. In the gas phase the Dufour and Soret effects are taken into account. The consideration of the exact solution allows one to describe different classes of flows depending on the values of the problem parameters and boundary conditions for the vapor concentration. A classification of solutions and results of the solution analysis are presented. The effects of the external disturbing influences (of the liquid flow rates and longitudinal gradients of temperature on the channel walls) on the stability characteristics have been numerically studied for the system HFE7100-nitrogen in the common case, when the longitudinal temperature gradients on the boundaries of the channel are not equal. In the system both monotonic and oscillatory modes can be formed, which damp or grow depending on the values of the initial perturbations, flow rates and temperature gradients. Hydrodynamic perturbations are most dangerous under large gas flow rates. The increasing oscillatory perturbations are developed due to the thermocapillary effect under large longitudinal gradients of temperature. The typical forms of the disturbances are shown. (paper)

  17. Influence of Surface Adsorption on Work Function Measurements on Gold-Platinum Interface Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugo, Simon; Yuan Jun

    2012-01-01

    Surface potential difference (SPD) on freshly coated gold and platinum electrodes have been found to be much smaller than bulk work functions consideration and to be dependent on time. We show these discrepancies arise due to formation of surface dipoles caused by adsorbed contaminants in ambient environments. The process is reversible by gentle annealing consistent with contaminant hypothesis. Examination of potential changes on individual electrodes suggest that the Pt surface is more sensitive to ambient conditions than the Au surface in accordance with their relative chemical activities. The result has great implication for interpretation of Kelvin probe measurements obtained on practical devices exposed to ambient environments.

  18. Physical and chemical interactions at the interface between atmospheric pressure plasmas and aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander; Byrns, Brandon; Knappe, Detlef; Graves, David; Shannon, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Transport and reactions of charged species, neutrals, and photons at the interface between plasmas and liquids must be better quantified. The work presented here combines theoretical and experimental investigations of conditions in the gas and liquid phases in proximity to the interface for various discharges. OES is used to determine rotational and vibrational temperatures of OH, NO, and N2+; the relationship between these temperatures that characterize the distribution of internal energy states and gas and electron kinetic temperatures is considered. The deviation of OH rotational states from equilibrium under high humidity conditions is also presented. In contradiction with findings of other groups, high energy rotational states appear to become underpopulated with increasing humidity. In the aqueous phase, concentrations of longer-lived species such as nitrate, nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone are determined using ion chromatography and colorimetric methods. Spin-traps and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) are investigated for characterization of short-lived aqueous radicals like OH, O2-, NO, and ONOO-. Finally, experimental results are compared to a numerical model which couples transport and reactions within and between the bulk gas and liquid phases.

  19. Analytical Solution for Interface Flow to a Sink With an Upconed Saline Water Lens: Strack's Regimes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Y. V.

    2018-01-01

    A study is made of a steady, two-dimensional groundwater flow with a horizontal well (drain), which pumps out freshwater from an aquifer sandwiched between a horizontal bedrock and ponded soil surface, and containing a lens-shaped static volume of a heavier saline water (DNAPL-dense nonaqueous phase liquid) as a free surface. For flow toward a line sink, an explicit analytical solution is obtained by a conformal mapping of the hexagon in the complex potential plane onto a reference plane and the Keldysh-Sedov integral representation of a mixed boundary-value problem for a complex physical coordinate. The interface is found as a function of the pumping rate, the well locus, the ratio of liquid densities, and the hydraulic heads at the soil surface and in the well. The shape with two inflexion points and fronts varies from a small-thickness bedrock-spread pancake to a critical curvilinear triangle, which cusps toward the sink. The problem is mathematically solvable in a relatively narrow band of geometric and hydraulic parameters. A similar analytic solution for a static heavy bubble confined by a closed-curve interface (no contact with the bedrock) is outlined as an illustration of the method to solve a mixed boundary-value problem.

  20. Fischer Indole Synthesis in the Gas Phase, the Solution Phase, and at the Electrospray Droplet Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M; Ayrton, Stephen T; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-07-01

    Previous reports have shown that reactions occurring in the microdroplets formed during electrospray ionization can, under the right conditions, exhibit significantly greater rates than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reactions. The observed acceleration under electrospray ionization could result from a solution-phase, a gas-phase, or an interfacial reaction. This study shows that a gas-phase ion/molecule (or ion/ion) reaction is not responsible for the observed rate enhancement in the particular case of the Fischer indole synthesis. The results show that the accelerated reaction proceeds in the microdroplets, and evidence is provided that an interfacial process is involved. Graphical Abstract GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT TEXT HERE] -->.

  1. Extensive Turnover of Compatible Solutes in Cyanobacteria Revealed by Deuterium Oxide (D_2O) Stable Isotope Probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Richard; Lau, Rebecca; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Diamond, Spencer; Jose, Nick

    2017-01-01

    In diverse environments on a global scale cyanobacteria are important primary producers of organic matter. Moreover, while mechanisms of CO_2 fixation are well understood, the distribution of the flow of fixed organic carbon within individual cells and complex microbial communities is less well characterized. To obtain a general overview of metabolism, we describe the use of deuterium oxide (D_2O) to measure deuterium incorporation into the intracellular metabolites of two physiologically diverse cyanobacteria: a terrestrial filamentous strain (Microcoleus vaginatus PCC 9802) and a euryhaline unicellular strain (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002). D_2O was added to the growth medium during different phases of the diel cycle. Incorporation of deuterium into metabolites at nonlabile positions, an indicator of metabolite turnover, was assessed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Expectedly, large differences in turnover among metabolites were observed. Some metabolites, such as fatty acids, did not show significant turnover over 12–24 h time periods but did turn over during longer time periods. Unexpectedly, metabolites commonly regarded to act as compatible solutes, including glutamate, glucosylglycerol, and a dihexose, showed extensive turnover compared to most other metabolites already after 12 h, but only during the light phase in the cycle. We observed extensive turnover and found it surprising considering the conventional view on compatible solutes as biosynthetic end points given the relatively slow growth and constant osmotic conditions. Our suggests the possibility of a metabolic sink for some compatible solutes (e.g., into glycogen) that allows for rapid modulation of intracellular osmolarity. To investigate this, uniformly "1"3C-labeled Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were exposed to "1"2C glucosylglycerol. Following metabolite extraction, amylase treatment of methanol-insoluble polymers revealed "1"2C labeling of glycogen. Overall, our work shows that D_2

  2. Coupling of lateral electric field and transversal faradaic processes at the conductor/electrolyte solution interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.; Minor, M.; Cecilia, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative theory is presented for the bipolar behavior of conducting planar surfaces in a thin-layer cell of a type commonly used in electrokinetic studies. The lateral current density distribution in the cell, as dictated by the externally applied field in the solution, is formulated for the

  3. Insights into structural and dynamical features of water at halloysite interfaces probed by DFT and classical molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Davide; Pedone, Alfonso; Mancini, Giordano; Duce, Celia; Tiné, Maria Rosaria; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-01-21

    Density functional theory calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the structure and dynamics of water molecules on kaolinite surfaces and confined in the interlayer of a halloysite model of nanometric dimension. The first technique allowed us to accurately describe the structure of the tetrahedral-octahedral slab of kaolinite in vacuum and in interaction with water molecules and to assess the performance of two widely employed empirical force fields to model water/clay interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the hydrogen bond network structure and dynamics of water adsorbed on kaolinite surfaces and confined in the halloysite interlayer. The results are in nice agreement with the few experimental data available in the literature, showing a pronounced ordering and reduced mobility of water molecules at the hydrophilic octahedral surfaces of kaolinite and confined in the halloysite interlayer, with respect to water interacting with the hydrophobic tetrahedral surfaces and in the bulk. Finally, this investigation provides new atomistic insights into the structural and dynamical properties of water-clay interfaces, which are of fundamental importance for both natural processes and industrial applications.

  4. Oriented crystalline monolayers and bilayers of 2 x 2 silver(1) grid architectures at the air-solution interface: Their assembly and crystal structure elucidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, J.; Baxter, P.N.W.; Kuzmenko, I.

    2000-01-01

    Oriented crystalline monolayers, similar to 14 Angstrom thick, of a 2 x 2 Ag+ grid complex, self-assembled at the air-solution interface starting from an water-insoluble ligand 3,6-bis[2-(6-phenylpyridine)]pyridazine spread on silver-ion-containing solutions,were examined by grazing-incidence X...

  5. Effects of solution viscosity on heterogeneous electron transfer across a liquid/liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Yamin; Sun Peng; Zhang Meiqin; Gao Zhao; Yang Zhengyu; Shao Yuanhua

    2003-10-15

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is employed to investigate the effect of solution viscosity on the rate constants of electron transfer (ET) reaction between potassium ferricyanide in water and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in 1,2-dichloroethane. Either tetrabutylammonium (TBA{sup +}) or ClO{sub 4}{sup -} is chosen as the common ion in both phases to control the interfacial potential drop. The rate constant of heterogeneous ET reaction between TCNQ and ferrocyanide produced in-situ, k{sub 12}, is evaluated by SECM and is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the aqueous solution and directly proportional to the diffusion coefficient of K{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6} in water when the concentration of TCNQ in the DCE phase is in excess. The k{sub 12} dependence on viscosity is explained in terms of the longitudinal relaxation time of the solution. The rate constant of the heterogeneous ET reaction between TCNQ{sup -} and ferricyanide, k{sub 21}, is also obtained by SECM and these results cannot be explained by the same manner.

  6. Interactions of Ni and Ca at the calcite-solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Aalto, H.

    1996-10-01

    The performance assessment of repositories for spent nuclear fuel need, among other things, data describing the solubilities of radionuclides in the near field and far field. The solubility limits are often used in order to estimate the maximum concentrations of radionuclides during their possible transport to the biosphere. The solubilities used are mostly the individual solubilities for pure solids of the actual radionuclides. This way of using solubility limits represents a conservative performance assessment where the estimated nuclide concentrations are unrealistically high. This is acceptable from a performance assessment point of view but very unsatisfactory for an optimal design of the repository. In order to make the assessment more realistic, coprecipitation and solid solution formation should be taken into account. Only solids which are, in geological terms, formed in fast reactions need to be considered, which in practice restricts the number of radionuclide scavengers to calcite and iron(III)oxihydroxide. This work focuses on the Ni coprecipitation with calcite. The systems were studied under anoxic conditions and consisted of calcite-saturated 0.05 M NaCl solutions in equilibrium with synthetic calcite. The solutions were initially spiked with 63 Ni and 45 Ca and the concentrations of these elements were determined using liquid scintillation counting. (18 refs.)

  7. Study of the Conformational State of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium chlorides) in Aqueous Solution by Fluorescence Probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Guang-Jia; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    The aggregation behaviour of novel non-cross-linked and cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium chlorides) in aqueous solutions has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a probe. These copolymers were found to exhibit similar aggregate properties as the corresponding

  8. Secondary structure of spiralin in solution, at the air/water interface, and in interaction with lipid monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Sabine; Blaudez, Daniel; Desbat, Bernard; Dufourcq, Jean; Wróblewski, Henri

    2002-05-03

    The surface of spiroplasmas, helically shaped pathogenic bacteria related to the mycoplasmas, is crowded with the membrane-anchored lipoprotein spiralin whose structure and function are unknown. In this work, the secondary structure of spiralin under the form of detergent-free micelles (average Stokes radius, 87.5 A) in water and at the air/water interface, alone or in interaction with lipid monolayers was analyzed. FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic data indicate that spiralin in solution contains about 25+/-3% of helices and 38+/-2% of beta sheets. These measurements are consistent with a consensus predictive analysis of the protein sequence suggesting about 28% of helices, 32% of beta sheets and 40% of irregular structure. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) revealed that, in water, the micelles slowly disaggregate to form a stable and homogeneous layer at the air/water interface, exhibiting a surface pressure up to 10 mN/m. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) spectra of interfacial spiralin display a complex amide I band characteristic of a mixture of beta sheets and alpha helices, and an intense amide II band. Spectral simulations indicate a flat orientation for the beta sheets and a vertical orientation for the alpha helices with respect to the interface. The combination of tensiometric and PMIRRAS measurements show that, when spiroplasma lipids are used to form a monolayer at the air/water interface, spiralin is adsorbed under this monolayer and its antiparallel beta sheets are mainly parallel to the polar-head layer of the lipids without deep perturbation of the fatty acid chains organization. Based upon these results, we propose a 'carpet model' for spiralin organization at the spiroplasma cell surface. In this model, spiralin molecules anchored into the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer by their N-terminal lipid moiety are composed of two colinear domains (instead of a single globular domain) situated at

  9. Comparative study of solute trapping and Gibbs free energy changes at the phase interface during alloy solidification under local nonequilibrium conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, S. L., E-mail: sobolev@icp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    An analytical model has been developed to describe the influence of solute trapping during rapid alloy solidification on the components of the Gibbs free energy change at the phase interface with emphasis on the solute drag energy. For relatively low interface velocity V < V{sub D}, where V{sub D} is the characteristic diffusion velocity, all the components, namely mixing part, local nonequilibrium part, and solute drag, significantly depend on solute diffusion and partitioning. When V ≥ V{sub D}, the local nonequilibrium effects lead to a sharp transition to diffusionless solidification. The transition is accompanied by complete solute trapping and vanishing solute drag energy, i.e. partitionless and “dragless” solidification.

  10. Use of ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopies to explore the light-induced dynamics of peridinin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannakis, Emmanouil; Vengris, Mikas; Larsen, Delmar S; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Hiller, Roger G; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2006-01-12

    Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible region. Dispersed pump-probe measurements show that the decay of the initially excited S2 state populates two excited states, the S1 and the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state, at a ratio determined by the excitation wavelength. The ensuing spectral evolution occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds and suggests the equilibration of these states. Dumping the stimulated emission of the ICT state with an additional 800-nm pulse after 400- and 530-nm excitation preferentially removes the ICT state contribution from the broad excited-state absorption, allowing for its spectral characterization. At the same time, an unrelaxed ground-state species, which has a subpicosecond lifetime, is populated. The application of the 800-nm pulse at early times, when the S2 state is still populated, led to direct generation of the peridinin cation, observed for the first time in a transient absorption experiment. The excited and ground electronic states manifold of peridinin has been reconstructed using target analysis; this approach combined with the measured multipulse spectroscopic data allows us to estimate the spectra and time scales of the corresponding transient states.

  11. Direct Probing of Solvent Accessibility and Mobility at the Binding Interface of Polymerase (Dpo4)-DNA Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yangzhong; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Luyuan; Fowler, Jason D.; Qiu, Weihong; Wang, Lijuan; Suo, Zucai; Zhong, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Water plays essential structural and dynamical roles in protein-DNA recognition through contributing to enthalpic or entropic stabilization of binding complex and by mediating intermolecular interactions and fluctuations for biological function. These interfacial water molecules are confined by the binding partners in nanospace but in many cases they are highly mobile and exchange with outside bulk solution. Here, we report our studies of the interfacial water dynamics in the binary and terna...

  12. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  13. Towards low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs with solution-processed high-k dielectric and interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaorong Su

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs, the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate capacitance density of traditional SiO2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs'development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high-k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. Here, we introduce a simple solution-based technique to fabricate high-k metal oxide dielectric system (ATO at low-temperature, which can be used effectively to realize low-voltage operation of OTFTs. On the other hand, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. By optimizing the above two interfaces with octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM and properly modified low-cost Cu, obviously improved device performance is attained in our low-voltage OTFTs. Further more, organic electronic devices on flexible substrates have attracted much attention due to their low-cost, rollability, large-area processability, and so on. Basing on the above results, outstanding electrical performance is achieved in flexible devices. Our studies demonstrate an effective way to realize low-voltage, high-performance OTFTs at low-cost.

  14. Electrical Crystallization Mechanism and Interface Characteristics of Nano wire Zn O/Al Structures Fabricated by the Solution Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Y.W.; Hung, F.Y.; Lui, T.Sh.; Chen, Y.T.; Xiao, R.S.; Chen, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Both solution nano wire Zn O and sputtered Al thin film on SiO 2 as the wire-film structure and the Al film were a conductive channel for electrical-induced crystallization (EIC). Direct current (DC) raised the temperature of the Al film and improved the crystallization of the nano structure. The effects of EIC not only induced Al atomic interface diffusion, but also doped Al on the roots of Zn O wires to form aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO)/Zn O wires. The Al doping concentration and the distance of the Zn O wire increased with increasing the electrical duration. Also, the electrical current-induced temperature was ∼211 degree C (solid-state doped process) and so could be applied to low-temperature optoelectronic devices.

  15. A novel “Turn-On” fluorescent probe for F− detection in aqueous solution and its application in live-cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Sun, Shaobo; Li, Qian; Yue, Ying; Li, Yingdong; Shao, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel BODIPY-based “Turn-On” fluorescent probe was synthesized. • Highly selective detection of fluoride ions in 100% aqueous solution. • Study of sensing mechanism using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. • Fluorescent bioimaging of F − ion in A549 and ATII cells. - Abstract: A novel probe incorporating quaternized 4-pyridinium group into a BODIPY molecule was synthesized and studied for the selective detection of fluoride ions (F − ) in aqueous solution. The design was based on a fluoride-specific desilylation reaction and the “Turn-On” fluorescent response of probe 1 to F − was ascribed to the inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. The probe displayed many desired properties such as high specificity, appreciable solubility, desirable response time and low toxicity to mammalian cells. There was a good linearity between the fluorescence intensity and the concentrations of F − in the range of 0.1–1 mM with a detection limit of 0.02 mM. The sensing mechanism was confirmed by the NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrum, optical spectroscopy and the mechanism of “Turn-On” fluorescent response was also determinated by a density functional theory (DFT) calculation using Gaussian 03 program. Moreover, the probe was successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of F − in human epithelial lung cancer (A549) cells and alveolar type II (ATII) cells under physiological conditions

  16. A novel “Turn-On” fluorescent probe for F{sup −} detection in aqueous solution and its application in live-cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian [Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Sun, Shaobo [Institute of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Qian; Yue, Ying [Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yingdong [Institute of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Shao, Shijun, E-mail: sjshao@licp.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • A novel BODIPY-based “Turn-On” fluorescent probe was synthesized. • Highly selective detection of fluoride ions in 100% aqueous solution. • Study of sensing mechanism using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. • Fluorescent bioimaging of F{sup −} ion in A549 and ATII cells. - Abstract: A novel probe incorporating quaternized 4-pyridinium group into a BODIPY molecule was synthesized and studied for the selective detection of fluoride ions (F{sup −}) in aqueous solution. The design was based on a fluoride-specific desilylation reaction and the “Turn-On” fluorescent response of probe 1 to F{sup −} was ascribed to the inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. The probe displayed many desired properties such as high specificity, appreciable solubility, desirable response time and low toxicity to mammalian cells. There was a good linearity between the fluorescence intensity and the concentrations of F{sup −} in the range of 0.1–1 mM with a detection limit of 0.02 mM. The sensing mechanism was confirmed by the NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrum, optical spectroscopy and the mechanism of “Turn-On” fluorescent response was also determinated by a density functional theory (DFT) calculation using Gaussian 03 program. Moreover, the probe was successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of F{sup −} in human epithelial lung cancer (A549) cells and alveolar type II (ATII) cells under physiological conditions.

  17. Electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes with ultra-sensitivity for Ga{sup 3+} or Al{sup 3+} detection in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani, E-mail: ashwanirubal@gmail.com; Chae, Pil Seok, E-mail: pchae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-03-15

    Three electronically tuned fluorescent probes (1–3) were synthesized by conjugating a fluorescent unit to N,N-bis-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. Probe 1 bearing an electron-deficient naphthalenedimide unit did not give a fluorescence response to the presence of various metal ions including monovalent metal ions (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ag{sup +}), divalent metal ions (Ca{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) and trivalent metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+}) in an aqueous solution. By contrast, probes 2 and 3 possessing 1,8-naphthalimide and pyrene fluorophores, respectively, exhibited selective fluorescent “OFF-ON” behaviors as a result of Ga{sup 3+}/Al{sup 3+} binding among the diverse metal ions, suggesting the importance of fluorophore electronic character with regard to metal ion sensing. The ethylenediamine analog of probe 3, corresponding to probe 4, was unable to yield a significant change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of any metal ions tested here, revealing the essential role of two hydroxyl groups for metal ion binding. A high association constant of K{sub a} = 2.99 × 10{sup 5} M{sup −1} was obtained for probe 3 with Ga{sup 3+}, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM. This LOD is the lowest value known for Ga{sup 3+} detection using chemical sensors. Along with an increase in aggregate sizes, PET suppression of probes upon metal ion binding was the primary contributor to the enhancement in fluorescence emission necessary for the sensitive detection of the target ions. The probe-metal ion complexes were fully characterized via TEM, FE-SEM, {sup 1}H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy techniques and DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Three electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes (probes 1, 2, and 3) were developed for metal ion-sensing. • Probes 2 and 3 exhibited AIE behavior with increasing water-content. • Probes 2 and 3 displayed a

  18. Double Layer of a Gold Electrode Probed by AFM Force Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, D.; Kleijn, J.M.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lyklema, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy was used to determine the electric double layer interactions between a gold electrode and a spherical silica probe. The double layer properties of the gold/solution interface were varied through the pH and salt concentration of the electrolyte, as well as by

  19. Discrete ordinates solution of coupled conductive radiative heat transfer in a two-layer slab with Fresnel interfaces subject to diffuse and obliquely collimated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muresan, Cristian; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Menezo, Christophe; Morlot, Rodolphe

    2004-01-01

    The coupled conductive radiative heat transfer in a two-layer slab with Fresnel interfaces subject to diffuse and obliquely collimated irradiation is solved. The collimated and diffuse components problems are treated separately. The solution for diffuse radiation is obtained by using a composite discrete ordinates method and includes the development of adaptive directional quadratures to overcome the difficulties usually encountered at the interfaces. The complete radiation numerical model is validated against the predictions obtained by using the Monte Carlo method

  20. The potential of flow-through microdialysis for probing low-molecular weight organic anions in rhizosphere soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulyok, Michael; Miró, Manuel; Stingeder, Gerhard; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, flow-through microdialysis is presented as a novel analytical tool for automatic sampling of low molecular weight organic anions (LMWOA), such as oxalate and citrate, in solid samples of environmental concern. The microsampling methodology involves the implantation of dedicated capillary-type probes offering unrivalled spatial resolution (ca. 200μm) in definite soil sites. These passive samplers are aimed at monitoring local processes, such as the release of organic acids occurring in the rhizosphere environment, in nearly real-time. The influence of chemical and physical variables (composition and flow rate of the perfusion liquid, ionic strength and pH of the outer medium and presence of metal ions therein) was assessed in vitro using liquid-phase assays. On the other hand, the resistance of the external solid medium to mass transfer, and the actual applicability of in vivo calibration methods were investigated using quartz sand as an inert model soil. Microdialysers furnished with 3cm long semipermeable tubular membranes were perfused with 0.01M NaNO 3 at a flow rate of 2.0μl/min, yielding dialysis recoveries ≥45% for both assayed LMWOAs in simulated background soil electrolyte solutions, and ≥24% in the interstitial liquid of complex solid samples. Full knowledge of the fate of LMWOAs in soils was obtained through the application of stimulus-response approaches that mimic the discrete exudation pulses of roots. Highly time-resolved microdialysates were used to discern readily available species such as free carboxylic anions and LMW metal-organic acid complexes from adsorbed, precipitated or mineralised analyte species in a variety of soil samples containing variable amounts of organic matter, exchangeable cations and different levels of metal pollution.

  1. Fast quantitation of opioid isomers in human plasma by differential mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry via SPME/open-port probe sampling interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Schneider, Bradley B; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Arnold, Don W; Covey, Thomas R; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-10-23

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative approaches typically require a thorough sample clean-up and a decent chromatographic step in order to achieve needed figures of merit. However, in most cases, such processes are not optimal for urgent assessments and high-throughput determinations. The direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) to MS has shown great potential to shorten the total sample analysis time of complex matrices, as well as to diminish potential matrix effects and instrument contamination. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the open-port probe (OPP) as a direct and robust sampling interface to couple biocompatible-SPME (Bio-SPME) fibres to MS for the rapid quantitation of opioid isomers (i.e. codeine and hydrocodone) in human plasma. In place of chromatography, a differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) device was implemented to provide the essential selectivity required to quantify these constitutional isomers. Taking advantage of the simplified sample preparation process based on Bio-SPME and the fast separation with DMS-MS coupling via OPP, a high-throughput assay (10-15 s per sample) with limits of detection in the sub-ng/mL range was developed. Succinctly, we demonstrated that by tuning adequate ion mobility separation conditions, SPME-OPP-MS can be employed to quantify non-resolved compounds or those otherwise hindered by co-extracted isobaric interferences without further need of coupling to other separation platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous Reduced Graphene Oxide Film Prepared by Stitching of Nanosheets at the Interface of Two Immiscible Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Young Ku; Kim, Seog K.; Min, Bong Ki

    2011-01-01

    RGO sheets dispersed in water are prepared by chemical reduction of GO using ascorbic acid. By mixing and sonication of submicron-size RGO sheets in two immiscible liquids (e. g., chloroform and water) for the first time we have prepared a continuous large-area RGO film at the interface. In other words, we have shown that aggregated RGO sheets could be fully stretched at the interface to form a continuous film. The RGO film has been characterized by SEM, TEM, UV-vis absorption, XPS and Raman. The film exhibits high flexibility, transparency, and very long-term stability without forming aggregations. Without requiring vapor deposition, a special instrument, or a filtration followed by a removing the filter paper one could easily achieve a continuous RGO-film in any laboratories. Our solution-based method is much simpler and cost-effective, and very good for large scale mass production. This finding could boost real applications of graphene in laboratory and industry, and provide a new methodology for the fabrication of large-area continuous graphene films. Graphene, an atom-thick two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice sheet of sp 2 -bonded carbon atoms, has recently been emerged as a new promising material in various fields. Because of its gigantic charge carrier mobility it could be applied to field-effect transistors as a substitute of silicon. Due to its transparency and high electrical conductivity, it could be used as a substitute of ITO electrode in solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Other superior properties include large surface area, flexibility, strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. These provides wide applications of graphene including supercapa-citor, battery, sensor, storage and drug delivery. For real applications, large-scale of graphene sheets or films needs to be prepared. Large-area (orders of centimeters) graphene films have recently been fabricated using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on various metal substrates. This

  3. Machine learning assisted first-principles calculation of multicomponent solid solutions: estimation of interface energy in Ni-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Mahesh; Lee, S. C.; Shim, Jae-Hyeok

    2018-02-01

    A disordered configuration of atoms in a multicomponent solid solution presents a computational challenge for first-principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The challenge is in identifying the few probable (low energy) configurations from a large configurational space before DFT calculation can be performed. The search for these probable configurations is possible if the configurational energy E({\\boldsymbol{σ }}) can be calculated accurately and rapidly (with a negligibly small computational cost). In this paper, we demonstrate such a possibility by constructing a machine learning (ML) model for E({\\boldsymbol{σ }}) trained with DFT-calculated energies. The feature vector for the ML model is formed by concatenating histograms of pair and triplet (only equilateral triangle) correlation functions, {g}(2)(r) and {g}(3)(r,r,r), respectively. These functions are a quantitative ‘fingerprint’ of the spatial arrangement of atoms, familiar in the field of amorphous materials and liquids. The ML model is used to generate an accurate distribution P(E({\\boldsymbol{σ }})) by rapidly spanning a large number of configurations. The P(E) contains full configurational information of the solid solution and can be selectively sampled to choose a few configurations for targeted DFT calculations. This new framework is employed to estimate (100) interface energy ({σ }{{IE}}) between γ and γ \\prime at 700 °C in Alloy 617, a Ni-based superalloy, with composition reduced to five components. The estimated {σ }{{IE}} ≈ 25.95 mJ m-2 is in good agreement with the value inferred by the precipitation model fit to experimental data. The proposed new ML-based ab initio framework can be applied to calculate the parameters and properties of alloys with any number of components, thus widening the reach of first-principles calculation to realistic compositions of industrially relevant materials and alloys.

  4. The Biswell symposium: fire issues and solutions in urban interface and wildland ecosystems; February 15-17, 1994; Walnut Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Robert E. Martin

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the results of a symposium designed to address current issues about wildfire and prescribed fire in both the wildland-urban interface and in wildlands. Thirty-eight invited oral papers and 23 poster papers describing the issues and state-of-the-art solutions to technical, biological, and social challenges currently facing land and fire...

  5. Enhancing Performance and Uniformity of Perovskite Solar Cells via a Solution-Processed C70 Interlayer for Interface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya-Qing; Wu, Bao-Shan; Lin, Guan-Hua; Li, Yang; Chen, Di-Chun; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yun, Da-Qin

    2017-10-04

    Although some kinds of semiconductor metal oxides (SMOs) have been applied as electron selective layers (ESLs) for planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), electron transfer is still limited by low electron mobility and defect film formation of SMO ESLs fabricated via low-temperature solution process. Herein, the C 70 interlayer between TiO 2 and (HC(NH 2 ) 2 PbI 3 ) x (CH 3 NH 3 PbCl 3 ) 1-x is prepared by spin-coating and low-temperature annealing for planar n-i-p PSCs. The resultant TiO 2 /C 70 ESL shows good surface morphology, efficient electron extraction, and facilitation of high-quality perovskite film formation, which can be attributed to the suitable nanosize and the superior electronic property of C 70 molecules. In comparison with pristine TiO 2 -based PSCs, the efficiency and hysteresis index are, respectively, enhanced 28% and reduced 76% by adding the C 70 interlayer between TiO 2 and perovskite on the basis of statistical data of more than 50 cells. With the main advantages of low-temperature process and optimized interface, the champion efficiency of PSCs on flexible substrates could exceed 12% in contrast with the above 18% on rigid substrate.

  6. Adsorption of Nucleic Acid/Protein Supramolecular Complexes on Goethite: The Influence of Solution Interactions on Behavior at the Solution-Mineral Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Martinez, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Adsorption of biomolecule rich supramolecular complexes onto mineral surfaces plays an important role in the development of organo-mineral associations in soils. In this study, a series of supramolecular complexes of a model nucleic acid (deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)) and protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) are synthesized, characterized and exposed to goethite to probe their adsorption behavior. To synthesize DNA/BSA complexes, a fixed DNA concentration (0.1 mg/mL) was mixed with a range of BSA concentrations (0.025-0.5 mg/mL) in 5 mM KCl at pH=5.0. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrates strong, cooperative, Hill-type binding between DNA and BSA (Ka= 4.74 x 105 M-1) with DNA saturation achieved when BSA concentration reaches 0.4 mg/mL. Dynamic light scattering measurements of DNA/BSA complexes suggest binding accompanies disruption of DNA-DNA intermolecular electrostatic repulsion, resulting in a decrease of the DNA slow relaxation mode with increasing amount of BSA. Zeta potential measurements show increasing amounts of BSA lead to a reduction of negative charge on DNA/BSA complexes, in line with light scattering results. In situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of adsorption of DNA/BSA complexes onto goethite show that complexation of BSA with DNA appears to hinder direct coordination of DNA backbone phosphodiester groups with goethite, relative to DNA by itself. Furthermore, increasing amount of BSA (up to 0.4 mg/mL) in DNA/BSA complexes enhances DNA adsorption, possibly as a result of reduced repulsion between adsorbed DNA helices. When BSA concentration exceeds 0.4 mg/mL, a decrease in adsorbed DNA is observed. We hypothesize that this discrepancy in behavior between systems with BSA concentrations below and above saturation of DNA is caused by initial fast adsorption of loosely associated BSA on goethite, restricting access to goethite surface sites. Overall, these results highlight the impact of solution

  7. Protein Adsorption and Layer Formation at the Stainless Steel-Solution Interface Mediates Shear-Induced Particle Formation for an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, Cavan K; Heinrich, Frank; Curtis, Joseph E; Raman, Sid; Miller, Maria A; Hudson, Steven D

    2018-03-05

    Passage of specific protein solutions through certain pumps, tubing, and/or filling nozzles can result in the production of unwanted subvisible protein particles (SVPs). In this work, surface-mediated SVP formation was investigated. Specifically, the effects of different solid interface materials, interfacial shear rates, and protein concentrations on SVP formation were measured for the National Institute of Standards and Technology monoclonal antibody (NISTmAb), a reference IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A stainless steel rotary piston pump was used to identify formulation and process parameters that affect aggregation, and a flow cell (alumina or stainless steel interface) was used to further investigate the effect of different interface materials and/or interfacial shear rates. SVP particles produced were monitored using flow microscopy or flow cytometry. Neutron reflectometry and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring were used to characterize adsorption and properties of NISTmAb at the stainless steel interface. Pump/shear cell experiments showed that the NISTmAb concentration and interface material had a significant effect on SVP formation, while the effects of interfacial shear rate and passage number were less important. At the higher NISTmAb concentrations, the adsorbed protein became structurally altered at the stainless steel interface. The primary adsorbed layer remained largely undisturbed during flow, suggesting that SVP formation at high NISTmAb concentration was caused by the disruption of patches and/or secondary interactions.

  8. Look fast: Crystallization of conjugated molecules during solution shearing probed in-situ and in real time by X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Li, Ruipeng; Giri, Gaurav; Chou, Kang Wei; Diao, Ying; Bao, Zhenan; Amassian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    High-speed solution shearing, in which a drop of dissolved material is spread by a coating knife onto the substrate, has emerged as a versatile, yet simple coating technique to prepare high-mobility organic thin film transistors. Solution shearing and subsequent drying and crystallization of a thin film of conjugated molecules is probed in situ using microbeam grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (μGIWAXS). We demonstrate the advantages of this approach to study solution based crystal nucleation and growth, and identify casting parameter combinations to cast highly ordered and laterally aligned molecular thin films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Look fast: Crystallization of conjugated molecules during solution shearing probed in-situ and in real time by X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Smilgies, Detlef Matthias

    2012-12-20

    High-speed solution shearing, in which a drop of dissolved material is spread by a coating knife onto the substrate, has emerged as a versatile, yet simple coating technique to prepare high-mobility organic thin film transistors. Solution shearing and subsequent drying and crystallization of a thin film of conjugated molecules is probed in situ using microbeam grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (μGIWAXS). We demonstrate the advantages of this approach to study solution based crystal nucleation and growth, and identify casting parameter combinations to cast highly ordered and laterally aligned molecular thin films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mode of corrosion monitoring by electrochemical measurements in alkaline water solutions at 310 degC using a new type of industrial probes with high radiation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, J.

    1977-01-01

    Application of the linear polarization method to Zr-alloys and low-alloy steel was successfully verified by autoclave tests in alkaline water solutions, pH=10.3 max. The new type of industrial probes for electrochemical measurements worked 5500 hours at temperatures within 250 and 310 degC. Contrary to usual practice, the corrosion rate was evaluated applying the criterion T/Rsub(p) instead of criterion 1/Rsub(p). A single calibration curve T/Rsub(p) versus corrosion rate, which is independent of test temperature, was introduced in this way. The probes, developed by SKODA-Works, Nuclear Power Construction Division for electrochemical measurements in nuclear reactor environment, do not contain organic compounds (for sealing, insulation etc.) in order to prevent radiation damage. (author)

  11. Surface-bubble-modulated liquid chromatography: a new approach for manipulation of chromatographic retention and investigation of solute distribution at water/hydrophobic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nakamura, Hiroki; Saito, Shingo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2015-01-20

    In this paper, we present a new chromatographic method termed surface-bubble-modulated liquid chromatography (SBMLC), that has a hybrid separation medium incorporated with surface nanobubbles. Nanobubbles or nanoscale gas phases can be fixed at the interface between water and a hydrophobic material by delivering water into a dry column packed with a nanoporous material. The incorporation of a gas phase at the hydrophobic surface leads to the formation of the hybrid separation system consisting of the gas phase, hydrophobic moieties, and the water/hydrophobic interface or the interfacial water. One can change the volume of the gas phase by pressure applied to the column, which in turn alters the area of water/hydrophobic interface or the volume of the interfacial water, while the amount of the hydrophobic moiety remains constant. Therefore, this strategy provides a novel technique not only for manipulating the separation selectivity by pressure but also for elucidating the mechanism of accumulation or retention of solute compounds in aqueous solutions by a hydrophobic material. We evaluate the contributions of the interfacial water at the surface of an octadecyl bonded silica and the bonded layer itself to the retention of various solute compounds in aqueous solutions on the column packed with the material by SBMLC. The results show that the interfacial water formed at the hydrophobic surface has a key role in retention even though its volume is rather small. The manipulation of the separation selectivity of SBMLC for some organic compounds by pressure is demonstrated.

  12. InGaN/GaN quantum dots as optical probes for the electric field at the GaN/electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, J.; Koslowski, S.; Lippert, S.; Schäfer, M.; Wallys, J.; Dimitrakopulos, G.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Das, A.; Monroy, E.; Eickhoff, M.

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the electric-field dependence of the photoluminescence-emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum dot multilayers in contact with an electrolyte. Controlled variations of the surface potential were achieved by the application of external electric fields using the electrolytic Schottky contact and by variation of the solution's pH value. Prior to characterization, a selective electrochemical passivation process was required to suppress leakage currents. The quantum dot luminescence is strongly affected by surface potential variations, i.e., it increases exponentially with cathodic bias and acidic pH values. The results cannot be explained by a modification of intra-dot polarization induced electric fields via the quantum confined Stark effect but are attributed to the suppression/enhancement of non-radiative recombination processes, i.e., mainly hole transfer into the electrolyte. The results establish a link between the photoluminescence intensity and the magnitude of electric fields at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface.

  13. Exhaustive Classification of the Invariant Solutions for a Specific Nonlinear Model Describing Near Planar and Marginally Long-Wave Unstable Interfaces for Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Fatemeh

    2018-05-01

    Problems of thermodynamic phase transition originate inherently in solidification, combustion and various other significant fields. If the transition region among two locally stable phases is adequately narrow, the dynamics can be modeled by an interface motion. This paper is devoted to exhaustive analysis of the invariant solutions for a modified Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation in two spatial and one temporal dimensions is presented. This nonlinear partial differential equation asymptotically characterizes near planar interfaces, which are marginally long-wave unstable. For this purpose, by applying the classical symmetry method for this model the classical symmetry operators are attained. Moreover, the structure of the Lie algebra of symmetries is discussed and the optimal system of subalgebras, which yields the preliminary classification of group invariant solutions is constructed. Mainly, the Lie invariants corresponding to the infinitesimal symmetry generators as well as associated similarity reduced equations are also pointed out. Furthermore, the nonclassical symmetries of this nonlinear PDE are also comprehensively investigated.

  14. Curcumin-Based "Enhanced SNAr" Promoted Ultrafast Fluorescent Probe for Thiophenols Detection in Aqueous Solution and in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yongkang; Huo, Fangjun; Zhang, Yongbin; Chao, Jianbin; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Yin, Caixia

    2016-11-01

    We report herein a highly selective and sensitive turn-on fluorescent probe (compound 1) with a fast response time (less than 2 min) for thiophenol detection based on an "enhanced S N Ar" reaction between thiophenols and a sulfonyl-ester moiety covalently attach to curcumin. Reaction of 1 in Hepes-MeOH (1:1, v/v, pH 7.4) in the presence of 4-methylthiophenol (MTP) resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the fluorescence. A linear response in the presence of MTP of the relative fluorescent intensity (F - F 0 ) of 1 at 536 nm in the 0-40 μM MTP concentration range was found. A limit of detection (LOD) for the detection of MTP of 26 nM, based on the definition by IUPAC (C DL = 3 Sb/m), was calculated. Probe 1 was applied to monitor and imaging exogenous MTP in live cells and to the detection of MTP in real water samples.

  15. Atom Probe Tomography Characterization of the Solute Distributions in a Neutron-Irradiated and Annealed Pressure Vessel Steel Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.K.

    2001-01-30

    A combined atom probe tomography and atom probe field ion microscopy study has been performed on a submerged arc weld irradiated to high fluence in the Heavy-Section Steel irradiation (HSSI) fifth irradiation series (Weld 73W). The composition of this weld is Fe - 0.27 at. % Cu, 1.58% Mn, 0.57% Ni, 0.34% MO, 0.27% Cr, 0.58% Si, 0.003% V, 0.45% C, 0.009% P, and 0.009% S. The material was examined after five conditions: after a typical stress relief treatment of 40 h at 607 C, after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 23} n m{sup {minus}2} (E > 1 MeV), and after irradiation and isothermal anneals of 0.5, 1, and 168 h at 454 C. This report describes the matrix composition and the size, composition, and number density of the ultrafine copper-enriched precipitates that formed under neutron irradiation and the change in these parameters with post-irradiation annealing treatments.

  16. Laser-induced luminescence lifetime measurement as an analytical probe for speciation of poly carboxylates in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshio Takahashi; Takaumi Kimura; Yoshiharu Kato; Yoshitaka Minai

    2001-01-01

    Luminescence from lanthanide or actinide ion is influenced by hydration structure of the ion in aqueous solution system. In particular lifetime of the luminescence has been regarded as a measure of hydration number of the lanthanide or the actinide ion based on the studies on lifetime measurement of the ion in solid and solution system. Compared with other technique like NMR to determine the hydration number, laser induced lifetime measurement is advantageous in sensitivity and selectivity. This allows us to apply this method to determining the hydration number of lanthanide or actinide ion even at low concentration. (authors)

  17. Probing the Interplay of Size, Shape, and Solution Environment in Macromolecular Diffusion Using a Simple Refraction Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankidy, Bijith D.; Coutinho, Cecil A.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of polymers is a critical parameter in biomedicine, catalysis, chemical separations, nanotechnology, and other industrial applications. Here, measurement of macromolecular diffusion in solutions is described using a visually instructive, undergraduate-level optical refraction experiment based on Weiner's method. To…

  18. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  19. Carbon dots as fluorescent probes for "off-on" detection of Cu2+ and L-cysteine in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jie; Yang, Xiaoling; Trinchi, Adrian; Hardin, Simon; Cole, Ivan; Zhu, Yihua; Li, Chunzhong; Muster, Tim; Wei, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Copper ion (Cu(2+)) and L-cysteine (L-Cys) detection is critically important since an abnormal level of Cu(2+) or L-Cys is an indicator for many diseases. In this paper, we demonstrate an "off-on" approach for highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) and L-Cys using carbon dots (CDs) as fluorescent probes. CDs were prepared by using mesoporous silica (MS) spheres as nanoreactors. The binding ability of CDs towards metal ions was examined by comparing the fluorescence intensities of CDs before and after the addition of the metal ions. The addition of Cu(2+) cations leads to their absorption on the surface of CDs and the significant fluorescence quench of CDs (turn-off). The resulting in CDs-Cu(2+) system was found to be sensitive to L-Cys. The addition of L-Cys not only serves to shelter the CDs effectively from being quenched, but also to reverse the quenching and restore the fluorescence (turn-on) due to its ability to remove Cu(2+) from the surface of CDs. This method is facile, rapid, low cost, and environment-friendly. A detection limit as low as 2.3×10(-8) M for Cu(2+) and 3.4×10(-10) M for L-Cys is obtained, which is promising for biological applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Kinetic Model for β-Amyloid Adsorption at the Air/Solution Interface and Its Implication to the β-Amyloid Aggregation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dianlu; Dinh, Kim Lien; Ruthenburg, Travis; Zhang, Yi; Su, Lei; Land, Donald; Zhou, Feimeng

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption at the air/buffer solution interface of amyloid beta peptide, Aβ(1–42), whose bulk concentration (submicromolar) is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that typically used in other in vitro aggregation studies, has been studied using a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. The pressure–time curves exhibit a lag phase, wherein the surface pressure essentially remains at zero, and a rising phase, corresponding to the Aβ adsorption at the interface. The duration of the lag phase was found to be highly dependent on both the Aβ bulk concentration and the solution temperature. A large activation energy (62.2 ± 4.1 KJ/mol) was determined and the apparent adsorption rate constant was found to be linearly dependent on the Aβ bulk concentration. Attenuated total reflection-IR spectra of the adsorbed Aβ transferred to a solid substrate and circular dichroism measurements of Aβ in the solution layer near the interface reveal that the natively unstructured Aβ in the bulk undergo a conformation change (folding) to mainly the α-helical structure. The results suggest that, prior to the adsorption step, an equilibrium between Aβ conformations is established within the subsurface. The kinetic equation derived from this model confirms that the overall Aβ adsorption is kinetically controlled and the apparent rate constant is proportional to the Aβ bulk concentration. This model also indicates that interfaces such as cell membranes and lipid bilayers may facilitate Aβ aggregation/fibrillation by providing a thin hydrophobic layer adjacent to the interface for the initial Aβ conformation change (misfolding) and accumulation. Such a preconcentration effect offers a plausible explanation of the fact that Aβ fibrillation occurs in vivo at nanomolar concentrations. Another important biological implication from our work is that Aβ misfolding may occur before its adsorption onto a cell membrane. This general kinetic model should also find

  1. A kinetic model for beta-amyloid adsorption at the air/solution interface and its implication to the beta-amyloid aggregation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dianlu; Dinh, Kim Lien; Ruthenburg, Travis C; Zhang, Yi; Su, Lei; Land, Donald P; Zhou, Feimeng

    2009-03-12

    At the air/buffer solution interface the kinetics of adsorption of amyloid beta peptide, Abeta(1-42), whose bulk concentration (submicromolar) is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than that typically used in other in vitro aggregation studies, has been studied using a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. The pressure-time curves exhibit a lag phase, wherein the surface pressure essentially remains at zero, and a rising phase, corresponding to the Abeta adsorption at the interface. The duration of the lag phase was found to be highly dependent on both the Abeta bulk concentration and the solution temperature. A large activation energy (62.2 +/- 4.1 KJ/mol) was determined and the apparent adsorption rate constant was found to be linearly dependent on the Abeta bulk concentration. Attenuated total reflection-IR spectra of the adsorbed Abeta transferred to a solid substrate and circular dichroism measurements of Abeta in the solution layer near the interface reveal that the natively unstructured Abeta in the bulk undergo a conformation change (folding) to mainly the alpha-helical structure. The results suggest that, prior to the adsorption step, an equilibrium between Abeta conformations is established within the subsurface. The kinetic equation derived from this model confirms that the overall Abeta adsorption is kinetically controlled and the apparent rate constant is proportional to the Abeta bulk concentration. This model also indicates that interfaces such as cell membranes and lipid bilayers may facilitate Abeta aggregation/ fibrillation by providing a thin hydrophobic layer adjacent to the interface for the initial A/beta conformation change (misfolding) and accumulation. Such a preconcentration effect offers a plausible explanation of the fact that Abeta fibrillation occurs in vivo at nanomolar concentrations. Another important biological implication from our work is that Abeta misfolding may occur before its adsorption onto a cell membrane. This general kinetic model

  2. Solution self-assembly and adsorption at the air-water interface of the monorhamnose and dirhamnose rhamnolipids and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M L; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Smyth, T J P; Perfumo, A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M; Stevenson, P; Parry, A; Tucker, I; Grillo, I

    2010-12-07

    The self-assembly in solution and adsorption at the air-water interface, measured by small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, and neutron reflectivity, NR, of the monorhamnose and dirhamnose rhamnolipids (R1, R2) and their mixtures, are discussed. The production of the deuterium-labeled rhamnolipids (required for the NR studies) from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture and their separation into the pure R1 and R2 components is described. At the air-water interface, R1 and R2 exhibit Langmuir-like adsorption isotherms, with saturated area/molecule values of about 60 and 75 Å(2), respectively. In R1/R2 mixtures, there is a strong partitioning of R1 to the surface and R2 competes less favorably because of the steric or packing constraints of the larger R2 dirhamnose headgroup. In dilute solution (<20 mM), R1 and R2 form small globular micelles, L(1), with aggregation numbers of about 50 and 30, respectively. At higher solution concentrations, R1 has a predominantly planar structure, L(α) (unilamellar, ULV, or bilamellar, BLV, vesicles) whereas R2 remains globular, with an aggregation number that increases with increasing surfactant concentration. For R1/R2 mixtures, solutions rich in R2 are predominantly micellar whereas solutions rich in R1 have a more planar structure. At an intermediate composition (60 to 80 mol % R1), there are mixed L(α)/L(1) and L(1)/L(α) regions. However, the higher preferred curvature associated with R2 tends to dominate the mixed R1/R2 microstructure and its associated phase behavior.

  3. Self-assembly of a triangle-shaped, hexaplatinum-incorporated, supramolecular amphiphile in solution and at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Umamageswaran; Britt, David; Fox, Christopher B; Harris, Joel M; Orendt, Anita M; Conley, Hiram; Davis, Robert; Hlady, Vladamir; Stang, Peter J

    2009-08-24

    The self-assembly and characterization of a novel supramolecular amphiphile built from a new 60 degree amphiphilic precursor that incorporates hydrophilic platinum(II) metals and hydrophobic dioctadecyloxy chains is reported. The amphiphilic macrocycle and its precursor compound have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and other standard techniques. The coacervate morphology of the amphiphile at the liquid-liquid interface has been studied by using confocal optical microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The self-assembly of the amphiphilic macrocycle at the air-water interface has been investigated through Langmuir-trough techniques. The study indicates the possible formation of surface micelle-like aggregates. The disparity between the experimental molecular areas and those derived from molecular models support the idea of aggregation. AFM images of the surface aggregates show the formation of a flat topology with arbitrary ridgelike patterns. Reasonable molecular-packing arrangements are proposed to explain the molecular organization within the observed structures.

  4. Competition between organics and bromide at the aqueous solution-air interface as seen from ozone uptake kinetics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Brown, Matthew A; Kato, Shunsuke; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2015-05-14

    A more detailed understanding of the heterogeneous chemistry of halogenated species in the marine boundary layer is required. Here, we studied the reaction of ozone (O3) with NaBr solutions in the presence and absence of citric acid (C6H8O7) under ambient conditions. Citric acid is used as a proxy for oxidized organic material present at the ocean surface or in sea spray aerosol. On neat NaBr solutions, the observed kinetics is consistent with bulk reaction-limited uptake, and a second-order rate constant for the reaction of O3 + Br(-) is 57 ± 10 M(-1) s(-1). On mixed NaBr-citric acid aqueous solutions, the uptake kinetics was faster than that predicted by bulk reaction-limited uptake and also faster than expected based on an acid-catalyzed mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on a liquid microjet of the same solutions at 1.0 × 10(-3)-1.0 × 10(-4) mbar was used to obtain quantitative insight into the interfacial composition relative to that of the bulk solutions. It revealed that the bromide anion becomes depleted by 30 ± 10% while the sodium cation gets enhanced by 40 ± 20% at the aqueous solution-air interface of a 0.12 M NaBr solution mixed with 2.5 M citric acid in the bulk, attributed to the role of citric acid as a weak surfactant. Therefore, the enhanced reactivity of bromide solutions observed in the presence of citric acid is not necessarily attributable to a surface reaction but could also result from an increased solubility of ozone at higher citric acid concentrations. Whether the acid-catalyzed chemistry may have a larger effect on the surface than in the bulk to offset the effect of bromide depletion also remains open.

  5. Study of the interactions between alumina and metallic ion in solution at the liquid/oxide interface during catalysts synthesis; Etude des interactions alumine/ion metallique en solution a l`interface oxyde/liquide lors de la preparation des catalyseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens de Wilmars, D.

    1998-01-15

    This work concerns the formation of compounds including metal and Al(III) ions during impregnation of gamma alumina with a solution of the metal precursor. Formation of Li/Al hydroxy-carbonate (Li/Al HDC) on alumina during impregnation by a neutral or basic solution containing Li{sup +} is established. Zeta potential measurements are used to determine the ratio overlay of the alumina by HDC Li/Al. By this technique, residual positive charges are observed on HDC Li/Al surface. The formation of two different compounds including Mo(VI) and Al(III) ions during impregnation of alumina with molybdate or hepta-molybdate solution is reported here for the first time. The use of sodium molybdate solution as impregnation precursor leads to the formation of hydroxy-molybdo-luminate, while the ammonium hepta-molybdate solution forms ammonium hexa-molybdo-aluminate by contact with alumina.Dissolution kinetics of alumina in aqueous solution in absence or in presence of metal ions (Li{sup +}, K{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{sup 6-}) are investigated at different pH. Results show that the support is not inert in aqueous solution, even at neutral pH (near ZPC). The homogeneous nucleation of Li/Al HDC observed for Li/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system evidence the permeability of the solid/solution interface: diffusion processus through the interface is more important than previously reported. A dissolution-precipitation mechanism is proposed to account for the formation of Al(III)-containing compounds on alumina surface. Alumina dissolves when contacted with aqueous solution. When Al(III) ions concentration in solution is bigger than the sur-saturation needed for heterogenous nucleation of the Al(III) containing compounds, this one precipitates. This mechanism agrees with all our results. (author) 169 refs.

  6. Adsorption at air-water and oil-water interfaces and self-assembly in aqueous solution of ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun X; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Webster, John R P; Terry, Ann E

    2015-03-17

    The Tween nonionic surfactants are ethoxylated sorbitan esters, which have 20 ethylene oxide groups attached to the sorbitan headgroup and a single alkyl chain, lauryl, palmityl, stearyl, or oleyl. They are an important class of surfactants that are extensively used in emulsion and foam stabilization and in applications associated with foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. A range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants, with differing degrees of ethoxylation from 3 to 50 ethylene oxide groups, have been synthesized and characterized by neutron reflection, small-angle neutron scattering, and surface tension. In conjunction with different alkyl chain groups, this provides the opportunity to modify their surface properties, their self-assembly in solution, and their interaction with macromolecules, such as proteins. Adsorption at the air-water and oil-water interfaces and solution self-assembly of the range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants synthesized are presented and discussed.

  7. The impact of alkyl sulfate surfactant geometry and electrolyte on the co-adsorption of anionic surfactants with model perfumes at the air-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Jones, Craig

    2013-08-01

    The impact of surfactant geometry and electrolyte on the co-adsorption of anionic surfactants and model perfumes at the air-solution interface has been studied by neutron reflectivity. The more hydrophobic perfume linalool, competes more favourably for the surface with sodium dodecylsulfate than was previously reported for the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl 6-benzenesulfonate. Due to an increase in surface activity of the sodium dodecylsulfate, the addition of electrolyte results in a reduction in the linalool adsorption. Changing the alkyl chain length affects the relative adsorption of linalool and surfactant at the interface. Similar measurements for the different alkyl sulfates and with electrolyte with the more hydrophilic perfume phenyl ethanol, reveal broadly similar trends. Although the relative adsorption of phenyl ethanol with sodium dodecylsulfate is substantially enhanced compared to sodium dodecyl-6-benzenesulfonate the effects are not as significant as was observed with linalool. The variations with alkyl chain geometry show the importance of the hydrophobic interaction between the perfume and surfactant and changes in the packing constraints on the relative adsorption. The results highlight the importance of the specific interaction between the surfactant and perfume, and the surfactant and perfume geometries on the relative adsorption at the interface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  9. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  10. Interface COMSOL-PHREEQC (iCP), an efficient numerical framework for the solution of coupled multiphysics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Albert; Idiart, Andrés; Trinchero, Paolo; de Vries, Luis Manuel; Molinero, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the development, verification and application of an efficient interface, denoted as iCP, which couples two standalone simulation programs: the general purpose Finite Element framework COMSOL Multiphysics® and the geochemical simulator PHREEQC. The main goal of the interface is to maximize the synergies between the aforementioned codes, providing a numerical platform that can efficiently simulate a wide number of multiphysics problems coupled with geochemistry. iCP is written in Java and uses the IPhreeqc C++ dynamic library and the COMSOL Java-API. Given the large computational requirements of the aforementioned coupled models, special emphasis has been placed on numerical robustness and efficiency. To this end, the geochemical reactions are solved in parallel by balancing the computational load over multiple threads. First, a benchmark exercise is used to test the reliability of iCP regarding flow and reactive transport. Then, a large scale thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) problem is solved to show the code capabilities. The results of the verification exercise are successfully compared with those obtained using PHREEQC and the application case demonstrates the scalability of a large scale model, at least up to 32 threads.

  11. Self-assembling of poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers in aqueous solution and at the silica-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyh, B.; Vangeyte, P.; Heinrich, M.; Auvray, L.; De Clercq, C.; Jerome, R.

    2004-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering is used to investigate the self-assembling behaviour of poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers with various block lengths (i) in aqueous solution, (ii) in aqueous solution with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and (iii) at the silica-water interface. Micelles are observed under our experimental conditions due to the very small critical micellar concentration of these copolymers (0.01 g/l). The poly(ε-caprolactone) core is surrounded by a poly(ethylene oxide) corona. The micellar form factors have been measured at low copolymer concentrations (0.2 wt%) under selected contrast matching conditions. The data have been fitted to various analytical models to extract the micellar core and corona sizes. SDS is shown to induce partial micelle disruption together with an increase of the poly(ethylene oxide) corona extension from 25% (without SDS) to 70% (with SDS) of a completely extended PEO 114 chain. Our data at the silica-water interface are compatible with the adsorption of micelles

  12. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxia [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Zhang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Liu, Xia [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  13. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxia; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  14. Oil-soluble and water-soluble BTPhens and their europium complexes in octanol/water solutions: interface crossing studied by MD and PMF simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benay, G; Wipff, G

    2013-01-31

    Bistriazinyl-phenantroline "BTPhen" ligands L display the remarkable feature to complex trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions, with a marked selectivity for the latter. We report on molecular dynamics studies of tetrasubstituted X(4)BTPhens: L(4+) (X = (+)Et(3)NCH(2)-), L(4-) (X = (-)SO(3)Ph-), and L(0) (X = CyMe(4)) and their complexes with Eu(III) in binary octanol/water solutions. Changes in free energies upon interface crossing are also calculated for typical solutes by potential of mean force PMF simulations. The ligands and their complexes partition, as expected, to either the aqueous or the oil phase, depending on the "solubilizing" group X. Furthermore, most of them are found to be surface active. The water-soluble L(4+) and L(4-) ligands and their (L)Eu(NO(3))(3) complexes adsorb at the aqueous side of the interface, more with L(4-) than with L(4+). The oil soluble ligand L(0) is not surface active in its endo-endo form but adsorbs on the oil side of the interface in its most polar endo-exo form, as well as in its protonated L(0)H(+) and complexed (L(0))Eu(NO(3))(3) states. Furthermore, comparing PMFs of the Eu(III) complexes with and without nitric acid shows that acidifying the aqueous phase has different effects, depending on the ligand charge. In particular, acid promotes the Eu(III) extraction by L(0) via the (L(0))(2)Eu(NO(3))(2+) complex, as observed experimentally. Overall, the results point to the importance of interfacial adsorption for the liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by BTPhens and analogues.

  15. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  16. Probing localized strain in solution-derived YB a2C u3O7 -δ nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Roger; Gazquez, Jaume; Mundet, Bernat; Coll, Mariona; Obradors, Xavier; Puig, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced pinning due to nanoscale strain is unique to the high-Tc cuprates, where pairing may be modified with lattice distortion. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the defect landscape is required for a broad range of applications. However, determining the type and distribution of defects and their associated strain constitutes a critical task, and for this aim, real-space techniques for atomic resolution characterization are necessary. Here, we use scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study the atomic structure of individual defects of solution-derived YB a2C u3O7 (YBCO) nanocomposites, where the inclusion of incoherent secondary phase nanoparticles within the YBCO matrix dramatically increases the density of Y1B a2C u4O8 (Y124) intergrowths, the commonest defect in YBCO thin films. The formation of the Y124 is found to trigger a concatenation of strain-derived interactions with other defects and the concomitant nucleation of intrinsic defects, which weave a web of randomly distributed nanostrained regions that profoundly transform the vortex-pinning landscape of the YBCO nanocomposite thin films.

  17. Sound velocities of skiagite-iron-majorite solid solution to 56 GPa probed by nuclear inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiukov, D. M.; Ismailova, L.; Kupenko, I.; Cerantola, V.; Sinmyo, R.; Glazyrin, K.; McCammon, C.; Chumakov, A. I.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.

    2018-05-01

    High-pressure experimental data on sound velocities of garnets are used for interpretation of seismological data related to the Earth's upper mantle and the mantle transition zone. We have carried out a Nuclear Inelastic Scattering study of iron-silicate garnet with skiagite (77 mol%)-iron-majorite composition in a diamond anvil cell up to 56 GPa at room temperature. The determined sound velocities are considerably lower than sound velocities of a number of silicate garnet end-members, such as grossular, pyrope, Mg-majorite, andradite, and almandine. The obtained sound velocities have the following pressure dependencies: V p [km/s] = 7.43(9) + 0.039(4) × P [GPa] and V s [km/s] = 3.56(12) + 0.012(6) × P [GPa]. We estimated sound velocities of pure skiagite and khoharite, and conclude that the presence of the iron-majorite component in skiagite strongly decreases V s . We analysed the influence of Fe3+ on sound velocities of garnet solid solution relevant to the mantle transition zone and consider that it may reduce sound velocities up to 1% relative to compositions with only Fe2+ in the cubic site.

  18. Hydroxy protons as structural probes to reveal hydrogen bonding properties of polyols in aqueous solution by NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Gizem; Varnali, Tereza; Bekiroglu, Somer

    2018-05-01

    The solution properties of ethylene glycol (ethane-1,2-diol), glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol), erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol), D-xylitol ((2R,3r,4S)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentaol), D-mannitol ((2R,3R,4R,5R)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaol), and D-sorbitol ((2S,3R,4R,5R)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaol), constituting a subgroup of polyalcohols/polyols of maximum six carbon atoms have been investigated using 1H NMR chemical shifts, coupling constants, temperature coefficients, and chemical exchange rates of hydroxy protons in aqueous medium. Relative within a molecule, minimum two-fold difference in rate of exchange values and higher temperature dependence of chemical shifts of the hydroxy protons on terminal carbon atoms confirm that sustainable hydrogen bonding interactions is accentuated for the hydroxyl groups on secondary carbons. Compared to the primary carbons i.e. terminal ones, the hydroxy protons on second and third carbon atoms exhibit much lower rate of exchange and smaller temperature coefficients, indicating that they are further involved in transient hydrogen bonding interactions. Scalar 3JOH,CH-couplings ranging between 3.9 and 7.2 Hz imply that the hydroxyl groups are practically in free rotation regime. Examination of the chemical shift differences with respect to the shift of glycol hydroxy proton reveals that the disparity between terminal and inner hydroxyl groups disclosed by the exchange rates and temperature coefficients is sustained with the exception of 0.003 and 0.053 ppm for O(3)H of mannitol and O(5)H of sorbitol respectively. The experimental findings have been augmented by quantum chemical calculations targeting theoretical NMR chemical shifts, as well as the conformational analysis of the structures.

  19. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of water-soluble L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles as fluorescence probe for detection of Hg(II) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhaoxia; Yang Hong; Zhang Yi; Yan Xiuping

    2006-01-01

    Water-soluble L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution at room temperature through a straightforward one-pot process by using safe and low-cost inorganic salts as precursors, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, spectrofluorometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrometry. The prepared L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles were evaluated as fluorescence probe for Hg(II) detection. The fluorescence quenching of the L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles depended on the concentration and pH of Hg(II) solution. Maximum fluorescence quenching was observed at pH 7.4 with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 360 nm and 495 nm, respectively. Quenching of its fluorescence due to Hg(II) at the 20 nmol l -1 level was unaffected by the presence of 5 x 10 6 -fold excesses of Na(I) and K(I), 5 x 10 5 -fold excesses of Mg(II), 5 x 10 4 -fold excesses of Ca(II), 500-fold excesses of Al(III), 91-fold excesses of Mn(II), 23.5-fold excesses of Pb(II), 25-fold excesses of Fe(III), 25-fold excesses of Ag(I), 8.5-fold excesses of Ni(II) and 5-fold excesses of Cu(II). Under optimal conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity increased linearly with the concentration of Hg(II) ranging from 16 nmol l -1 to 112 nmol l -1 . The limit of detection for Hg(II) was 2.4 nmol l -1 . The developed method was applied to the detection of trace Hg(II) in aqueous solutions

  20. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drot, Romuald

    1998-01-01

    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 , Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 which allow to study the effect of PO 4 and P 2 O 7 groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP 2 O 7 presents only one single site (P 2 O 7 groups) whereas Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 and Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 admit two types of sites (PO 4 /P 2 O 7 and PO 4 /oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO 3 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO 2+ 2 et de UO 2 NO + 3 species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO 2+ 3 ). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid suspension using FITEQL code (CCM). As sorption equilibria were defined, experimental retention data simulation was performed with respect to structural

  1. Transport and reaction kinetics at the glass:solution interface region: results of repository-oriented leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Repository-oriented leaching experiments involving Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165 type glass under a γ-radiation field (1 +/- 0.2 x 10 4 R/h) have been performed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project. In this communication, they discuss glass surface analyses obtained by SEM, nuclear resonance profiling, and SIMS together with leachate solution data in relation to a mechanism that couples diffusion, hydrolysis (etching and gelation), and precipitation to qualitatively describe the release of different glass components to the leachant solutions. The release of mobile (e.g., Li) and partly mobile (e.g., B) species is controlled primarily by interdiffusion with water species across the interdiffusion zone. Glass components that are immobile in the interdiffusion zone are released to the solution by etching. For prediction of long-term steady-state concentrations of glass components with low solubility, the relative rates of release from the glass and secondary mineral precipitation must be taken into account. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  2. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  3. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  4. Stepwise adsorption of phenanthrene at the fly ash-water interface as affected by solution chemistry: experimental and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chunjiang; Huang, Guohe

    2012-11-20

    Fly ash (FA) is predominantly generated from coal-fired power plants. Contamination during disposal of FA can cause significant environmental problems. Knowledge about the interaction of FA and hydrophobic organic pollutants in the environment is very limited. This study investigated the adsorption of phenanthrene at the interface of FA and water. The performance of phenanthrene adsorption on FA and the effects of various aqueous chemistry conditions were evaluated. The adsorption isotherms exhibited an increasing trend in the adsorbed amounts of phenanthrene, while a stepwise pattern was apparent. A stepwise multisite Langmuir model was developed to simulate the stepwise adsorption process. The adsorption of phenanthrene onto FA was noted to be spontaneous at all temperatures. The thermodynamic results indicated that the adsorption was an exothermic process. The adsorption capacity gradually decreased as pH increased from 4 to 8; however, this trend became less significant when pH was changed from 8 to 10. The binding affinity of phenanthrene to FA increased after the addition of humic acid (HA). The pH variation was also responsible for the changes of phenanthrene adsorption on FA in the presence of HA. High ionic strength corresponded to low mobility of phenanthrene in the FA-water system. Results of this study can help reveal the migration patterns of organic contaminants in the FA-water system and facilitate environmental risk assessment at FA disposal sites.

  5. Ten-dimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain-machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodlinger, B.; Downey, J. E.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Schwartz, A. B.; Boninger, M. L.; Collinger, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. In a previous study we demonstrated continuous translation, orientation and one-dimensional grasping control of a prosthetic limb (seven degrees of freedom) by a human subject with tetraplegia using a brain-machine interface (BMI). The current study, in the same subject, immediately followed the previous work and expanded the scope of the control signal by also extracting hand-shape commands from the two 96-channel intracortical electrode arrays implanted in the subject’s left motor cortex. Approach. Four new control signals, dictating prosthetic hand shape, replaced the one-dimensional grasping in the previous study, allowing the subject to control the prosthetic limb with ten degrees of freedom (three-dimensional (3D) translation, 3D orientation, four-dimensional hand shaping) simultaneously. Main results. Robust neural tuning to hand shaping was found, leading to ten-dimensional (10D) performance well above chance levels in all tests. Neural unit preferred directions were broadly distributed through the 10D space, with the majority of units significantly tuned to all ten dimensions, instead of being restricted to isolated domains (e.g. translation, orientation or hand shape). The addition of hand shaping emphasized object-interaction behavior. A fundamental component of BMIs is the calibration used to associate neural activity to intended movement. We found that the presence of an object during calibration enhanced successful shaping of the prosthetic hand as it closed around the object during grasping. Significance. Our results show that individual motor cortical neurons encode many parameters of movement, that object interaction is an important factor when extracting these signals, and that high-dimensional operation of prosthetic devices can be achieved with simple decoding algorithms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364480.

  6. The development of a cholesterol biosensor using a liquid crystal/aqueous interface in a SDS-included β-cyclodextrin aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Sundas; Park, Soo-Young, E-mail: psy@knu.ac.kr

    2015-09-17

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (β-CD{sub SDS}) was used to detect cholesterol at the 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB)/aqueous interface in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cells. The β-CD acts as a host for SDS (guest). The guest SDS enclosed within the β-CD cavity was replaced with cholesterol by injecting cholesterol solution into the TEM cell at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The replacement of SDS with cholesterol was confirmed by pH measurement and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SDS excluded from the β-CD altered the planar orientation of the 5CB confined within the TEM grid cell to a homeotropic orientation. This planar-to-homeotropic transition was observed using a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. This convenient TEM grid cell provides a new method for the selective detection of cholesterol without immobilization of the detecting receptors (enzyme, antibody, or aptamer) or the use of sophisticated instruments. - Highlights: • β-CD-SDS inclusion was used for the detection of cholesterol at 5CB/aqueous interface. • The SDS enclosed within the β-CD cavity was replaced by cholesterol. • The released SDS from the β-CD caused homeotropic orientation of 5CB. • The cholesterol was detected from planar-to-homeotropic transition of 5CB. • This convenient TEM grid cell provides a new method for the selective detection of cholesterol.

  7. Microanalytical techniques applied to phase identification and measurement of solute redistribution at the solid/liquid interface of frozen Fe-4.3Ni doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Faryna, M; Okane, T

    2002-01-01

    A Fe-4.3M alloy has been solidified directionally by using the Bridgman system. The solidification conditions were chosen to obtain an oriented cellular structure of delta-ferrite. These are: a positive temperature gradient of about 60 K/cm and a growth rate of 6.6 mu m/s. A change in these conditions can lead either to the formation of austenite or to the competitive growth of delta-ferrite/gamma-austenite. The solid/liquid interface of delta-ferrite cells has been frozen and double instability has been revealed at the tip of the cells. The instability is described as the first harmonic wave of fundamental undulation, which appeared at the formerly planar solid/liquid interface. This means that a doublet structure is formed only with the imposed specific conditions of solidification. The Ni-solute redistribution after back-diffusion has been measured across the delta-ferrite doublet. Results of energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) measurements on the distribution of Ni and Fe correspond well to the theoretical pred...

  8. The development of a cholesterol biosensor using a liquid crystal/aqueous interface in a SDS-included β-cyclodextrin aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, Sundas; Park, Soo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (β-CD_S_D_S) was used to detect cholesterol at the 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB)/aqueous interface in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cells. The β-CD acts as a host for SDS (guest). The guest SDS enclosed within the β-CD cavity was replaced with cholesterol by injecting cholesterol solution into the TEM cell at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The replacement of SDS with cholesterol was confirmed by pH measurement and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SDS excluded from the β-CD altered the planar orientation of the 5CB confined within the TEM grid cell to a homeotropic orientation. This planar-to-homeotropic transition was observed using a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. This convenient TEM grid cell provides a new method for the selective detection of cholesterol without immobilization of the detecting receptors (enzyme, antibody, or aptamer) or the use of sophisticated instruments. - Highlights: • β-CD-SDS inclusion was used for the detection of cholesterol at 5CB/aqueous interface. • The SDS enclosed within the β-CD cavity was replaced by cholesterol. • The released SDS from the β-CD caused homeotropic orientation of 5CB. • The cholesterol was detected from planar-to-homeotropic transition of 5CB. • This convenient TEM grid cell provides a new method for the selective detection of cholesterol.

  9. Mapping the surface (hydr)oxo-groups of titanium oxide and its interface with an aqueous solution: the state of the art and a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, George D; Petsi, Theano; Bourikas, Kyriakos; Garoufalis, Christos S; Tsevis, Athanassios; Spanos, Nikos; Kordulis, Christos; Lycourghiotis, Alexis

    2008-10-01

    In this article the "titanium oxide/electrolyte solution" interface is studied by taking in advantage the recent developments in the field of Surface and Interface Chemistry relevant to this oxide. Ab-initio calculations were performed in the frame of the DFT theory for estimating the charge of the titanium and oxygen atoms exposed on the anatase (1 0 1), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), (1 0 3)(f) and rutile (1 1 0) crystal faces. These orientations have smaller surface energy with respect to other ones and thus it is more probable to be the real terminations of the anatase and rutile nanocrystallites in the titania polycrystalline powders. Potentiometric titrations for obtaining "fine structured" titration curves as well as microelectrophoresis and streaming potential measurements have been performed. On the basis of ab-initio calculations, and taking into account the relative contribution of each crystal face to the whole surface of the nanocrystals involved in the titania aggregates of a suspension, the three most probable surface ionization models have been derived. These models and the Music model are then tested in conjunction with the "Stern-Gouy-Chapman" and "Basic Stern" electrostatic models. The finally selected surface ionization model (model A) in combination with each one of the two electrostatic models describes very well the protonation/deprotonation behavior of titania. The description is also very good if this model is combined with the Three Plane (TP) model. The application of the "A/(TP)" model allowed mapping the surface (hydr)oxo-groups [TiO(H) and Ti(2)O(H)] of titania exposed in aqueous solutions. At pH>pzc almost all terminal oxygens [TiO] are non-protonated whereas even at low pH values the non-protonated terminal oxygens predominate. The acid-base behavior of the bridging oxygens [Ti(2)O] is different. Thus, even at pH=10 the greater portion of them is protonated. The application of the "A/TP" model in conjunction with potentiometric titrations

  10. Photophysical behavior in spread monolayers. Dansyl fluorescence as a probe for polarity at the air-water interface. [N-(5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl)dihexadecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, F.; Thistlethwaite, P.; Urquhart, R.; Patterson, L.K.

    1987-09-24

    The emission spectrum of N-(5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl)dihexadecylamine (dansyldihexadecylamine) in monolayers at the air-water interface has been studied. In some cases sudden shifts in the dansyl emission can be correlated with particular features of the surface pressure-area isotherms. These spectral shifts can be explained in terms of a change in the conformation of the head group on the surface and with aggregation of the dansyldihexadecylamine. In other cases the dansyl emission shows a blue shift with increasing compression that can be associated with reduced head-group hydration.

  11. Ti2Al(C, N) Solid Solution Reinforcing TiAl-Based Composites: Evolution of a Core-Shell Structure, Interfaces, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojie; Cui, Hongzhi; Han, Ye; Ding, Lei; Song, Qiang

    2018-05-16

    In this work, Ti 2 Al(C, N) solid solution with lamellar structure-enhanced TiAl matrix composites was synthesized by vacuum arc melting, using bulk g-C 3 N 4 , Ti, and Al powders as raw materials. The phases, microstructures, interfaces, and mechanical properties were investigated. MAX phase of Ti 2 Al(C, N) solid solution with lamellar structure was formed. During the melting process, first, C 3 N 4 reacted with Ti to form Ti(C, N) by Ti + C 3 N 4 → Ti(C, N). Then Ti 2 Al(C, N) was formed by a peritectic reaction of TiAl(l) + Ti(C, N)(s) → Ti 2 Al(C, N). C 3 N 4 is the single reactant that provides C and N simultaneously to final product of Ti 2 Al(C, N). The interfaces of TiAl//Ti 2 Al(C, N) and Ti 2 Al(C, N)//Ti(C, N) display perfect orientation relationships with low misfit values. The microhardness, compressive strength, and strain of best-performing TiAl-10 mol % Ti 2 Al(C, N) composite were improved by 45%, 55.7%, and 50% compared with the TiAl alloy, respectively. Uniformly distributed Ti 2 Al(C, N) and unreacted Ti(C, N) particles contributed to the grain refinement and reinforcement of the TiAl matrix. Laminated tearing, particle pull-out, and the crack-arresting of Ti 2 Al(C, N) are crucial for the improvement in compressive strength and plasticity of the composites.

  12. Experimental conical-head abutment screws on the microbial leakage through the implant-abutment interface: an in vitro analysis using target-specific DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Murillo S; do Nascimento, Cássio; Dos Santos, Carla G P; Pires, Isabela M; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to identify and quantify up to 38 microbial species from human saliva penetrating through the implant-abutment interface in two different implant connections, external hexagon and tri-channel internal connection, both with conventional flat-head or experimental conical-head abutment screws. Forty-eight two-part implants with external hexagon (EH; n = 24) or tri-channel internal (TI; n = 24) connections were investigated. Abutments were attached to implants with conventional flat-head or experimental conical-head screws. After saliva incubation, Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was used to identify and quantify up to 38 bacterial colonizing the internal parts of the implants. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni's post-tests for multiple comparisons was used for statistical analysis. Twenty-four of thirty-eight species, including putative periodontal pathogens, were found colonizing the inner surfaces of both EH and TI implants. Peptostreptococcus anaerobios (P = 0.003), Prevotella melaninogenica (P abutment screws have impacted the microbial leakage through the implant-abutment interface. Implants attached with experimental conical-head abutment screws showed lower counts of microorganisms when compared with conventional flat-head screws. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Probing buried solid-solid interfaces in magnetic multilayer structures and other nanostructures using spectroscopy excited by soft x-ray standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-H.; Mun, B.S.; Mannella, N.; Sell, B.; Ritchey, S.B.; Fadley, C.S.; Pham, L.; Nambu, A.; Watanabe, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Buried solid-solid interfaces are becoming increasingly more important in all aspects of nanoscience, and we here dis- cuss the st applications of a new method for selectively studying them with the vuv/soft x-ray spectroscopies. As specific examples, magnetic multilayer structures represent key elements of current developments in spintronics, including giant magnetoresistance, exchange bias, and magnetic tunnel resistance. The buried interfaces in such structures are of key importance to their performance, but have up to now been difficult to study selectively with these spectroscopies. This novel method involves excitation of photoelectrons or fluorescent x-rays with soft x-ray standing waves created by Bragg reflection from a multilayer mirror substrate on which the sample is grown. We will discuss core and valence photoemission, as well soft x-ray emission, results from applying this method to multilayer structures relevant to both giant magnetoresistance (Fe/Cr-[2]) and magnetic tunnel junctions (Al 2 O 3 /FeCo) , including magnetic dichroism measurements. Work supported by the Director, Of e of Science, Of e of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division, U.S. Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF000

  14. Experimental determination and chemical modelling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel/water interface. Experiments carried out in carbonate solutions in absence and presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Jordi; Cera, Esther; Grive, Mireia; Duro, Lara [Enviros Spain SL (Spain); Eriksen, Trygve [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    We report on the recent experimental and modelling results of a research programme that started in 1995. The aim has been to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that control the radiolytic generation of oxidants and reductants at the spent fuel water interface and their consequences for spent fuel matrix stability and radionuclide release. This has been done by carrying out well-controlled dissolution experiments of PWR Ringhals spent fuel fragments in an initially anoxic closed system and by using different solution compositions. Experimental series started with several tests carried out with deionised water as solvent, in a second phase experiments were conducted with 10 mM bicarbonate solutions. New experimental series were set up during the last two years by using the same bicarbonate content in solutions with varying NaCl concentrations in order to ascertain the role of this ligand on the radiolytic products and its consequence for radionuclide release. The selected NaCl concentrations are in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM. Experimental data shows that uranium dissolution at early contact times is controlled by the oxidation of the UO{sub 2} matrix. This process controls the co-dissolution of most of the analysed radionuclides, including Sr, Mo, Tc, Np and surprisingly enough, Cs. In the overall the release rates for U and the matrix associated radionuclides are in the range of 10{sup -6} moles/day with a clear decreasing trend with exposure time and after 2 years the initial release rates have decreased down to 3x10{sup -8} moles/day. The solubility of the released actinides appears to be limited by the formation of An(IV) hydroxide phases, although Np concentrations in solution did not reach solubility levels during the time intervals of the present tests. No secondary solid phase appears to control the solubility of the rest of the elements.

  15. A quinoline-based Cu2 + ion complex fluorescence probe for selective detection of inorganic phosphate anion in aqueous solution and its application to living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanpeng; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xu, Kuoxi; Pang, Xiaobin

    2017-08-01

    A quinaldine functionalized probe QP has been designed and synthesized. It exhibited selective turn-off fluorescence response toward Cu2 + ion over most of the biologically important ions at physiological pH. The binding ratio of the probe QP and Cu2 + ion was determined to be 1:1 through fluorescence titration, Job's plot and ESI-MS. The binding constant (K) of Cu2 + to probe QP was found to be 2.12 × 104 M- 1. Further, the Cu2 + ensemble of probe QP was found to respond H2PO4- and HPO42 - among other important biological anions via fluorescence turn-on response at physiological pH. Fluorescence microscopy imaging using living Hela cells showed that probe QP could be used as an effective fluorescent probe for detecting Cu2 + cation and H2PO4- and HPO42 - anions in living cells.

  16. The electrochemical interface of Ag(111) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid—A combined in-situ scanning probe microscopy and impedance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mian-Gang; Chen, Li; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Chen, Zhao-Bin; Yan, Jia-Wei; Mao, Bing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical interface between Ag(111) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) has been investigated by in-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterization has revealed that there is neither surface reconstruction nor strong adsorption of EMITFSI on Ag(111) surface so that EIS investigation can be fulfilled under well-defined surface condition and in the absence of pseudo capacitive process. In-situ atom force microscopy (AFM) force curve measurements further disclose that there exists five layered structures near and normal to the surface, among them three layered structures being charged and forming the electric double layer (EDL) of the interface. An electric equivalent circuit is proposed, which comprises two serial parallel branches involving the innermost layered structure and the next two layered structures in the EDL, respectively. The inner layer circuit is given by a constant phase element (CPE) in parallel to a resistor, while the outer layer circuit is given by a capacity in parallel with a resistor-Warburg element branch. Slow response is observed for the inner layer, which is attributed to the hindrance of reorientation and/or redistribution of ions in the more ordered and robust inner layer region. The inner layer capacitance and outer layer capacitance have opposing potential dependence, and the resultant double layer capacitance shows weak potential dependence.

  17. Periodic protein adsorption at the gold/biotin aqueous solution interface: evidence of kinetics with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, H.; Laborde, H. M.; Lima, A. M. N.

    2016-11-01

    An oscillatory molecular adsorption pattern of the protein neutravidin from aqueous solution onto gold, in presence of a pre-deposited self assembled mono-molecular biotin film, is reported. Real time surface Plasmon resonance sensing was utilized for evaluation of the adsorption kinetics. Two different fractions were identified: in the initial phase, protein molecules attach irreversibly onto the Biotin ligands beneath towards the jamming limit, forming a neutravidin-biotin fraction. Afterwards, the growth rate exhibits distinct, albeit damped adsorption-desorption oscillations over an extended time span, assigned to a quasi reversibly bound fraction. These findings agree with, and firstly confirm a previously published model, proposing macro-molecular adsorption with time delay. The non-linear dynamic model is applicable to and also resembles non-damped oscillatory binding features of the hetero-catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide molecules on platinum in the gas phase. An associated surface residence time can be linked to the dynamics and time scale required for self-organization.

  18. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  19. Correlation of surface pressure and hue of planarizable push–pull chromophores at the air/water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Neuhaus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is currently not possible to directly measure the lateral pressure of a biomembrane. Mechanoresponsive fluorescent probes are an elegant solution to this problem but it requires first the establishment of a direct correlation between the membrane surface pressure and the induced color change of the probe. Here, we analyze planarizable dithienothiophene push–pull probes in a monolayer at the air/water interface using fluorescence microscopy, grazing-incidence angle X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy. An increase of the lateral membrane pressure leads to a well-packed layer of the ‘flipper’ mechanophores and a clear change in hue above 18 mN/m. The fluorescent probes had no influence on the measured isotherm of the natural phospholipid DPPC suggesting that the flippers probe the lateral membrane pressure without physically changing it. This makes the flipper probes a truly useful addition to the membrane probe toolbox.

  20. Comparison of the influence of polyaspartic acid and polylysine functional groups on the adsorption at the Cr2O3-Aqueous polymer solution interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostolska, Iwona; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Polyamino acids are a group of synthesized polymers obtained by polymerization of a given kind of amino acid monomer. Because of high biodegradability of this class of polymers, they can be used as flocculation or stabilization agents in the environmental aspects. Therefore determination of their influence on the stability of the aqueous suspension of metal oxides is important. An influence of different functional groups of polyamino acids, their molecular weight and concentration on the adsorption at the chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3)-aqueous solution interface was determined. Experiments were carried out for four values of solution pH varying from 3 to 10 (3, 4, 7.6 and 10, respectively). Two polymers were used: anionic polyaspartic acid (ASP) of 6800 and 27,000 as well as polylysine (LYS) of 4900 and 33,000 molecular weights. Changes of surface charge density of colloidal Cr2O3 in the presence and in the absence of macromolecular substances were determined using potentiometric titration. In these studies the influence of the concentration and molecular weight of the ionic polymers on the pHpzc value was determined. Additionally, due to the lack of appropriate literature data, potentiometric titration of the selected polymers was performed to determine pKa values.

  1. Effect of thermal treatment on solid–solid interface of hematite thin film synthesized by spin-coating deposition solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido-Aguilar, Daniel Angel; Tofanello, Aryane; Souza, Flavio L.; Furini, Leonardo Negri; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    This work describes hematite films prepared by a spin-coating deposition solution (SCDS) method that is a sol–gel method derived technique. Hematite films were prepared at two heat treatment temperatures (500 °C and 800 °C) and the influence of thermal treatment on the photoelectrochemical performance was studied. In addition, since the SCDS method allows an optimal control of stoichiometry and impurity incorporation, hematite films modified with Zn 2+ and Sn 4+ were also prepared. The 800 °C-treated hematite films had a higher wettability and roughness that enabled them to have a better photocatalytic response in comparison with that of 500 °C-treated hematite films. Moreover, modified hematite films demonstrated to have a performance slightly better than that of undoped hematite film as shown in linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry results. Although an improvement in the performance of hematite films was achieved by annealing at higher temperatures and incorporating Zn 2+ or Sn 4+ , the general photocatalytic response of the films was poor. Two plausible hypotheses were discussed related to the (i) dopant segregation at grain boundary, and (ii) poor contact between the hematite and fluorine doped tin oxide layer (from the glass substrate), which was experimentally confirmed by a cross-sectional analysis conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In fact, additional experiments need to be done in order to improve the hematite deposition and make the SCDS a promise method for industrial application. - Highlights: • High temperature of annealing decreases the hematite adherence and performance. • Zn 2+ and Sn 4+ dopants affected differently the photocurrent onset potentials. • Dopants affected the grain size due to their segregation at grain boundaries.

  2. Effect of thermal treatment on solid–solid interface of hematite thin film synthesized by spin-coating deposition solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido-Aguilar, Daniel Angel; Tofanello, Aryane [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados N°5001, Bangu, Santo André, São Paulo CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Souza, Flavio L., E-mail: flavio.souza@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados N°5001, Bangu, Santo André, São Paulo CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Furini, Leonardo Negri; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT), UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, 19060-900 (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    This work describes hematite films prepared by a spin-coating deposition solution (SCDS) method that is a sol–gel method derived technique. Hematite films were prepared at two heat treatment temperatures (500 °C and 800 °C) and the influence of thermal treatment on the photoelectrochemical performance was studied. In addition, since the SCDS method allows an optimal control of stoichiometry and impurity incorporation, hematite films modified with Zn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} were also prepared. The 800 °C-treated hematite films had a higher wettability and roughness that enabled them to have a better photocatalytic response in comparison with that of 500 °C-treated hematite films. Moreover, modified hematite films demonstrated to have a performance slightly better than that of undoped hematite film as shown in linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry results. Although an improvement in the performance of hematite films was achieved by annealing at higher temperatures and incorporating Zn{sup 2+} or Sn{sup 4+}, the general photocatalytic response of the films was poor. Two plausible hypotheses were discussed related to the (i) dopant segregation at grain boundary, and (ii) poor contact between the hematite and fluorine doped tin oxide layer (from the glass substrate), which was experimentally confirmed by a cross-sectional analysis conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In fact, additional experiments need to be done in order to improve the hematite deposition and make the SCDS a promise method for industrial application. - Highlights: • High temperature of annealing decreases the hematite adherence and performance. • Zn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} dopants affected differently the photocurrent onset potentials. • Dopants affected the grain size due to their segregation at grain boundaries.

  3. Uranium (VI) chemistry at the interface solution/minerals (quartz and aluminium hydroxide): experiments and spectroscopic investigations of the uranyl surface species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froideval, A.

    2004-09-01

    This study deals with the understanding of the uranyl chemistry at the 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution/mineral (quartz and aluminium hydroxide) interface. The aims are:(i) to identify and to characterize the different uranyl surface species (mononuclear, polynuclear complexes and/or precipitates...), i.e. the coordination environments of sorbed/precipitated uranyl ions, by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), and;(ii) to investigate the influence of pH, initial uranyl aqueous concentration and hydroxyl ligand concentration on the uranyl surface speciation. Our study on the speciation of uranyl ions at the quartz surface (i) confirms the formation of uranyl polynuclear/oligomers on quartz from moderate (1 μmol/m 2 ) to high (26 μmol/m 2 ) uranyl surface concentrations and (ii) show that theses polynuclear species coexist with uranyl mononuclear surface species over a pH range ≅ 5-8.5 and a wide range of initial uranyl concentration o f the solutions (10-100 μM). The uranyl concentration of these surface species depends on pH and on the initial uranyl aqueous concentration. Hydrate (surface-) precipitates and/or adsorbed polynuclear species and monomeric uranyl surface complexes are formed on aluminium hydroxide. Uranyl mononuclear complexes are predominant at acidic pH, as well as uranyl in solution or on the surface. Besides mononuclear species, precipitates and/or adsorbed polynuclear species are predominantly formed at neutral pH values on aluminium hydroxide. A main contribution of our investigations is that precipitation and/or adsorption of polynuclear species seem to occur at low uranyl surface concentrations (0.01-0.4 μmol/m 2 ). The uranyl surface speciation is mainly dependent on the pH and the aluminol ligand concentration. (author)

  4. Influence of gold species (AuCl4(-) and AuCl2(-)) on self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP in solutions and morphology of composite thin films fabricated at the air/liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaokai; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2016-01-21

    Composite thin films doped with Au species were fabricated at an air/liquid interface via a series of steps, including the mass transfer of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) across the liquid/liquid interface between a DMF/CHCl3 solution and an aqueous solution containing either AuCl4(-) or AuCl2(-), self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP in a mixed DMF-water solution, and adsorption and further self-organization of the formed aggregates at the air/liquid interface. This is a new approach for fabricating composite polymer films and can be completed within a very short time. AuCl4(-) and AuCl2(-) ions were found to significantly influence the self-assembly behavior of the block copolymer and the morphologies of the composite films, leading to the formation of nanowire arrays and a foam structure at the air/liquid interface, respectively, which originated from rod-like micelles and microcapsules that had formed in the respective solutions. The effect of the metal complex was analyzed based on the packing parameters of the amphiphilic polymer molecules in different microenvironments and the interactions between the pyridine groups and the metal chloride anions. In addition, these composite thin films exhibited stable and durable performance as heterogeneous catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroaromatics in aqueous solutions.

  5. Action of a clay suspension on an Fe(0) surface under anoxic conditions: Characterization of neoformed minerals at the Fe(0)/solution and Fe(0)/atmosphere interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Pierre; Rivard, Camille; Pelletier, Manuel; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; Mathieu, Sandrine; Salsi, Lise; Migot, Sylvie; Barres, Odile; Villiéras, Frédéric; Michau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    the clay suspension. Our findings suggest that reaction mechanisms include several steps, corresponding to successive regimes depending on the availability of the main reactive elements at the Fe(0)/solution interface, namely Fe, Si and Al. Thus, our results provide new information to support the understanding of both mineral organization and composition at the clay/Fe(0) interface

  6. Water at Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding.

  7. Calcium biogeochemical cycle at the beech tree-soil solution interface from the Strengbach CZO (NE France): insights from stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Gangloff, Sophie; Labolle, François; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Calcium (Ca) is the fourth most abundant element in mineral nutrition and plays key physiological and structural roles in plant metabolism. At the soil-water-plant scale, stable Ca isotopes are a powerful tool for the identification of plant-mineral interactions and recycling via vegetation. Radiogenic Sr isotopes are often used as tracers of Ca sources and mixtures of different reservoirs. In this study, stable Ca and radiogenic Sr are combined and analysed in several organs from two beech trees that were collected in June and September in the Strengbach critical zone observatory (CZO) (NE France) and in corresponding soil solutions. At the beech-tree scale, this study confirms the field Ca adsorption (i.e., physico-chemical mechanism and not vital effects) on carboxyl acid groups of pectin in the apoplasm of small roots. The analysis of the xylem sap and corresponding organs shows that although the Strengbach CZO is nutrient-poor, Ca seems to be non-limiting for tree-growth. Different viscosities of xylem sap between the stemwood and branches or leaves can explain δ44/40Ca values in different tree-organs. The bark and phloem 40Ca-enrichments could be due to Ca-oxalate precipitation in the bark tissues and in the phloem. The results from this study regarding the combination of these two isotopic systems show that the isotopic signatures of the roots are dominated by Ca fractionation mechanisms and Sr, and thus Ca, source variations. In contrast, translocation mechanisms are only governed by Ca fractionation processes. This study showed that at the root-soil solution interface, litter degradation was not the main source of Ca and Sr and that the soil solutions are not the complement of uptake by roots for samples from the 2011/2013 period. The opposite is observed for older samples. These observations indicate the decreasing contribution of low radiogenic Sr fluxes, such as recycling, alimenting the soil solutions. Such reduced importance of nutrient uptake and

  8. Study of the interface solid/solutions containing PEO-PPO block copolymers and asphaltenes by FTIR/ATR; Estudo de solucoes de copolimeros em bloco de PEO-PPO contendo asfaltenos por FTIR/DTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Janaina I.S.; Neto, Jessica S.G.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: janaina_333@hotmail.com, kinha_dac_dm@hotmail.com; celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The formation of water/oil emulsions can cause problems in various stages of production, processing and refining of petroleum. In this study, the technique of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using the method of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was applied to study the solid-solutions of block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) interface and its interaction in this interface with asphaltenic fractions of petroleum. The solid is the crystal of the ATR. Initially, we determined the critical micelle concentration values of the copolymers, which were consistent those obtained by a tensiometer. Bottle Test was also performed to correlate the efficiency of PEO-PPO copolymers in the breaking of water/oil emulsions with its adsorption at the interfaces solutions. (author)

  9. Hydroxyl radical reactivity at the air-ice interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere and in natural waters. They are also expected to be important in snow and ice, but their reactivity has not been widely studied in frozen aqueous solution. We have developed a spectroscopic probe to monitor the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radicals in situ. Hydroxyl radicals are produced in aqueous solution via the photolysis of nitrite, nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, and react rapidly with benzene to form phenol. Similar phenol formation rates were observed in aqueous solution and bulk ice. However, no reaction was observed at air-ice interfaces, or when bulk ice samples were crushed prior to photolysis to increase their surface area. We also monitored the heterogeneous reaction between benzene present at air-water and air-ice interfaces with gas-phase OH produced from HONO photolysis. Rapid phenol formation was observed on water surfaces, but no reaction was observed at the surface of ice. Under the same conditions, we observed rapid loss of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH anthracene at air-water interfaces, but no loss was observed at air-ice interfaces. Our results suggest that the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals toward aromatic organics is similar in bulk ice samples and in aqueous solution, but is significantly suppressed in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL that exists at air-ice interfaces.

  10. Interface segregation behavior in thermal aged austenitic precipitation strengthened stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Technical Department, Jiuli Hi-Tech Metals Co., Ltd., Huzhou 313008 (China); Song, Hui [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Wenqing, E-mail: wqliu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xia, Shuang; Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Su, Cheng; Ding, Wenyan [Technical Department, Jiuli Hi-Tech Metals Co., Ltd., Huzhou 313008 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The segregation of various elements at grain boundaries, precipitate/matrix interfaces were analyzed using atom probe tomography in an austenitic precipitation strengthened stainless steel aged at 750 °C for different time. Segregation of P, B and C at all types of interfaces in all the specimens were observed. However, Si segregated at all types of interfaces only in the specimen aged for 16 h. Enrichment of Ti at grain boundaries was evident in the specimen aged for 16 h, while Ti did not segregate at other interfaces. Mo varied considerably among interface types, e.g. from segregated at grain boundaries in the specimens after all the aging time to never segregate at γ′/γ phase interfaces. Cr co-segregated with C at grain boundaries, although carbides still did not nucleate at grain boundaries yet. Despite segregation tendency variations in different interface types, the segregation tendency evolution variation of different elements depending aging time were analyzed among all types of interfaces. Based on the experimental results, the enrichment factors, Gibbs interface excess and segregation free energies of segregated elements were calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • Solute atoms segregated at interfaces were analyzed in an austenitic stainless steel. • The comparison of segregation in different interfaces was studied by APT. • The evolution of interface segregation during aging treatment was discussed.

  11. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  12. Development of high pressure conductivity probe (HPCP) for secondary shut down system (SDS-2) of 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, M.K.; Kundu, S.; Mohan, L.R.

    2003-09-01

    The poison solution and the moderator in Secondary Shutdown System (SDS-2) of 500 MWe PHWR, are separated by their own liquid in liquid interface. This interface moves towards the calandria because of molecular diffusion, temperature difference and physical disturbances in the moderator level. It is proposed to install two numbers of high pressure conductivity probes (HPCP) to monitor the interface movement as well as to provide the safe annunciation value for interface location. On actuation of the SDS-2 signal, high-pressure helium will inject the poison into the moderator to shutdown the reactor. During poison injection, these probes will experience high pressure of nearly 85 kg/sq.cm. Global market survey indicated that conductivity probes having built in temperature sensor are available for a maximum pressure rating of 35 kg/sq.cm. Hence in order to meet the process requirement of SDS-2, the development of HPCP suitable for a pressure of 85 kg/sq.cm. was taken up. Two numbers of such probes were successfully designed, fabricated and evaluated for their performance. The developed conductivity probes fully meet the laid design and performance criteria. The aforesaid development work was a successful endeavour towards indigenisation of high-pressure conductivity probe for future applications. This report deals with the design aspects, fabrication technique, material and performance evajuation criteria and test results of HPCP. (author)

  13. Soft control of scanning probe microscope with high flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Guo, Yuzheng; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Xing

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial scanning probe microscopes have multiple embedded digital microprocessors and utilize complex software for system control, which is not easily obtained or modified by researchers wishing to perform novel and special applications. In this paper, we present a simple and flexible control solution that just depends on software running on a single-processor personal computer with real-time Linux operating system to carry out all the control tasks including negative feedback, tip moving, data processing and user interface. In this way, we fully exploit the potential of a personal computer in calculating and programming, enabling us to manipulate the scanning probe as required without any special digital control circuits and related technical know-how. This solution has been successfully applied to a homemade ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope and a multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

  14. Development of a real-time fuel cell stack modelling solution with integrated test rig interface for the generic fuel cell modelling environment (GenFC) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.D.; Monsberger, M.; Hacker, V. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Fuel Cell Systems; Gubner, A.; Reimer, U. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since the late 1980s, numerous FC models have been developed by scientists and engineers worldwide to design, control and optimize fuel cells (FCs) and fuel cell (FC) power systems. However, state-of-the-art FC models have only a small range of applications within the versatile field of FC modelling. As fuel cell technology approaches commercialization, the scientific community is faced with the challenge of providing robust fuel cell models that are compatible with established processes in industrial product development. One such process, known as Hardware in the Loop (HiL), requires real-time modelling capability. HiL is used for developing and testing hardware components by adding the complexity of the related dynamic systems with mathematical representations. Sensors and actuators are used to interface simulated and actual hardware components. As such, real-time fuel cell models are among the key elements in the development of the Generic Fuel Cell Modelling Environment (GenFC) software. Six European partners are developing GenFC under the support of the Sixth European Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6). GenFC is meant to increase the use of fuel cell modelling for systems design and to enable cost- and time-efficient virtual experiments for optimizing operating parameters. This paper presented an overview of the GenFC software and the GenFC HiL functionality. It was concluded that GenFC is going to be an extendable software tool providing FC modelling techniques and solutions to a wide range of different FC modelling applications. By combining the flexibility of the GenFC software with this HiL-specific functionality, GenFC is going to promote the use of FC model-based HiL technology in FC system development. 9 figs.

  15. Design concept of the high-resolution end-station PEAXIS at BESSY II: Wide-Q-range RIXS and XPS measurements on solids, solutions, and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieutenant, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.lieutenant@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schulz, Christian, E-mail: schulz-c@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Yablonskikh, Mikhail V., E-mail: mikhail.yablonskikh@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Habicht, Klaus, E-mail: habicht@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: emad.aziz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji 444-8585, Okazaki (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Continuous rotation of the RIXS arm allowing truly Q-dependent measurements. • A systematic way to assess all RIXS spectrometer parameters using a figure of merit. • An analytical calculation of the energy dependent settings of a RIXS spectrometer. • Robustness analysis of spectrometer parameters for tolerances in engineering design. - Abstract: The design of a soft X-ray end-station for the Berlin Electron Synchrotron BESSY II is presented. It will be used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and Angle-dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AdXPS) studies for energy material science. In RIXS-mode the instrument operates with two spherical Variable Line Space (VLS) gratings for energy resolving measurements in two overlapping energy ranges from 200 to 1200 eV. The end-station will allow measurements of solid samples, solutions and interfaces in a wide range of experimental conditions with high energy resolution covering a large Q-range realized by a continuous rotation of the RIXS detector arm by 120°. Besides the description of this end-station, a systematic way is shown for the design of a RIXS instrument assessing the grating parameters based on existing theories and for the calculation of optimal instrument settings as a function of photon energy. Different grating inclinations, line densities, groove shapes and RIXS instrument lengths were investigated. Possible parameter combinations were calculated analytically and the resulting instrument performance was determined by ray-tracing simulations using the simulation package RAY. The performance of the RIXS instrument was evaluated by choosing the product of the intensity at the detector and the square of the resolving power as figure of merit to optimize the spectrometer. The robustness of the optimized parameters has been checked in order to define tolerance parameters for the engineering design of the spectrometer.

  16. Solvation and complexation study by fluorescence spectroscopy of Eu(III) and Cm(III) ions in octanol solution and at the interface with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    Polydentate N-donors ligands like bis-triazine-pyridine (BTP) and bis-triazine-bis-pyridine (BTBP) can selectively extract minor actinides (III) from lanthanides (III) ions and therefore have been studied in the field of nuclear waste reprocessing. The aim of the researches carried out during this thesis is a better description of this family in biphasic systems: speciation in the organic phase and around the interfacial area. After an exhaustive description of the solvation of europium(III) cation in mixed solutions n-octanol water with TRLIF spectrometry, the complexation with nitrogen ligands iPr-BTP, C5-BTBP and CyMe4-BTBP has been studied by TRLIF and ESI-MS techniques. For each compound, the inner sphere of europium has been described and the conditional stability constants determined. The composition of the organic medium, and particularly the hydration degree of n-octanol, has an impact on the nature and the ratio of species 'cation - counter ion - ligand - water'. With high water content (representative of extraction systems), the complexes observed with Cm(III) and Eu(III) have the same stoichiometry but the affinity towards the curium cation is higher and consistent to separation factors measured with biphasic systems. The method TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) was retained to study the behaviour of europium(III) inside the interfacial area. Fluorescence spectra of europium have been obtained but side signals and the high depth resolution of detection lead to difficulty in obtaining the signal of interfacial europium alone. The selected technique remains promising but some improvements need to be implemented for forthcoming measurement at liquid/liquid interface. (author) [fr

  17. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  18. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  19. Probing dynamic interfaces in organic electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, S.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are emerging in solar cells, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistors. The main advantages are the electrical transport properties that can be tailored by chemical design, and their mechanical flexibility. Applications are foreseen in the field of

  20. Uranium (VI) chemistry at the interface solution/minerals (quartz and aluminium hydroxide): experiments and spectroscopic investigations of the uranyl surface species; Chimie de l'uranium (VI) a l'interface solution/mineraux (quartz et hydroxyde d'aluminium): experiences et caracterisations spectroscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froideval, A.

    2004-09-15

    This study deals with the understanding of the uranyl chemistry at the 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution/mineral (quartz and aluminium hydroxide) interface. The aims are:(i) to identify and to characterize the different uranyl surface species (mononuclear, polynuclear complexes and/or precipitates...), i.e. the coordination environments of sorbed/precipitated uranyl ions, by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), and;(ii) to investigate the influence of pH, initial uranyl aqueous concentration and hydroxyl ligand concentration on the uranyl surface speciation. Our study on the speciation of uranyl ions at the quartz surface (i) confirms the formation of uranyl polynuclear/oligomers on quartz from moderate (1 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}) to high (26 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}) uranyl surface concentrations and (ii) show that theses polynuclear species coexist with uranyl mononuclear surface species over a pH range {approx_equal} 5-8.5 and a wide range of initial uranyl concentration o f the solutions (10-100 {mu}M). The uranyl concentration of these surface species depends on pH and on the initial uranyl aqueous concentration. Hydrate (surface-) precipitates and/or adsorbed polynuclear species and monomeric uranyl surface complexes are formed on aluminium hydroxide. Uranyl mononuclear complexes are predominant at acidic pH, as well as uranyl in solution or on the surface. Besides mononuclear species, precipitates and/or adsorbed polynuclear species are predominantly formed at neutral pH values on aluminium hydroxide. A main contribution of our investigations is that precipitation and/or adsorption of polynuclear species seem to occur at low uranyl surface concentrations (0.01-0.4 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}). The uranyl surface speciation is mainly dependent on the pH and the aluminol ligand concentration. (author)

  1. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  2. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  3. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Teng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  4. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. All-fiber probe for optical coherence tomography with an extended depth of focus by a high-efficient fiber-based filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianrong; Shen, Yi; Shangguan, Ziwei; Bao, Wen; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua

    2018-04-01

    Although methods have been proposed to maintain high transverse resolution over an increased depth range, it is not straightforward to scale down the bulk-optic solutions to minimized probes of optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a high-efficient fiber-based filter in an all-fiber OCT probe to realize an extended depth of focus (DOF) while maintaining a high transverse resolution. Mode interference in the probe is exploited to modulate the complex field with controllable radial distribution. The principle of DOF extension by the fiber-based filter is theoretically analyzed. Numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the performances of the designed probes. A DOF extension ratio of 2.6 over conventional Gaussian beam is obtainable in one proposed probe under a focused beam diameter of 4 . 6 μm. Coupling efficiencies of internal interfaces of the proposed probe are below -40 dB except the last probe-air interface, which can also be depressed to be -44 dB after minor modification in lengths for the filter. Length tolerance of the proposed probe is determined to be - 28 / + 20 μm, which is readily satisfied in fabrication. With the merits of extended-DOF, high-resolution, high-efficiency and easy-fabrication, the proposed probe is promising in endoscopic applications.

  7. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  8. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  9. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  10. Studies of bio-mimetic medium of ionic and non-ionic micelles by a simple charge transfer fluorescence probe N,N-dimethylaminonapthyl-(acrylo)-nitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Anuva; Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, N.

    2011-05-01

    In this report we have studied micellization process of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants using N,N-dimethylaminonapthyl-(acrylo)-nitrile (DMANAN) as an external fluorescence probe. Micropolarity, microviscosity, critical micellar concentration of these micelles based on steady state absorption and fluorescence and time resolved emission spectroscopy of the probe DMANAN show that the molecule resides in the micelle-water interface for ionic micelles and in the core for the non-ionic micelle. The effect of variation of pH of the micellar solution as well as fluorescence quenching measurements of DMANAN provide further support for the location of the probe in the micelles.

  11. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Ion transfer kinetics at the micro-interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and steady-state voltammetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silver, Barry Richard; Holub, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 731, OCT 2014 (2014), s. 107-111 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04630S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Liquid/liquid interfaces * Ion transport * AC impedance Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.729, year: 2014

  13. Charge Inversion and Ion-Ion Correlation Effects at the Mercury/Aqueous MgSO4 Interface: Toward the Solution of a Long-Standing Issue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wernersson, Erik; Kjellander, R.; Lyklema, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 4 (2010), s. 1849-1866 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : charge inversion * colloid * aqueous interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.520, year: 2010

  14. The Emergence of Atomic-Level Structural Information for Ordered Metal-Solution Interfaces: Some Recent Contributions from In-Situ Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-28

    Distribution/ Availabilit Codes jAval’ an~d/or Dist Speoial (19. cont.) reconstruction at gold-aqueous interfaces. All three low-index gold surfaces are...uncharged (vide supra). This difference may well be due to the influence of the interfacial water , or conceivably to adsorbed perchlorate anions. Both Au

  15. Condensed, solution and gas phase behaviour of mono- and dinuclear 2,6-diacetylpyridine (dap) hydrazone copper complexes probed by X-ray, mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Brenno A D; Viana, Barbara F L; Rodrigues, Thyago S; Lalli, Priscila M; Eberlin, Marcos N; da Silva, Wender A; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Gatto, Claudia C

    2013-08-28

    We describe the synthesis of novel mononuclear and dinuclear copper complexes and an investigation of their behaviour in solution using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS) and in the solid state using X-ray crystallography. The complexes were synthesized from two widely used diacetylpryridine (dap) ligands, i.e. 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(benzoic acid hydrazone) and 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(2-aminobenzoic acid hydrazone). Theoretical calculations (DFT) were used to predict the complex geometries of these new structures, their equilibrium in solution and energies associated with the transformations.

  16. A novel aggregation induced emission active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex as a luminescent probe for detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Yan, Liqiang; Tian, Wenwen; Cui, Xia; Qi, Zhengjian, E-mail: qizhengjian@seu.edu.cn; Sun, Yueming, E-mail: sun@seu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel aggregation induced emission (AIE) active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex, namely [Ir(dfppy){sub 2}(phen-DPA)]PF{sub 6}, where dfppy and phen-DPA represent 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine and 2-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)-N-(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-yl)acetamide, respectively. The complex showed remarkable selectivity for copper(II) in aqueous solution over other competitive ions. Furthermore, this sensor showed a rapid and reversible response to copper(II) in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 65 nM.

  17. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  18. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  19. Assessment of the further improved (G'/G)-expansion method and the extended tanh-method in probing exact solutions of nonlinear PDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj Mohd; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2013-01-01

    The (G'/G)-expansion method is one of the most direct and effective method for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In the present article, we construct the exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics via the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation by using two methods: namely, a further improved (G'/G)-expansion method, where G(ξ) satisfies the auxiliary ordinary differential equation (ODE) [G'(ξ)](2) = p G (2)(ξ) + q G (4)(ξ) + r G (6)(ξ); p, q and r are constants and the well known extended tanh-function method. We demonstrate, nevertheless some of the exact solutions bring out by these two methods are analogous, but they are not one and the same. It is worth mentioning that the first method has not been exercised anybody previously which gives further exact solutions than the second one. PACS numbers 02.30.Jr, 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Ik.

  20. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations

  1. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  2. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  3. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Investigation the evaporation-condensation problem by means of the joint numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation and interface modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiskova, I. N.; Kryukov, A. P.; Levashov, V. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to research of the heat and mass transfer processes in liquid and vapor phase on the basis of the uniform approach assuming the through description of liquid, interface and vapor. Multiparticles interactions in liquid will be taken into account. The problem is studied when temperature in the depth of liquid differs from temperature in the vapor region. In this case there are both mass flux and heat flux. The study of influence of the correlations resulting from interactions of molecules set in thin near-surface liquid layers and an interface on intensity of evaporation is made. As a result of calculations the equilibrium line of the liquid-vapor saturation is obtained, which corresponds good enough with experimental data. Distributions of density, temperature, pressure, heat and mass fluxes, both in a liquid and in vapor are also presented.

  5. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Design solutions to interface flow problems. A review of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration along sealed radioactive waste repository tunnels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermeability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation. (author)

  7. A new "off-on" fluorescent probe for Al(3+) in aqueous solution based on rhodamine B and its application to bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Zhang, Qingyou; Wang, Enze; Zhou, Yanmei; Qiao, Han; Pang, Lanfang; Yu, Fang

    2016-01-05

    In this paper, a new fluorescent probe has been synthesized and applied as "off-on" sensor for the detection of Al(3+) with a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity in aqueous media. The sensor was easily prepared by one step reaction between rhodamine B hydrazide and pyridoxal hydrochloride named RBP. The structure of the sensor has been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. The fluorescence intensity and absorbance for the sensor showed a good linearity with the concentration of Al(3+) in the range of 0-12.5μM and 8-44μM, respectively, with detection limits of 0.23μM and 1.90μM. The sensor RBP was preliminarily applied to the determination of Al(3+) in water samples from the lake of Henan University and tap water with satisfying results. Moreover, it can be used as a bioimaging reagent for imaging of Al(3+) in living cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing structural homogeneity of La{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}PO{sub 4} monazite-type solid solutions by combined spectroscopic and computational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huittinen, N., E-mail: n.huittinen@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Arinicheva, Y. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kowalski, P.M.; Vinograd, V.L. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA High-Performance Computing, Schinkelstraße 2, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Neumeier, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA High-Performance Computing, Schinkelstraße 2, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Here we study the homogeneity of Eu{sup 3+}-doped La{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.11, 0.33, 0.55, 0.75, 0.92, 1) monazite-type solid solutions by a combination of Raman and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS) with complementary quasi-random structure-based atomistic modeling studies. For the intermediate La{sub 0.45}Gd{sub 0.55}PO{sub 4} composition we detected a significant broadening of the Raman bands corresponding to the lattice vibrations of the LnO{sub 9} polyhedron, indicating much stronger distortion of the lanthanide cation site than the PO{sub 4} tetrahedron. A distortion of the crystal lattice around the dopant site was also confirmed in our TRLFS measurements of Eu{sup 3+} doped samples, where both the half width (FWHM) of the excitation peaks and the {sup 7}F{sub 2}/{sup 7}F{sub 1} ratio derived from the emission spectra increase for intermediate solid-solution compositions. The observed variation in FWHM correlates well with the simulated distribution of Eu···O bond distances within the investigated monazites. The combined results imply that homogenous Eu{sup 3+}-doped La{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}PO{sub 4} monazite-type solid solutions are formed over the entire composition range, which is of importance in the context of using these ceramics for immobilization of radionuclides. - Highlights: •Homogenous Eu{sup 3+}-doped La{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}PO{sub 4} monazite-type solid solutions have been synthesized. •Solid solution formation is accompanied by slight distortion of the LnO{sub 9} polyhedron. •Raman and laser spectroscopic trends are observed within the monazite series. •Results are explained with atomistic simulations of Eu-O bond distance distribution.

  9. Facile sonochemical synthesis and morphology control of CePO4 nanostructures via an oriented attachment mechanism: Application as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb2+ ion in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralizadeh Dezfuli, Amin; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    CePO 4 nanostructures with hexagonal phase were controllably synthesized using Ce(NO 3 ) 3 reaction with NH 4 H 2 PO 4 through a sonochemical method by simply varying the reaction conditions. By adding ethanol and polyethylene glycol (PEG), coral-reef nanostructures (CRNs) were synthesized and controlling over pH caused to nanorods/nanowires. Oriented attachment (OA) is proposed as dominant mechanism on the growth of nanostructures which is in competition with Ostwald ripening (OR). The crystal structure and morphology of the nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. The luminescent properties of CePO 4 with different morphologies have been studied. Among the nanostructures, nanoparticles with the highest intensity of fluorescent have been used as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb 2+ ion in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Facile sonochemical method has been used for synthesis of CePO 4 nanostructures. • Coral-reef as a new morphology of nanostructures is introduced. • CePO 4 NPs have been used as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb 2+ ion

  10. Facile sonochemical synthesis and morphology control of CePO{sub 4} nanostructures via an oriented attachment mechanism: Application as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb{sup 2+} ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiralizadeh Dezfuli, Amin [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular–Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular–Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    CePO{sub 4} nanostructures with hexagonal phase were controllably synthesized using Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} reaction with NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} through a sonochemical method by simply varying the reaction conditions. By adding ethanol and polyethylene glycol (PEG), coral-reef nanostructures (CRNs) were synthesized and controlling over pH caused to nanorods/nanowires. Oriented attachment (OA) is proposed as dominant mechanism on the growth of nanostructures which is in competition with Ostwald ripening (OR). The crystal structure and morphology of the nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. The luminescent properties of CePO{sub 4} with different morphologies have been studied. Among the nanostructures, nanoparticles with the highest intensity of fluorescent have been used as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb{sup 2+} ion in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Facile sonochemical method has been used for synthesis of CePO{sub 4} nanostructures. • Coral-reef as a new morphology of nanostructures is introduced. • CePO{sub 4} NPs have been used as luminescent probe for selective sensing of Pb{sup 2+} ion.

  11. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  12. Analytical solution for wave propagation through a graded index interface between a right-handed and a left-handed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalarsson, Mariana; Tassin, Philippe

    2009-04-13

    We have investigated the transmission and reflection properties of structures incorporating left-handed materials with graded index of refraction. We present an exact analytical solution to Helmholtz' equation for a graded index profile changing according to a hyperbolic tangent function along the propagation direction. We derive expressions for the field intensity along the graded index structure, and we show excellent agreement between the analytical solution and the corresponding results obtained by accurate numerical simulations. Our model straightforwardly allows for arbitrary spectral dispersion.

  13. Analytical solution for wave propagation through a graded index interface between a right-handed and a left-handed material

    OpenAIRE

    Dalarsson, Mariana; Tassin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the transmission and reflection properties of structures incorporating left-handed materials with graded index of refraction. We present an exact analytical solution to Helmholtz' equation for a graded index profile changing according to a hyperbolic tangent function along the propagation direction. We derive expressions for the field intensity along the graded index structure, and we show excellent agreement between the analytical solution and the corresponding results o...

  14. Temperature dependence of water-water and ion-water correlations in bulk water and electrolyte solutions probed by femtosecond elastic second harmonic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Dupertuis, Nathan; Okur, Halil I.; Roke, Sylvie

    2018-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the femtosecond elastic second harmonic scattering (fs-ESHS) response of bulk light and heavy water and their electrolyte solutions is presented. We observe clear temperature dependent changes in the hydrogen (H)-bond network of water that show a decrease in the orientational order of water with increasing temperature. Although D2O has a more structured H-bond network (giving rise to more fs-ESHS intensity), the relative temperature dependence is larger in H2O. The changes are interpreted in terms of the symmetry of H-bonds and are indicators of nuclear quantum effects. Increasing the temperature in electrolyte solutions decreases the influence of the total electrostatic field from ions on the water-water correlations, as expected from Debye-Hückel theory, since the Debye length becomes longer. The effects are, however, 1.9 times (6.3 times) larger than those predicted for H2O (D2O). Since fs-ESHS responses can be computed from known molecular coordinates, our observations provide a unique opportunity to refine quantum mechanical models of water.

  15. Enhancement of photovoltaic performance of flexible perovskite solar cells by means of ionic liquid interface modification in a low temperature all solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Weijing; Yang, Junyou; Jiang, Qinghui; Li, Xin; Xin, Jiwu

    2018-05-01

    The quality of interface between the electron transport layer (ETL) and perovskite is very crucial to the photovoltaic performance of a flexible perovskite solar cell fabricated under low-temperature process. This work demonstrates a room temperature ionic liquid modification strategy to the interface between ZnO layer and MAPbI3 film for high performance flexible perovskite solar cells based on a PET substrate. [BMIM]BF4 ionic liquid modification can significantly improve the surface quality and wettability of the ZnO ETL, thus greatly increase the charge mobility of ZnO ETL and improve the crystalline of perovskite film based on it. Moreover, the dipolar polarization layer among the ZnO ETL with perovskite, built by modification, can adjust the energy level between the ZnO ETL and perovskite and facilitates the charge extraction. Therefore, an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% have been achieved under standard illumination, it increases by 1.4 times of the flexible perovskite solar cells on a pristine ZnO ETL.

  16. Structural disorder and electronic hybridization in NicMg1-cO solid solutions probed by XANES at the oxygen K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongliang; Zhong Jun; Chu Wangsheng; Wu Ziyu; Kuzmin, Alexei; Mironova-Ulmane, Nina; Marcelli, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    A series of Ni c Mg 1-c O solid solutions has been studied for the first time looking at the structural disorder by means of x-ray absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the oxygen K edge. The experimental XANES signals were analysed within the full multiple scattering formalism and were interpreted taking into account clusters of up to 15 coordination shells around an absorbing oxygen atom. The substitution of nickel atoms by magnesium atoms results in a dramatic decrease of the empty density of states in the conduction band close to the Fermi level due to an exchange of the 3d(Ni)-2p(O) interaction with 3p(Mg)-2p(O). Besides, a simultaneous small decrease of the 3d(Ni)-2p(O) hybridization is also induced by the lattice expansion, determined by the difference in ionic radii between nickel and magnesium ions

  17. Structural disorder and electronic hybridization in Ni{sub c}Mg{sub 1-c}O solid solutions probed by XANES at the oxygen K edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongliang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhong Jun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chu Wangsheng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Ziyu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Kuzmin, Alexei [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Mironova-Ulmane, Nina [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Marcelli, Augusto [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, PO Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2007-09-05

    A series of Ni{sub c}Mg{sub 1-c}O solid solutions has been studied for the first time looking at the structural disorder by means of x-ray absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the oxygen K edge. The experimental XANES signals were analysed within the full multiple scattering formalism and were interpreted taking into account clusters of up to 15 coordination shells around an absorbing oxygen atom. The substitution of nickel atoms by magnesium atoms results in a dramatic decrease of the empty density of states in the conduction band close to the Fermi level due to an exchange of the 3d(Ni)-2p(O) interaction with 3p(Mg)-2p(O). Besides, a simultaneous small decrease of the 3d(Ni)-2p(O) hybridization is also induced by the lattice expansion, determined by the difference in ionic radii between nickel and magnesium ions.

  18. Pyrazolone as a recognition site: Rhodamine 6G-based fluorescent probe for the selective recognition of Fe3+ in acetonitrile-aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Sanjay; Boricha, Vinod P; Jadeja, R N

    2015-03-01

    Two novel Rhodamine-pyrazolone-based colorimetric off-on fluorescent chemosensors for Fe(3+) ions were designed and synthesized using pyrazolone as the recognition moiety and Rhodamine 6G as the signalling moiety. The photophysical properties and Fe(3+) -binding properties of sensors L(1) and L(2) in acetonitrile-aqueous solution were also investigated. Both sensors successfully exhibit a remarkably 'turn-on' response, toward Fe(3+) , which was attributed to 1: 2 complex formation between Fe(3+) and L(1) /L(2) . The fluorescent and colorimetric response to Fe(3+) can be detected by the naked eye, which provides a facile method for the visual detection of Fe(3+) . Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Probing into the effects of a magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate based on the fundamental electrochemistry kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Huang Delun; Yang Wu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of an applied magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate have been investigated by electrochemical measurements. Open circuit potentials, cathodic and anodic polarisation curves, values of polarisation resistance were measured in the presence or absence of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF). A potentiostatic polarisation plus magnetic field perturbation technique was used to study the effect of the magnetic field on open circuit corrosion. Cathodic reaction rates at open circuit potentials for iron in sulphuric acid solutions containing dichromate ions are controlled by both the electron-transfer process and the diffusion process. A magnetic field made the open circuit potential move in the positive direction, and changes of the open circuit potentials due to the magnetic field increase with increasing dichromate concentration. When iron was potentiostatically polarised at open circuit potentials in the absence of a magnetic field, a cathodic current was observed after a magnetic field was imposed. Such cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field increases with increasing dichromate concentration. The positive shifts of open circuit potential, the decrease of polarisation resistance, and the occurrence of cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field are caused by the accelerating effect of magnetic field on the cathodic diffusion process. Measured current densities showed lower, equal, or higher values in the presence of the magnetic field than those in the absence of a magnetic field at certain anodic potentials. This effect of the magnetic field is related to the contribution of the cathodic and anodic reactions to the measured current and the types of rate-determining steps for each reaction at certain potentials. The applied magnetic field significantly decreased the polarisation resistance. The experimental results in this paper are formulated based on the fundamental electrochemistry

  20. Ca biogeochemical cycle at the beech tree - soil solution interface from the Strengbach CZO (NE France): a clue from stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Gangloff, Sophie; Labolle, François; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Stable calcium and radiogenic Sr are analysed in several organs from two beech trees that were collected in June and September in the Strengbach CZO (NE France) and in corresponding soil solutions. The combination of these two isotopic systems shows that the isotopic signatures of roots are dominated by Ca fractionation mechanisms and Sr, and thus Ca, source variations. In contrast, translocation mechanisms are only governed by Ca fractionation processes. This study also confirms in the field that the Ca uptake mechanisms from nutritive solutions are controlled by adsorption processes in small roots because of physico-chemical mechanisms. Similarly, a study of surface soil solutions suggests that recent soil waters are less affected by vegetation uptake than in the past, probably because of a decline in the growth of the vegetation that is linked to climate warming, which causes drought episodes. Thus, soil solutions reflect the role of soil components in addition to nutrient uptake by vegetation. This isotopic Ca-Sr study also helps to identify one-time events that are caused by snow cover melting and/or dry episodes that release cations.

  1. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  2. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  3. An Innovative Speech-Based User Interface for Smarthomes and IoT Solutions to Help People with Speech and Motor Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Massimiliano; Turri, Enrico; Atria, Jose Joaquin; Christensen, Heidi; Marxer, Ricard; Desideri, Lorenzo; Coy, Andre; Tamburini, Fabio; Green, Phil

    2017-01-01

    A better use of the increasing functional capabilities of home automation systems and Internet of Things (IoT) devices to support the needs of users with disability, is the subject of a research project currently conducted by Area Ausili (Assistive Technology Area), a department of Polo Tecnologico Regionale Corte Roncati of the Local Health Trust of Bologna (Italy), in collaboration with AIAS Ausilioteca Assistive Technology (AT) Team. The main aim of the project is to develop experimental low cost systems for environmental control through simplified and accessible user interfaces. Many of the activities are focused on automatic speech recognition and are developed in the framework of the CloudCAST project. In this paper we report on the first technical achievements of the project and discuss future possible developments and applications within and outside CloudCAST.

  4. Reactivity at the film/solution interface of ex situ prepared bismuth film electrodes: A scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocevar, Samo B.; Daniele, Salvatore; Bragato, Carlo; Ogorevc, Bozidar

    2007-01-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) prepared ex situ with and without complexing bromide ions in the modification solution were investigated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A feedback mode of the SECM was employed to examine the conductivity and reactivity of a series of thin bismuth films deposited onto disk glassy carbon substrate electrodes (GCEs) of 3 mm in diameter. A platinum micro-electrode (φ = 25 μm) was used as the SECM tip, and current against tip/substrate distance was recorded in solutions containing either Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ or Fe(CN) 6 4- species as redox mediators. With both redox mediators positive feedback approach curves were recorded, which indicated that the bismuth film deposition protocol associated with the addition of bromide ions in the modification solution did not compromise the conductivity of the bismuth film in comparison with that prepared without bromide. However, at the former Bi film a slight kinetic hindering was observed in recycling Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ , suggesting a different surface potential. On the other hand, the approach curves recorded by using Fe(CN) 6 4- showed that both types of the aforementioned bismuth films exhibited local reactivity with the oxidised form of the redox mediator, and that bismuth film obtained with bromide ions exhibited slightly lower reactivity. The use of SECM in the scanning operation mode allowed us to ascertain that the bismuth deposits were uniformly distributed across the whole surface of the glassy carbon substrate electrode. Comparative AFM measurements corroborated the above findings and additionally revealed a denser growth of smaller bismuth crystals over the surface of the substrate electrode in the presence of bromide ions, while the crystals were bigger but sparser in the absence of bromide ions in the modification solution

  5. Irradiation-induced precipitation in a SUS316 stainless steel using three-dimensional atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, M.; Yamagata, I.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and segregation were investigated in a compositionally modified 316 austenitic stainless steel, neutron-irradiated at 862 K using a three-dimensional atom probe. In the solution-annealed specimen, Mo, Ti, Nb, C and P enrichment were observed in a silicide, with nominal composition Fe 3 Cr 2 Ni 2 Mo 2 Si 2 . In a Ti-rich carbide, nominaling Fe 5 Cr 8 Ni 10 Mo 2 Ti 11 Si 2 C 6 , enrichment of Mo, Si, O, and Nb was observed. Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) at the precipitate–matrix interface was also investigated at an atomic scale. RIS of Ni and P atoms, which are undersized in Fe, was also analyzed around the interface of the Ti-rich carbide and matrix. Results suggest that the carbide–matrix interface is a sink with an interstitial bias. In the cold-worked specimen, complex-precipitates consisting of silicide and carbide were formed

  6. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  7. Vibrational Stark Effect of the Electric-Field Reporter 4-Mercaptobenzonitrile as a Tool for Investigating Electrostatics at Electrode/SAM/Solution Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hildebrandt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-mercaptobenzonitrile (MBN in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on Au and Ag electrodes was studied by surface enhanced infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy, to correlate the nitrile stretching frequency with the local electric field exploiting the vibrational Stark effect (VSE. Using MBN SAMs in different metal/SAM interfaces, we sorted out the main factors controlling the nitrile stretching frequency, which comprise, in addition to external electric fields, the metal-MBN bond, the surface potential, and hydrogen bond interactions. On the basis of the linear relationships between the nitrile stretching and the electrode potential, an electrostatic description of the interfacial potential distribution is presented that allows for determining the electric field strengths on the SAM surface, as well as the effective potential of zero-charge of the SAM-coated metal. Comparing this latter quantity with calculated values derived from literature data, we note a very good agreement for Au/MBN but distinct deviations for Ag/MBN which may reflect either the approximations and simplifications of the model or the uncertainty in reported structural parameters for Ag/MBN. The present electrostatic model consistently explains the electric field strengths for MBN SAMs on Ag and Au as well as for thiophenol and mercaptohexanoic acid SAMs with MBN incorporated as a VSE reporter.

  8. State-dependent electron delocalization dynamics at the solute-solvent interface: soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokarev, Sergey I; Dantz, Marcus; Suljoti, Edlira; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-08-23

    Nonradiative decay channels in the L-edge fluorescence yield spectra from transition-metal-aqueous solutions give rise to spectral distortions with respect to x-ray transmission spectra. Their origin is unraveled here using partial and inverse partial fluorescence yields on the microjet combined with multireference ab initio electronic structure calculations. Comparing Fe2+, Fe3+, and Co2+ systems we demonstrate and quantify unequivocally the state-dependent electron delocalization within the manifold of d orbitals as one origin of this observation.

  9. Interface Anywhere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current paradigms for crew interfaces to the systems that require control are constrained by decades old technologies which require the crew to be physically near an...

  10. Adsorption of proteins at the solution/air interface influenced by added nonionic surfactants at very low concentrations for both components. 3. Dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Lylyk, S V; Lotfi, M; Miller, R

    2015-03-05

    The influence of the addition of the nonionic surfactants C12DMPO, C14DMPO, C10OH, and C10EO5 at concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-1) mmol/L to solutions of β-casein (BCS) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) at a fixed concentration of 10(-5) mmol/L on the dilational surface rheology is studied. A maximum in the viscoelasticity modulus |E| occurs at very low surfactant concentrations (10(-4) to 10(-3) mmol/L) for mixtures of BCS with C12DMPO and C14DMPO and for mixtures of BLG with C10EO5, while for mixture of BCS with C10EO5 the value of |E| only slightly increased. The |E| values calculated with a recently developed model, which assumes changes in the interfacial molar area of the protein molecules due to the interaction with the surfactants, are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. A linear dependence exists between the ratio of the maximum modulus for the mixture to the modulus of the single protein solution and the coefficient reflecting the influence of the surfactants on the adsorption activity of the protein.

  11. Anode Interface Modification of Organic Solar Cells with Solution-Prepared MoO3%溶液法制备有机太阳电池阳极界面修饰层MoO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炎平; 於黄忠; 董一帆; 黄欣欣

    2016-01-01

    在全溶液低温制备高效、稳定有机光伏器件过程中,合理选择制备器件界面修饰材料的方法至关重要,它已成为近期有机光伏领域的重点研究内容之一.合理的界面材料能降低界面的势垒高度,减少器件的串联电阻.溶液法制备三氧化钼(MoO3)阳极界面缓冲层能有效地改善有机太阳电池阳极界面收集和载流子传输的效率,从而提高太阳电池能量转换效率,同时也提高太阳电池的稳定性.本文综述了近年来溶液法制备有机太阳电池阳极界面修饰层MoO3的研究进展,介绍了阳极界面修饰层MoO3的各种制备方法与原理,阐述了基于溶液法制备界面修饰层MoO3薄膜的研究现状与存在问题,以期为全溶液法制备高效稳定有机太阳电池的研究提供有价值的参考.%For the whole solution-processed efficient and stable organic photovoltaic devices at low temperature,reasonably selecting the method of interface modification material preparation is very crucial.It has become one of the most focuses in research community of organic photovoltaics in recent years.By choosing suitable interfacial materials,the energetic barrier height at the interface could be reduced to form an ohmic contact with less series resistance,inducing high charge collection efficiency of the corresponding electrodes for holes or electrons.Solution-prepared molybdenum oxide (MoO3) as anode buffer layer can effectively improve the efficiency of interface collection and carrier transmission,improving the energy conversion efficiency and stability of organic solar cells.This article reviews the research progress of anode buffer layer MoO3 of organic solar cells in recent years,introduces the some preparation methods and principles of MoO3 as anode interface layers,elaborated the current situation and existing problems of MoO3 film based on the prepared solution of interfacial modification,which provides valuable references for the

  12. Cooperative protein structural dynamics of homodimeric hemoglobin linked to water cluster at subunit interface revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Goo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding. In this work, as an effort to extend our previous study on wild-type and F97Y mutant HbI, we investigate structural dynamics of a mutant HbI in solution to examine the role of well-organized interfacial water cluster, which has been known to mediate intersubunit communication in HbI. In the T72V mutant of HbI, the interfacial water cluster in the T state is perturbed due to the lack of Thr72, resulting in two less interfacial water molecules than in wild-type HbI. By performing picosecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering experiment and kinetic analysis on the T72V mutant, we identify three structurally distinct intermediates (I1, I2, and I3 and show that the kinetics of the T72V mutant are well described by the same kinetic model used for wild-type and F97Y HbI, which involves biphasic kinetics, geminate recombination, and bimolecular CO recombination. The optimized kinetic model shows that the R-T transition and bimolecular CO recombination are faster in the T72V mutant than in the wild type. From structural analysis using species-associated difference scattering curves for the intermediates, we find that the T-like deoxy I3 intermediate in solution has a different structure from deoxy HbI in crystal. In addition, we extract detailed structural parameters of the intermediates such as E-F distance, intersubunit rotation angle, and heme-heme distance. By comparing the structures of protein intermediates in wild-type HbI and the T72V mutant, we reveal how the perturbation in the interfacial water cluster affects the kinetics and structures of reaction intermediates of HbI.

  13. Modelling of retention of pesticides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: Quantitative structure-retention relationships based on solute quantum-chemical descriptors and experimental (solvatochromic and spin-probe) mobile phase descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Ruggieri, Fabrizio; Mazzeo, Pietro; Tettamanti, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analysis based on multilinear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is carried out to model the combined effect of solute structure and eluent composition on the retention behaviour of pesticides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The octanol-water partition coefficient and four quantum chemical descriptors (the total dipole moment, the mean polarizability, the anisotropy of the polarizability and a descriptor of hydrogen-bonding based on the atomic charges on acidic and basic chemical functionalities) are considered as solute descriptors. In order to identify suitable mobile phase descriptors, encoding composition-dependent properties of both methanol- and acetonitrile-containing mobile phases, the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (polarity-dipolarity, hydrogen-bond acidity and hydrogen-bond basicity, π * , α and β, respectively) and the 14 N hyperfine-splitting constant (a N ) of a spin-probe dissolved in the eluent are examined. A satisfactory description of mobile phase properties influencing the solute retention is provided by a N and β or alternatively π * and β. The two seven-parameter models resulting from combination of a N and β, or π * and β, with the solute descriptors were tested on a set of 26 pesticides representative of 10 different chemical classes in a wide range of mobile phase composition (30-60% (v/v) water-methanol and 30-70% (v/v) water-acetonitrile). Within the explored experimental range, the acidity of the eluent, as quantified by α, is almost constant, and this parameter is in fact irrelevant. The results reveal that a N and π * , that can be considered as interchangeable mobile phase descriptors, are the most influent variables in the respective models. The predictive ability of the proposed models, as tested on an external data set, is quite good (Q 2 close to 0.94) when a MLR approach is used, but the

  14. Modelling of retention of pesticides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: Quantitative structure-retention relationships based on solute quantum-chemical descriptors and experimental (solvatochromic and spin-probe) mobile phase descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Archivio, Angelo Antonio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: darchivi@univaq.it; Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Mazzeo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Tettamanti, Enzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Comparate, Universita di Teramo, P.zzale A. Moro 45, 64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2007-06-19

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analysis based on multilinear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is carried out to model the combined effect of solute structure and eluent composition on the retention behaviour of pesticides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The octanol-water partition coefficient and four quantum chemical descriptors (the total dipole moment, the mean polarizability, the anisotropy of the polarizability and a descriptor of hydrogen-bonding based on the atomic charges on acidic and basic chemical functionalities) are considered as solute descriptors. In order to identify suitable mobile phase descriptors, encoding composition-dependent properties of both methanol- and acetonitrile-containing mobile phases, the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (polarity-dipolarity, hydrogen-bond acidity and hydrogen-bond basicity, {pi} {sup *}, {alpha} and {beta}, respectively) and the {sup 14}N hyperfine-splitting constant (a {sub N}) of a spin-probe dissolved in the eluent are examined. A satisfactory description of mobile phase properties influencing the solute retention is provided by a {sub N} and {beta} or alternatively {pi} {sup *} and {beta}. The two seven-parameter models resulting from combination of a {sub N} and {beta}, or {pi} {sup *} and {beta}, with the solute descriptors were tested on a set of 26 pesticides representative of 10 different chemical classes in a wide range of mobile phase composition (30-60% (v/v) water-methanol and 30-70% (v/v) water-acetonitrile). Within the explored experimental range, the acidity of the eluent, as quantified by {alpha}, is almost constant, and this parameter is in fact irrelevant. The results reveal that a {sub N} and {pi} {sup *}, that can be considered as interchangeable mobile phase descriptors, are the most influent variables in the respective models. The predictive ability of the proposed models, as tested on an

  15. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Miyahara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry.

  16. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry. PMID:23435052

  17. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for simulation of variable-density saturated-unsaturated ground-water flow with solute or energy transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for SUTRA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for saturated-unsaturated variable-fluid-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport,which combines a USGS-developed code that interfaces SUTRA with Argus ONE, a commercial software product developed by Argus Interware. This product, known as Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONETM), is a programmable system with geographic-information-system-like (GIS-like) functionality that includes automated gridding and meshing capabilities for linking geospatial information with finite-difference and finite-element numerical model discretizations. The GUI for SUTRA is based on a public-domain Plug-In Extension (PIE) to Argus ONE that automates the use of ArgusONE to: automatically create the appropriate geospatial information coverages (information layers) for SUTRA, provide menus and dialogs for inputting geospatial information and simulation control parameters for SUTRA, and allow visualization of SUTRA simulation results. Following simulation control data and geospatial data input bythe user through the GUI, ArgusONE creates text files in a format required for normal input to SUTRA,and SUTRA can be executed within the Argus ONE environment. Then, hydraulic head, pressure, solute concentration, temperature, saturation and velocity results from the SUTRA simulation may be visualized. Although the GUI for SUTRA discussed in this report provides all of the graphical pre- and post-processor functions required for running SUTRA, it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to modify the GUI to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects.

  18. Can the scaling behavior of electric conductivity be used to probe the self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure? The case of [C8MIM][NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Marian; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Goodrich, Peter; Jacquemin, Johan; Pionteck, Jürgen; Hensel-Bielowka, Stella

    2015-08-28

    Electrical conductivity of the supercooled ionic liquid [C8MIM][NTf2], determined as a function of temperature and pressure, highlights strong differences in its ionic transport behavior between low and high temperature regions. To date, the crossover effect which is very well known for low molecular van der Waals liquids has been rarely described for classical ionic liquids. This finding highlights that the thermal fluctuations could be dominant mechanisms driving the dramatic slowing down of ion motions near Tg. An alternative way to analyze separately low and high temperature dc-conductivity data using a density scaling approach was then proposed. Based on which a common value of the scaling exponent γ = 2.4 was obtained, indicating that the applied density scaling is insensitive to the crossover effect. By comparing the scaling exponent γ reported herein along with literature data for other ionic liquids, it appears that γ decreases by increasing the alkyl chain length on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids. This observation may be related to changes in the interaction between ions in solution driven by an increase in the van der Waals type interaction by increasing the alkyl chain length on the cation. This effect may be related to changes in the ionic liquid nanostructural organization with the alkyl chain length on the cation as previously reported in the literature based on molecular dynamic simulations. In other words, the calculated scaling exponent γ may be then used as a key parameter to probe the interaction and/or self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure.

  19. Actinides and environmental interfaces: striving for molecular-level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heino Nitsche

    2005-01-01

    enhanced second harmonic generation can probe the electronic (UV-vis region) structure of metal species adsorbed at a surface or interface. Infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy probes the infrared vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed at the interface. SHG/SFG studies will greatly assist with understanding reactivity at interfaces of oxides and soil organic matter with heavy metals and radionuclides/actinides. Time-resolved Laser-fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) is a highly sensitive tool for actinides that absorb light and de-excite by fluorescence emission, e.g., U(VI) and Cm(III), to probe changes in actinide speciation and coordination environment in solution. This method can also be used to differentiate whether adsorbed species form surface complexes or surface precipitates. Recently, it was shown that the intense synchrotron radiation can change the oxidation states of redox-sensitive actinide samples which may cause erroneous results, and low temperature measurements are now used to alleviate this shortcoming. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Spectroscopy is composed of two component spectroscopies, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) which provide element specific oxidation state and local structure information, respectively. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy) provides information on the chemical environment of particular actinide, in particular bond lengths and the number of neighboring atoms. Combining both methods, detailed knowledge of the different processes resulting from the interaction of the selected actinides with environmental interfaces can be gained. XANES and EXAFS measurements and TRLFS studies to obtain molecular-level mechanistic details of actinide interaction with common environmental solutions and interfaces will be presented together with first SHG/SFG characterization results of model systems for environmental interfaces

  20. Intrinsic origin of interface states and band offset profiling of nanostructured LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterojunctions probed by element-specific resonant spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drera, G.; Salvinelli, G.; Bondino, F.; Magnano, E.; Huijben, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander; Sangaletti, L.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of electronic states at the basis of the 2DEG found in conducting LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 interfaces (5 u.c. LaAlO 3 ) is investigated by resonant photoemission experiments at the Ti L 2,3 and La M 4,5 edges. As shown by the resonant enhancement at the Ti L 2,3 edge, electronic states at E F

  1. The Influence of Carbonate Ions on the Structure of the Electrical Double Layer at the Interface of Hydroxyapatite/Electrolyte Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa SKWAREK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the changes in the double electrical layer at the hydroxyapatite containing different amount of carbonate ions/electrolyte solution. Besides, the main properties of the edl (electrical double layer, i.e. surface charge density and zeta potential were determined by electrophoresis measurements and potentiometer titration, respectively. The synthesized adsorbents were characterized by the following methods: X-ray diffraction, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, adsorption and desorption of nitrogen and scanning electron microscopy. The analyzed samples had different structures and particle sizes. It was proved that increase in the carbonate groups content is connected with the decrease of apatite grain sizes and crystallinity reduction. The characteristic parameters of the electric double layer were also different: pHpzc (point zero of charge of hydroxyapatite was 6.5 whereas for carbonate apatite was higher – pHpzc = 8. In both cases determination of precise pHIEP (isoelectric point was not possible but it is known that its value is lower than 4.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7817

  2. SutraGUI, a graphical-user interface for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Richard B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes SutraGUI, a flexible graphical user-interface (GUI) that supports two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SUTRA ground-water-flow and transport model (Voss and Provost, 2002). SutraGUI allows the user to create SUTRA ground-water models graphically. SutraGUI provides all of the graphical functionality required for setting up and running SUTRA simulations that range from basic to sophisticated, but it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects. SutraGUI is a public-domain computer program designed to run with the proprietary Argus ONE? package, which provides 2D Geographic Information System (GIS) and meshing support. For 3D simulation, GIS and meshing support is provided by programming contained within SutraGUI. When preparing a 3D SUTRA model, the model and all of its features are viewed within Argus 1 in 2D projection. For 2D models, SutraGUI is only slightly changed in functionality from the previous 2D-only version (Voss and others, 1997) and it provides visualization of simulation results. In 3D, only model preparation is supported by SutraGUI, and 3D simulation results may be viewed in SutraPlot (Souza, 1999) or Model Viewer (Hsieh and Winston, 2002). A comprehensive online Help system is included in SutraGUI. For 3D SUTRA models, the 3D model domain is conceptualized as bounded on the top and bottom by 2D surfaces. The 3D domain may also contain internal surfaces extending across the model that divide the domain into tabular units, which can represent hydrogeologic strata or other features intended by the user. These surfaces can be non-planar and non-horizontal. The 3D mesh is defined by one or more 2D meshes at different elevations that coincide with these surfaces. If the nodes in the 3D mesh are vertically aligned, only a single 2D mesh is needed. For nonaligned

  3. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  4. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Katarzyna M; Grand, Laszlo; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes-microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  5. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  6. NeuroMEMS: Neural Probe Microtechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Musallam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural probe technologies have already had a significant positive effect on our understanding of the brain by revealing the functioning of networks of biological neurons. Probes are implanted in different areas of the brain to record and/or stimulate specific sites in the brain. Neural probes are currently used in many clinical settings for diagnosis of brain diseases such as seizers, epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer’s, and dementia. We find these devices assisting paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. In recent years, probe technologies were assisted by rapid advancements in microfabrication and microelectronic technologies and thus are enabling highly functional and robust neural probes which are opening new and exciting avenues in neural sciences and brain machine interfaces. With a wide variety of probes that have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date, this review aims to provide an overview of the advances and recent progress in the microfabrication techniques of neural probes. In addition, we aim to highlight the challenges faced in developing and implementing ultralong multi-site recording probes that are needed to monitor neural activity from deeper regions in the brain. Finally, we review techniques that can improve the biocompatibility of the neural probes to minimize the immune response and encourage neural growth around the electrodes for long term implantation studies.

  7. EPR spin probe and spin label studies of some low molecular and polymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Kasaikin, V. A.; Timofeev, V. P.

    1998-12-01

    The rotational mobility of spin probes of different shape and size in low molecular and polymer micelles has been studied. Several probes having nitroxide fragment localized either in the vicinity of micelle interface or in the hydrocarbon core have been used. Upon increasing the number of carbon atoms in hydrocarbon chain of detergent from 7 to 13 (sodium alkyl sulfate micelles) or from 12 to 16 (alkyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles) the rotational mobility of spin probes is decreased by the factor 1.5-2.0. The spin probe rotational mobility in polymer micelles (the complexes of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides and polymethacrylic or polyacrylic acids) is less than mobility in free micelles of the same surfactants. The study of EPR-spectra of spin labeled polymethacrylic acid (PMA) indicated that formation of water soluble complexes of polymer and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides in alkaline solutions (pH 9) does not affect the polymer segmental mobility. On the other hand, the polymer complexes formation in slightly acidic water solution (pH 6) breaks down the compact PMA conformation, thus increasing the polymer segmental mobility. Possible structures of polymer micelles are discussed.

  8. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  9. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  10. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  11. Optoelectronics Interfaces for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue interface is galvanicseparation between the signal part and the power board.Standards in the field have increased continuouslyelectro-security requirements on the rigidity of thedielectric and insulation resistance. Recommendations forclassical solutions require the use of galvanic separationoptoelectronics devices. Interfacing with a PC or DSP -controller is a target of interposition optical signals viathe power hardware commands.

  12. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  13. Molecular characterization of composite interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was applied to elucidate the molecular structures of the glass/matrix interface. The various interfaces and interphases were studied. It is found that the structure of the silane in a treating solution is important in determining the structure of the silane on glass fibers, influences the macroscopic properties of composites. The amount of silane on glass fibers, the state of hydrogen bonding, orientation, copolymerization of the organicfunctionality with the matrix, curing of the silane, and effect of water on the interface were investigated. It is shown that the molecular approach is useful to interpret and predict physicomechanical properties of composites

  14. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms; Sorption des ions U(VI) et Eu(III) a l`interface solution - solides phosphates: Etude structurale et mechanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drot, Romuald [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-18

    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} which allow to study the effect of PO{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} presents only one single site (P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups) whereas Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} admit two types of sites (PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and PO{sub 4}/oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO{sub 3} 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO{sup 2+}{sub 2} et de UO{sub 2}NO{sup +}{sub 3} species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO{sup 2+}{sub 3}). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid

  15. Solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at the air-water interface from sodium dodecyl sulfate/oligoamine mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halacheva, S S; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Webster, J R P

    2013-05-14

    Neutron reflectivity and surface tension have been used to investigate the solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/oligoamine mixtures at the air-water interface. For diethylenetriamine, triamine, or triethylenetetramine, tetramine mixed with SDS, there is monolayer adsorption at pH 7 and 10, and multilayer adsorption at pH 3. For the slightly higher molecular weight tetraethylenepentamine, pentamine, and pentaethylenehexamine, hexamine, the adsorption is in the form of a monolayer at pH 3 and multilayers at pH 7 and 10. Hence, there is a pH driven transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption, which shifts from low pH to higher pH as the oligoamine molecular weight increases from tetramine to pentamine. This results from the relative balance between the electrostatic attraction between the SDS and amine nitrogen group which decreases as the charge density decreases with increasing pH, the ion-dipole interaction between the amine nitrogen and SDS sulfate group which is dominant at higher pH, and the hydrophobic interalkyl chain interaction between bound SDS molecules which changes with oligoamine molecular weight.

  16. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  17. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  18. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    In Wim Wenders' film Until the End of the World (1991), three different diagrams for the visual integration of bodies are presented: 1) GPS tracking and mapping in a landscape, 2) video recordings layered with the memory perception of these recordings, and 3) data-created images from dreams...... and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...

  19. BFPTool: a software tool for analysis of Biomembrane Force Probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmít, Daniel; Fouquet, Coralie; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Pincet, Frédéric; Trembleau, Alain; Zapotocky, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The Biomembrane Force Probe is an approachable experimental technique commonly used for single-molecule force spectroscopy and experiments on biological interfaces. The technique operates in the range of forces from 0.1 pN to 1000 pN. Experiments are typically repeated many times, conditions are often not optimal, the captured video can be unstable and lose focus; this makes efficient analysis challenging, while out-of-the-box non-proprietary solutions are not freely available. This dedicated tool was developed to integrate and simplify the image processing and analysis of videomicroscopy recordings from BFP experiments. A novel processing feature, allowing the tracking of the pipette, was incorporated to address a limitation of preceding methods. Emphasis was placed on versatility and comprehensible user interface implemented in a graphical form. An integrated analytical tool was implemented to provide a faster, simpler and more convenient way to process and analyse BFP experiments.

  20. More on Probing Branes with Branes

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, A.; Itzhaki, N.; Sonnenschein, J.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the Gibbons-Wiltshire solution of four dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes in order to describe Type IIA solutions of bound states of D6 and D0-branes. We probe the solutions with a D6-brane and a D0-brane. We also probe a system of D2+D0-branes and of a D2-brane bound to a F1-string with a D2-brane. A precise agreement between the SYM and the SUGRA calculations is found for the static force as well as for the $v^2$ force in all cases.

  1. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  2. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  3. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna M. Szostak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes—microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  4. Utilization of Large Cohesive Interface Elements for Delamination Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law....

  5. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  6. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...... tilrettelæggelsen af den fremtidige formidling. Samtidig får museets genstande en ny status som flygtige ikoner i det digitale rum, og alt i alt inviterer det til, at museerne kan forholde sig mere åbent og eksperimenterende til egen praksis og rolle som kulturinstitution....

  7. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  8. Diagnostic interface problems on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, S.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic equipment on TFTR has functional interfaces with many machine systems. Salient requirements include plasma access, environmental resistance to thermal, magnetic and radiation effects, automated data acquisition and controls, remote handling and personnel safety. Problems imposed by these requirements and the solutions being considered are described

  9. Probing the dynamic interface between trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) and electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) in the TMADH-2ETF complex: role of the Arg-alpha237 (ETF) and Tyr-442 (TMADH) residue pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Selena G; Messiha, Hanan Latif; Katona, Gergely; Rigby, Stephen E J; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2008-05-06

    We have used multiple solution state techniques and crystallographic analysis to investigate the importance of a putative transient interaction formed between Arg-alpha237 in electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) and Tyr-442 in trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) in complex assembly, electron transfer, and structural imprinting of ETF by TMADH. We have isolated four mutant forms of ETF altered in the identity of the residue at position 237 (alphaR237A, alphaR237K, alphaR237C, and alphaR237E) and with each form studied electron transfer from TMADH to ETF, investigated the reduction potentials of the bound ETF cofactor, and analyzed complex formation. We show that mutation of Arg-alpha237 substantially destabilizes the semiquinone couple of the bound FAD and impedes electron transfer from TMADH to ETF. Crystallographic structures of the mutant ETF proteins indicate that mutation does not perturb the overall structure of ETF, but leads to disruption of an electrostatic network at an ETF domain boundary that likely affects the dynamic properties of ETF in the crystal and in solution. We show that Arg-alpha237 is required for TMADH to structurally imprint the as-purified semiquinone form of wild-type ETF and that the ability of TMADH to facilitate this structural reorganization is lost following (i) redox cycling of ETF, or simple conversion to the oxidized form, and (ii) mutagenesis of Arg-alpha237. We discuss this result in light of recent apparent conflict in the literature relating to the structural imprinting of wild-type ETF. Our studies support a mechanism of electron transfer by conformational sampling as advanced from our previous analysis of the crystal structure of the TMADH-2ETF complex [Leys, D. , Basran, J. , Sutcliffe, M. J., and Scrutton, N. S. (2003) Nature Struct. Biol. 10, 219-225] and point to a key role for the Tyr-442 (TMADH) and Arg-alpha237 (ETF) residue pair in transiently stabilizing productive electron transfer configurations. Our work

  10. InP/ZnS nanocrystals: coupling NMR and XPS for fine surface and interface description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virieux, Héloïse; Le Troedec, Marianne; Cros-Gagneux, Arnaud; Ojo, Wilfried-Solo; Delpech, Fabien; Nayral, Céline; Martinez, Hervé; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-12-05

    Advanced (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P solution- and solid-state NMR studies combined with XPS were used to probe, at the molecular scale, the composition (of the core, the shell, and the interface) and the surface chemistry of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots prepared via a non-coordinating solvent strategy. The interface between the mismatched InP and ZnS phases is composed of an amorphous mixed oxide phase incorporating InPO(x) (with x = 3 and predominantly 4), In(2)O(3), and InO(y)(OH)(3-2y) (y = 0, 1). Thanks to the analysis of the underlying reaction mechanisms, we demonstrate that the oxidation of the upper part of the InP core is the consequence of oxidative conditions brought by decarboxylative coupling reactions (ketonization). These reactions occur during both the core preparation and the coating process, but according to different mechanisms.

  11. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  12. Innovative SPM Probes for Energy-Storage Science: MWCNT-Nanopipettes to Nanobattery Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan; Talin, Alec; Pearse, Alexander; Kozen, Alexander; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    As energy-storage materials and designs continue to advance, new tools are needed to direct and explore ion insertion/de-insertion at well-defined battery materials interfaces. Scanned probe tips, assembled from actual energy-storage materials, permit SPM measures of local cathode-anode (tip-sample) interactions, including ion transfer. We present examples of ``cathode'' MWCNT-terminated STM probe tips interacting with Li(s)/Si(111) anode substrates. The MWCNT tip functions as both SPM probe and Li-nanopipette,[1] for controlled transport and manipulation of Li. Local field conditions for lithium ionization and transfer are determined and compared to electrostatic models. Additional lithium metallic and oxide tips have been prepared by thin film deposition on conventional W tips, the latter of which effectively functions as a nanobattery. We demonstrate use of these novel probe materials in the local lithiation of low-index Si anode interfaces, probing local barriers for lithium insertion. Prospects and limitations of these novel SPM probes will be discussed. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  13. Free radical scavenging properties of some wine probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are preliminary results of investigation of scavenging properties of 8 probes of Slovak wines (consisting of one reference, 3 probes of white wine and 4 probes of red wine). According to the literature so far, wine probes contain paramagnetic species (Mn 2+ , characterised with sextet spectrum, and a singlet line around g=2,00). In our probes we observed Mn 2+ signals, but no significant evidence for a single line of free radical was found. We can conclude that Mn 2+ content in the red wines is generally higher than in the white ones. Further, we investigated the scavenging activities of the probes adding solution of dinitropicryl hydrazyl (DPPH-stable radical) to them. Their ability to terminate free radicals resulted in the decrease of the final DPPH concentrations in the probes. The red wines have significantly higher capability to scavenge free radicals than the probes of white wines. (authors)

  14. X-ray scattering studies of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Here we shall briefly review the basics and some applications of x-ray specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering techniques. These x-ray scattering techniques are uniquely suited to study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces at atomic resolutions as they are nondestructive and can probe even interfaces which are buried. The study of structure of surfaces and interfaces is not only required in understanding physics in reduced dimensions but is also essential in developing technologically important materials

  15. Probe-diverse ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, I., E-mail: isaac.russellpeterson@rmit.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, the University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    We propose an extension of ptychography where the target sample is scanned separately through several probes with distinct amplitude and phase profiles and a diffraction image is recorded for each probe and each sample translation. The resulting probe-diverse dataset is used to iteratively retrieve high-resolution images of the sample and all probes simultaneously. The method is shown to yield significant improvement in the reconstructed sample image compared to the image obtained using the standard single-probe ptychographic phase-retrieval scheme.

  16. Traversing probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashburn, D.N.; Stevens, R.H.; Woodall, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride. 10 claims, 6 figures

  17. Traversing probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  18. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  19. Experimental study of poison moderator interface movement for shut down system #2(SDS#2) of 540 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, M.K.; Kundu, S.; Chawan, D.B.; Ananthan, P.; Sharma, B.S.V.G.; Mohan, L.R.

    2005-03-01

    The poison solution and the moderator in Secondary Shutdown System (SDS-2) of 500 MWe PHWR, are separated by their own liquid in liquid interface, termed as poison moderator interface (PMI). During normal operation of the reactor, the interface moves towards the calandria, mainly because of molecular diffusion from poison to moderator. Other reasons for movement are mixing of poison and moderator due to physical disturbances in the moderator level and to some extent due to temperature difference between the two liquids. The electrical conductivity of these liquids was found to be the most reliable parameter indicating interface movement. For this purpose, two on-line high-pressure conductivity probes have been installed on moderator side for each one of the six poison tanks. During normal operation of reactor, the interface moves slowly towards the calandria over a period of time and gives rise to increase in conductivity. To study the interface pattern and factors affecting the same, a full-scale experimental setup was developed and series of experiments carried out. The experimental results showed that the interface is quite stable and annunciation can be placed around 100 micro siemens/cm before back flushing is initiated. One dimensional diffusion analysis of the obtained experimental data showed that the derived model for PMI setup with diffusion parameter of 900 cm 2 /hr is able to predict the interface movement quite satisfactorily. This report gives an insight into the experiments carried out for estimation of the effective diffusion parameter for the poison moderator interface, model formulation and its prognostic behavior. (author)

  20. Proteins in solution: Fractal surfaces in solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tscheliessnig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the surface of a protein in solution, as well of the interface between protein and 'bulk solution', is introduced. The experimental technique of small angle X-ray and neutron scattering is introduced and described briefly. Molecular dynamics simulation, as an appropriate computational tool for studying the hydration shell of proteins, is also discussed. The concept of protein surfaces with fractal dimensions is elaborated. We finish by exposing an experimental (using small angle X-ray scattering and a computer simulation case study, which are meant as demonstrations of the possibilities we have at hand for investigating the delicate interfaces that connect (and divide protein molecules and the neighboring electrolyte solution.

  1. Interface stability during rapid directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoglund, D.E.; Aziz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at the solidification velocities observed during pulsed laser annealing, the planar interface between solid and liquid is stabilized by capillarity and nonequilibrium effects such as solute trapping. The authors used Rutherford backscattering and electron microscopy to determine the nonequilibrium partition coefficient and critical concentration for breakdown of the planar interface as a function of interface velocity for Sn-implanted silicon. This allows the authors to test the applicability of the Mulliins-Sekerka stability theory to interfaces not in local equilibrium and to test the Coriell-Sekerka and other theories for oscillatory instabilities

  2. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  3. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  4. Probing the interface theory of perception: Reply to commentaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    We propose that selection favors nonveridical perceptions that are tuned to fitness. Current textbooks assert, to the contrary, that perception is useful because, in the normal case, it is veridical. Intuition, both lay and expert, clearly sides with the textbooks. We thus expected that some commentators would reject our proposal and provide counterarguments that could stimulate a productive debate. We are pleased that several commentators did indeed rise to the occasion and have argued against our proposal. We are also pleased that several others found our proposal worth exploring and have offered ways to test it, develop it, and link it more deeply to the history of ideas in the science and philosophy of perception. To both groups of commentators: thank you. Point and counterpoint, backed by data and theory, is the essence of science. We hope that the exchange recorded here will advance the scientific understanding of perception and its evolution. In what follows, we respond to the commentaries in alphabetical order.

  5. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques

  6. Electricity in foams: from one soapy interface to the macroscopic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance, Anne-Laure

    2017-11-01

    Liquid foams (a dispersion of gas bubbles in a soapy solution) destabilize with time due to coarsening, coalescence and gravity driven drainage. We propose here to inhibit (or trigger) the foam destabilization by applying an electric field to the material. This effect is investigated at the different scales of the system: one soapy interface, one liquid film, the macroscopic foam. The generation of an electroosmotic flow near a soapy liquid/gas interface raises many issues. How does the flow affect surfactant repartition? Is there a Marangoni stress at the interface? At the scale of one soap film, how the electric field affects the film stability and deformation? In a macroscopic foam, one can wonder whether the electric field can indeed reverse gravity driven drainage and increase foam lifetime? These different issues are considered by developing new experimental techniques allowing us to probe surfactant repartition at liquid interfaces, soap film thicknesses and liquid foam properties when an electric field is applied. The results will be presented together with a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms arising at each scale of the material, to conclude with the potential use of electricity in liquid foams to control destabilization. Collaborators: Baptiste Blanc, Oriane Bonhomme, Laurent Joly, Christophe Ybert.

  7. User interface and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users.

  8. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承志; 李原芳; 黄新华; 范美坤

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5’ -NH2 and 5’ -Tex/3’ -NH2 modified terminus on 10 um carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the preseni paper. it was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentra-tion of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  9. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5′-NH2 and 5′-Tex/3′-NH2 modified terminus on 10 m m carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the present paper. It was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentration of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  10. Portal monitor incorporating smart probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Constantin, F.; Guta, T.

    2003-01-01

    Portal monitors are intended for detection of radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for prevention of illegal traffic of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarms when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. They can be recommended to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments or nuclear research or energetic facilities. The portal monitor developed by us consists in a portal frame, which sustains five intelligent probes having long plastic scintillator (0.5 liters each). The probes communicate, by serial transmission, with a Central Unit constructed on the basis of the 80552 microcontroller. This one manages the handshake, calculates the background, establishes the measuring time, starts and stops each measurement and makes all the other decisions. Sound signals and an infrared sensor monitor the passing through the portal and the measuring procedure. For each measurement the result is displayed on a LCD device contaminated/uncontaminated; for the contaminated case a loud and long sound signal is also issued. An RS 232 serial interface is provided in order to further developments or custom made devices. As a result, the portal monitor detects 1 μ Ci 137 Cs, spread all over a human body, in a 20 μR/h gamma background for a measuring time of 1.5 or 10 seconds giving a 99% confidence factor. (authors)

  11. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  12. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandolini, M J

    2006-01-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  13. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestople, P; Ndili, A; Parkinson, B W; Small, H; Hanuschak, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s −1 . Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements. (paper)

  14. Invasive Intraneural Interfaces: Foreign Body Reaction Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Fiorenza; Ranieri, Federico; Vadalà, Gianluca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR), which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal. Based on recent developments in biomaterials and inflammatory/fibrotic pathologies, we explore and select the biological solutions that might be adopted in the neural interfaces FBR context: modifications of the interface surface, such as organic and synthetic coatings; the use of specific drugs or molecular biology tools to target the microenvironment around the interface; the development of bio-engineered-scaffold to reduce immune response and promote interface-tissue integration. By linking what we believe are the major crucial steps of the FBR process with related solutions, we point out the main issues that future research has to focus on: biocompatibility without losing signal conduction properties, good reproducible in vitro/in vivo models, drugs exhaustion and undesired side effects. The underlined pros and cons of proposed solutions show clearly the importance of a better understanding of all the molecular and cellular pathways involved and the need of a multi-target action based on a bio-engineered combination approach. PMID:28932181

  15. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A summary is given of results on nanospectroscopy etc. during the previous three years, divided into the following subsections: development of methods and instrumentation for interface/boundary chemical analysis, interface and boundary structure in ceramic matrix composites, quantitative composition measurements of thin films and inclusions, theoretical calculations for electron energy loss near edge fine structure and grain boundary structure, and small probe radiation effects in ceramics. Materials studied include SiC whisker-reinforced Si3N4, SiC, Si oxides, Si, Si oxynitride, other ceramics. Methods mentioned include field emission, EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy), nanospectroscopy, electron nanoprobe, etc

  16. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  17. Adsorption and ion-pairing interactions of phospholipids in the system of two immiscible electrolyte solutions Part I. The behaviour of lecithin at the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface, compared with that of trimethyloctadecylammonium cation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jänchenová, Hana; Lhotský, Alexandr; Štulík, K.; Mareček, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 601, 1-2 (2007), s. 101-106 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : liquid/liquid interfaces * adsorption of phosphodolipids * DPPC * surface-active amines * ion pairing Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  18. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  19. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Water and Aqueous Solutions, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the fundamental principles governing the structure and dynamics of water - and particularly how water mediates chemical interactions and processes - continues to pose formidable challenges and yield abundant surprises. The focus of this Gordon Research Conference is on identifying key questions, describing emerging understandings, and unveiling surprising discoveries related to water and aqueous solutions. The talks and posters at this meeting will describe studies of water and its interactions with objects such as interfaces, channels, electrons, oils, ions, and proteins; probed using optical, electrical, and particle experiments, and described using classical, quantum, and multi-scale theories.

  20. The RNA core weakly influences the interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 at key environmental interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh H.; Easter, Nickolas; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Huyett, Lauren; Defnet, Emily; Mylon, Steven E.; Ferri, James K.; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the RNA core on interfacial interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 was investigated. After removal of the RNA core, empty intact capsids were characterized and compared to untreated MS2. Electron density of untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based small angle spectroscopy (SAXS). Suspensions of both particles exhibited similar electrophoretic mobility across a range of pH values. Similar effects were observed at pH 5.9 across a range of NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. We compared key interfacial interactions (particle-particle and particle/air-water interface) between suspensions of each type of particle using time resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) to observe and quantify aggregation kinetics and axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure adsorption at the air-water interface. Both suspensions showed insignificant aggregation over 4 h in 600 mM NaCl solutions. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, aggregation of both types of particles was consistent with earlier aggregation studies and was characterized by both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited regimes occurring at similar [Ca2+]. However, the removal of the RNA from MS2 had no apparent effect on the aggregation kinetics of particles. Despite some differences in the kinetics of adsorption to the air-water interface, the changes in surface tension which result from particle adsorption showed no difference between the untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2. The interactions and structure of particles at the air-water interface were further probed using interfacial dilational rheology. The surface elasticity (E s) and surface viscosity (ηs) at the interface were low for both the untreated virus and the RNA-free capsid. This observation suggests that the factors that impact the adsorption kinetics are not important for an equilibrated interface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  2. Synthesis and inhibition of N-alkyl-2-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromide for mild steel in acid solution: Box–Behnken design optimization and mechanism probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Tianbin; Chen, Zhengjun; Jiang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Limei; Liao, Yunwen; Duan, Ming; Wang, Hu; Pu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • N-alkyl-2-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromide prepared is new type of inhibitor. • Box–Behnken experiment design-based optimization model is used to maximize inhibition efficiency. • O-n adsorbing on X70 steel surface enhances the resistance of the steel to acid corrosion. • O-n acts as mix-type inhibitor to suppress both the anodic and cathodic reaction of X70 steel. - Abstract: N-alkyl-2-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromides (designated as O-n) was synthesized and characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR and FTIR. Box–Behnken design (BBD)-based optimization was engaged to analyze the factors and the interaction of the factors that influence the corrosion inhibition efficiency of O-n for X70 steel. The inhibition mechanism was also probed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques

  3. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  4. Characterization of low alloy ferritic steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interface by SPM techniques, SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS and SVET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Siyan; Ding, Jie; Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu, E-mail: wangjianqiu@imr.ac.cn

    2015-02-15

    The interface region of welded A508–Alloy 52 M is characterized by scanning probe microscope (SPM) techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning vibrate electrode technique (SVET). The regions along the welded A508–Alloy 52 M interface can be categorized into two types according to their different microstructures. In the type-I interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by the fusion boundary, while in the type-II interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by a martensite zone. A508, martensite zone and grain boundaries in Alloy 52 M are ferromagnetic while the Alloy 52 M matrix is paramagnetic. The Volta potentials measured by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) of A508, martensite zone and Alloy 52 M follow the order: V{sub 52} {sub M} > V{sub A508} > V{sub martensite}. The corrosion behavior of A508–Alloy 52 M interface region is galvanic corrosion, in which Alloy 52 M is cathode while A508 is anode. The martensite dissolves faster than Alloy 52 M, but slower than A508 in the test solution. - Highlights: • The A508–Alloy 52 M interface regions can be categorized into two types. • The chromium depleted region is observed along the Alloy 52 M grain boundary. • The Alloy 52 M grain boundaries which are close to the interface are ferromagnetic. • Martensite zone has lower Volta potential but higher corrosion resistance than A508.

  5. Optimisation of mass ranging for atom probe microanalysis and application to the corrosion processes in Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.; Smith, G.D.W.; Gault, B.

    2011-01-01

    Atom probe tomography uses time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the chemical nature of atoms from their mass-to-charge-state ratios. Within a mass spectrum, ranges are defined so as to attribute a chemical identity to each peak. The accuracy of atom probe microanalysis relies on the definition of these ranges. Here we propose and compare several automated ranging techniques, tested against simulated mass spectra. The performance of these metrics compare favourably with a trial of users asked to manually range a simplified simulated dataset. The optimised automated ranging procedure was then used to precisely evaluate the very low iron concentration (0.003-0.018 at%) in a zirconium alloy to reveal its behaviour in the matrix during corrosion; oxygen is injected into solution and has the effect of increasing the local iron concentration near the oxide-metal interface, which in turn affects the corrosion properties of the metal substrate. -- Research Highlights: → Realistic simulated mass spectra were generated so as to reproduce experimental data with a perfectly determined composition. → Several metrics were tested against these simulated mass spectra to determine an optimal methodology for ranging mass peaks in atom probe tomography. Systematic automated ranging provides a significant reduction in the deviation between true and measured concentrations compared to manual ranging by multiple users on the same data. → Experimental datasets were subsequently investigated, and Fe has been shown to be distributed as a random solid solution within the matrix of 'as-received' recrystallised ZIRLO, a zirconium alloy.

  6. Probing the influence of X-rays on aqueous copper solutions using time-resolved in situ combined video/X-ray absorption near-edge/ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesu, J. Gerbrand; Beale, Andrew M.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved in situ video monitoring and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy in combination with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) have been used for the first time in a combined manner to study the effect of synchrotron radiation on a series of homogeneous aqueous copper solutions in a

  7. Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: collins@wsu.edu [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd

  8. Irradiation-induced precipitation in a SUS316 stainless steel using three-dimensional atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, M., E-mail: hatake@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, IMR/Tohoku University, Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamagata, I. [Japan Atom Energy Agency, Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Precipitation and segregation were investigated in a compositionally modified 316 austenitic stainless steel, neutron-irradiated at 862 K using a three-dimensional atom probe. In the solution-annealed specimen, Mo, Ti, Nb, C and P enrichment were observed in a silicide, with nominal composition Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. In a Ti-rich carbide, nominaling Fe{sub 5}Cr{sub 8}Ni{sub 10}Mo{sub 2}Ti{sub 11}Si{sub 2}C{sub 6}, enrichment of Mo, Si, O, and Nb was observed. Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) at the precipitate–matrix interface was also investigated at an atomic scale. RIS of Ni and P atoms, which are undersized in Fe, was also analyzed around the interface of the Ti-rich carbide and matrix. Results suggest that the carbide–matrix interface is a sink with an interstitial bias. In the cold-worked specimen, complex-precipitates consisting of silicide and carbide were formed.

  9. Using acoustic levitation in synchrotron based laser pump hard x-ray probe experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Lerch, Jason; Suthar, Kamlesh; Dichiara, Anthony

    Acoustic levitation provides a platform to trap and hold a small amount of material by using standing pressure waves without a container. The technique has a potential to be used for laser pump x-ray probe experiments; x-ray scattering and laser distortion from the container can be avoided, sample consumption can be minimized, and unwanted chemistry that may occur at the container interface can be avoided. The method has been used at synchrotron sources for studying protein and pharmaceutical solutions using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). However, pump-probe experiments require homogeneously excited samples, smaller than the absorption depth of the material that must be held stably at the intersection of both the laser and x-ray beams. We discuss 1) the role of oscillations in acoustic levitation and the optimal acoustic trapping conditions for x-ray/laser experiments, 2) opportunities to automate acoustic levitation for fast sample loading and manipulation, and 3) our experimental results using SAXS to monitor laser induced thermal expansion in gold nanoparticles solution. We also performed Finite Element Analysis to optimize the trapping performance and stability of droplets ranging from 0.4 mm to 2 mm. Our early x-ray/laser demonstrated the potential of the technique for time-resolved X-ray science.

  10. Analysis of the interface tracking errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerne, G.; Tiselj, I.; Petelin, S.

    2001-01-01

    An important limitation of the interface-tracking algorithm is the grid density, which determines the space scale of the surface tracking. In this paper the analysis of the interface tracking errors, which occur in a dispersed flow, is performed for the VOF interface tracking method. A few simple two-fluid tests are proposed for the investigation of the interface tracking errors and their grid dependence. When the grid density becomes too coarse to follow the interface changes, the errors can be reduced either by using denser nodalization or by switching to the two-fluid model during the simulation. Both solutions are analyzed and compared on a simple vortex-flow test.(author)

  11. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  12. iPhone User Interface Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Banga, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Written in a cookbook style, this book offers solutions using a recipe based approach. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The cookbook approach means you can dive into whatever recipes you want in no particular order. The iPhone Interface Cookbook is written from the ground up for people who are new to iOS or application interface design in general. Each chapter discusses the reasoning and design strategy behind critical interface components, as well as how to best integrate each into any iPhone or

  13. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  14. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  15. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  16. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  17. Improving Probe Immobilization for Label-Free Capacitive Detection of DNA Hybridization on Microfabricated Gold Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Carrara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to labeled optical detection for DNA arrays are actively investigated for low-cost point-of-care applications. In this domain, label-free capacitive detection is one of the most intensely studied techniques. It is based on the idea to detect the Helmholtz ion layer displacements when molecular recognition occurs at the electrodes/solution interface. The sensing layer is usually prepared by using thiols terminated DNA single-strength oligonucleotide probes on top of the sensor electrodes. However, published data shows evident time drift, which greatly complicates signal conditioning and processing and ultimately increases the uncertainty in DNA recognition sensing. The aim of this work is to show that newly developed ethylene-glycol functionalized alkanethiols greatly reduce time drift, thereby significantly improving capacitance based label-free detection of DNA.

  18. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  19. Garbage collector interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ive, Anders; Blomdell, Anders; Ekman, Torbjörn; Henriksson, Roger; Nilsson, Anders; Nilsson, Klas; Robertz, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the presented garbage collector interface is to provide a universal interface for many different implementations of garbage collectors. This is to simplify the integration and exchange of garbage collectors, but also to support incremental, non-conservative, and thread safe implementations. Due to the complexity of the interface, it is aimed at code generators and preprocessors. Experiences from ongoing implementations indicate that the garbage collector interface successfully ...

  20. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuva Weltman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook.

  1. Interface magnons. Magnetic superstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    1975-01-01

    The localized magnons at an interface between two Heisenberg ferromagnets are studied with a simple model. The effect of the coupling at the interface on the existence condition for the localized modes, the dispersion laws and the possible occurrence of magnetic superstructures due to soft modes are investigated. Finally a comparison is made with the similar results obtained for interface phonons [fr

  2. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...

  3. Graphical Interfaces for Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, J. D.; And Others

    This document presents a discussion of the development of a set of software tools to assist in the construction of interfaces to simulations and real-time systems. Presuppositions to the approach to interface design that was used are surveyed, the tools are described, and the conclusions drawn from these experiences in graphical interface design…

  4. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by

  5. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  6. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  7. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  8. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  9. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  10. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  11. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Tadaaki; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst's equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix. (author)

  12. Frontiers of controlling energy levels at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Norbert

    The alignment of electron energy levels at interfaces between semiconductors, dielectrics, and electrodes determines the function and efficiency of all electronic and optoelectronic devices. Reliable guidelines for predicting the level alignment for a given material combination and methods to adjust the intrinsic energy landscape are needed to enable efficient engineering approaches. These are sufficiently understood for established electronic materials, e.g., Si, but for the increasing number of emerging materials, e.g., organic and 2D semiconductors, perovskites, this is work in progress. The intrinsic level alignment and the underlying mechanisms at interfaces between organic and inorganic semiconductors are discussed first. Next, methods to alter the level alignment are introduced, which all base on proper charge density rearrangement at a heterojunction. As interface modification agents we use molecular electron acceptors and donors, as well as molecular photochromic switches that add a dynamic aspect and allow device multifunctionality. For 2D semiconductors surface transfer doping with molecular acceptors/donors transpires as viable method to locally tune the Fermi-level position in the energy gap. The fundamental electronic properties of a prototypical 1D interface between intrinsic and p-doped 2D semiconductor regions are derived from local (scanning probe) and area-averaged (photoemission) spectroscopy experiments. Future research opportunities for attaining unsurpassed interface control through charge density management are discussed.

  13. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  14. User interface support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  15. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces....... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  16. Probing cell mechanical properties with microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting flow on the micron-scale is emerging as a method to probe cell mechanical properties with 10-1000x advances in throughput over existing technologies. The mechanical properties of cells and the cell nucleus are implicated in a wide range of biological contexts: for example, the ability of white blood cells to deform is central to immune response; and malignant cells show decreased stiffness compared to benign cells. We recently developed a microfluidic device to probe cell and nucleus mechanical properties: cells are forced to deform through a narrow constrictions in response to an applied pressure; flowing cells through a series of constrictions enables us to probe the ability of hundreds of cells to deform and relax during flow. By tuning the constriction width so it is narrower than the width of the cell nucleus, we can specifically probe the effects of nuclear physical properties on whole cell deformability. We show that the nucleus is the rate-limiting step in cell passage: inducing a change in its shape to a multilobed structure results in cells that transit more quickly; increased levels of lamin A, a nuclear protein that is key for nuclear shape and mechanical stability, impairs the passage of cells through constrictions. We are currently developing a new class of microfluidic devices to simultaneously probe the deformability of hundreds of cell samples in parallel. Using the same soft lithography techniques, membranes are fabricated to have well-defined pore distribution, width, length, and tortuosity. We design the membranes to interface with a multiwell plate, enabling simultaneous measurement of hundreds of different samples. Given the wide spectrum of diseases where altered cell and nucleus mechanical properties are implicated, such a platform has great potential, for example, to screen cells based on their mechanical phenotype against a library of drugs.

  17. Atomic structures and compositions of internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, D.N. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Merkle, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This research program addresses fundamental questions concerning the relationships between atomic structures and chemical compositions of metal/ceramic heterophase interfaces. The chemical composition profile across a Cu/MgO {l brace}111{r brace}-type heterophase interface, produced by the internal oxidation of a Cu(Mg) single phase alloy, is measured via atom-probe field-ion microscopy with a spatial resolution of 0.121 nm; this resolution is equal to the interplanar space of the {l brace}222{r brace} MgO planes. In particular, we demonstrate for the first time that the bonding across a Cu/MgO {l brace}111{r brace}-type heterophase interface, along a <111> direction common to both the Cu matrix and an MgO precipitate, has the sequence Cu{vert bar}O{vert bar}Mg{hor ellipsis} and not Cu{vert bar}Mg{vert bar}O{hor ellipsis}; this result is achieved without any deconvolution of the experimental data. Before determining this chemical sequence it was established, via high resolution electron microscopy, that the morphology of an MgO precipitate in a Cu matrix is an octahedron faceted on {l brace}111{r brace} planes with a cube-on-cube relationship between a precipitate and the matrix. First results are also presented for the Ni/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} interface; for this system selected area atom probe microscopy was used to analyze this interface; Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} precipitates are located in a field-ion microscope tip and a precipitate is brought into the tip region via a highly controlled electropolishing technique.

  18. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  19. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  20. Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    field in the presence of a finite a two-layer rod and a conductive tube. The results are in very good agreement with those obtained by using a 2D finite element code. In the third part, a new probe technology with enhanced flaw detection capability is described. The new probe can reduce inspection time through the use of multiple Hall sensors. A prototype Hall array probe has been built and tested with eight individual Hall sensor ICs and a racetrack coil. Electronic hardware was developed to interface the probes to an oscilloscope or an eddy current instrument. To achieve high spatial resolution and to limit the overall probe size, high-sensitivity Hall sensor arrays were fabricated directly on a wafer using photolithographic techniques and then mounted in their unencapsulated form. The electronic hardware was then updated to interface the new probes to a laptop computer.

  1. Charge regulation at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2015-07-01

    The interface between a semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution has interesting and complex electrostatic properties. Its behavior will depend on the density of mobile charge carriers that are present in both phases as well as on the surface chemistry at the interface through local charge regulation. The latter is driven by chemical equilibria involving the immobile surface groups and the potential determining ions in the electrolyte solution. All these lead to an electrostatic potential distribution that propagate such that the electrolyte and the semiconductor are dependent on each other. Hence, any variation in the charge density in one phase will lead to a response in the other. This has significant implications on the physical properties of single semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces and on the electrostatic interactions between semiconductor particles suspended in electrolyte solutions. The present paper expands on our previous publication (Fleharty et al., 2014) and offers new results on the electrostatics of single semiconductor interfaces as well as on the interaction of charged semiconductor colloids suspended in electrolyte solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Communications interface for plant monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.L.; Morgan, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the communications interface for an intelligent color graphic system which PSE and G developed as part of a plant monitoring system. The intelligent graphic system is designed to off-load traditional host functions such as dynamic graphic updates, keyboard handling and alarm display. The distributed system's data and synchronization problems and their solutions are discussed

  3. Microneedle Array Interface to CE on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Vrouwe, E.X.; van den Berg, Albert; Northrup, M.A.; Jensen, K.F; Harrison, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a microneedle array sampler interfaced to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) glass chip with integrated conductivity detection electrodes. A solution of alkali ions was electrokinetically loaded through the microneedles onto the chip and separation was demonstrated compared to a

  4. Designing interfaces patterns for effective interaction design

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2005-01-01

    This convenient resource offers advice on creating user-friendly interface designs--whether they're delivered on the Web, a CD, or a smart" devices like a cell phone. Solutions to common UI design problems are expressed as a collection of patterns--each one containing concrete examples, recommendations, and warnings. Intended for designers with basic UI design knowledge

  5. Statistical thermodynamics of equilibrium polymers at interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucht, van der J.; Besseling, N.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of a solution of equilibrium polymers (or living polymers) at an interface is studied, using a Bethe-Guggenheim lattice model for molecules with orientation dependent interactions. The density profile of polymers and the chain length distribution are calculated. For equilibrium polymers

  6. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  7. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  8. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  9. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  10. Noncontact evaluation for interface states by photocarrier counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Masaaki; Shimizu, Kojiro; Maeta, Takahiro; Miyashita, Moriya; Izunome, Koji; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a noncontact measurement method that enables in-line measurement and does not have any test element group (TEG) formation. In this method, the number of photocarriers excited from the interface states are counted which is called “photocarrier counting”, and then the energy distribution of the interface states density (D it) is evaluated by spectral light excitation. In our previous experiment, the method used was a preliminary contact measurement method at the oxide on top of the Si wafer. We developed, at this time, a D it measurement method as a noncontact measurement with a gap between the probes and the wafer. The shallow trench isolation (STI) sidewall has more localized interface states than the region under the gate electrode. We demonstrate the noncontact measurement of trapped carriers from interface states using wafers of three different crystal plane orientations. The demonstration will pave the way for evaluating STI sidewall interface states in future studies.

  11. Electrophoretic transport of biomolecules across liquid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Thomas; Hardt, Steffen [Center of Smart Interfaces, TU Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 32, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Muenchow, Goetz, E-mail: hardt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-05-11

    The mass transfer resistance of a liquid-liquid interface in an aqueous two-phase system composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran is investigated. Different types of proteins and DNA stained with fluorescent dyes serve as probes to study the transport processes close to the interface. A microfluidic device is employed to enable the electrophoretic transport of biomolecules from one phase to another. The results obtained for proteins can be explained solely via the different electrophoretic mobilities and different affinities of the molecules to the two phases, without any indications of a significant mass transfer resistance of the liquid-liquid interface. By contrast, DNA molecules adsorb to the interface and only desorb under an increased electric field strength. The desorption process carries the signature of a thermally activated escape from a metastable state, as reflected in the exponential decay of the fluorescence intensity at the interface as a function of time.

  12. The Cell Probe Complexity of Succinct Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Anna; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2003-01-01

    In the cell probe model with word size 1 (the bit probe model), a static data structure problem is given by a map , where is a set of possible data to be stored, is a set of possible queries (for natural problems, we have ) and is the answer to question about data . A solution is given by a repre......In the cell probe model with word size 1 (the bit probe model), a static data structure problem is given by a map , where is a set of possible data to be stored, is a set of possible queries (for natural problems, we have ) and is the answer to question about data . A solution is given...

  13. Radiation damage on Langmuir monolayers of the anionic 1.2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (sodium salt)(DPPG) phospholipid at the air–DNA solution interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Paulo J. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Gonçalves da Silva, Amélia M.P.S. [Centro de Química Estrutural, Complexo I, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, Paulo A. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Raposo, Maria, E-mail: mfr@fct.unl.pt [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    The resilience of cells to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is probably associated with the effects induced in biological molecules such as DNA and in the cell membrane. In this study, we investigated UV damage to the anionic 1.2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (sodium salt) (DPPG) phospholipid, which is an important component of cell membranes. In films cast from DPPG emulsions, UV irradiation induced cleavage of C―O, C = O and ―PO{sup 2−} bonds, while in Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface representing the cell membrane this irradiation caused the monolayer stability to decrease. When DNA was present in the subphase, however, the effects from UV irradiation were smaller, since the ionic products from degradation of either DPPG or DNA stabilize the intact DPPG molecules. This mechanism may explain why UV irradiation does not cause immediate cell collapse, thus providing time for the cellular machinery to repair elements damaged by UV. - Highlights: • UV induce cleavage of C―O, C=O and PO{sup 2−} bonds in DPPG molecules in the presence of water. • The stability of DPPG monolayers decreased when irradiated with UV. • UV effects were mitigated if DNA molecules were incorporated into subphase. • The ionic products resulting from UV degradation stabilize DPPG monolayer. • Such mechanism explain why cells do not collapse immediately after irradiation.

  14. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  15. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  16. INTERNET CONNECTIVITY FOR MASS PRODUCED UNITS WITHOUT USER INTERFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    To the manufacturer of mass produced units without a user interface, typically field level units, connection of these units to a communications network for enabling servicing, control and trackability is of interest. To provide this connection, a solution is described in which an interface...

  17. Quadratic soliton self-reflection at a quadratically nonlinear interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Kim, Hongki; Stegeman, George; Carrasco, Silvia; Torner, Lluis; Katz, Mordechai

    2003-11-01

    The reflection of bulk quadratic solutions incident onto a quadratically nonlinear interface in periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate was observed. The interface consisted of the boundary between two quasi-phase-matched regions displaced from each other by a half-period. At high intensities and small angles of incidence the soliton is reflected.

  18. The physics of pattern formation at liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, J.V.

    1991-06-01

    This report discusses the following physics of liquid interfaces: pattern formation; perturbing Saffman-Taylor flow with a small gap-gradient; scaling of radial patterns in a viscoelastic solution; dynamic surface tension at an interface between miscible liquids; and random systems

  19. SOA and Web services interface design principles, techniques, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, James

    2009-01-01

    SOA offers solutions to the most intractable business problems faced by every enterprise, but getting the SOA service interface right requires the practical design knowledge this book uniquely delivers

  20. Protein conformational transitions at the liquid-gas interface as studied by dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, Boris A

    2014-04-01

    Experimental results on the dynamic dilational surface elasticity of protein solutions are analyzed and compared. Short reviews of the protein behavior at the liquid-gas interface and the dilational surface rheology precede the main sections of this work. The kinetic dependencies of the surface elasticity differ strongly for the solutions of globular and non-globular proteins. In the latter case these dependencies are similar to those for solutions of non-ionic amphiphilic polymers and have local maxima corresponding to the formation of the distal region of the surface layer (type I). In the former case the dynamic surface elasticity is much higher (>60 mN/m) and the kinetic dependencies are monotonical and similar to the data for aqueous dispersions of solid nanoparticles (type II). The addition of strong denaturants to solutions of bovine serum albumin and β-lactoglobulin results in an abrupt transition from the type II to type I dependencies if the denaturant concentration exceeds a certain critical value. These results give a strong argument in favor of the preservation of the protein globular structure in the course of adsorption without any denaturants. The addition of cationic surfactants also can lead to the non-monotonical kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity indicating destruction of the protein tertiary and secondary structures. The addition of anionic surfactants gives similar results only for the protein solutions of high ionic strength. The influence of cationic surfactants on the local maxima of the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity for solutions of a non-globular protein (β-casein) differs from the influence of anionic surfactants due to the heterogeneity of the charge distribution along the protein chain. In this case one can use small admixtures of ionic surfactants as probes of the adsorption mechanism. The effect of polyelectrolytes on the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity of protein

  1. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  2. Icinga Monitoring System Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Neculae, Alina Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a web interface that would be used by the Icinga monitoring system to manage the CMS online cluster, in the experimental site. The interface would allow users to visualize the information in a compressed and intuitive way, as well as modify the information of each individual object and edit the relationships between classes.

  3. Verden som interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  4. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...

  5. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  6. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  7. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  8. Toward High-Performance Communications Interfaces for Science Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.

    2010-12-01

    From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work practice, can preserve students' attentional focus on their learning task. In this research, we asked the question: What type of interface input capabilities provide best support for science problem solving in both low- and high- performing students? High school students' ability to solve a diverse range of biology problems was compared over longitudinal sessions while they used: (1) hardcopy paper and pencil (2) a digital paper and pen interface (3) pen tablet interface, and (4) graphical tablet interface. Post-test evaluations revealed that time to solve problems, meta-cognitive control, solution correctness, and memory all were significantly enhanced when using the digital pen and paper interface, compared with tablet interfaces. The tangible pen and paper interface also was the only alternative that significantly facilitated skill acquisition in low-performing students. Paradoxically, all students nonetheless believed that the tablet interfaces provided best support for their performance, revealing a lack of self-awareness about how to use computational tools to best advantage. Implications are discussed for how pen interfaces can be optimized for future educational purposes, and for establishing technology fluency curricula to improve students' awareness of the impact of digital tools on their performance.

  9. Ionic solubility and solutal advection governed augmented evaporation kinetics of salt solution pendant droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vivek; Harikrishnan, A. R.; Khurana, Gargi; Dhar, Purbarun

    2018-01-01

    The presence of dispersed inclusions is known to modify the interfacial characteristics in liquids by adsorption-desorption of the ions at interfaces. The present article reports the influencing role of dissolved ions in a polar fluid on its evaporation dynamics. The evaporation dynamics of pendant droplets of aqueous solutions of variant simple salts and concentrations have been experimentally studied. The presence of salts is observed to enhance the evaporation rate (obeying the classical D2 law), and the enhancement has been found to hold a direct proportionality to the concentration of the dissolved salt. Furthermore, it is observed that the degree of enhancement in the evaporation rate is also directly proportional to the solubility of the salt in question. The phenomenon is explained based on the chemical kinetics and thermodynamics of hydration of the ionic species in the polar fluid. The classical evaporation rate constant formulation is found to be inadequate in modeling the enhanced species transport. Additional probing via particle image velocimetry reveals augmented internal circulation within the evaporating salt based drops compared to pure water. Mapping the dynamic surface tension reveals that a salt concentration gradient is generated between the bulk and periphery of the droplet and it could be responsible for the internal advection cells visualized. A thermo-solutal Marangoni and Rayleigh convection based mathematical formulation has been put forward, and it is shown that the enhanced solute-thermal convection could play a major role in enhanced evaporation. The internal circulation mapped from experiments is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. Scaling analysis further reveals that the stability of the solutal Marangoni convection surpasses the thermal counterpart with higher salt concentration and solubility. The present article sheds insight into the possible domineering role of conjugate thermohydraulic and

  10. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error. The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating

  11. Current at Metal-Organic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Charge transport through atomic and molecular constrictions greatly affects the operation and performance of organic electronic devices. Much of our understanding of the charge injection and extraction processes in these systems relays on our knowledge of the electronic structure at the metal-organic interface. Despite significant experimental and theoretical advances in studying charge transport in nanoscale junctions, a microscopic understanding at the single atom/molecule level is missing. In the present talk I will present our recent results to probe directly the nanocontact between single molecules and a metal electrode using scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy. The experiments provide unprecedented microscopic details of single molecule and atom junctions and open new avenues to study quantum critical and many body phenomena at the atomic scale. Implications for energy conversion devices and carbon based nanoelectronics will also be discussed.

  12. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong [Los Alamos, NM; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos, NM; Keller, Richard A [Los Alamos, NM; Nolan, Rhiannon L [Santa Fe, NM

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  13. Comparison of the quantitative analysis performance between pulsed voltage atom probe and pulsed laser atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J., E-mail: takahashi.3ct.jun@jp.nssmc.com [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Kawakami, K. [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Raabe, D. [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Department for Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative analysis in Fe-Cu alloy was investigated in voltage and laser atom probe. • In voltage-mode, apparent Cu concentration exceeded actual concentration at 20–40 K. • In laser-mode, the concentration never exceeded the actual concentration even at 20 K. • Detection loss was prevented due to the rise in tip surface temperature in laser-mode. • Preferential evaporation of solute Cu was reduced in laser-mode. - Abstract: The difference in quantitative analysis performance between the voltage-mode and laser-mode of a local electrode atom probe (LEAP3000X HR) was investigated using a Fe-Cu binary model alloy. Solute copper atoms in ferritic iron preferentially field evaporate because of their significantly lower evaporation field than the matrix iron, and thus, the apparent concentration of solute copper tends to be lower than the actual concentration. However, in voltage-mode, the apparent concentration was higher than the actual concentration at 40 K or less due to a detection loss of matrix iron, and the concentration decreased with increasing specimen temperature due to the preferential evaporation of solute copper. On the other hand, in laser-mode, the apparent concentration never exceeded the actual concentration, even at lower temperatures (20 K), and this mode showed better quantitative performance over a wide range of specimen temperatures. These results indicate that the pulsed laser atom probe prevents both detection loss and preferential evaporation under a wide range of measurement conditions.

  14. A Fluorescent Probe for Sensitive Detection of Hydrazine and Its Application in Red Wine and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Wang, Hao; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Hao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-01-01

    A fluorescent probe, 7-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-4-carbaldehyde (probe 1), was designed and synthesized for the sensitive detection of hydrazine. The addition of N 2 H 4 caused the fluorescence intensity of probe 1 to decrease. The probe's fluorescence was turn-off after adding N 2 H 4 , which could be observed under UV light at 365 nm. Moreover, once treated with different concentrations N 2 H 4 solutions, the solution color change could be distinguished, which indicates that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for hydrazine. Moreover, probe 1 can be used as a signal tool to determine hydrazine levels in solutions, such as red wine and water.

  15. Modular Rake of Pitot Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

  16. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  17. TFTR centralized torus interface valve control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.G.; Olsen, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    A system developed especially for the TFTR to monitor and control the interface between the vacuum vessel and associated diagnostics will be described in this paper. Diagnostics which must be connected to the machine vacuum are required to do so through a Torus Interface Valve (TIV). Two types of TIV's are used on TFTR. The first type is a non-latching valve which must be held in the opened position by a sustained OPEN command, returning automatically to the closed position when the OPEN command is removed. This type of TIV is used on all systems which never insert a probe into the vacuum vessel through the TIV. The second type of TIV is a latching valve which requires a momentary OPEN command to open and a momentary CLOSE command to close. Each TIV is linked to its own dedicated logic controller. Each logic controller is hardwired to the appropriate TIV OPEN/CLOSED limit switches, probe IN/OUT limit switches, TFTR vacuum vessel pressure setpoint switches, and diagnostic pressure setpoint switches. The logic controller can be configured for local (push-button) or remote (computer) control. Each controller has a uniquely coded keyswitch to determine the configuration. Whether under local or remote control, all OPEN and CLOSE commands must be approved by the TIV controller (TIVC). In the case of systems with probes, the controller must receive a positive indication that the probe is completely backed out before a CLOSE command will be transmitted from the TIVC to the TIV. Before a valve will be opened by a controller, the differential pressure across the valve must be within certain limits

  18. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    interfaces using molecular dynamics(MD) simulations and compared it with liquid state theory result. We explore the effects of high electrolyte concentrations, multivalent ions, and dielectric contrasts on the ionic distributions. We observe the presence of non-monotonous ionic density profiles leading to structure deformation in the fluid which is attributed to the competition between electrostatic and steric (entropic) interactions. We find that thermal forces that arise from symmetry breaking at the interfaces can have a profound effect on the ionic structure and can oftentimes overwhelm the influence of dielectric discontinuity. The combined effect of ionic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity significantly changes the character of effective interaction between two interfaces. We show that, in concentrated electrolytes with confinement, it is imperative to take into account the finite-size of the ions as well as proper description of electrostatic interactions in heterogeneous media, which is not fully fulfilled by Poisson-Boltzmann based approaches. The effect of electric field at interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions is studied as well. The classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory has been widely used to describe the corresponding ionic distribution, even though it neglects the polarization and ion correlations typical of these charged systems. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we provide an enhanced description of an oil-water interface in the presence of an electric field without needing any adjustable parameter, including realistic ionic sizes, ion correlations, and image charges. Our data agree with experimental measurements of excess surface tension for a wide range of electrolyte concentrations of LiCl and TBATPB (tetrabutylammonium-tetraphenylborate), contrasting with the result of the classical non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. More importantly, we show that the size-asymmetry between small Li+ and large Cl- ions can significantly

  19. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  20. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  1. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  2. Advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces trends in methodology and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Chemistry of Monolayers at Interfaces describes the advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces. Focusing on the recent trends of methodology and technology, which are indispensable in monolayer science. They are applied to monolayers of surfactants, amphiphiles, polymers, dendrimers, enzymes, and proteins, which serve many uses.Introduces the methodologies of scanning probe microscopy, surface force instrumentation, surface spectroscopy, surface plasmon optics, reflectometry, and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Modern interface reaction method, lithographic tech

  3. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  4. NASA's interstellar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Ayon, J.A.; Wallace, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. As envisioned by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, the spacecraft will be propelled by a solar sail to reach >200 AU in 15 years. Interstellar Probe will investigate how the Sun interacts with its environment and will directly measure the properties and composition of the dust, neutrals and plasma of the local interstellar material which surrounds the solar system. In the mission concept developed in the spring of 1999, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ∼15 AU/year, roughly 5 times the speed of Voyager 1 and 2. The sail is used to first bring the spacecraft to ∼0.25 AU to increase the radiation pressure before heading out in the interstellar upwind direction. After jettisoning the sail at ∼5 AU, the spacecraft coasts to 200-400 AU, exploring the Kuiper Belt, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and the nearby interstellar medium

  5. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  6. Resolving Iron(II) Sorption and Oxidative Growth on Hematite (001) Using Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Sandra D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Liu, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Schreiber, Daniel K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Perea, Daniel E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2018-02-13

    The distribution of iron resulting from the autocatalytic interaction of aqueous Fe(II) with the hematite (001) surface was directly mapped in three dimensions (3D) for the first time, using iron isotopic labelling and atom probe tomography (APT). Analyses of the mass spectrum showed that natural abundance ratios in 56Fe-dominant hematite are recovered at depth with good accuracy, whereas at the relict interface with 57Fe(II) solution evidence for hematite growth by oxidative adsorption of Fe(II) was found. 3D reconstructions of the isotope positions along the surface normal direction showed a zone enriched in 57Fe, which was consistent with an average net adsorption of 3.2 – 4.3 57Fe atoms nm–2. Statistical analyses utilizing grid-based frequency distribution analyses show a heterogeneous, non-random distribution of oxidized Fe on the (001) surface, consistent with Volmer-Weber-like island growth. The unique 3D nature of the APT data provides an unprecedented means to quantify the atomic-scale distribution of sorbed 57Fe atoms and the extent of segregation on the hematite surface. This new ability to spatially map growth on single crystal faces at the atomic scale will enable resolution to long-standing unanswered questions about the underlying mechanisms for electron and atom exchange involved in a wide variety of redox-catalyzed processes at this archetypal and broadly relevant interface.

  7. Molecular Processes Underlying the Structure and Assembly of Thin Films and Nanoparticles at Complex interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Geraldine [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2016-06-03

    differences in how water behaves at hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAMS)/water interfaces relative to the organic liquid/water interfaces. Several monolayer films have been examined in these studies using a combination of vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), contact angle measurements and AFM. At the hydrocarbon monolayer/water interface we find that water has a weak bonding interaction with the monolayer film that results in an orientation of water at the terminus of these hydrocarbon chains. The water-film interaction is still present for fluorinated films but it is found to be considerably weaker. Hydration and Surfactant Adsorption at Salt/Water Interfaces This set of studies has examined the molecular characteristics of the CaF2/water interface using VSFS. Our first studies detailed the structure and orientation of water molecules adsorbed at this mineral surfaces including studies of the surface in the presence of aqueous solutions of salts. These studies have been followed by a series of static and time-resolved studies of the adsorption of carboxylic acid containing organics at this surface, specifically carboxylic acid surfactants and acetic acid. In the latter we have developed a new method for time resolved studies that involve sequential wavelength tuning and automated control of spatial beam overlap at the target can probe amplitude changes of sum-frequency resonances in widely spaced infrared regions. This offers great advantages for the study of the synchronism of molecular processes at interfaces. This approach is particularly suitable to investigate the synchronization of interfacial processes such as surfactant adsorption at charged mineral surfaces. Macromolecular Assembly at Liquid/Liquid Interfaces Macromolecular assembly at the interface between water and a hydrophobic surface underlies some of the most important biological and environmental processes on the planet. Our work has examined polymer adsorption and assembly of

  8. DESIGN OF THE CONTACT POTENTIALS DIFFERENCE PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, providing high sensitivity, operating speed, and noise immunity. In this paper the contact potential difference probe, which is a electrometer with dynamic capacitor plate at about 0.1–5 mm2 . These probes are could be used in scanning systems, such as a Scanning Kelvin Probe, as well as for controlling system of manufacturing processes, e.g. under friction. The design of such contact potential difference probes conducted using modern electronic components, unique circuitry and design solutions described in detail at paper. The electromechanical modulator applied for mechanical vibrations of the reference sample. To provide a high amplitude and phase stability the upgraded generator with Wien bridge was used instead traditional oscillation sensor. The preamplifier made on the base of modern operational amplifiers with femtoampere current input. The power of the preamplifier designed with «floating ground». It allows keeping the relation constant potential to the probe components when changing over a wide range the compensation voltage. The phase detector-integrator based on the electronic antiphase switches with the modulation frequency of the contact potential difference and the integrator. Fullwave phase detection would greatly increase the sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the application of the phase detection allows suppressing noise and crosstalk at frequencies different from the modulation frequency. The preamplifier and the reference sample

  9. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  10. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  11. Conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, tank wastes are to be characterized by drilling and physically removing core samples. The cores are analyzed in laboratories in a hot cell environment. The purpose of the cone penetrometer is to bring the interrogative methods to the sample in its native environment, providing faster, safer, and more cost effective tank characterization, both in terms of time and effort. Probes currently exist for the physical characterization of tank wastes in terms of porosity, density, temperature, and electrical conductivity. The main tool for chemical analysis in the in-tank cone penetrometer will be a fiber optic Raman spectroscopy probe, which will be used to collect information about the molecular chemical constituents of the tank wastes. This report addresses the design and implementation of a Raman probe with the in-tank cone penetrometer. The scope of this document includes design specifications and recommendations for the following aspects of the in-tank Raman cone penetrometer probe: cone penetrometer probe interface--an unit for the inclusion of a Raman probe in the in-tank cone penetrometer will be described; window materials--chemically resistant and mechanically stable materials for the cone penetrometer probe interface window will be considered; Raman probes--Raman probes for inclusion in the penetrometer will be discussed

  12. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  13. Operator interface for vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  14. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  15. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  16. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use...... by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  17. Electronic properties of dioctylterthiophene-based organic thin-film transistors: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsharimani, N.; Nysten, B.

    2013-01-01

    It appeared in the past decades that semi-conducting organic liquid crystals could be used as the active layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). They can be processed by simple methods such as inkjet printing, which paves the way to applications for cheap plastic electronics such as electronic tags, biosensors, and flexible screens. However, the measured field-effect mobility in these OTFTs is relatively low compared to inorganic devices. Generally, such low field-effect mobility values result from extrinsic effects such as grain boundaries or imperfect interfaces with source and drain electrodes. It has been shown that reducing the number of grain boundaries between the source and drain electrodes improves the field effect mobility. Therefore, it is important to understand the transport mechanisms by studying the local structure and electronic properties of organic thin films within the channel and at the interfaces with source and drain electrodes in order to improve the field-effect mobility in OTFTs. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is an ideal tool for that purpose since it allows to simultaneously investigate the local structure and the electrical potential distribution in electronic devices. In this work, the structure and the electrical properties of OTFTs based on dioctylterthiophene (DOTT) were studied. The transistors were fabricated by spin-coating DOTT on the transistor structures with untreated and treated (silanized) channel silicon oxide. The potential profiles across the channel and at the metal-electrode interfaces were measured by KPFM. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties, charge trapping phenomenon and hysteresis effects is demonstrated and analyzed. - Highlights: • Kelvin probe force microscopy study of organic thin film transistors. • Cost and time savings by using solution processable molecules as active layers. • Smaller crystals and less charge trapping effects in silanized devices. • Decrement

  18. Adsorption of proteins at the solution/air interface influenced by added nonionic surfactants at very low concentrations for both components. 2. Effect of different surfactants and theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Lotfi, M; Javadi, A; Aksenenko, E V; Tarasevich, Yu I; Bastani, D; Miller, R

    2014-11-04

    The influence of the addition of the nonionic surfactants dodecyl dimethyl phosphine oxide (C12DMPO), tetradecyl dimethyl phosphine oxide (C14DMPO), decyl alcohol (C10OH), and C10EO5 at concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-1) mmol/L to solutions of β-casein (BCS) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) at a fixed concentration of 10(-5) mmol/L on the surface tension is studied. It is shown that a significant decrease of the water/air surface tension occurs for all the surfactants studied at very low concentrations (10(-5)-10(-3) mmol/L). All measurements were performed with the buoyant bubble profile method. The dynamics of the surface tension was simulated using the Fick and Ward-Tordai equations. The calculation results agree well with the experimental data, indicating that the equilibration times in the system studied do not exceed 30 000 s, while the time required to attain the equilibrium on a plane surface is by one order of magnitude higher. To achieve agreement between theory and experiment for the mixtures, a supposition was made about the influence of the concentration of nonionic surfactant on the adsorption activity of the protein. The adsorption isotherm equation of the protein was modified accordingly, and this corrected model agrees well with all experimental data.

  19. Atom probe tomographic studies of precipitation in Al-0.1Zr-0.1Ti (at.%) alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling, Keith E; Dunand, David C; Seidman, David N

    2007-12-01

    Atom probe tomography was utilized to measure directly the chemical compositions of Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates with a metastable L1(2) structure formed in Al-0.1Zr-0.1Ti (at.%) alloys upon aging at 375 degrees C or 425 degrees C. The alloys exhibit an inhomogeneous distribution of Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates, as a result of a nonuniform dendritic distribution of solute atoms after casting. At these aging temperatures, the Zr:Ti atomic ratio in the precipitates is about 10 and 5, respectively, indicating that Ti remains mainly in solid solution rather than partitioning to the Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates. This is interpreted as being due to the very small diffusivity of Ti in alpha-Al, consistent with prior studies on Al-Sc-Ti and Al-Sc-Zr alloys, where the slower diffusing Zr and Ti atoms make up a small fraction of the Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates. Unlike those alloys, however, the present Al-Zr-Ti alloys exhibit no interfacial segregation of Ti at the matrix/precipitate heterophase interface, a result that may be affected by a significant disparity in the evaporation fields of the alpha-Al matrix and Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates and/or a lack of local thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface.

  20. Highly selective and rapidly responsive fluorescent probe for hydrogen sulfide detection in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jialin; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-08-15

    A new fluorescent probe 6-(2, 4-dinitrophenoxy)-2-naphthonitrile (probe 1) was designed and synthesized for the selective detection of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). The addition of H 2 S to a solution of probe 1 resulted in a marked fluorescence turn-on alongside a visual color change from colorless to light yellow. Importantly, this distinct color response indicated that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for H 2 S. Moreover, probe 1 was successfully used as a signal tool to determine the H 2 S levels in beer and red wine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.