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Sample records for solution injection method

  1. Validation of a stability-indicating hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of vitamin k3 (menadione sodium bisulfite) in injectable solution formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mashhour M; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A; Hallak, Hussein O

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of menadione sodium bisulfite in the injectable solution formulation. The method is based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) coupled with a photodiode array detector. The desired separation was achieved on the ZIC-HILIC column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 25°C temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of 200mM ammonium acetate (NH4AC) solution and acetonitrile (ACN) (20:80; v/v) pH-adjusted to 5.7 by glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.5 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 261 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peak retention, peak USP tailing factor, and column efficiency were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing menadione sodium bisulfite standard and the injectable solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and the excipients, thus proving that the method is a reliable, stability-indicating tool. The method was validated as per ICH and USP guidelines (USP34/NF29) and found to be adequate for the routine quantitative estimation of menadione sodium bisulfite in commercially available menadione sodium bisulfite injectable solution dosage forms.

  2. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  3. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  4. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  5. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neagu; Georgiana Soceanu; Ana Caterina Bucur

    2015-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validate...

  6. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of veterinary 20% injectable solution of tylosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad K. Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A veterinary injectable aqueous solution of the antibiotic tylosin at a concentration of 20% was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 100 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 200 g tylosin tartrate, 500 ml propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol 40 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The preparation was clear yellow viscous aqueous solution free from undesired particles. The preparation complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. It was active in vitro against E. coli (JM83. The preparation of 20% tylosin solution was safe under field conditions in treating sheep and cattle suffering from pneumonia at the dose rate of 1 ml/20 kg body weight, intramuscularly/ day for 3 successive days. In conclusion, we presented the know-how of a veterinary formulation of injectable solution of 20% tylosin for clinical use in ruminants. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 5-7

  8. The effects of injected solution temperature on intravenous regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D L; Logan, M R; Wildsmith, J A

    1988-05-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received three standard Bier's blocks. Prilocaine 0.5%, 40 ml was injected at a solution temperature of 0 degrees C, 22 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Recordings were made of sensory block, motor block, intravenous pressure, limb temperature and pain on injection. There were no differences between the three treatments in the rate of development or in the quality of block but there was a significant difference in the comfort of injection. Cold solutions caused most, and warm solutions least discomfort.

  9. Electroluminescence from porous silicon due to electron injection from solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Despo, R.W.; Kelly, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the electroluminescence from p‐type porous silicon due to minority carrier injection from an electrolyte solution. The MV+• radical cation formed in the reduction of divalent methylviologen is able to inject electrons into the conduction band of crystalline and porous silicon. The

  10. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Flunixin Meglumine Combination in an Injectable Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the powerful antimicrobial agent florfenicol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory flunixin meglumine is used for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD and control of BRD-associated pyrexia, in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle. This study describes the development and validation of an HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and flunixin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of excipients. The proposed RP-HPLC method was developed by a reversed phase- (RP- C18e (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm column at room temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and water mixture, and pH was adjusted to 2.8 using diluted phosphoric acid, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and ultraviolet detection at 268 nm. The stability-indicating method was developed by exposing the drugs to stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and thermal degradation; the obtained degraded products were successfully separated from the APIs. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, LOD, LOQ, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria.

  11. Injection and accumulation method in the TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Katayama, T.

    1979-03-01

    The test accumulation ring for NUMATRON (TARN) is being constructed at INS, University of Tokyo. The main purpose of the TARN is to establish some techniques related to beam injection and RF stacking, ultrahigh vacuum, and beam monitoring and handling. In this paper, the injection and accumulation methods in the TARN are described. The combination of multiturn injection and RF stacking is applied to the TARN. Heavy ions from the INS sector focusing (SF) cyclotron are injection through a magnetic and an electrostatic inflectors. Two pulse magnets and a bump field excited by square wave current are used for the multiturn injection method. The procedure of the RF stacking is as follows. The beam from the cyclotron is transported to the ring, and is injected by a multiturn method. Then, the RF accelerating voltage is put on, and the beam is captured in the stable region of the RF acceleration. The RF voltage and the frequency are adiabatically changed, and the beam is moved to the stacking orbit. The RF voltage is put off, and the beam remains on the stacking orbit. In the present system, a repetitive stacking scheme is applied for the RF stacking. The momentum spread after the RF stacking is approximately proportional to the stacking number in synchrotron phase space. The stacking number is chosen so that the total aperture required for the combined method may not exceed the available aperture in the ring doughnut. (Kato, T.)

  12. Microfluidic model experiments on the injectability of monoclonal antibody solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Charles; Filipe, Vasco; Nakach, Mostafa; Huille, Sylvain; Lindner, Anke

    2017-11-01

    Autoinjection devices that allow patients to self-administer medicine are becoming used more frequently; however, this advance comes with an increased need for precision in the injection process. The rare occurrence of protein aggregates in solutions of monoclonal antibodies constitutes a threat to the reliability of such devices. Here we study the flow of protein solutions containing aggregates in microfluidic model systems, mimicking injection devices, to gain fundamental understanding of the catastrophic clogging of constrictions of given size. We form aggregates by mechanically shaking or heating antibody solutions and then inject these solutions into microfluidic channels with varying types of constrictions. Geometrical clogging occurs when aggregates reach the size of the constriction and can in some cases be undone by increasing the applied pressure. We perform systematic experiments varying the relative aggregate size and the flow rate or applied pressure. The mechanical deformation of aggregates during their passage through constrictions is investigated to gain a better understanding of the clogging and unclogging mechanisms.

  13. Method for improving solution flow in solution mining of a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation containing same in which an injection and production well are drilled and completed within said formation, leach solution and an oxidant are injected through said injection well into said formation to dissolve said mineral, and said dissolved mineral is recovered via said production well, wherein the improvement comprises pretreating said formation with an acid gas to improve the permeabiltiy thereof

  14. Stability of 10 mg/mL cefuroxime solution for intracameral injection in commonly used polypropylene syringes and new ready-to-use cyclic olefin copolymer sterile vials using the LC-UV stability-indicating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Frédéric; Simon, Nicolas; Genay, Stéphanie; Lannoy, Damien; Barthélémy, Christine; Décaudin, Bertrand; Labalette, Pierre; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Injecting intracameral cefuroxime has been found beneficial in reducing the risk of postoperative endophthalmitis but its use has been limited through a lack of approved marketing and of ready-to-use single-units as well as the problem of aseptic compounding. Our aim was to assess a new automated primary packaging system which should ensure a higher level of sterility, thanks to its closed, sterile, ready-to-use polymer vial called "Crystal® vial". The chemical stability of a 10 mg/mL cefuroxime solution was compared in 1 mL Crystal® vials and 1 mL Luer-lock polypropylene syringes (actual reference) to eliminate any potential and specific interactions with its cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) body and elastomer stopper. Cefuroxime solution was introduced into vials and syringes and stored at -20 °C, +5 °C and +25°C/60% Relative Humidity. Cefuroxime concentration and the relative amount of the main degradation product (descarbamoyl-cefuroxime) were both determined by an HPLC/UV method indicating stability. Solutions were considered steady if the concentration remained at over 90% of the initial value. In the adapted storage conditions, the evolution of osmolality, pH and sterility was assessed. Stability profiles were identical between vials and syringes in all storage and temperature conditions. The solution was stable (cefuroxime concentration, pH and osmolality) and still sterile for 365 days at -20°C. The concentration fell below 90% after 21 days at +5 °C and after 16 h at +25°C/60%s relative humidity. The COC and thermoplastic elastomer of the vials had no impact on the degradation process confirming its possible use for a ready-to-use cefuroxime solution single-unit dose.

  15. Rate of Post-traumatic Endophthalmitis with or without Injection of Balanced Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Rafati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In a study complementing a previous multicenter randomized clinical trial on prophylactic injection of intraocular antibiotics during primary repair of penetrating eye injuries (PEIs, we sought to determine whether needle entrance and injection of balanced salt solution (BSS, per se, could increase the rate of acute post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis (APBE. Methods: Patients randomized to the BSS injection arm (n=167 of the Traumatic Endophthalmitis Trial, and eligible patients who had refused enrollment and received no intraocular injections during primary repair (n=111 were compared for the development of APBE. Results: APBE occurred in 8 of 167 (4.8% eyes in the BSS group and in 5 of 111 (4.5% eyes in the non-injection group (P=0.91. Retained intraocular foreign bodies were present in 46 eyes including 25 (15% eyes in the BSS injection group and 21 (18.9% eyes in the non-injection group (P=0.38. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference between BSS injected and non-injected eyes in terms of APBE (P=0.69. However, the presence of intraocular foreign bodies was strongly associated with the risk of endophthalmitis (P<0.001, OR=14.1, 95% CI: 4.1-48.5. Conclusion: Needle entrance and intraocular injection of BSS during primary repair of PEIs does not increase the risk of APBE.

  16. Zinc injection method and device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Kazumi; Negishi, Itaru; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Ino, Takao; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Tadashi; Tobara, Hirotaka.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of injecting zinc into reactor water, and it can supply a solution of zinc at a high concentration by improving the solubility of zinc. Namely, zinc is used as a solute and is dissolved in an aqueous solution containing an electrolyte such as carbonic acid. The resultant zinc solution at a high concentration is injected to reactor water. In the device of the present invention, (1) a dissolution vessel for dissolving zinc comprises a zinc supply means at an upper portion thereof and a carbonic acid gas supply means at a lower portion, (2) an injection means supplies the solution in which zinc is dissolved at a high concentration to reactor water. An aqueous solution saturated with a carbonic acid gas is used as a solvent for dissolving zinc into reactor water at a high concentration. The dissolution vessel has a gas diffusion pipe at the bottom for introducing the carbonic acid gas and has a stirrer in the inside. Zinc is supplied continuously or discontinuously. Raw material zinc may be in the form of a plate, rod, granule, or powder, however, powdery zinc is preferably used. (I.S.)

  17. Method and apparatus for injecting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, W E

    1966-07-05

    A method and apparatus are described for injecting grouting material into porous, fractured, unconsolidated, or other formations, whose cohesion is to be increased and/or whose permeability is to be decreased. A tool for injecting the fluid consists of a packer and valves through which the pressurized fluid may pass from the interior of the tool to the packer to expand it. Another valve allows pressure fluid to be vented so as to allow contraction of the packer. A third valve allows a flow of pressurized flow out of the tool and into the material when a predetermined pressure within the tool has been attained. (9 claims)

  18. Method for Converter Synchronization with RF Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua P. Bruckmeyer; Ivica Kostanic

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an injection method for synchronizing analog to digital converters (ADC). This approach can eliminate the need for precision routed discrete synchronization signals of current technologies, such as JESD204. By eliminating the setup and hold time requirements at the conversion (or near conversion) clock rate, higher sample rate systems can be synchronized. Measured data from an existing multiple ADC conversion system was used to evaluate the method. Coherent beams were simu...

  19. Determination of uranium (IV) in cloride solutions of enrichment columns by spectrometry with flow injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, M.B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of Flow Injection Analysis for the U (IV) spectrophotometric determination in chloride solutions is described. The method has been shown reproducible in the range of concentrations and conditions employed with a standard deviation of about 0,3. (C.G.C.) [pt

  20. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol was done by Waters HPLC system manager using gradient pump system. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofurane, acetonitrile and water in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and 2.0 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 16.50 µg/ml to 11.00 mg/ml for vitamin A, 10.05 µg/ml to 6.70 mg/ml for vitamin E, 0.075 µg/ml to 0.050 mg/ml for vitamin D3 and 1.25 mg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for benzylalcohol. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E, benzyl alcohol and impurities.

  1. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS 2 . The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of ±0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification

  2. Outcome analysis of two different injection solutions for epidural injection in radicular lumbar backache syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Mukhtar, M.; Bhatti, S.N; Afridi, E.A.K.; Khan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Backache is a significant source of disability and suffering in our society. The treatment modalities need continued enhancement in order to achieve the desired goals of lowering morbidity and financial losses while improving the response of the patient. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at the department of Orthopaedics and Spine Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from July 2013 to June 2015. Two interventional groups were designated; Group 1 was comprised of 54 patients who were injected with epidural bupivacaine plus methylprednisolone while Group 2 included 55 patients who were injected with bupivacaine only. Outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results: Fifty-five female and 54 male patients with mean age 49.37 years+-10.46 SD, Mean symptoms duration was 15.01 months+-9.32 SD. Common presenting symptoms were backache (77.1 percent), lower limbs pain (66.1 percent), dermatomal paresthesias (54.1 percent) and neurogenic claudication in 57.8 percent patients. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) after injection was 3.18+-1.29 while mean ODI after injection was 23.615. There was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores (2-sided p=0.003, OR =4.03, 95 percent CI: 1.535-10.60) following the injection. Conclusion: An epidural spinal injection is a viable option for achieving relief of pain and improves functioning in individuals with radicular backache. However, further research is advised in order to clarify the role of ESI for long-term relief. (author)

  3. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  5. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhas, A.J.A.; Dharmapurikar, G.R.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  6. Development of an automated flow injection analysis system for determination of phosphate in nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Sevinç; Görüşük, Emine M; Çetinkaya, Ebru; Deveci, Seda; Dönmez, Koray B; Uncuoğlu, Emre; Doğu, Mustafa

    2018-01-25

    A fully automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for determination of phosphate ion in nutrient solutions. This newly developed FIA system is a portable, rapid and sensitive measuring instrument that allows on-line analysis and monitoring of phosphate ion concentration in nutrient solutions. The molybdenum blue method, which is widely used in FIA phosphate analysis, was adapted to the developed FIA system. The method is based on the formation of ammonium Mo(VI) ion by reaction of ammonium molybdate with the phosphate ion present in the medium. The Mo(VI) ion then reacts with ascorbic acid and is reduced to the spectrometrically measurable Mo(V) ion. New software specific for flow analysis was developed in the LabVIEW development environment to control all the components of the FIA system. The important factors affecting the analytical signal were identified as reagent flow rate, injection volume and post-injection flow path length, and they were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The optimum point for the maximum analytical signal was calculated as 0.50 mL min -1 reagent flow rate, 100 µL sample injection volume and 60 cm post-injection flow path length. The proposed FIA system had a sampling frequency of 100 samples per hour over a linear working range of 3-100 mg L -1 (R 2  = 0.9995). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.09% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.34 mg L -1 . Various nutrient solutions from a tomato-growing hydroponic greenhouse were analyzed with the developed FIA system and the results were found to be in good agreement with vanadomolybdate chemical method findings. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Approximate and analytical solutions for solute transport from an injection well into a single fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.S.; Yates, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    In dealing with problems related to land-based nuclear waste management, a number of analytical and approximate solutions were developed to quantify radionuclide transport through fractures contained in the porous formation. It has been reported that by treating the radioactive decay constant as the appropriate first-order rate constant, these solutions can also be used to study injection problems of a similar nature subject to first-order chemical or biological reactions. The fracture is idealized by a pair of parallel, smooth plates separated by an aperture of constant thickness. Groundwater was assumed to be immobile in the underlying and overlying porous formations due to their low permeabilities. However, the injected radionuclides were able to move from the fracture into the porous matrix by molecular diffusion (the matrix diffusion) due to possible concentration gradients across the interface between the fracture and the porous matrix. Calculation of the transient solutions is not straightforward, and the paper documents a contained Fortran program, which computes the Stehfest inversion, the Airy functions, and gives the concentration distributions in the fracture as well as in the porous matrix for both transient and steady-state cases

  8. Pressure injection of methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate hydrochloride solution as a control for Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garold F. Gregory; Thomas W. Jones

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of injecting methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate hydrochloride solution into elms for prevention or cure of Dutch elm disease is reported. Symptom development was diminished or prevented in elms injected with fungicide before inoculation. Symptom development was arrested in all crown-inoculated diseased trees injected with the...

  9. Method of solution mining subsurface orebodies to reduce restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, G.J.

    1984-01-24

    A method of solution mining is claimed wherein a lixiviant containing both leaching and oxidizing agents is injected into the subsurface orebody. The composition of the lixiviant is changed by reducing the level of oxidizing agent to zero so that soluble species continue to be removed from the subsurface environment. This reduces the uranium level of the ground water aquifer after termination of the lixiviant injection.

  10. The effect of injection of high K+ solution into scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, T; Ohmura, M; Yagi, N

    1987-01-01

    Thirty guinea pig ears were studied to investigate the effect of endolymphatic hydrops on the cochlea. High K+ solution was injected into the scala media, and cochlear microphonics (CM) and endocochlear potential (EP) were observed before, during and after the injection. The CM amplitude decreased rapidly after injection, ending in a depressed plateau value. By contrast, EP remained almost unchanged. By changing the composition of the solution it was suggested that the effect of the injection was mechanical one, rather than biochemical. In three ears, spontaneous recovery of CM was observed during a relatively long interval after the injection. The meaning of these findings for the hearing loss in Meniere's disease is discussed.

  11. A Novel Newborn Rat Kernicterus Model Created by Injecting a Bilirubin Solution into the Cisterna Magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sijie; Hu, Ying; Gu, Xianfang; Si, Feifei; Hua, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Kernicterus still occurs around the world; however, the mechanism of bilirubin neurotoxicity remains unclear, and effective treatment strategies are lacking. To solve these problems, several kernicterus (or acute bilirubin encephalopathy) animal models have been established, but these models are difficult and expensive. Therefore, the present study was performed to establish a novel kernicterus model that is simple and affordable by injecting unconjugated bilirubin solution into the cisterna magna (CM) of ordinary newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods On postnatal day 5, SD rat pups were randomly divided into bilirubin and control groups. Then, either bilirubin solution or ddH2O (pH = 8.5) was injected into the CM at 10 µg/g (bodyweight). For model characterization, neurobehavioral outcomes were observed, mortality was calculated, and bodyweight was recorded after bilirubin injection and weaning. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected by H&E staining, TUNEL, flow cytometry and Western blotting. When the rats were 28 days old, learning and memory ability were evaluated using the Morris water maze test. Results The bilirubin-treated rats showed apparently abnormal neurological manifestations, such as clenched fists, opisthotonos and torsion spasms. Bodyweight gain in the bilirubin-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the controls (Pbilirubin-treated rats were both dramatically higher than those of the controls (P = 0.004 and 0.017, respectively). Apoptosis and necrosis in the hippocampal nerve cells in the bilirubin-treated rats were observed. The bilirubin-treated rats performed worse than the controls on the Morris water maze test. Conclusion By injecting bilirubin into the CM, we successfully created a new kernicterus model using ordinary SD rats; the model mimics both the acute clinical manifestations and the chronic sequelae. In particular, CM injection is easy to perform; thus, more stable models for follow-up study are

  12. Surgical solutions for the complications of the Vaseline self-injection of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajory, Zoltán; Mohos, Gábor; Rosecker, Agnes; Bordás, Noémi; Pajor, László

    2013-04-01

    Penile girth enhancement by the injection of Vaseline is an existing practice. Many cases develop severe complications that need surgery. To report on the reconstructive surgical solutions of the complications of Vaseline self-injection and the outcomes. To develop a modification of a one-step reconstruction method involving the use of pedicled scrotal flaps. The complications and their surgical solutions were classified as regards severity and difficulty. The outcomes were observed and a newly introduced one-step surgical method was investigated. Seventy-eight consecutive patients (87.2% of them with a history of imprisonment) were divided into three groups. In group A, aesthetic penile defects or phimosis caused by the Vaseline necessitated circumcision or local excision. In group B, the whole penile skin was involved, and total skin removal and two- or (a newly modified) one-step reconstructive surgery were performed. In group C, both the whole penile skin and the scrotum were involved: complete skin removal and skin grafting or skin pedicled flap transplantation were carried out. In five cases in group B, postoperative skin necrosis made a second operation necessary. There was one intraoperative urethral injury, where a urethral fistula developed and a second urethral reconstruction was performed. There was no major complication with the newly developed one-stage pedicled flap procedure. At the end of the therapy, all the cases were healed. All of the patients reported successful sexual intercourse after the operations and 91% were satisfied with the result. The complications depend mainly on the amount of Vaseline injected, the hygienic circumstances, and the personal tolerability. In the worst cases, only radical skin removal and skin transplantation can solve the problem. The newly developed one-step arterial branch-preserving scrotal skin flap reconstruction appears to be a suitable and cost-effective solution for these patients. © 2013 International

  13. Secondary air injection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  14. In-use stability of enrofloxacin solution for injection in multi-dose containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šandor Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-use stability study in this paper was designed as far as possible to simulate the practical usage of multi-dose containers products in veterinary practice and to establish the influence of storage conditions on drug's quality. According to literature data, shelf-live of enrofloxacin solutions for injection tested in this study is 28 days after opening. In-use (open container stability testing of enrofloxacin injection solutions was studied during a period of 112 days, and the physical-chemical parameters and microbiological contamination were assessed. A spectrophotometric method was validated for the quantification of enrofloxacin. The validation method yielded good results and included the selectivity, linearity, intra-assay precision (1.26% RSD, inter-assay precision (1.52% RSD, limit of detection (0.18 μg/mL, limit of quantification (0.54 μg/mL and accuracy. The results of spectrophotometric analyses were presented as the mean drug concentration of enrofloxacin vs. time of sampling. The findings of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were in accordance with the producers' specifications and no extreme changes during prescribed storage occurred. The study was extended from the drug's proposed shelf-life after opening for the next 84 days and in that period no significant changes were recorded.

  15. Intradermal Alcian-Blue Injection Method to Trace Acupuncture Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeckkyoung Sung

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture. Methods : 1% Alcian blue solution was injected into acupoints by using a 0.5mL insulin syringe with a 31-gauge needle, then the skin was incised and was observed under a stereoscopic microscope. The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which was visualized with Alcian blue, existed in dermis layer and proceeded to hypodermis. In this structure, characteristic alignments of rod- shaped nuclei and 1-2μm sized DNA granules were observed. Furthermore, abundant blood capillary plexuses, peripheral nerve endings, and a corpusclelike structure(about 300μm in diameter were visualized in the skin tissues of acupoints. Conclusion : It was concluded that the specific threadlike and corpuscle-like structures corresponded to superficial Bonghan duct and corpuscle, respectively.

  16. Dependability validation by means of fault injection: method, implementation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlat, Jean

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation presents theoretical and practical results concerning the use of fault injection as a means for testing fault tolerance in the framework of the experimental dependability validation of computer systems. The dissertation first presents the state-of-the-art of published work on fault injection, encompassing both hardware (fault simulation, physical fault Injection) and software (mutation testing) issues. Next, the major attributes of fault injection (faults and their activation, experimental readouts and measures, are characterized taking into account: i) the abstraction levels used to represent the system during the various phases of its development (analytical, empirical and physical models), and Il) the validation objectives (verification and evaluation). An evaluation method is subsequently proposed that combines the analytical modeling approaches (Monte Carlo Simulations, closed-form expressions. Markov chains) used for the representation of the fault occurrence process and the experimental fault Injection approaches (fault Simulation and physical injection); characterizing the error processing and fault treatment provided by the fault tolerance mechanisms. An experimental tool - MESSALINE - is then defined and presented. This tool enables physical faults to be Injected In an hardware and software prototype of the system to be validated. Finally, the application of MESSALINE for testing two fault-tolerant systems possessing very dissimilar features and the utilization of the experimental results obtained - both as design feedbacks and for dependability measures evaluation - are used to illustrate the relevance of the method. (author) [fr

  17. Meat batter production in an extended vane pump-grinder injecting curing salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: variation of curing salt amount injected with the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Terjung, Eva-Maria; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump-grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0-100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages. The amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg -1 . Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L * ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a * from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b * from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump-grinder system by up to 23%. The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an 'ice-free' meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  19. Effect of warming anaesthetic solutions on pain during dental injection. A randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Christian Aravena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effectiveness of warming anesthetic solutions on pain produced during the administration of anesthesia in maxillary dental infiltration technique. Material and Methods: A double-blind cross-over clinical study was designed. Fifty-six volunteer students (mean age 23.1±2.71 years of the Dental School at Universidad Austral de Chile (Valdivia, Chile participated in the study. Subjects were given 0.9ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine (Alphacaine®; Nova DFL - Brazil by two punctions at buccal vestibule of lateral incisor. Warm anesthesia at 42°C (107.6°F was administered in a hemi-arch; and after one week anesthesia at room temperature (21°C; 69.8°F and at a standardized speed was administered at the contralateral side. The intensity of pain felt during injection was registered and compared using visual analog scale (VAS of 100mm (Wilcoxon test p<0.05. Results: The use of anesthesia at room temperature caused a VAS-pain intensity of 34.2±16.6mm, and anesthesia at 42°C a VAS-pain intensity of 15.7±17.4mm (p<0.0001. Conclusion: The use of anesthesia at 42°C resulted in a significantly lower pain intensity perception during injection compared with the use of anesthesia at room temperature during maxillary infiltration technique.

  20. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence induced by sequential hot electron and hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Kalle; Kuosmanen, Päivi; Pusa, Matti [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kulmala, Oskari [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 (Finland); Håkansson, Markus [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari, E-mail: sakari.kulmala@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-03-17

    Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution is proposed to occur when oxide-coated aluminum electrode is anodically pulse-polarized by a voltage pulse train containing sufficiently high-voltage anodic pulses. The effects of anodic pulses are studied by using an aromatic Tb(III) chelate as a probe known to produce intensive hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) with plain cathodic pulses and preoxidized electrodes. The presently studied system allows injection of hot electrons and holes successively into aqueous electrolyte solutions and can be utilized in detecting electrochemiluminescent labels in fully aqueous solutions, and actually, the system is suggested to be quite close to a pulse radiolysis system providing hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals as the primary radicals in aqueous solution without the problems and hazards of ionizing radiation. The analytical power of the present excitation waveforms are that they allow detection of electrochemiluminescent labels at very low detection limits in bioaffinity assays such as in immunoassays or DNA probe assays. The two important properties of the present waveforms are: (i) they provide in situ oxidation of the electrode surface resulting in the desired oxide film thickness and (ii) they can provide one-electron oxidants for the system by hole injection either via F- and F{sup +}-center band of the oxide or by direct hole injection to valence band of water at highly anodic pulse amplitudes. - Highlights: • Hot electrons injected into aqueous electrolyte solution. • Generation of hydrated electrons. • Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution. • Generation of hydroxyl radicals.

  1. Oral Mucosal Injection of a Local Anesthetic Solution Containing Epinephrine Enhances Muscle Relaxant Effects of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. PMID:22428970

  2. Efficient electron injection from solution-processed cesium stearate interlayers in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Najafi, A.; Kist, R. J. P.; Kuik, M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The electron-injection capability of solution-processed cesium stearate films in organic light-emitting diodes is investigated. Cesium stearate, which is expected to exhibit good solubility and film formation due to its long hydrocarbon chain, is synthesized using a straightforward procedure.

  3. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM....

  4. A simple method of injecting tumescent fluid for liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection of tumescent fluid is essential to obtain a painless and relatively bloodless liposuction. There are many methods of injecting the tumescent fluid like power pumps, syringes and pressure cuffs. Our method consists of applying air pressure within the plastic transfusion fluid bottle by pricking with a wide bore needle and connecting it to a sphygmomanometer balloon pump. By inflation of the balloon pump and thus increasing pressure inside the plastic bottle, the rate and volume of infusion can be controlled. By applying the cuff outside the bottle the visibility inside is impaired and the bottle gets collapsed preventing a continued pressure and thereby impairing both the quantity as well as the rate of infusion. Power pumps are expensive. This method is inexpensive, infused volume of fluid being visible and the rate of infusion controllable.

  5. Light extinction method on high-pressure diesel injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzay-Fa; El-Beshbeeshy, Mahmound S.; Corradini, Michael L.; Farrell, Patrick V.

    1995-09-01

    A two dimensional optical diagnostic technique based on light extinction was improved and demonstrated in an investigation of diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures. Traditional light extinction methods require the spray image to be perpendicular to the light path. In the improved light extinction scheme, a tilted spray image which has an angle with the light path is still capable of being processed. This technique utilizes high speed photography and digital image analysis to obtain qualitative and quantitative information of the spray characteristics. The injection system used was an electronically controlled common rail unit injector system with injection pressures up to 100 MPa. The nozzle of the injector was a mini-sac type with six holes on the nozzle tip. Two different injection angle nozzles, 125 degree(s) and 140 degree(s), producing an in-plane tilted spray and an out of plane tilted spray were investigated. The experiments were conducted on a constant volume spray chamber with the injector mounted tilted at an angle of 62.5 degree(s)$. Only one spray plume was viewed, and other sprays were free to inject to the chamber. The spray chamber was pressurized with argon and air under room temperature to match the combustion chamber density at the start of the injection. The experimental results show that the difference in the spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average Sauter mean diameter is small between the in- plane tilted spray and the out of plane tilted spray. The results also show that in-plane tilted spray has a slightly larger axial cross- section Sauter mean diameter than the out of plane tilted spray.

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.

  7. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  8. The filter of choice: filtration method preference among injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijzer Lenneke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use syringe filters (IDUSF are designed to prevent several complications related to the injection of drugs. Due to their small pore size, their use can reduce the solution's insoluble particle content and thus diminish the prevalence of phlebitis, talcosis.... Their low drug retention discourages from filter reuse and sharing and can thus prevent viral and microbial infections. In France, drug users have access to sterile cotton filters for 15 years and to an IDUSF (the Sterifilt® for 5 years. This study was set up to explore the factors influencing filter preference amongst injecting drug users. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through 241 questionnaires and the participation of 23 people in focus groups. Results Factors found to significantly influence filter preference were duration and frequency of injecting drug use, the type of drugs injected and subculture. Furthermore, IDU's rationale for the preference of one type of filter over others was explored. It was found that filter preference depends on perceived health benefits (reduced harms, prevention of vein damage, protection of injection sites, drug retention (low retention: better high, protective mechanism against the reuse of filters; high retention: filter reuse as a protective mechanism against withdrawal, technical and practical issues (filter clogging, ease of use, time needed to prepare an injection and believes (the conviction that a clear solution contains less active compound. Conclusion It was concluded that the factors influencing filter preference are in favour of change; a shift towards the use of more efficient filters can be made through increased availability, information and demonstrations.

  9. Exact solution for flow in a porous pipe with unsteady wall suction and/or injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, S.; Kondaxakis, D.; Vlachakis, N. W.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents an extension of the exact solution of the steady laminar axisymmetric flow in a straight pipe of circular cross section with porous wall, given by R.M. Terrill, to the case of unsteady wall injection and/or suction. The cases of the pulsating parabolic profile and of the developed pulsating flow are investigated as examples. The pulsating flow in porous ducts has many applications in biomedical engineering and in other engineering areas.

  10. Method of lines solution of Richards` equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.T.; Miller, C.T.; Tocci, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the method of lines solution of Richard`s equation, which models flow through porous media, as an example of a situation in which the method can give incorrect results because of premature termination of the nonlinear corrector iteration. This premature termination arises when the solution has a sharp moving front and the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. While this problem can be solved by tightening the tolerances provided to the ODE or DAE solver used for the temporal integration, it is more efficient to modify the termination criteria of the nonlinear solver and/or recompute the Jacobian more frequently. In this paper we continue previous work on this topic by analyzing the modifications in more detail and giving a strategy on how the modifications can be turned on and off in response to changes in the character of the solution.

  11. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  12. Algebraic methods for solution of polyhedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabitov, Idzhad Kh [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    By analogy with the solution of triangles, the solution of polyhedra means a theory and methods for calculating some geometric parameters of polyhedra in terms of other parameters of them. The main content of this paper is a survey of results on calculating the volumes of polyhedra in terms of their metrics and combinatorial structures. It turns out that a far-reaching generalization of Heron's formula for the area of a triangle to the volumes of polyhedra is possible, and it underlies the proof of the conjecture that the volume of a deformed flexible polyhedron remains constant. Bibliography: 110 titles.

  13. FINELY DISPERSED COMPOSITE BINDER FOR REINFORCING SOILS BY INJECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: we consider the problem of supplying the construction industry, in particular underground construction, with mineral binder for diluted aqueous suspensions that meet the requirements for reinforcement of low-strength sand and clastic soils by injections into the reinforced soil mass. Research objectives: substantiating possibility of using amorphous biosilica in combination with carbide sludge, whose particles size does not exceed 10 mm on average, as a binder for aqueous suspensions being injected. Materials and methods: as raw materials we used: common construction hydrated lime from “Stroimaterialy” JSC, Belgorod, hydrated lime in the form of carbide sludge from the dumps of Protvino plant (carbide sludge, hereafter, active mineral admixture biosilica from the group of companies “DIAMIX” and a plasticizer Sika viscocrete 5 new. Test methods are in accordance with applicable standards. To obtain samples of impregnated soils, a specially developed technique was used in the form of a unidirectional model. Results: properties of the composite binder prepared with different compositions are presented. The optimal component ratios are determined. The following properties of aqueous suspensions are studied: conditional viscosity, sedimentation and penetrating ability. Conditional viscosity is no more than 40 sec on average. Sedimentation does not exceed 1.2 %. Soil-concrete obtained by injection of a dilute aqueous suspension based on this composite binder has a compressive strength in the range from 4.44 to 12.5 MPa. Conclusions: utilization of finely dispersed composite mineral binder, which is based on interaction of amorphous silica with calcium hydroxide, as a binder for high penetration aqueous suspensions has been substantiated. This binder is not inferior to foreign analogues in terms of its strength and technological parameters and can be used for reinforcement of loose and low-strength soils. In case of using carbide

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  15. [Injectable hydrogel functionalised with thrombocyte-rich solution and microparticles for accelerated cartilage regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampichová, M; Buzgo, M; Křížková, B; Prosecká, E; Pouzar, M; Štrajtová, L

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects arise due to injury or osteochondral disease such as osteonecrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. In adult patients cartilage has minimal ability to repair itself and the lesions develop into degenerative arthritis. Overcoming the low regenerative capacity of the cartilage cells and the Hayflick limit poses a challenge for the therapy of osteochondral defects. Composite scaffolds with appropriate biomechanical properties combined with a suitable blend of proliferation and differentiation factors could be a solution. The aim of this in vitro study was to develop a novel functionalised hydrogel with an integrated drug delivery system stimulating articular cartilage regeneration. Injectable collagen/ hyaluronic acid/fibrin composite hydrogel was mixed with nanofibre-based microparticles. These were loaded with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone. In addition, the effect of thrombocyte-rich solution (TRS) was studied. The gels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultivated for 14 days. The viability, proliferation and morphology of the cells were evaluated using molecular and microscopic methods. Scaffold degradation was also assessed. The cultivation study showed that MSCs remained viable in all experimental groups, which indicated good biocompatibility of the gel. However, the number of cells in the groups enriched with microparticles was lower than in the other groups. On the other hand, confocal microscopy showed higher cell viability and rounded morphology of the cells, which can be associated with chodrogenic differentiation. The scaffolds containing microparticles showed significantly higher stability during the 14-day experiment. Our results suggest that the addition of microparticles to the scaffold improved cell differentiation into the chondrogenic lineage, resulting in a lower proliferation rate. Cell viability was better in the groups enriched with microparticles that served as an efficient drug delivery system. In

  16. Flow injection spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Tang; Taixing Yue; Lili Zhang; Junsen Wu; Zhenzhen Chen

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluorescent reagent, o-vanillin furoylhydrazone (OVFH), was synthesized, and its infrared spectrum, elemental analysis and dissociation constant are reported. The reaction between Cd 2+ and OVFH produces an intensely fluorescent complex in ethanol-water medium of pH 10.00, and this finding has led to a simple, rapid, and sensitive flow injection (FI) spectrofluorimetric method for on-line determination of Cd 2+ . Under the optimum experimental conditions, the fluorescent complex had excitation and emission maxima at 393 and 494 nm, respectively. The linear range is from 0.025 to 8.0 μg mL -1 of Cd 2+ , the detection limit is 7.6 μg L -1 and the maximum sampling rate is 80 h -1 . The effect of interferences was studied. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in environmental samples. (author)

  17. Method of injecting iron ion into reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuyuki; Sawa, Toshio; Nishino, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Tetsuro; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To form iron ions stably and inject them into nuclear reactor coolants with no substantial degradation of the severe water quality conditions for reactor coolants. Method: Iron ions are formed by spontaneous corrosion of iron type materials and electroconductivity is increased with the iron ions. Then, the liquids are introduced into an electrolysis vessel using iron type material as electrodes and, thereafter, incorporation of newly added ions other than the iron ions are prevented by supplying electric current. Further, by retaining the iron type material in the packing vessel by the magnetic force therein, only the iron ions are flow out substantially from the packing vessel while preventing the discharge of iron type materials per se or solid corrosion products and then introduced into the electrolysis vessel. Powdery or granular pure iron or carbon steel is used as the iron type material. Thus, iron ions and hydroxides thereof can be injected into coolants by using reactor water at low electroconductivity and incapable of electrolysis. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  19. Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Robert E.; Hansen, Brian N.

    1990-01-01

    A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

  20. Production of 67Ga citrate injection liquid with butylacetate extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yibing; Li Bo; Liu Peng; Pan Qiyuan; Liu Peihua; Wang Han; Feng Jingling

    1995-01-01

    The distribution ratios D for Ga(III) at trace concentration in the HCl-butylacetate extraction system are measured. It showed that the D in 6 mol/l HCl is 5 x 10 2 which is maximum in 3-8 mol/l HCl. The extraction rates E in 5.5-8 mol/l HCl at phase ratio of 1 are ≥98% and ≥96% respectively when the concentration of ZnCl 2 in the solution are 0 and ≤2 mol/l. A butylacetate extraction method for the production of 67 Ga citrate injection liquid from Zn target irradiated by proton beam is developed. The optimal acidity of extraction is 6 mol/l HCl. The concentration of ZnCl 2 is adjusted to ≤2.0 mol/l and the impurity of Fe(III) in solution is reduced to Fe(II) with 10% TiCl 3 before extraction. The 67 Ga in organic phase is then stripped with water. The radionuclidic purity of the product is 100% while the radiochemical purity >90%. The amounts of Zn, Ti, Fe, Cu, Cd and Pb in the injection are below or near 1 mg/l. The test of abnormal toxicity is negative. The quality of the injection meets the requirements of both the Chinese and the United States Pharmacopoeia. The chemical yield is (92 +- 2)% while the time of operation is <3 h

  1. Effect of injection pressure on heat release rate and emissions in CI engine using orange skin powder diesel solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, K.; Nagarajan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of injection pressure on the combustion process and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Orange Skin Powder Diesel Solution (OSPDS). Earlier investigation by the authors revealed that 30% OSPDS was optimum for better performance and emissions. In the present investigation the injection pressure was varied with 30% OSPDS and the combustion, performance and emissions characteristics were compared with those of diesel fuel. The different injection pressures studied were 215 bar, 235 bar and 255 bar. The results showed that the cylinder pressure with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar fuel injection pressure, was higher than that of diesel fuel as well as at other injection pressures. Similarly, the ignition delay was longer and with shorter combustion duration with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar injection pressure. The brake thermal efficiency was better at 235 bar than that of other fuel injection pressures with OSPDS and lower than that of diesel fuel. The NO x emission with 30% OSPDS was higher at 235 bar. The hydrocarbon and CO emissions were lower with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar. The smoke emission with 30% OSPDS was marginally lower at 235 bar and marginally higher at 215 bar than for diesel fuel. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine operating on the test fuels at 235 bar injection pressure were better than other injection pressures

  2. Exact solutions to some nonlinear PDEs, travelling profiles method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benhamidouche

    2008-04-01

    \\end{equation*} by a new method that we call the travelling profiles method. This method allows us to find several forms of exact solutions including the classical forms such as travelling-wave and self-similar solutions.

  3. Dispersal of radioisotope labelled solution following deep dermal injection in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, D W; Balan, K K; Burrows, N P; Hall, P N

    2000-06-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is the commonest inherited disorder of connective tissue, affecting around 10 000 patients in the UK. Patients with EDS have reported that local anaesthetic is often ineffective. Patients with less severe skin laxity often have the most problems. We have postulated that this resistance to local anaesthetics is not due to the lax connective tissues as is often assumed. This study used radioactively labelled solution ((99m)Tc-pertechnetate) administered as a deep dermal injection in the forearm. The rate of dispersal of isotope was measured over 60 min and found to be identical between six patients with EDS and three controls. The effects of local anaesthetics are complex and depend on the individual chemical properties of the agent and a number of tissue factors. This study would suggest that the lack of effectiveness of local anaesthetic solutions is not due to rapid dispersal of solution. It is unlikely therefore that its lack of effect can be compensated for by simply increasing the amount used. The diagnosis of EDS should be considered in any patient who complains unexpectedly of pain during their procedure, particularly when the surgeon knows that an adequate volume of local anaesthetic has been used. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  4. Improved radionuclide bone imaging agent injection needle withdrawal method can improve image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yongmei; Wang Laihao; Zhao Lihua; Guo Xiaogang; Kong Qingfeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the improvement of radionuclide bone imaging agent injection needle withdrawal method on whole body bone scan image quality. Methods: Elbow vein injection syringe needle directly into the bone imaging agent in the routine group of 117 cases, with a cotton swab needle injection method for the rapid pull out the needle puncture point pressing, pressing moment. Improvement of 117 cases of needle injection method to put two needles into the skin swabs and blood vessels, pull out the needle while pressing two or more entry point 5min. After 2 hours underwent whole body bone SPECT imaging plane. Results: The conventional group at the injection site imaging agents uptake rate was 16.24%, improved group was 2.56%. Conclusion: The modified bone imaging agent injection needle withdrawal method, injection-site imaging agent uptake were significantly decreased whole body bone imaging can improve image quality. (authors)

  5. Injection locking method for Raman beams in atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Fei; Deng, Jianing; Zeng, Daji; Li, Tong; Sun, Mingli; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel method to generate two phase-locked beams with a frequency offset of 6.834 GHz. The output of the master laser is firstly modulated by an electric optical modulator (EOM), and then further injected into an Extended Cavity Diode Lasers (ECDL) which is used to filter out the unwanted mode and amplify the laser power. By locking to the first-order lower sideband of the modulated master laser, the average variance of the phase fluctuations is 5.6 x 10-3 rad2 , which implies phase coherence of 99.44% between the master laser and the slave ECDL. The line width of the beat notes is less than 1Hz. For the long term stability, with the delicate design of the electronic controller in ECDL, the phase coherence of the two laser beams can be stabilized over 200 hours without any adjustment. The Raman system is applicable for gravity detection with a preliminary sensitivity Δg/g of 4.5 x 10-7 for interrogation time of 1500 s.

  6. Solution of the porous media equation by Adomian's decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, Serdal

    2005-01-01

    The particular exact solutions of the porous media equation that usually occurs in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer, and in biological systems are obtained using Adomian's decomposition method. Also, numerical comparison of particular solutions in the decomposition method indicate that there is a very good agreement between the numerical solutions and particular exact solutions in terms of efficiency and accuracy

  7. Stopped-flow injection spectrophotometric method for determination of chlorate in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroon Jakmunee

    2008-01-01

    A stopped-flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure based on iodometric reaction for the determination of chlorate has been developed. Standard/sample was injected into a stream of potassium iodide solution and then merged with a stream of hydrochloric acid solution to produce triiodide. By stopping the flow while the sample zone is being in a mixing coil, a slow reaction of chlorate with iodide in acidic medium was promoted to proceed with minimal dispersion of the triiodide product z...

  8. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  9. Fault injection as a test method for an FPGA in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Roed, K; Richter, M; Fehlker, D; Helstrup, H; Alme, J; Ullaland, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how fault injection has been implemented as a test method for an FPGA in an existing hardware configuration setup. As this FPGA is in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector, the reliability of this FPGA is of high importance. Due to the complexity of the readout electronics, irradiation testing is technically difficult at this stage of the system commissioning. The work presented in this paper is therefore motivated by introducing fault injection as an alternative method to characterize failures caused by SEUs. It is a method to study the effect that a configuration upset may have on the operation of the FPGA. The target platform consists of two independent modules for data acquisition and detector control functionality. Fault injection to test the response of the data acquisition module is made possible by implementing the solution as part of the detector control functionality. Correct implementation is validated by a simple shift register design. Our results demonstrate th...

  10. Media-fill simulation tests in manual and robotic aseptic preparation of injection solutions in syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Irene; Federici, Matteo; Kaiser, Vanessa; Thiesen, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination rate of media-fill products either prepared automated with a robotic system (APOTECAchemo™) or prepared manually at cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom environment and by experienced operators. Media fills were completed by microbiological environmental control in the critical zones and used to validate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the robotic system. The aseptic preparation of patient individual ready-to-use injection solutions was simulated by using double concentrated tryptic soy broth as growth medium, water for injection and plastic syringes as primary packaging materials. Media fills were either prepared automated (500 units) in the robot or manually (500 units) in cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom over a period of 18 working days. The test solutions were incubated at room temperature (22℃) over 4 weeks. Products were visually inspected for turbidity after a 2-week and 4-week period. Following incubation, growth promotion tests were performed with Staphylococcus epidermidis. During the media-fill procedures, passive air monitoring was performed with settle plates and surface monitoring with contact plates on predefined locations as well as fingerprints. The plates got incubated for 5-7 days at room temperature, followed by 2-3 days at 30-35℃ and the colony forming units (cfu) counted after both periods. The robot was cleaned and disinfected according to the established standard operating procedure on two working days prior to the media-fill session, while on six other working days only six critical components were sanitized at the end of the media-fill sessions. Every day UV irradiation was operated for 4 h after finishing work. None of the 1000 media-fill products prepared in the two different settings showed turbidity after the incubation period thereby indicating no contamination with microorganisms. All products remained uniform, clear, and light

  11. High Bandwidth Zero Voltage Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xie; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2014-01-01

    High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses to be inj......High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses...... in a fast current regulation performance. Injection of zero voltage also minimizes the inverter voltage error effects caused by the dead-time....

  12. The activity-integrated method for quality assessment of reduning injection by on-line DPPH-CE-DAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xu Chang

    Full Text Available A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE-DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection.

  13. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  14. Stopped-flow injection spectrophotometric method for determination of chlorate in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Jakmunee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A stopped-flow injection (FI spectrophotometric procedure based on iodometric reaction for the determination of chlorate has been developed. Standard/sample was injected into a stream of potassium iodide solution and then merged with a stream of hydrochloric acid solution to produce triiodide. By stopping the flow while the sample zone is being in a mixing coil, a slow reaction of chlorate with iodide in acidic medium was promoted to proceed with minimal dispersion of the triiodide product zone. When the flow started again, a concentrated product zone was pushed into a flow cell and a signal profile due to light absorption of the product was recorded. Employing a lab-built semi-automatic stopped-FI analyser, the analysis can be performed with higher degree of automation and low chemical consumption. Linear calibration graph in the range of 5-50 mg ClO3- L-1 was obtained, with detection limit of 1.4 mg ClO3- L-1. Relative standard deviation of 2.2% (30 mg ClO3- L-1, n=10 and sample throughput of about 20 h-1 were achieved. The system was applied to soil samples and validated by batch spectrophotometric and standard titrimetric methods.

  15. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is not superior to saline solution injection for ankle arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Henry; Uzunishvili, Sofia; Weir, Robert; Al-omari, Ali; Gomes, Bruna

    2012-01-04

    Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid are potentially useful to treat ankle osteoarthritis, yet their effectiveness has not been proven. Both single and multiple-dose treatments for ankle arthritis with use of various hyaluronic acid products have been recommended, but few high-quality studies have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a single intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid with a single intra-articular injection of normal saline solution (placebo) for osteoarthritis of the ankle. Sixty-four patients with ankle osteoarthritis who met all study criteria were randomly assigned to a single intra-articular injection of 2.5 mL of low-molecular-weight, non-cross-linked hyaluronic acid or a single intra-articular injection of 2.5 mL of normal saline solution. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) clinical rating score at the six-week and twelve-week follow-up examination. Secondary outcome measures included the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale score and patient-reported pain with use of a visual analog pain scale. Of the sixty-four patients randomized and treated, eight patients withdrew, leaving fifty-six patients who completed the entire study. There was one mild adverse event (1.6%) among the sixty-four patients. At six weeks and twelve weeks, the mean AOFAS scores in the hyaluronic acid group had improved from baseline by 4.9 and 4.9 points, respectively, whereas the mean AOFAS scores in the placebo group initially worsened by 0.4 point at six weeks and then improved by 5.4 points at twelve weeks. While the change at twelve weeks from baseline was substantial for both groups, the between-group differences were not significant. We found that a single intra-articular injection of low-molecular-weight, non-cross-linked hyaluronic acid is not demonstrably superior to a single intra-articular injection of saline solution for the treatment of

  16. Measured emittance dependence on injection method in laser plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Samuel; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Lehe, Remi; Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    The success of many laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot transverse emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock induced density down-ramp injection. Notably, the measurements reveal that ionization injection results in significantly higher emittance. With the down-ramp injection configuration, emittances less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV were measured. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1415596, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  17. The present state of research into plasma heating and injection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages recognized by the Advisory Group on Heating and injection for twelve plasma heating and injection methods currently under investigation in Europe are related. The heating and injection requirements of four reference reactor designs are previously defined. The problems which arise when one attempts to extrapolate existing work towards the reactor goal are emphasized. Two refuelling methods not directly linked with the heating problem are discussed. The experiments in operation or under construction in Europe in which each method is investigated are listed. Sixteen working papers which served as a basis for the Advisory Group discussion and which cover all the heating and injection methods examined are included

  18. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  19. Method of processing plutonium and uranium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Isao; Suzuki, Toru.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of plutonium nitrate solutions and uranyl nitrate recovered in the solvent extraction step in reprocessing plants and nuclear fuel production plants are applied with low temperature treatment by means of freeze-drying under vacuum into residues containing nitrates, which are denitrated under heating and calcined under reduction into powders. That is, since complicate processes of heating, concentration and dinitration conducted so far for the plutonium solution and uranyl solution are replaced with one step of freeze-drying under vacuum, the process can be simplified significantly. In addition, since the treatment is applied at low temperature, occurrence of corrosion for the material of evaporation, etc. can be prevented. Further, the number of operators can be saved by dividing the operations into recovery of solidification products, supply and sintering of the solutions and vacuum sublimation. Further, since nitrates processed at a low temperature are powderized by heating dinitration, the powderization step can be simplified. The specific surface area and the grain size distribution of the powder is made appropriate and it is possible to obtain oxide powders of physical property easily to be prepared into pellets. (N.H.)

  20. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-02-21

    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein the fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.

  1. Stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlage, Kelly; Earhart, Zachary; Green-Boesen, Kelly; Myrdal, Paul B

    2011-08-15

    The stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefin bags under varying conditions was evaluated. Triplicate solutions of midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL were prepared in polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags by diluting midazolam hydrochloride injection 5 mg/mL with 5% dextrose injection. Bags were then stored under refrigeration (3-4 °C), exposed to light at room temperature (20-25 °C), or protected from light in amber bags at room temperature. Samples were taken immediately after preparation (day 0) and on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 13, 20, and 27 for analysis with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay in order to determine solution concentration. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial drug concentration. The pH of each solution was also measured weekly. Sterility of the i.v. bags was determined at the end of the study by microbiological testing with culture in growth media. Differences in concentrations under the various storage conditions and bags used were analyzed using analysis of variance. All solutions retained over 98% of the initial midazolam hydrochloride concentration, with no statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05) change in concentration over the four-week period. Stability was not affected by temperature, exposure to light, or bag type. The pH of all solutions remained between 3.2 and 3.4 throughout the study. Sterility after 28 days was retained. Midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL solutions diluted in 5% dextrose injection remained stable over 27 days in both polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags, regardless of storage condition.

  2. The study of two methods for high pressure injection in CT enhancement to display the aortic dissecting aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Zhu Bin; Zhang Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the consequences of two different methods of high pressure injection in CT contrast enhancement to display the aortic dissecting aneurysm. Methods: 100 patients underwent Lightspeed 16 MS CT with contrast enhancement of Stellant D high pressure injector (Medrad), injecting speed of 4.0 mL/s and 80 ml dosage of contrast medium. All patients were divided into A and B groups with 50 in each. The single high pressure injection was applied to A group without isotonic Na chloride flush. B group underwent the same high pressure injection and followed by isotonic Na chloride flush. The method of evaluation was carried out by double blind observation. Results: A group revealed radiologic artifact up to 40 cases with positive rate of 80%. B group demonstrated the same kind of radiologic artifact in 26 cases with positive rate of 52%. Conclusions: Using normal saline (sodium chloride solution)flush after high pressure injection of contrast medium during MSCT angiography is obviously better to demonstrate the internal structures of treatvessels. (authors)

  3. Development of flow injection method for indirect copper determination with amperometric detection in drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Mandić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-diffusion flow injection method with amperometric detection for indirect copper determination on a silver electrode is developed. The flow through system is equipped with two injection valves and a gas-diffusion unit. In the first step, a signal of cyanide solution was recorded. In the following step a signal of cyanide in the presence of copper was measured. Interferences (Cd(II, Co(II, Ag(I, Ni(II, Fe(III, Hg(II and Zn(II were investigated and successfully removed. The calibration graph is linear in the range 1-90 μmol dm-3 of copper, correlation coefficient is 0.993, the regression equation is I = (0.0455±0.0015c + (0.4611±0.0671, I is relative signal decrease in μA and c is concentration in μmol dm-3. Relative standard deviation for six consecutive injections of 30 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 1.47 % and for 1 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 3.40 %. The detection limit, calculated as 3 s/m (where s is a standard deviation of nine measurement of a reagent blank and m is the slope of the calibration curve, was 0.32 μmol dm-3, which corresponds to 2.44 ng of copper(II (loop volume was 0.12 cm3. The method enables 60 analyses per hour and it was successfully applied on determination of copper in drinking water samples. [Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, Project number 172051

  4. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARABULUT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

  5. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  6. Method and means for repairing injection fuel pump pistons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ash, E.G.; Tompkins, M.J. Jr.

    1988-06-07

    This patent describes an improvement in timing pistons for rotary fuel injection pumps of the type having a die cast aluminum housing. The housing has a cylindrical chamber, a steel piston, the piston being received in the chamber, means for reciprocating the piston lengthwise of the chamber, an aluminum jacket surrounding the piston and extending the full length thereof, the jacket being rigidly secured to the piston. The jacket has an exterior surface hard coat anodized to the hardness of about 60-70 Rockwell (C scale) as the means of preventing galling due to the reciprocal movement of the aluminum jacket piston within the aluminum chamber.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the GnRH Analogs in the Form of Solution and Zn2+-Suspension After Single Subcutaneous Injection in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszka-Świtek, Aleksandra; Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Dec, Renata; Danch, Alojzy; Filipczyk, Łukasz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Although many synthetic gonadoliberin analogs have been developed, only a few of them, including buserelin, were introduced into clinical practice. Dalarelin, which differs from buserelin by just one aminoacid in the position 6 (D-Ala), is not widely used so far. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are used to treat many different illnesses and are available in different forms like solution for injection, nasal spray, microspheres, etc. Unfortunately, none of the above drug formulations can release the hormones for 24 h. We assumed that classical suspension could solve this problem. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first one, buserelin and dalarelin were injected into mature female rats in two forms: suspension, in which the analogs are bounded by Zn 2+ ions and solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of the analogs were calculated, based on their concentration in the plasma measured by high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the second experiment, the hormones in two different forms were injected into superovulated immature female rats and then the concentration of Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17β-estradiol in the serum was measured by radioimmunological method. The Extent of Biological Availability (EBA), calculated on the base of AUC 0-∞ , showed that in the form of solution buserelin and dalarelin display, respectively, only 13 and 8 % of biological availability of their suspension counterparts. Comparing both analogs, the EBA of dalarelin was half (53 %) that of buserelin delivered in the form of solution and 83 % when they were delivered in the form of suspension. The injection of buserelin or dalarelin, in the form of solution or suspension, into superovulated female rats increased LH, FSH and estradiol concentration in the serum. However, after injection of the analogs in the form of suspension, the high concentration of LH and FSH in the serum persisted

  8. Perturbation method for periodic solutions of nonlinear jerk equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.

    2008-01-01

    A Lindstedt-Poincare type perturbation method with bookkeeping parameters is presented for determining accurate analytical approximate periodic solutions of some third-order (jerk) differential equations with cubic nonlinearities. In the process of the solution, higher-order approximate angular frequencies are obtained by Newton's method. A typical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed method

  9. Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Adachi, Michihiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 200 0 C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 60 0 C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 60 0 C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

  10. [Comparative study on four kinds of assessment methods of post-marketing safety of Danhong injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelin; Tang, Jinfa; Meng, Fei; Li, Chunxiao; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    To study the adverse reaction of Danhong injection with four kinds of methods, central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and spontaneous reporting method, and to compare the differences between them, explore an appropriate method to carry out post-marketing safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine injection. Set down the adverse reactions' questionnaire of four kinds of methods, central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and collect the information on adverse reactions in a certain period. Danhong injection adverse reaction information from Henan Province spontaneous reporting system was collected with spontaneous reporting method. Carry on data summary and descriptive analysis. Study the adverse reaction of Danhong injection with four methods of central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and spontaneous reporting method, the rates of adverse events were 0.993%, 0.336%, 0.515%, 0.067%, respectively. Cyanosis, arrhythmia, hypotension, sweating, erythema, hemorrhage dermatitis, rash, irritability, bleeding gums, toothache, tinnitus, asthma, elevated aminotransferases, constipation, pain are new discovered adverse reactions. The central monitoring method is the appropriate method to carry out post-marketing safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine injection, which could objectively reflect the real world of clinical usage.

  11. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  12. Determination of solute descriptors by chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, Colin F.; Atapattu, Sanka N.; Poole, Salwa K.; Bell, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    The solvation parameter model is now well established as a useful tool for obtaining quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical, biomedical and environmental processes. The model correlates a free-energy related property of a system to six free-energy derived descriptors describing molecular properties. These molecular descriptors are defined as L (gas-liquid partition coefficient on hexadecane at 298 K), V (McGowan's characteristic volume), E (excess molar refraction), S (dipolarity/polarizability), A (hydrogen-bond acidity), and B (hydrogen-bond basicity). McGowan's characteristic volume is trivially calculated from structure and the excess molar refraction can be calculated for liquids from their refractive index and easily estimated for solids. The remaining four descriptors are derived by experiment using (largely) two-phase partitioning, chromatography, and solubility measurements. In this article, the use of gas chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and two-phase partitioning for determining solute descriptors is described. A large database of experimental retention factors and partition coefficients is constructed after first applying selection tools to remove unreliable experimental values and an optimized collection of varied compounds with descriptor values suitable for calibrating chromatographic systems is presented. These optimized descriptors are demonstrated to be robust and more suitable than other groups of descriptors characterizing the separation properties of chromatographic systems.

  13. Determination of solute descriptors by chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Atapattu, Sanka N; Poole, Salwa K; Bell, Andrea K

    2009-10-12

    The solvation parameter model is now well established as a useful tool for obtaining quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical, biomedical and environmental processes. The model correlates a free-energy related property of a system to six free-energy derived descriptors describing molecular properties. These molecular descriptors are defined as L (gas-liquid partition coefficient on hexadecane at 298K), V (McGowan's characteristic volume), E (excess molar refraction), S (dipolarity/polarizability), A (hydrogen-bond acidity), and B (hydrogen-bond basicity). McGowan's characteristic volume is trivially calculated from structure and the excess molar refraction can be calculated for liquids from their refractive index and easily estimated for solids. The remaining four descriptors are derived by experiment using (largely) two-phase partitioning, chromatography, and solubility measurements. In this article, the use of gas chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and two-phase partitioning for determining solute descriptors is described. A large database of experimental retention factors and partition coefficients is constructed after first applying selection tools to remove unreliable experimental values and an optimized collection of varied compounds with descriptor values suitable for calibrating chromatographic systems is presented. These optimized descriptors are demonstrated to be robust and more suitable than other groups of descriptors characterizing the separation properties of chromatographic systems.

  14. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  15. Variation Iteration Method for The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we considered the numerical solution of the nonlinear Burgers equation using the Variational Iteration Method (VIM). The method seeks to examine the convergence of solutions of the Burgers equation at the expense of the parameters x and t of which the amount of errors depends. Numerical experimentation ...

  16. expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear. Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (G /G)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with. Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary ...

  17. The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified. Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled. KdV system. This method is extremely simple ...

  18. Approximate solution methods in engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresi, A.P.; Cong, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is a short book of 147 pages including references and sometimes bibliographies at the end of each chapter, and subject and author indices at the end of the book. The test includes an introduction of 3 pages, 29 pages explaining approximate analysis, 41 pages on finite differences, 36 pages on finite elements, and 17 pages on specialized methods

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakoza, G.N.; Grigor'eva, O.L.; Mart'yanova, B.M.; Vorob'eva, E.N.; Kuznetsova, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  20. One-Dimensional Modelling of Polymer Flood Performance. Analytical and Graphical Solutions Modélisation de l'efficacité du déplacement unidimensionnel par injection de polymères. Solutions analytiques et graphiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grattoni C. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A graphical method for simulating linear polymer flooding is proposed. The method is based upon the analytical solution of Darcy's law and continuity equation which describe the two-phase, one-dimensional, incompressible flow of oil and polymer solution through the reservoir rock. Continuous polymer injection and polymer slug injection are considered. Several physical mechanisms determining microscopic displacement efficiency are taken into account: resistance factor, residual resistance factor, retention composed by adsorption and mechanical entrapment, and inaccessible pore volume. Other properties are not considered: mixing and dispersion, shear and thermal degradation. This analytical-graphical model closely reproduces linear laboratory oil displacement experiments. Consequently, it can be used by the Field Engineer to rapidly estimate the additional oil recoverable by a linear polymer flood. On propose dans cet article une méthode graphique de simulation de l'injection de polymères dans le cas unidimensionnel. Cette méthode est basée sur la solution analytique de la loi de Darcy et de l'équation de continuité qui décrivent l'écoulement diphasique incompressible unidimen-sionnel d'huile et d'une solution de polymères à travers la roche réservoir. On examine l'injection continue et l'injection de bouchons de polymères. On prend en compte plusieurs mécanismes physiques qui déterminent l'efficacité du déplacement microscopique : facteur de ré-sistance, facteur de résistance résiduel, rétention due à l'adsorption et au piégeage mécanique et, enfin, volume des pores inacessibles. On ne tient pas compte des autres propriétés : mélange et dispersion, dégradation mécanique et thermique. Ce modèle analytique et graphique reproduit très directement les expériences de laboratoire de déplacement d'huile en milieu unidimensionnel. II peut donc être utilisé par l'ingénieur de chantier pour une estimation rapide de l

  1. Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance

  2. A New High Frequency Injection Method Based on Duty Cycle Shifting without Maximum Voltage Magnitude Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    The conventional high frequency signal injection method is to superimpose a high frequency voltage signal to the commanded stator voltage before space vector modulation. Therefore, the magnitude of the voltage used for machine torque production is limited. In this paper, a new high frequency...... amplitude. This may be utilized to develop new position estimation algorithm without involving the inductance in the medium to high speed range. As an application example, a developed inductance independent position estimation algorithm using the proposed high frequency injection method is applied to drive...... injection method, in which high frequency signal is generated by shifting the duty cycle between two neighboring switching periods, is proposed. This method allows injecting a high frequency signal at half of the switching frequency without the necessity to sacrifice the machine fundamental voltage...

  3. Intelligent methods for the process parameter determination of plastic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huang; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Xundao; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely used material processing methods in producing plastic products with complex geometries and high precision. The determination of process parameters is important in obtaining qualified products and maintaining product quality. This article reviews the recent studies and developments of the intelligent methods applied in the process parameter determination of injection molding. These intelligent methods are classified into three categories: Case-based reasoning methods, expert system- based methods, and data fitting and optimization methods. A framework of process parameter determination is proposed after comprehensive discussions. Finally, the conclusions and future research topics are discussed.

  4. Approximate solution fuzzy pantograph equation by using homotopy perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, A. F.; Saaban, A.; Ahadkulov, H.; Alipiah, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is modified and formulated to find the approximate solution for its employment to solve (FDDEs) involving a fuzzy pantograph equation. The solution that can be obtained by using HPM is in the form of infinite series that converge to the actual solution of the FDDE and this is one of the benefits of this method In addition, it can be used for solving high order fuzzy delay differential equations directly without reduction to a first order system. Moreover, the accuracy of HPM can be detected without needing the exact solution. The HPM is studied for fuzzy initial value problems involving pantograph equation. Using the properties of fuzzy set theory, we reformulate the standard approximate method of HPM and obtain the approximate solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for third order fuzzy pantograph equation.

  5. A similar solution for an unsteady free convection flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with mass transfer and suction or injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1990-12-01

    A similar solution for the flow past a vertical plate started impulsively in its own plane in a viscous incompressible fluid is presented on taking into account the effects of variable suction and/or injection and mass transfer. To solve the momentum, energy and concentration equations, a time dependent length scale is introduced, which leads to the driving parameters γ(=G r /R σ 2 ) and γ*(=G r */R σ 2 ), where G r and G r * are respectively the Grashof and modified Grashof numbers while R σ is the Reynolds number. The resulting locally similar momentum equation is then solved by the method of superposition. The effects of the parameters and that of suction/injection on the flow and on the wall shear-stress of the plate are shown graphically for different values of Schmidt number and transpiration parameter. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs

  6. Viscous-shock-layer solutions with coupled radiation and ablation injection for earth entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Moos, James N.; Sutton, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    Results are obtained for the forebody of a planetary exploration vehicle entering the earth's atmosphere. A viscous-shock-layer analysis is used assuming the flow to be laminar and in chemical equilibrium. Presented results include coupled radiation and ablation injection. This study further includes the effect of different transport and thermodynamic properties and radiation models. A Lewis number of 1.4 appears adequate for the radiation-dominated flows. Five velocities corresponding to different possible trajectory points at an altitude of 70 km have been further analyzed in detail. Sublimation and radiative equilibrium wall temperatures are employed for cases with and without coupled injection, respectively. For the cases analyzed here, the mass injection rates are small. However, the rates could become large if a lower altitude is used for aerobraking and/or the body size is increased. A comparison of the equilibrium results with finite-rate chemistry calculation shows the flowfield to be in chemical equilibrium.

  7. CFD code verification and the method of manufactured solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, D.; Roache, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) for CFD code verification. The MMS provides benchmark solutions for direct evaluation of the solution error. The best benchmarks are exact analytical solutions with sufficiently complex solution structure to ensure that all terms of the differential equations are exercised in the simulation. The MMS provides a straight forward and general procedure for generating such solutions. When used with systematic grid refinement studies, which are remarkably sensitive, the MMS provides strong code verification with a theorem-like quality. The MMS is first presented on simple 1-D examples. Manufactured solutions for more complex problems are then presented with sample results from grid convergence studies. (author)

  8. Optimisation-Based Solution Methods for Set Partitioning Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel

    The scheduling of crew, i.e. the construction of work schedules for crew members, is often not a trivial task, but a complex puzzle. The task is complicated by rules, restrictions, and preferences. Therefore, manual solutions as well as solutions from standard software packages are not always su......_cient with respect to solution quality and solution time. Enhancement of the overall solution quality as well as the solution time can be of vital importance to many organisations. The _elds of operations research and mathematical optimisation deal with mathematical modelling of di_cult scheduling problems (among...... other topics). The _elds also deal with the development of sophisticated solution methods for these mathematical models. This thesis describes the set partitioning model which has been widely used for modelling crew scheduling problems. Integer properties for the set partitioning model are shown...

  9. Nonclassical pseudospectral method for the solution of brachistochrone problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipanah, A.; Razzaghi, M.; Dehghan, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, nonclassical pseudospectral method is proposed for solving the classic brachistochrone problem. The brachistochrone problem is first formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Properties of nonclassical pseudospectral method are presented, these properties are then utilized to reduce the computation of brachistochrone problem to the solution of algebraic equations. Using this method, the solution to the brachistochrone problem is compared with those in the literature

  10. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E

    2017-08-01

    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  11. On numerical solution of Burgers' equation by homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the Homotopy Analysis Method (shortly HAM) for obtaining the numerical solution of the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation. The initial approximation can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions. Convergence of the solution and effects for the method is discussed. The comparison of the HAM results with the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the results of [E.N. Aksan, Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 884; S. Kutluay, A. Esen, Int. J. Comput. Math. 81 (2004) 1433; S. Abbasbandy, M.T. Darvishi, Appl. Math. Comput. 163 (2005) 1265] are made. The results reveal that HAM is very simple and effective. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter h, which provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical and some numerical solutions

  12. The Riemann Solution for the Injection of Steam and Nitrogen in a Porous Medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Marchesin, D.; Bruining, J.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the model for the flow of nitrogen, vapor, and water in a porous medium, neglecting compressibility, heat conductivity, and capillary effects. Our choice of injection conditions is determined by the application to clean up polluted sites. We study all mathematical structures, such as

  13. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  14. An evaluation of solutions to moment method of biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected solutions of moment method in respect to Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) kinetics with the aim of ascertain error free solution. Domestic - institutional wastewaters were collected two - weekly for three months from waste - stabilization ponds in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile - Ife.

  15. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions : framework and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business

  16. Physical Fault Injection and Monitoring Methods for Programmable Devices

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00510096; Ferencei, Jozef

    A method of detecting faults for evaluating the fault cross section of any field programmable gate array (FPGA) was developed and is described in the thesis. The incidence of single event effects in FPGAs was studied for different probe particles (proton, neutron, gamma) using this method. The existing accelerator infrastructure of the Nuclear Physics Institute in Rez was supplemented by more sensitive beam monitoring system to ensure that the tests are done under well defined beam conditions. The bit cross section of single event effects was measured for different types of configuration memories, clock signal phase and beam energies and intensities. The extended infrastructure served also for radiation testing of components which are planned to be used in the new Inner Tracking System (ITS) detector of the ALICE experiment and for selecting optimal fault mitigation techniques used for securing the design of the FPGA-based ITS readout unit against faults induced by ionizing radiation.

  17. Hydrogen/oxygen injection stopping method for nuclear power plant and emergent hydrogen/oxygen injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ryoichi; Ota, Masamoto; Takagi, Jun-ichi; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for suppressing increase of electroconductivity of reactor water during operation of a BWR type reactor, upon occurrence of reactor scram of the plant or upon stopping of hydrogen/oxygen injection due to emergent stoppage of an injection device so as not to deteriorate the integrity of a gas waste processing system upon occurrence of scram. Namely, when injection of hydrogen/oxygen is stopped during plant operation, the injection amount of hydrogen is reduced gradually. Subsequently, injection of hydrogen is stopped. With such procedures, the increase of electroconductivity of reactor water can be suppressed upon stoppage of hydrogen injection. When injection of hydrogen/oxygen is stopped upon shut down of the plant, the amount of hydrogen injection is changed depending on the change of the feedwater flow rate, and then the plant is shut down while keeping hydrogen concentration of feedwater to a predetermined value. With such procedures, increase of the reactor water electroconductivity can be suppressed upon stoppage of hydrogen injection. Upon emergent stoppage of the hydrogen/oxygen injection device, an emergent hydrogen/oxygen injection device is actuated to continue the injection of hydrogen/oxygen. With such procedures, elevation of reactor water electroconductivity can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  18. Transport of nonintrinsic impurities injected by laser blow-off method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport of nonintrinsic impurities injected by laser blow-off method is theoretically described by solving the two-dimensional (radial and toroidal) time dependent equations of diffusion in the edge plasmas of a tokamak. Explicit expressions and evaluation procedures are given for the calculation of the density profile, temperature profile and the diffusion coefficients for the atoms injected and for the ions formed from the injected atoms from the two-dimensional intensity distribution of line radiation of two sorts of atom and ions formed from the atoms measured by a (matrix) CCD camera time resolved. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of Reusable Crucibles on Uranium Casting by Injection Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2014-01-01

    Slurry applied coatings must be recoated after every batch. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel. Plasma-sprayed coating can provide a crucible with a denser, more durable, coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense from the heat applied by the plasma. Although the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating, the increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent recoating or U-Zr melt penetration. In this study, we used a Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) method, which is suitable to prevent oxidization and has a number of advantages such as low defect density and excellent adhesion of the coating layer, to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel. After coatings, interaction studies between molten U-Zr alloys and the plasma sprayed coatings were also carried out. We summarized the results of the coating methods. All coated samples maintained good coating integrity in a U-Zr melt, but most of the coating method samples did not maintain integrity in the U-Zr-RE melt because of the cracks or microcracks of the coating layer, presumably formed from the thermal expansion difference. Only the TaC(100)-Y 2 O 3 (100) DL VPS coated rod survived the 2 cycles dipping test of U-Zr-RE melt. This is likely caused by good adhesion of the TaC coating onto the niobium rod and the chemical inertness of Y 2 O 3 coating material in the U-Zr-RE melt. Based on the results from the interactions with U-10Zr and U-10Zr-5RE melt, TaC(100)-Y 2 O 3 (100) plasma-sprayed coating methods have been applied to real graphite crucibles

  20. Instability of Wind Turbine Converters during Current Injection to Low Voltage Grid Faults and PLL Frequency Based Stability Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    In recent grid codes for wind power integration, wind turbines are required to stay connected during grid faults even when the grid voltage drops down to zero; and also to inject reactive current in proportion to the voltage drop. However, a physical fact, instability of grid-connected converters...... during current injection to very low (close to zero) voltage faults, has been omitted, i.e., failed to be noticed in the previous wind power studies and grid code revisions. In this paper, the instability of grid side converters of wind turbines defined as loss of synchronism (LOS), where the wind...... turbines lose synchronism with the grid fundamental frequency (e.g., 50 Hz) during very deep voltage sags, is explored with its theory, analyzed and a novel stability solution based on PLL frequency is proposed; and both are verified with power system simulations and by experiments on a grid...

  1. Minimum-Voltage Vector Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM for Low-Speed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...... may also be further developed to inject two opposite voltage vectors to reduce the effects of inverter voltage error on the position estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other sensorless control method. Theoretical analysis and experimental...

  2. New numerical method for solving the solute transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Koplik, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The solute transport equation can be solved numerically by approximating the water flow field by a network of stream tubes and using a Green's function solution within each stream tube. Compared to previous methods, this approach permits greater computational efficiency and easier representation of small discontinuities, and the results are easier to interpret physically. The method has been used to study hypothetical sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

  3. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  4. Optimising the Design Process of the Injection Camshaft by Critical Path Method (CPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga-Ioana Amariei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a series of advantages of the CPM method are presented, focusing on the optimization of design duration of an injection camshaft, by cost criteria. The minimum duration of finalizing the design of the injection camshaft will be determined, as well as the total cost associated to this project, normally, and then under crash regime. At the end, two types of sensitivity analysis will be performed: Meeting the desire completation time and Meeting the desired budget cost

  5. Method for Cs-137 separation from the decontamination solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropov, I.G.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, Yu.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this work results of investigations are presented on separation of radiocaesium from the decontamination solutions containing reducing agents (thiocarbamide). The scientific basis for radiocaesium removal from the solution focuses on the state of the radionuclide and its sorption behavior in the solution with a complicated composition. Then using a combination of sorption and ultrafiltration methods it would be possible to concentrate the radionuclide in a small volume and to purify the main part of the solution. As a sorbent for radiocaesium removal from the solution, a ferrocyanide based sorbent is proposed. Use of this sorbent is justified since its high selectivity and effectiveness for radiocaesium sorption from the solutions of different composition is well known. When synthesis of the sorbent is performed directly in the treating solution, two components as a minimum should be added to it, namely K 4 Fe(CN) 6 and metal ions of Ni-II, Co-II, Cu-II, etc. The results are presented which show the possibility of radiocaesium separation from the decontamination solutions (containing 60--100 g/l of salts) using sorption and membrane separation methods without the use of metal salts. At the same time by using FE-2 in solution in the presence of cyanide ions and thiocarbamide, it is possible to avoid the addition of metal salts (Ni, Cu, etc.). Utilization of the proposed method for spent decontamination solution treatment allows a relatively easy way to reduce the concentration of radiocaesium in solution on 2--4 orders of magnitudes, and to exclude the utilization of relatively expensive metal salts

  6. A novel submucosal injection solution for endoscopic resection of large colorectal lesions: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repici, Alessandro; Wallace, Michael; Sharma, Prateek; Bhandari, Pradeep; Lollo, Gianluca; Maselli, Roberta; Hassan, Cesare; Rex, Douglas K

    2018-05-08

    SIC-8000 (Eleview) is a new FDA-approved solution for submucosal injection developed to provide long-lasting cushion to facilitate endoscopic resection maneuvers. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of SIC-8000 with those of saline solution, when performing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large colorectal lesions. In a randomized double-blind trial, patients undergoing EMR for ≥20 mm colorectal non-pedunculated lesions were randomized in a 1:1 ratio between SIC-8000 and saline solution as control solution in 5 tertiary centers. Endoscopists and patients were blinded to the type of submucosal solution used. Total volume to complete EMR and per lesion size and time of resection were primary end-points, whereas the Sydney Resection Quotient (SRQ), as well as other EMR outcomes, and the rate of adverse events were secondary. A 30-day telephone follow up was performed. An alpha level <0.05 was considered as statistically significant (NCT 02654418). Of the 327 patients screened, 226 (mean age: 66±10; males: 56%) were enrolled in the study and randomized between the 2 submucosal agents. Of these, 211 patients (mean size of the lesions 33±13 mm; I-s: 36%; proximal colon: 74%) entered in the final analysis (SIC-8000: 102; saline solution: 109). EMR was complete in all cases. The total volume needed for EMR was significantly less in the SIC-8000 arm compared with saline solution (16.1±9.8 mL vs 31.6±32.0 mL; p<0.001). This corresponded to an average volume per lesion size of 0.5±0.3 mL/mm and 0.9±0.6 mL/mm with SIC-8000 and saline solution, respectively, (p<0.001). The mean time to completely resect the lesion tended to be lower with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (19.1±16.8 minutes vs 29.7±68.9 minutes; p=0.1). The SRQ was significantly higher with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (10.3±8.1 vs 8.0±5.7; p=0.04) with a trend for a lower number of resected pieces (5.7±6.0 vs 6.5±5.04; p=0.052) and a higher rate of en bloc

  7. Chitosan solutions as injectable systems for dermal filler applications: Rheological characterization and biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, C; Montembault, A; Guerry, A; Delair, T; Viguier, E; Fulchiron, R; David, L

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of dermal filler for wrinkle filler based on chitosan was compared to current hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers by using a new rheological performance criterion based on viscosity during injection related to Newtonian viscosity. In addition an in vivo evaluation was performed for preclinical evidence of chitosan use as dermal filler. In this way, biocompatibility and dermis reconstruction was evaluated on a pig model.

  8. Exact solution of some linear matrix equations using algebraic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study is done of solution methods for Linear Matrix Equations including Lyapunov's equation, using methods of modern algebra. The emphasis is on the use of finite algebraic procedures which are easily implemented on a digital computer and which lead to an explicit solution to the problem. The action f sub BA is introduced a Basic Lemma is proven. The equation PA + BP = -C as well as the Lyapunov equation are analyzed. Algorithms are given for the solution of the Lyapunov and comment is given on its arithmetic complexity. The equation P - A'PA = Q is studied and numerical examples are given.

  9. Rapid spectrographic method for determining microcomponents in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, L.I.; Fadeeva, L.A.; Gordeeva, A.N.; Ermakova, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid spectrographic method foe determining microcomponents (Cd, V, Mo, Ni, rare earths and other elements) in industrial and natural solutions has been developed. The analyses were conducted in argon medium and in the air. Calibration charts for determining individual rare earths in solutions are presented. The accuracy of analysis (Sr) was detection limit was 10 -3 -10 -4 mg/ml, that for rare earths - 1.10 -2 mg/ml. The developed method enables to rapidly analyze solutions (sewages and industrialllwaters, wine products) for 20 elements including 6 rare earths, using strandard equipment

  10. A graphene solution to conductivity mismatch: spin injection from ferromagnetic metal/graphene tunnel contacts into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Erve, Olaf

    2014-03-01

    New paradigms for spin-based devices, such as spin-FETs and reconfigurable logic, have been proposed and modeled. These devices rely on electron spin being injected, transported, manipulated and detected in a semiconductor channel. This work is the first demonstration on how a single layer of graphene can be used as a low resistance tunnel barrier solution for electrical spin injection into Silicon at room temperature. We will show that a FM metal / monolayer graphene contact serves as a spin-polarized tunnel barrier which successfully circumvents the classic metal / semiconductor conductivity mismatch issue for electrical spin injection. We demonstrate electrical injection and detection of spin accumulation in Si above room temperature, and show that the corresponding spin lifetimes correlate with the Si carrier concentration, confirming that the spin accumulation measured occurs in the Si and not in interface trap states. An ideal tunnel barrier should exhibit several key material characteristics: a uniform and planar habit with well-controlled thickness, minimal defect / trapped charge density, a low resistance-area product for minimal power consumption, and compatibility with both the FM metal and semiconductor, insuring minimal diffusion to/from the surrounding materials at temperatures required for device processing. Graphene, offers all of the above, while preserving spin injection properties, making it a compelling solution to the conductivity mismatch for spin injection into Si. Although Graphene is very conductive in plane, it exhibits poor conductivity perpendicular to the plane. Its sp2 bonding results in a highly uniform, defect free layer, which is chemically inert, thermally robust, and essentially impervious to diffusion. The use of a single monolayer of graphene at the Si interface provides a much lower RA product than any film of an oxide thick enough to prevent pinholes (1 nm). Our results identify a new route to low resistance-area product spin

  11. A Method to Overcome Space Charge at Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya. Derbenev

    2005-01-01

    The transverse space charge forces in a high current, low energy beam can be reduced by mean of a large increase of the beam's transverse sizes while maintaining the beam area in the 4D phase space. This can be achieved by transforming the beam area in phase space of each of two normal 2D transverse (either plane or circular) modes from a spot shape into a narrow ring of a large amplitude, but homogeneous in phase. Such a transformation results from the beam evolution in the island of a dipole resonance when the amplitude width of the island shrinks adiabatically. After stacking (by using stripping foils or cooling) the beam in such a state and accelerating to energies sufficiently high that the space charge becomes insignificant, the beam then can be returned back to a normal spot shape by applying the reverse transformation. An arrangement that can provide such beam gymnastics along a transport line after a linac and before a booster and/or in a ring with circulating beam will be described and numerical estimates will be presented. Other potential applications of the method will be briefly discussed

  12. Stabilization of periodic solutions in a tethered satellite system by damping injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    presents a control design for stabilizing these periodic solutions. The design consists of a control law for stabilizing the open-loop equilibrium and a bias term which forces the system trajectory away from the equilibrium. The tether needs to be positioned away from open-loop equilibrium for the tether...... to affect the orbit parameters. An approximation of the periodic solutions of the closed loop system is found as a series expansion in the parameter plane spanned by the controller gain and the bias term. The stability of the solutions is investigated using linear Floquet analysis of the variational...

  13. An investigation of calibration methods for solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yff, Barbara T S; Royall, Paul G; Brown, Marc B; Martin, Gary P

    2004-01-28

    Solution calorimetry has been used in a number of varying applications within pharmaceutical research as a technique for the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical materials, such as quantifying small degrees of amorphous content, identifying polymorphs and investigating interactions between drugs and carbohydrates or proteins and carbohydrates. A calibration test procedure is necessary to validate the instrumentation; a few of the suggested calibration reactions are the enthalpies of solution associated with dissolving Tris in 0.1 M HCl or NaCl, KCl or propan-1-ol in water. In addition, there are a number of different methods available to determine enthalpies of solution from the experimental data provided by the calorimeter, for example, the Regnault-Pfaundler's method, a graphical extrapolation based on the Dickinson method, or a manual integration-based method. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate how each of these methods influences the values for the enthalpy of solution. Experiments were performed according to the method outlined by Hogan and Buckton [Int. J. Pharm. 207 (2000) 57] using KCl (samples of 50, 100 and 200 mg), Tris and sucrose as calibrants. For all three materials the manual integration method was found to be the most consistent with the KCl in water (sample mass of 200 mg) being the most precise. Thus, this method is recommended for the validation of solution calorimeters.

  14. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  15. Newton-like methods for Navier-Stokes solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, N.; Xu, X.; Richards, B. E.

    1992-12-01

    The paper reports on Newton-like methods called SFDN-alpha-GMRES and SQN-alpha-GMRES methods that have been devised and proven as powerful schemes for large nonlinear problems typical of viscous compressible Navier-Stokes solutions. They can be applied using a partially converged solution from a conventional explicit or approximate implicit method. Developments have included the efficient parallelization of the schemes on a distributed memory parallel computer. The methods are illustrated using a RISC workstation and a transputer parallel system respectively to solve a hypersonic vortical flow.

  16. Properties and solution methods for large location-allocation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties of the l......Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties...... of the location-allocation problem. Using the rectilinear distance measure, two of these algorithms achieved optimal solutions in all 102 test problems for which solutions were known. The algorithms can be applied to much larger problems than any existing exact methods....

  17. A Comprehensive Strategy to Evaluate Compatible Stability of Chinese Medicine Injection and Infusion Solutions Based on Chemical Analysis and Bioactivity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Liu, Yang; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Kevin Y; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-01-01

    Stability of traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) is an important issue related with its clinical application. TCMI is composed of multi-components, therefore, when evaluating TCMI stability, several marker compounds cannot represent global components or biological activities of TCMI. Till now, when evaluating TCMI stability, method involving the global components or biological activities has not been reported. In this paper, we established a comprehensive strategy composed of three different methods to evaluate the chemical and biological stability of a typical TCMI, Danhong injection (DHI). UHPLC-TQ/MS was used to analyze the stability of marker compounds (SaA, SaB, RA, DSS, PA, CA, and SG) in DHI, UHPLC-QTOF/MS was used to analyze the stability of global components (MW 80-1000 Da) in DHI, and cell based antioxidant capability assay was used to evaluate the bioactivity of DHI. We applied this strategy to assess the compatible stability of DHI and six infusion solutions (GS, NS, GNS, FI, XI, and DGI), which were commonly used in combination with DHI in clinic. GS was the best infusion solution for DHI, and DGI was the worst one based on marker compounds analysis. Based on global components analysis, XI and DGI were the worst infusion solutions for DHI. And based on bioactivity assay, GS was the best infusion solution for DHI, and XI was the worst one. In conclusion, as evaluated by the established comprehensive strategy, GS was the best infusion solution, however, XI and DGI were the worst infusion solutions for DHI. In the compatibility of DHI and XI or DGI, salvianolic acids in DHI would be degraded, resulting in the reduction of original composition and generation of new components, and leading to the changes of biological activities. This is the essence of instability compatibility of DHI and some infusion solutions. Our study provided references for choosing the reasonable infusion solutions for DHI, which could contribute the improvement of safety

  18. Solidification method for organic solution and processing method of aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoshida, Mamoru; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yazawa, Noriko; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The relative dielectric constant of an organic solution containing polar ingredients is controlled to 13 or less to enable its solidification. The polarity of the organic solution can be evaluated quantitatively by using the relative dielectric constant. If the relative dielectric constant is high, it can be controlled by dilution using a non-polar organic solvent of low relative dielectric constant. With such procedures, solidification can be conducted by using an economical 12-hydroxy stearic acid, process of liquid wastes can be facilitated and the safety can be ensured. (T.M.)

  19. A Reliable Method for the Evaluation of the Anaphylactoid Reaction Caused by Injectable Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions of injectable drugs usually occur at first administration and are closely associated with the dosage and speed of injection. This phenomenon is correlated with the anaphylactoid reaction. However, up to now, study methods based on antigen detection have still not gained wide acceptance and single physiological indicators cannot be utilized to differentiate anaphylactoid reactions from allergic reactions and inflammatory reactions. In this study, a reliable method for the evaluation of anaphylactoid reactions caused by injectable drugs was established by using multiple physiological indicators. We used compound 48/80, ovalbumin and endotoxin as the sensitization agents to induce anaphylactoid, allergic and inflammatory reactions. Different experimental animals (guinea pig and nude rat and different modes of administration (intramuscular, intravenous and intraperitoneal injection and different times (15 min, 30 min and 60 min were evaluated to optimize the study protocol. The results showed that the optimal way to achieve sensitization involved treating guinea pigs with the different agents by intravenous injection for 30 min. Further, seven related humoral factors including 5-HT, SC5b-9, Bb, C4d, IL-6, C3a and histamine were detected by HPLC analysis and ELISA assay to determine their expression level. The results showed that five of them, including 5-HT, SC5b-9, Bb, C4d and IL-6, displayed significant differences between anaphylactoid, allergic and inflammatory reactions, which indicated that their combination could be used to distinguish these three reactions. Then different injectable drugs were used to verify this method and the results showed that the chosen indicators exhibited good correlation with the anaphylactoid reaction which indicated that the established method was both practical and reliable. Our research provides a feasible method for the diagnosis of the serious adverse reactions caused by injectable drugs which

  20. Solution of the Schroedinger equation by a spectral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.; Steiger, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new computational method for determining the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger equation is described. Conventional methods for solving this problem rely on diagonalization of a Hamiltonian matrix or iterative numerical solutions of a time independent wave equation. The new method, in contrast, is based on the spectral properties of solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The method requires the computation of a correlation function from a numerical solution psi(r, t). Fourier analysis of this correlation function reveals a set of resonant peaks that correspond to the stationary states of the system. Analysis of the location of these peaks reveals the eigenvalues with high accuracy. Additional Fourier transforms of psi(r, t) with respect to time generate the eigenfunctions. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for a one-dimensional asymmetric double well potential and for the two-dimensional Henon--Heiles potential

  1. Injection Methods and Instrumentation for Serial X-ray Free Electron Laser Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel

    Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These new methods include serial femtosecond crystallography, single particle imaging, solution scattering, and time resolved techniques. The XFEL is characterized by high intensity pulses, which are only about 50 femtoseconds in duration. The intensity allows for scattering from microscopic particles, while the short pulses offer a way to outrun radiation damage. XFELs are powerful enough to obliterate most samples in a single pulse. While this allows for a "diffract and destroy" methodology, it also requires instrumentation that can position microscopic particles into the X-ray beam (which may also be microscopic), continuously renew the sample after each pulse, and maintain sample viability during data collection. Typically these experiments have used liquid microjets to continuously renew sample. The high flow rate associated with liquid microjets requires large amounts of sample, most of which runs to waste between pulses. An injector designed to stream a viscous gel-like material called lipidic cubic phase (LCP) was developed to address this problem. LCP, commonly used as a growth medium for membrane protein crystals, lends itself to low flow rate jetting and so reduces the amount of sample wasted significantly. This work discusses sample delivery and injection for XFEL experiments. It reviews the liquid microjet method extensively, and presents the LCP injector as a novel device for serial crystallography, including detailed protocols for the LCP injector and anti-settler operation.

  2. Permanent Magnet Flux Online Estimation Based on Zero-Voltage Vector Injection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...

  3. Hydrogen/deuterium substitution methods: understanding water structure in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium substitution method has been used for different applications, such as the short range order between water molecules in a number of different environments (aqueous solutions of organic molecules), or to study the partial structure factors of water at high pressure and temperature. The absolute accuracy that can be obtained remains uncertain, but important qualitative information can be obtained on the local organization of water in aqueous solution. Some recent results with pure water, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions are presented. It is shown that the short range water structure is not greatly affected by most solutes except at high concentrations and when the solute species has its own distinctive interaction with water (such as a dissolved small ion). 3 figs., 14 refs

  4. Study on scan timing using a test injection method in head CTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekito, Yuichi; Sanada, Hidenori

    2005-01-01

    In head computed tomographic angiography (CTA), circulation from arterial phase to venous phase is more rapid than that in other regions. Therefore, it is necessary to determine correct scan timing to obtain ideal CTA images. A test injection method makes it possible to set correct scan timing from the time density curve (TDC) for each subject. The method, however, has a weak point that is a time lag in an arrival time at peak point of contrast medium on TDC between the test injection and the primary examination because of the difference in total volume of contrast medium used. The purpose of this study calculated the delay time on the TDC in both scans. We used the test injection method and the bolus tracking method in the primary examination. The average errors in start time (Δt1) and slope change time (Δt2) of the contrast medium on the TDC between test injection and primary examination were 0.15 sec and 3.05 sec, respectively. The results indicated that it was important to grasp the delay time in start time and peak arrival time of the contrast medium between test injection and primary examination to obtain ideal images in head CTA. (author)

  5. Cost–benefit analysis method for building solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Catarina; Almeida, Manuela; Bragança, Luís; Barbosa, José Amarilio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cost–benefit method was developed to compare building solutions. • The method considers energy performance, life cycle costs and investment willingness. • The graphical analysis helps stakeholders to easily compare building solutions. • The method was applied to a case study showing consistency and feasibility. - Abstract: The building sector is responsible for consuming approximately 40% of the final energy in Europe. However, more than 50% of this consumption can be reduced through energy-efficient measures. Our society is facing not only a severe and unprecedented environmental crisis but also an economic crisis of similar magnitude. In light of this, EU has developed legislation promoting the use of the Cost-Optimal (CO) method in order to improve building energy efficiency, in which selection criteria is based on life cycle costs. Nevertheless, studies show that the implementation of energy-efficient solutions is far from ideal. Therefore, it is very important to analyse the reasons for this gap between theory and implementation as well as improve selection methods. This study aims to develop a methodology based on a cost-effectiveness analysis, which can be seen as an improvement to the CO method as it considers the investment willingness of stakeholders in the selection process of energy-efficient solutions. The method uses a simple graphical display in which the stakeholders’ investment willingness is identified as the slope of a reference line, allowing easy selection between building solutions. This method will lead to the selection of more desired – from stakeholders’ point of view – and more energy-efficient solutions than those selected through the CO method.

  6. The characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1993-11-01

    This literature review deals with characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions and in groundwater. The basis for the review has been the needs of nuclear waste disposal studies and methods applicable in such studies. The methods considered include non-destructive laserspectroscopic methods (e.g. TRLFS, LPAS, PALS), several separation methods (e.g. ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, field-flow-fractionation) and also some surface analytical methods, as well as some other methods giving additional information on formation and migration properties of colloids. (au.) (71 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.)

  7. Differential and difference equations a comparison of methods of solution

    CERN Document Server

    Maximon, Leonard C

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering, presents a detailed comparison of the important methods of solution for linear differential and difference equations - variation of constants, reduction of order, Laplace transforms and generating functions - bringing out the similarities as well as the significant differences in the respective analyses. Equations of arbitrary order are studied, followed by a detailed analysis for equations of first and second order. Equations with polynomial coefficients are considered and explicit solutions for equations with linear coefficients are given, showing significant differences in the functional form of solutions of differential equations from those of difference equations. An alternative method of solution involving transformation of both the dependent and independent variables is given for both differential and difference equations. A comprehensive, detailed treatment of Green’s functions and the associat...

  8. Particular solution of the discrete-ordinate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Box, Michael A; Jupp, David L

    2004-06-20

    We present two methods that can be used to derive the particular solution of the discrete-ordinate method (DOM) for an arbitrary source in a plane-parallel atmosphere, which allows us to solve the transfer equation 12-18% faster in the case of a single beam source and is even faster for the atmosphere thermal emission source. We also remove the divide by zero problem that occurs when a beam source coincides with a Gaussian quadrature point. In our implementation, solution for multiple sources can be obtained simultaneously. For each extra source, it costs only 1.3-3.6% CPU time required for a full solution. The GDOM code that we developed previously has been revised to integrate with the DOM. Therefore we are now able to compute the Green's function and DOM solutions simultaneously.

  9. New method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in water using flow injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.; Gutowski, J.; Kozak, M.; Wieczorek, M.; Koscielniak, P.

    2010-01-01

    The method exploits the possibilities of flow injection gradient titration in a system of reversed flow with spectrophotometric detection. In the developed approach a small amount of titrant (EDTA) is injected into a stream of sample containing a mixture of indicators (sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline). In acid environment sulfosalicylic acid forms a complex with Fe(III), whereas 1,10-phenanthroline forms a complex with Fe(II). Measurements are performed at wavelength λ = 530 nm when radiation is absorbed by both complexes. After injection EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid and forms with Fe(III) more stable colourless complex. As a result, a characteristic 'cut off' peak is registered with a width corresponding to the Fe(III) concentration and with a height corresponding to the Fe(II) concentration. Calibration was performed by titration of four two-component standard solutions of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations established in accordance with 2 2 factorial plan. The method was tested with the use of synthetic samples and then it was applied to the analysis of water samples taken from artesian wells. Under optimized experimental conditions Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined with precision less than 0.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and accuracy less than 3.2 and 5.1% (relative error) within the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0 and 0.9-3.5 mg L -1 of both analytes, respectively.

  10. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, - (2010), s. 1-33 ISSN 2090-0147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : iterative solution methods * convergence acceleration methods * linear systems Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2010/972794.html

  11. Comparing numerical methods for the solutions of the Chen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorani, M.S.M.; Hashim, I.; Ahmad, R.; Bakar, S.A.; Ismail, E.S.; Zakaria, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to the Chen system which is a three-dimensional system of ODEs with quadratic nonlinearities. The ADM yields an analytical solution in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms. Comparisons between the decomposition solutions and the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions are made. In particular we look at the accuracy of the ADM as the Chen system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one. To highlight some computational difficulties due to a high Lyapunov exponent, a comparison with the Lorenz system is given

  12. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Triki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PPSRP over a T-day planning horizon and describe four heuristic methods for its solution. Even though all the proposed heuristics belong to the common partitioning-then-routing paradigm, they differ in assigning the stations to each day of the horizon. The resulting daily routing problems are then solved exactly until achieving optimalization. Moreover, an improvement procedure is also developed with the aim of ensuring a better quality solution. Our heuristics are tested and compared in two real-life cases, and our computational results show encouraging improvements with respect to a human planning solution

  13. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  14. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik; Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul

    2010-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4±1.78: group 2, 2.8±1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  15. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  16. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  17. Dimensional accuracy optimization of the micro-plastic injection molding process using the Taguchi design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chil-Chyuan KUO KUO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic injection molding is an important field in manufacturing industry because there are many plastic products that produced by injection molding. However, the time and cost required for producing a precision mold are the most troublesome problems that limit the application at the development stage of a new product in precision machinery industry. This study presents an approach of manufacturing a hard mold with microfeatures for micro-plastic injection molding. This study also focuses on Taguchi design method for investigating the effect of injection parameters on the dimensional accuracy of Fresnel lens during plastic injection molding. It was found that the dominant factor affecting the microgroove depth of Fresnel lens is packing pressure. The optimum processing parameters are packing pressure of 80 MPa, melt temperature of 240 °C, mold temperature of 90 °C and injection speed of 50 m/s. The dimensional accuracy of Fresnel lens can be controlled within ±3 µm using the optimum level of process parameters through the confirmation test. The research results of this study have industrial application values because electro-optical industries are able to significantly reduce a new optical element development cycle time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5864

  18. Generalized Truncated Methods for an Efficient Solution of Retrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jose Domenech-Benlloch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the analytic solution of multiserver retrial queues including the impatience phenomenon. As there are not closed-form solutions to these systems, approximate methods are required. We propose two different generalized truncated methods to effectively solve this type of systems. The methods proposed are based on the homogenization of the state space beyond a given number of users in the retrial orbit. We compare the proposed methods with the most well-known methods appeared in the literature in a wide range of scenarios. We conclude that the proposed methods generally outperform previous proposals in terms of accuracy for the most common performance parameters used in retrial systems with a moderated growth in the computational cost.

  19. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Axelsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative solution methods to solve linear systems of equations were originally formulated as basic iteration methods of defect-correction type, commonly referred to as Richardson's iteration method. These methods developed further into various versions of splitting methods, including the successive overrelaxation (SOR method. Later, immensely important developments included convergence acceleration methods, such as the Chebyshev and conjugate gradient iteration methods and preconditioning methods of various forms. A major strive has been to find methods with a total computational complexity of optimal order, that is, proportional to the degrees of freedom involved in the equation. Methods that have turned out to have been particularly important for the further developments of linear equation solvers are surveyed. Some of them are presented in greater detail.

  20. A novel flow injection chemiluminescence method for automated and miniaturized determination of phenols in smoked food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakh, Christina; Evdokimova, Ekaterina; Pochivalov, Aleksei; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2017-12-15

    An easily performed fully automated and miniaturized flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for determination of phenols in smoked food samples has been proposed. This method includes the ultrasound assisted solid-liquid extraction coupled with gas-diffusion separation of phenols from smoked food sample and analytes absorption into a NaOH solution in a specially designed gas-diffusion cell. The flow system was designed to focus on automation and miniaturization with minimal sample and reagent consumption by inexpensive instrumentation. The luminol - N-bromosuccinimide system in an alkaline medium was used for the CL determination of phenols. The limit of detection of the proposed procedure was 3·10 -8 ·molL -1 (0.01mgkg -1 ) in terms of phenol. The presented method demonstrated to be a good tool for easy, rapid and cost-effective point-of-need screening phenols in smoked food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Orosa, José A

    2012-01-01

    There are many aspects to consider when evaluating or improving an indoor environment; thermal comfort, energy saving, preservation of materials, hygiene and health are all key aspects which can be improved by passive methods of environmental control. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments endeavours to fill the lack of analysis in this area by using over ten years of research to illustrate the effects of methods such as thermal inertia and permeable coverings; for example, the use of permeable coverings is a well known passive method, but its effects and ways to improve indoor environments have been rarely analyzed.   Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments  includes both software simulations and laboratory and field studies. Through these, the main parameters that characterize the behavior of internal coverings are defined. Furthermore, a new procedure is explained in depth which can be used to identify the real expected effects of permeable coverings such ...

  2. The effects of photovoltaic electricity injection into microgrids: Combination of Geographical Information Systems, multicriteria decision methods and electronic control modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa-Escalante, Gino de Jesús; Sánchez-Lozano, Juan Miguel; Faxas, Juan-Gabriel; García-Cascales, M. Socorro; Urbina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geographical Information Systems can be used as a support to classify the viable locations for photovoltaic facilities. • Multicriteria decision methods are useful tools to choose the optimal locations for photovoltaic systems. • Variations of photovoltaic power injected into the grid have been calculated for the optimum locations. • Grid stabilization can be achieved within 500 ms with electronic control strategies. - Abstract: This article presents a model to calculate the impact on the grid of the injection of electricity generated from photovoltaic systems. The methodology combines the use of Geographical Information System tools to classify the optimal locations for the installation of photovoltaic systems with the calculation of the impact into microgrids of the electricity generated in such locations. The case study is focused on Murcia region, in South-east Spain, and on medium size photovoltaic systems. The locations have been selected from a Geographical Information System database including several parameters, and evaluated and classified using a fuzzy version of the multicriteria decision method called Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. In order to obtain the weights for the criteria used in the evaluation, the Analytic Hierarchy Process has been used. Finally, using meteorological data from a small set of possible locations, the impact on the grid arising from the injection of power generated from photovoltaic systems that are connected to the grid via a module implementing different control electronic strategies has been calculated. Different electronic control strategies have been modeled to demonstrate that stabilization of the electrical parameters of a microgrid can be obtained within 500 ms in all cases, even when a relatively large power surge, or slower variations, are injected into the grid from the medium size photovoltaic systems

  3. Comparative analysis of solution methods of the punctual kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, A.

    2003-01-01

    The following one written it presents a comparative analysis among different analytical solutions for the punctual kinetics equation, which present two variables of interest: a) the temporary behavior of the neutronic population, and b) The temporary behavior of the different groups of precursors of delayed neutrons. The first solution is based on a method that solves the transfer function of the differential equation for the neutronic population, in which intends to obtain the different poles that give the stability of this transfer function. In this section it is demonstrated that the temporary variation of the reactivity of the system can be managed as it is required, since the integration time for this method doesn't affect the result. However, the second solution is based on an iterative method like that of Runge-Kutta or the Euler method where the algorithm was only used to solve first order differential equations giving this way solution to each differential equation that conforms the equations of punctual kinetics. In this section it is demonstrated that only it can obtain a correct temporary behavior of the neutronic population when it is integrated on an interval of very short time, forcing to the temporary variation of the reactivity to change very quick way without one has some control about the time. In both methods the same change is used so much in the reactivity of the system like in the integration times, giving validity to the results graph the one the temporary behavior of the neutronic population vs. time. (Author)

  4. Prilocaine hydrochloride 2% hyperbaric solution for intrathecal injection: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassero A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Manassero,1 Andrea Fanelli2 1Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Prilocaine is a local anesthetic characterized by intermediate potency and duration and fast onset of action. As hyperbaric formulation of 5% solution, it was introduced and has been successfully used for spinal anesthesia since 1960. A new formulation of 2% plain and hyperbaric solution is currently available in Europe. Because of its lower incidence of transient neurological symptoms, prilocaine is suggested as substitute to lidocaine and mepivacaine in spinal anesthesia for ambulatory surgery, as well as a suitable alternative to low doses of long-acting local anesthetics. The National Library of Medicine database, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database, were searched for the period 1970 to September 2016, with the aim to identify studies evaluating the intrathecal use of 2% prilocaine. A total of 13 randomized clinical trials (RCTs, 1 observational study, 2 dose finding, and 4 systematic reviews has been used for this review. The studies evaluated showed that 2% hyperbaric prilocaine due to a favorable anesthetic and safety profile is an alternative drug to lidocaine and mepivacaine for spinal anesthesia of intermediate or short duration. In comparison with plain solutions, hyperbaricity remarkably accelerates the onset and offset times of intrathecal 2% prilocaine. Literature suggests a dose ranging between 40 and 60 mg of prilocaine for lower extremities and lower abdominal procedures lasting up to 90 min, whereas a dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg is appropriate for perineal surgery. Readiness for discharge occurs in ~4 h from spinal administration. Keywords

  5. Physico-chemical stability of busulfan in injectable solutions in various administration packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houot, Mélanie; Poinsignon, Vianney; Mercier, Lionel; Valade, Cyril; Desmaris, Romain; Lemare, François; Paci, Angelo

    2013-03-01

    Busulfan is used as part of a conditioning regimen prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of certain cancers and immune deficiency syndromes. Due to its instability in aqueous preparations, busulfan for infusion is prepared from a concentrate and has a relatively short shelf life once prepared. The purpose of this study was to identify the most suitable storage container and temperature to maximize the shelf life of busulfan therapeutic infusions prepared from Busilvex(®). Busilvex(®) 6 mg/mL was diluted to 0.55 mg/mL with 0.9 % NaCl and aliquots dispensed into polypropylene syringes, polyvinyl chloride bags, and glass bottles. Three storage temperatures were evaluated: 2-8 °C, 13-15 °C (thermostatically controlled chamber), and room temperature (20 ± 5 °C). At set time points, samples were analysed for busulfan content, using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with ultraviolet detection. The change in pH and osmolarity on storage was also determined, and solutions were inspected visually for formation of a precipitate or colour change. To determine the contribution of precipitation to loss of busulfan content on storage, samples from one time series were treated with the solvent dimethylacetamide prior to HPLC separation and quantitation of busulfan. The results of the active substance content monitoring study over a 48-h period demonstrate that busulfan solution is stable at a 5 % threshold, at 2-8 °C for 16 h in syringes, 14 h in glass bottles, and 6 h in bags. In addition, the period of stability decreases as the temperature increases (4 h at 20 ± 5 °C). The solution is considered to be stable, subject to precipitation liable to be observed regardless of the temperature. The best stability was observed for busulfan solutions placed at 2-8 °C in syringes. This study demonstrated that precipitation, in addition to hydrolysis, has a significant influence on the busulfan content.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  7. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by transarterial injection of anticancer agents in iodized oil suspension or of radioactive iodized oil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Hidaka, H.; Kajiya, Y.; Tanoue, P.; Inoue, H.; Ikeda, K.; Nakajo, M.; Shinohara, S.

    1986-01-01

    Transarterial injection of modified iodized oil was performed in 48 patients with hepatoma. In 41 cases an adriamycin and/or mitomycin C-iodized oil suspension was administered into the proper hepatic artery or peripheral hepatic branches. A reduction in tumor size of over 50% was obtained in 14 of the 33 patients in whom CT examination was performed before and after treatment. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels decreased in 20 of 21 cases within the first month after injection. The one-year survival rate was estimated at 55% in advanced hepatoma. In 7 patients, transarterial internal irradiation using radioactive iodized oil was carried out. A decrease in tumor size was observed in all cases and in alpha-fetoprotein levels in 6 cases. One patient with severe liver cirrhosis died in hepatorenal failure. No severe complications or other adverse reactions were encountered with either of the methods. (orig.)

  8. Initial position estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on improved pulse voltage injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...

  9. Development of iodine based impinger solutions for the efficient capture of Hg{sup 0} using direct injection nebulization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, E.; Lee, T.G.; Biswas, P.; Zhuang, Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA). National Exposure Research Laboratory

    2001-09-15

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solution proved to be very efficient for Hg{sup 0} capture and was amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. Hg{sup 0} capture efficiency using aqueous iodine (I{sub 3}{sup -}) was comparable to Hg{sup 0} capture using acidified potassium permanganate impinger solutions which were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) with greater than 98% capture of Hg{sup 0} in the oxidizing impinger. Using DIN-ICP/MS, it was demonstrated for the first time that iodine can be generated just prior to impinger sampling for efficiently oxidizing Hg{sup 0} and retailing it in solution as HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Due to the increased interest in Hg speciation from combustion sources and the potential for using DIN-ICP/MS for multiple metals analyses, an impinger sampling train for gaseous Hg speciation and multiple metals analyses using DIN-ICP/MS analyses is presented. The unique feature of such a sampling train is that each impinger solution in the series is amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. A bituminous coal was combusted in a bench scale coal system, and gaseous Hg species (oxidized and elemental) were determined using the proposed impinger train. The DIN-ICP/Ms instrumental detection limit was 0.003 ppb, and MDLs ranged from 0.007 to 0.116 {mu}g/L (ppb) in a variety of impinger solutions used for Hg capture. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Prolonged naproxen joint residence time after intra-articular injection of lipophilic solutions comprising a naproxen glycolamide ester prodrug in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Lu, Yi; Agårdh, Li

    2013-01-01

    time. Two oils, medium-chain triglycerides and castor oil, differing with respect to viscosity were tested. After intra-articular administration of oil prodrug solutions, a significant increase in the time to maximum naproxen serum concentration from around 40 to 245min, an increase in the MRTj from......Intra-articular injection of oil solutions of lipophilic prodrugs that rapidly degrade to their parent compound in synovial fluid may constitute a feasible approach to increase the joint residence time of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this in vivo study, oil solutions of the N......,N-diethyl glycolamide ester prodrug of naproxen (16mg/ml) were injected into the rat knee joint by dosing 6μl formulation per 100g body weight. The sustained release properties were compared to those of intra-articularly injected aqueous and oil solutions of naproxen by monitoring the naproxen serum concentrations over...

  11. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.; Stines, William B.

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  12. Analytic method for solitary solutions of some partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Kaya, Dogan [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: dkaya@firat.edu.tr

    2007-10-22

    In this Letter by considering an improved tanh function method, we found some exact solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and the Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation with its fission and fusion, the Jaulent-Miodek equation.

  13. Analytic method for solitary solutions of some partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz; Kaya, Dogan

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter by considering an improved tanh function method, we found some exact solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and the Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation with its fission and fusion, the Jaulent-Miodek equation

  14. Solutions of hyperbolic equations with the CIP-BS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Takayuki; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Yabe, Takashi; Aoki, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a new numerical method, the Constrained Interpolation Profile - Basis Set (CIP-BS) method, can solve general hyperbolic equations efficiently. This method uses a simple polynomial basis set that is easily extendable to any desired higher-order accuracy. The interpolating profile is chosen so that the subgrid scale solution approaches the local real solution owing to the constraints from the spatial derivatives of the master equations. Then, introducing scalar products, the linear and nonlinear partial differential equations are uniquely reduced to the ordinary differential equations for values and spatial derivatives at the grid points. The method gives stable, less diffusive, and accurate results. It is successfully applied to the continuity equation, the Burgers equation, the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and one-dimensional shock tube problems. (author)

  15. Solution of the radiative enclosure with a hybrid inverse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Brittes da; Franca, Francis Henrique Ramos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: frfranca@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This work applies the inverse analysis to solve a three-dimensional radiative enclosure - which the surfaces are diffuse-grays - filled with transparent medium. The aim is determine the powers and locations of the heaters to attain both uniform heat flux and temperature on the design surface. A hybrid solution that couples two methods, the generalized extremal optimization (GEO) and the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is proposed. The determination of the heat sources distribution is treated as an optimization problem, by GEO algorithm , whereas the solution of the system of equation, that embodies the Fredholm equation of first kind and therefore is expected to be ill conditioned, is build up through TSVD regularization method. The results show that the hybrid method can lead to a heat flux on the design surface that satisfies the imposed conditions with maximum error of less than 1,10%. The results illustrated the relevance of a hybrid method as a prediction tool. (author)

  16. A fast method for optimal reactive power flow solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivam, G; Khan, M A [Anna Univ., Madras (IN). Coll. of Engineering

    1990-01-01

    A fast successive linear programming (SLP) method for minimizing transmission losses and improving the voltage profile is proposed. The method uses the same compactly stored, factorized constant matrices in all the LP steps, both for power flow solution and for constructing the LP model. The inherent oscillatory convergence of SLP methods is overcome by proper selection of initial step sizes and their gradual reduction. Detailed studies on three systems, including a 109-bus system, reveal the fast and reliable convergence property of the method. (author).

  17. Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G.

    2005-01-01

    The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k eff results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation

  18. Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k{sub eff} results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation.

  19. Cerebral blood flow in the occlusive cerebrovascular disease. 133Xe intravenous injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuda, Hitoshi; Mukawa, Jiro; Takara, Eiichi; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, Yasunari

    1988-04-01

    From December 1985 to May 1986, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 11 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular diseases confined by angiography. 133Xe (5mci) intravenous injection method designed by Kuikka and coworkers was applied for the measurement of regional-CBF and mean-CBF, and the calculation was based on the initial slope index. They were composed of 4 patients of the middle cerebral artery occlusion, 2 of the posterior cerebral artery occlusion, 1 of the internal carotid artery occlusion, 2 of the middle cerebral artery stenosis, 1 of the internal carotid artery stenosis, and 1 of the anterior cerebral artery stenosis. The period from the vascular attack to the initial CBF study was 2-29 days(mean 9.2 days). Recovery of mean-CBF was correlated with clinical and neurological improvement, and vice versa. There was no correlation between mean-CBF and neurological severity. CBF study alone is not sufficient to evaluate neuronal conditions in the occlusive disease. Additional other means, such as CT-scan, angiography and etc. should be requested for it. Intravenous 133Xe injection technique has an advantage over intracarotid injection method; less dangerous, especially in ages and capable of simultaneous measurement of bilateral hemisphere. Considering /sup c/ross talk/sup /regional-CBF of a low density area on X-ray CT-scan was equal to the one obtained by intracarotid injection method.

  20. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Sessions

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia.

    One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and local atmospheric stability. This paper describes a case study of a 10 day period during the Spring phase of ARCTAS. It compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3–5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE. Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors.

    When FLAMBE provides input to the 1-D plume rise model, the resulting injection heights exhibit the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. The FLAMBE-derived heights are more realistic than those utilizing prep_chem_sources. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3–5 km a.g.l. layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less

  1. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, W. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and local atmospheric stability. This paper describes a case study of a 10 day period during the Spring phase of ARCTAS. It compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3-5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE). Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors. When FLAMBE provides input to the 1-D plume rise model, the resulting injection heights exhibit the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. The FLAMBE-derived heights are more realistic than those utilizing prep_chem_sources. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3-5 km a.g.l. layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less agreement with observed plume heights

  2. Effects of intratesticular injection of zinc-based solution in rats in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs during chemical sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Barros de Macedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control, G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone; G3 (dipyrone/ zinc; G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc; G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc, and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc in a single dose per day during 7 days. Animals were analyzed at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatments. Results: The zinc-induced a widespread testicular degeneration and decreased testosterone levels even in combination with anti-inflammatories or pain relievers. Testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle had a weight reduction. The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone interfered in the desired action of zinc gluconate in the 1st 15 days and celecoxib up to 7 days. Conclusion: Meloxicam plus dipyrone did not impair the chemical sterilization based on zinc gluconate, and it can be used to reduce nociceptive effects in animals after chemical sterilization.

  3. The feasibility of using solution-processed aqueous La2O3 as effective hole injection layer in organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Wanshu; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Qinghong; Xu, Jiwen; Wang, Hua; Wang, Lihui; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wei, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost and scalable manufacturing boosts organic electronic devices with all solution process. La2O3 powders and corresponding aqueous solutions are facilely synthesized. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements show that solution-processed La2O3 behaves superior film morphology. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements verify crystal phase and typical La signals. In comparison with the most widely-used hole injection layers (HILs) of MoOx and poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), enhanced luminous efficiency is observed in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using solution-processed La2O3 HIL. Current-voltage, impedance-voltage and phase angle-voltage transition curves clarify that solution-processed La2O3 behaves nearly comparable hole injection capacity to MoOx and PEDOT:PSS, and favorably tailors carrier balance. Moreover, the hole injection mechanism of solution-processed La2O3 is proven to be predominantly controlled by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling process and the hole injection barrier height between ITO and NPB via La2O3 interlayer is estimated to be 0.098 eV. Our experiments provide a feasible application of La2O3 in organic electronic devices with solution process.

  4. Studying Intense Pulsed Light Method Along With Corticosteroid Injection in Treating Keloid Scars

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Objective: Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. Materials and Methods: 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with co...

  5. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm method (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miza, A. T. N. A.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Computer Aided Engineering was used for injection moulding simulation. The method of Design of experiment (DOE) was utilize according to the Latin Square orthogonal array. The relationship between the injection moulding parameters and warpage were identify based on the experimental data that used. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used as to validate the model accuracy. Then, the RSM and GA method were combine as to examine the optimum injection moulding process parameter. Therefore the optimisation of injection moulding is largely improve and the result shown an increasing accuracy and also reliability. The propose method by combining RSM and GA method also contribute in minimising the warpage from occur.

  6. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  7. Solution methods for large systems of linear equations in BACCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, C.; Dorr, B.

    1993-05-01

    The computer programme BACCHUS is used to describe steady state and transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of a coolant in a fuel element with intact geometry in a fast breeder reactor. In such computer programmes generally large systems of linear equations with sparse matrices of coefficients, resulting from discretization of coolant conservation equations, must be solved thousands of times giving rise to large demands of main storage and CPU time. Direct and iterative solution methods of the systems of linear equations, available in BACCHUS, are described, giving theoretical details and experience with their use in the programme. Besides use of a method of lines, a Runge-Kutta-method, for solution of the partial differential equation is outlined. (orig.) [de

  8. Acceleration of monte Carlo solution by conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshihisa, Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method (CG) was applied to accelerate Monte Carlo solutions in fixed source problems. The equilibrium model based formulation enables to use CG scheme as well as initial guess to maximize computational performance. This method is available to arbitrary geometry provided that the neutron source distribution in each subregion can be regarded as flat. Even if it is not the case, the method can still be used as a powerful tool to provide an initial guess very close to the converged solution. The major difference of Monte Carlo CG to deterministic CG is that residual error is estimated using Monte Carlo sampling, thus statistical error exists in the residual. This leads to a flow diagram specific to Monte Carlo-CG. Three pre-conditioners were proposed for CG scheme and the performance was compared with a simple 1-D slab heterogeneous test problem. One of them, Sparse-M option, showed an excellent performance in convergence. The performance per unit cost was improved by four times in the test problem. Although direct estimation of efficiency of the method is impossible mainly because of the strong problem-dependence of the optimized pre-conditioner in CG, the method seems to have efficient potential as a fast solution algorithm for Monte Carlo calculations. (author)

  9. Characterization of injection instabilities in electrohydrodynamics by numerical modelling: comparison of particle in cell and flux corrected transport methods for electroconvection between two plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, P A; Georghiou, G E; Castellanos, A

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out for the characterization of injection instabilities in electrohydrodynamics and, in particular, the development of electroconvection between two parallel plates. The particle-in-cell and the finite element-flux corrected transport methods are used for the simulation of the test case, as they have proved very powerful and accurate in the solution of complex transport problems. Results are presented for unipolar injection (both strong and weak injections) between two plane electrodes immersed in a dielectric liquid, and the good agreement obtained by the two methods demonstrates not only their theoretical validity but also their practical ability to deal with transport problems in the presence of steep gradients. Some differences appear mainly in the prediction of small oscillations of the velocity and consequently of the electric current. These differences are highlighted and an explanation of their source is given

  10. Extraction method of interfacial injected charges for SiC power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiaxing; Liu, Siyang; Li, Sheng; Song, Haiyang; Chen, Xin; Li, Ting; Fang, Jiong; Sun, Weifeng

    2018-01-01

    An improved novel extraction method which can characterize the injected charges along the gate oxide interface for silicon carbide (SiC) power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed. According to the different interface situations of the channel region and the junction FET (JFET) region, the gate capacitance versus gate voltage (Cg-Vg) curve of the device can be divided into three relatively independent parts, through which the locations and the types of the charges injected in to the oxide above the interface can be distinguished. Moreover, the densities of these charges can also be calculated by the amplitudes of the shifts in the Cg-Vg curve. The correctness of this method is proved by TCAD simulations. Moreover, experiments on devices stressed by unclamped-inductive-switching (UIS) stress and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) are performed to verify the validity of this method.

  11. A new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation applicable to problems of a non-perturbative nature. The method works by identifying three different scales in the problem, which then are treated independently: an asymptotic scale, which depends uniquely on the form of the potential at large distances; an intermediate scale, still characterized by an exponential decay of the wavefunction; and, finally, a short distance scale, in which the wavefunction is sizable. The notion of optimized perturbation is then used in the last two regimes. We apply the method to the quantum anharmonic oscillator and find it suitable to treat both energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions, even for strong couplings

  12. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerr, R. Joseph, E-mail: rjz116@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Azmy, Yousry Y., E-mail: yyazmy@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Burlington Engineering Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  13. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerr, R. Joseph; Azmy, Yousry Y.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  14. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  15. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: fprata@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  16. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  17. Studying intense pulsed light method along with corticosteroid injection in treating keloid scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with corticosteroid intralesional injection using 450 to 1200 NM filter, Fluence 30-40 J/cm2, pulse duration of 2.1-10 ms and palsed delay 10-40 ms with an interval of three weeks. To specify the recovery consequences and complication rate and to determine features of the lesion, the criteria specified in the study of Eroll and Vancouver scar scale were used. The level of clinical improvement, color improvement and scar height was 89.1%, 88.8% and 89.1% respectively. The incidence of complications (1 telangiectasia case, 7 hyperpigmentation cases and 2 atrophy cases) following treatment with IPL was 11.6%. Moreover, the participants' satisfaction with IPL method was 88.8%. This study revealed that a combined therapy (intralesional corticosteroid injection + IPL) increases the recovery level of hypertrophic and keloid scars. It was also demonstrated that this method had no significant side effect and patients were highly satisfied with this method.

  18. Linear facility location in three dimensions - Models and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a line or a line segment in three-dimensional space, such that the sum of distances from the facility represented by the line (segment) to a given set of points is minimized. An example is planning the drilling of a mine shaft, with access to ore deposits through...... horizontal tunnels connecting the deposits and the shaft. Various models of the problem are developed and analyzed, and efficient solution methods are given....

  19. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    C Triki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PPSRP) over a T-day planning horizon and describe four heuristic methods for its solution. Even though all the proposed heuristics belong to the common partitioning-then-routing paradigm, they differ in assigning the stations to each day of the horizon. The resulting daily routing problems are then solved exactly until achieving optimalization. Moreover, an improvement procedure is also developed with the aim of ens...

  20. Study on mixed analysis method for fatigue analysis of oblique safety injection nozzle on main piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xifeng; Zhang Yixiong; Ai Honglei; Wang Xinjun; He Feng

    2014-01-01

    The simplified analysis method and the detailed analysis method were used for the fatigue analysis of the nozzle on the main piping. Because the structure of the oblique safety injection nozzle is complex and some more severe transients are subjected. The results obtained are more penalized and cannot be validate when the simplified analysis method used for the fatigue analysis. It will be little conservative when the detailed analysis method used, but it is more complex and time-consuming and boring labor. To reduce the conservatism and save time, the mixed analysis method which combining the simplified analysis method with the detailed analysis method is used for the fatigue analysis. The heat transfer parameters between the fluid and the structure which used for analysis were obtained by heat transfer property experiment. The results show that the mixed analysis which heat transfer property is considered can reduce the conservatism effectively, and the mixed analysis method is a more effective and practical method used for the fatigue analysis of the oblique safety injection nozzle. (authors)

  1. [Promising new injection method to prevent angialgia/phlebitis from epirubicin hydrochloride therapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Chiemi; Yamagami, Mitsue; Kamatani, Rika; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mukouyama, Tomoya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Suzuki, Taizan; Kamo, Nobuyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi

    2012-05-01

    Epirubicin hydrochloride(EPI)is well known to cause phlebitis as a typical adverse drug reaction. By preventing the development of severe phlebitis, patients are expected to continue effective chemotherapy with EPI without a decrease in QOL. We have previously reported promising results of a new injection method to prevent phlebitis from occurring during EPI therapy thorough a prospective clinical trial in our hospital(Jpn J Cancer Chemother 36: 969-974, 2009). In the present study, we have compared the conventional injection method(EPI main -route method, n=15)with our new method, which has been consistently practiced at present(EPI sub -route method, n=77). We found that in the EPI main -route method, angialgia/phlebitis developed in 14 of 15 cases(Grade 3, 53. 3%), leading to alteration of the regimen in 3 cases. On the other hand, with the EPI sub -route method, incidence of angialgia/phlebitis was markedly decreased, and only 6 of 77 cases developed these adverse reactions(Grade 3, 0%). One possible explanation for these results is that the reduction of intimal stimulation by the EPI sub -route method might be caused by the dilution and washout of EPI with pre-medication, as well as the shortened infusion times of EPI. Therefore, on the basis of the above hypothesis, we conclude that the EPI sub-route method might be a more effective treatment for the expected prevention of angialgia/phlebitis.

  2. Application of geophysical methods to the study of pollution associated with abandoned and injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischknecht, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on contamination of ground-water supplies by brine and other pollutants which is a serious problem in some oil-producing and industrial areas. Abandoned petroleum and water wells and active injection wells are often major elements in the contamination process. The casings of abandoned wells develop leaks, and, if not properly plugged, such wells sometimes serve as conduits for pollutants to reach freshwater aquifiers. Pollutants from waste-disposal sites or accidental spills may migrate down abandoned wells. Brines or other wastes injected into deep horizons may migrate up abandoned wells and reach aquifers containing potable water. Injection wells sometimes develop leaks and, if not carefully monitored, can pollute large volumes of earth materials before the effect is noted in production wells or at the surface. As a first step in the mitigation of these problems, methods of locating abandoned wells and mapping brine contamination from injection wells have been studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  3. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  4. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  5. Computer methods in physics 250 problems with guided solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Rubin H

    2018-01-01

    Our future scientists and professionals must be conversant in computational techniques. In order to facilitate integration of computer methods into existing physics courses, this textbook offers a large number of worked examples and problems with fully guided solutions in Python as well as other languages (Mathematica, Java, C, Fortran, and Maple). It’s also intended as a self-study guide for learning how to use computer methods in physics. The authors include an introductory chapter on numerical tools and indication of computational and physics difficulty level for each problem.

  6. A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Modified power method is applied to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. •Transfer matrix is introduced to generalize the modified power method. •All mode based population control is applied to get the higher eigenmodes. •Statistic fluctuation can be greatly reduced using accumulated tally results. •Fission source convergence is accelerated with higher mode solutions.

  7. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower and Upper Solutions Method for Positive Solutions of Fractional Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Darzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the lower and upper solutions method and fixed-point theorems to prove the existence of positive solution to fractional boundary value problem D0+αut+ft,ut=0, 0

  9. New exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton system via an extended mapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songhua; Fang Jianping; Zheng Chunlong

    2009-01-01

    By means of an extended mapping method and a variable separation method, a series of solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and variable separation solutions to the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton system is derived.

  10. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  11. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  12. Higher order methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Aarnio, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Average microscopic reaction rates need to be estimated at each step. → Traditional predictor-corrector methods use zeroth and first order predictions. → Increasing predictor order greatly improves results. → Increasing corrector order does not improve results. - Abstract: A group of methods for burnup calculations solves the changes in material compositions by evaluating an explicit solution to the Bateman equations with constant microscopic reaction rates. This requires predicting representative averages for the one-group cross-sections and flux during each step, which is usually done using zeroth and first order predictions for their time development in a predictor-corrector calculation. In this paper we present the results of using linear, rather than constant, extrapolation on the predictor and quadratic, rather than linear, interpolation on the corrector. Both of these are done by using data from the previous step, and thus do not affect the stepwise running time. The methods were tested by implementing them into the reactor physics code Serpent and comparing the results from four test cases to accurate reference results obtained with very short steps. Linear extrapolation greatly improved results for thermal spectra and should be preferred over the constant one currently used in all Bateman solution based burnup calculations. The effects of using quadratic interpolation on the corrector were, on the other hand, predominantly negative, although not enough so to conclusively decide between the linear and quadratic variants.

  13. COMBUSTION HEAT RELEASE RATE ANALYSIS OF C.I. ENGINE WITH SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF DEE-H2O SOLUTION - A VIBRATIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANA MURTHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the combustion propensity of single cylinder direct injection engine fueled with palm kernel methyl ester (PKME, which is non- edible oil and a secondary co-injection of saturated Diethyl ether (DEE with water. DEE along with water is fumigated through a high pressure nozzle fitted to the inlet manifold of the engine and the flow rate of the secondary injection was electronically controlled. DEE is known to improve the cold starting problem in engines when used in straight diesel fuel. However, its application in emulsion form is little known. Experimental results show that for 5% DEE- H2O solution injection, occurrence of maximum net heat release rate is delayed due to controlled premixed combustion, which normally helped in better torque conversion when the piston is in accelerated mode. Vibration measurements in the frequency range of 900Hz to 1300Hz revealed that a new mode of combustion has taken place with different excitation frequencies.

  14. Properties of gases, liquids, and solutions principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2013-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume ll-Part A: Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solutions ponders on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as effective tools in examining the molecular, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first offers information on the transmission of sound waves in gases at very low pressures and the phenomenological theory of the relaxation phenomena in gases. Topics include free molecule propagation, phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes, and simultaneous multiple relaxation pro

  15. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  16. Study of the usefulness on liver CT using intermittent bolus injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideo

    1990-01-01

    Usefulness on the liver CT using intermittent bolus injection method of contrast media (IM-CE) was studied in 108 hepatic space occupying lesions, particularly to analyze hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scans were obtained before, 20∼30 (arterial phase) and 60 seconds (parenchymal phase) after intravenous bolus injection of 65%-diatrizoate (angiografin) or 300 mg I-iopamidol (iopamiron 300), and in case of necessity, added 3∼15 minutes (late phase) after all injections of contrast media. These scans imaging the features of hepatic mass provided us much useful information. Early enhancement of the arterial phase, and early wash out of the parenchymal phase and delayed ring enhancement of the capsule improved the rates of detection to 96%, 60%, and 49% respectively in case of HCC. Especially. at the small HCC (less than 2cm in diameter), these rates were 89%, 50%, and 28% respectively. Combination of these 3 findings suggested the possibility of HCC in comparison with other hepatic mass. The rate of accurate diagnosis of HCC by this IM-CE was 81%. Thus IM-CE CT provides the useful information in diagnosis of hepatic mass and should be considered as the routine examination of hepatic mass. (author)

  17. An evaluation of a new N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine double injection method for acetazolamide testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kentaro; Maeda, Minoru; Asegawa, Satoshi; Masuda, Yoko.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of the cerebrovascular reserve, the acetazolamide test must be used to quantitatively measure the cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after the administration of acetazolamide. Previously, the authors have explained the rationale for using 5 min SPECT images to quantify the CBF with N-isoprophyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), and in this study they describe how they devised a 123 I-IMP double injection method for use with the acetazolamide test, and report on the clinical results. First, We measured the brain and arterial 123 I concentrations 10 normal subjects after a 123 I-IMP injection, and noted that after 25 minutes the brain and arterial blood activity had plateaued and stabilized. Thus, by using the background substraction method, We found it possible to quantitatively measure the CBF twice in 30 minutes and have called this technique the double injection method. We have clinically used this double injection method for evaluating the CBF in 5 lacunar stroke patients with no major arterial occlusion and found no statistically significant difference in the CBF values between the first and second CBF measurements. They then applied this double injection method for the acetazolamide testing of 10 stroke patients with an arterial occlusion of stenosis and found that the CBF results compared favorably with the CBF results achieved with the use of the separate injection method. It also should be noted the double injection method was successfully used for clinical CBF measurements without acetazolamide testing. (author)

  18. Modern Cored Wire Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.

  19. Simulation of Jetting in Injection Molding Using a Finite Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozhen Hua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the jetting and the subsequent buckling flow more accurately, a three dimensional melt flow model was established on a viscous, incompressible, and non-isothermal fluid, and a control volume-based finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations. A two-fold iterative method was proposed to decouple the dependence among pressure, velocity, and temperature so as to reduce the computation and improve the numerical stability. Based on the proposed theoretical model and numerical method, a program code was developed to simulate melt front progress and flow fields. The numerical simulations for different injection speeds, melt temperatures, and gate locations were carried out to explore the jetting mechanism. The results indicate the filling pattern depends on the competition between inertial and viscous forces. When inertial force exceeds the viscous force jetting occurs, then it changes to a buckling flow as the viscous force competes over the inertial force. Once the melt contacts with the mold wall, the melt filling switches to conventional sequential filling mode. Numerical results also indicate jetting length increases with injection speed but changes little with melt temperature. The reasonable agreements between simulated and experimental jetting length and buckling frequency imply the proposed method is valid for jetting simulation.

  20. Simultaneous determination of two active components of pharmaceutical preparations by sequential injection method using heteropoly complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khair E. A. Al-Shwaiyat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New approach has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of two reducing agents based on the dependence of their reaction rate with 18-molybdo-2-phosphate heteropoly complex on pH. The method was automated using the manifold typical for the sequential analysis method. Ascorbic acid and rutin were determined by successive injection of two samples acidified to different pH. The linear range for rutin determination was 0.6-20 mg/L and the detection limit was 0.2 mg/L (l = 1 cm. The determination of rutin was possible in the presence of up to a 20-fold excess of ascorbic acid. The method was successfully applied to the determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in ascorutin tablets. The applicability of the proposed method for the determination of total polyphenol content in natural plant samples was shown.

  1. The injection spectroscopy method for the study of deep traps in CdTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubchak, V.O.; Opanasyuk, A.S.; Tirkusova, N.V.; Kharchenko, V.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    A simple highly informative method is presented, which enables to precisely identify the mechanism of charge transfer in the investigated structures and to extract a correct information about the parameters of local states in the energy gap band of the material via space-change-limited current-voltage characteristics. The modelling shows a good coincidence of the parameters, reconstructed with the help of this method, of the distribution of traps with the input parameters of deep traps. Some modification of the differential method are tested on high-ohm med CdTe films. Four groups of monoenergetic deep traps are found. The obtained results evidence the perspectives of the injection spectroscopy method for the research of deep traps in semiconducting and dielectric materials

  2. Monte Carlo methods for flux expansion solutions of transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive Monte Carlo methods, based on the use of either correlated sampling or importance sampling, to obtain global solutions to certain transport problems have recently been described. The resulting learning algorithms are capable of achieving geometric convergence when applied to the estimation of a finite number of coefficients in a flux expansion representation of the global solution. However, because of the nonphysical nature of the random walk simulations needed to perform importance sampling, conventional transport estimators and source sampling techniques require modification to be used successfully in conjunction with such flux expansion methods. It is shown how these problems can be overcome. First, the traditional path length estimators in wide use in particle transport simulations are generalized to include rather general detector functions (which, in this application, are the individual basis functions chosen for the flus expansion). Second, it is shown how to sample from the signed probabilities that arise as source density functions in these applications, without destroying the zero variance property needed to ensure geometric convergence to zero error

  3. A generalized trial solution method for solving the aerosol equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, S.; Simpson, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown how the introduction of orthogonal functions together with a time-dependent scaling factor may be used to develop a generalized trial solution method for tackling the aerosol equation. The approach is worked out in detail for the case where the initial particle size spectrum follows a γ-distribution, and it is shown to be a viable technique as long as the initial volume fraction of particulate material is not too large. The method is applied to several situations of interest, and is shown to give more accurate results (with marginally shorter computing times) than are given by the three-parameter log-normal or γ distribution trial functions. (author)

  4. A finite element solution method for quadrics parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.

    1996-08-01

    A distributed preconditioned conjugate gradient method for finite element analysis has been developed and implemented on a parallel SIMD Quadrics computer. The main characteristic of the method is that it does not require any actual assembling of all element equations in a global system. The physical domain of the problem is partitioned in cells of n p finite elements and each cell element is assigned to a different node of an n p -processors machine. Element stiffness matrices are stored in the data memory of the assigned processing node and the solution process is completely executed in parallel at element level. Inter-element and therefore inter-processor communications are required once per iteration to perform local sums of vector quantities between neighbouring elements. A prototype implementation has been tested on an 8-nodes Quadrics machine in a simple 2D benchmark problem

  5. Flow Injection Photochemical Vapor Generation Coupled with Miniaturized Solution-Cathode Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry for Determination and Speciation Analysis of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiamei; Li, Qing; Guo, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guoxia; Wang, Zheng

    2017-10-03

    A novel, compact, and green method was developed for the determination and speciation analysis of mercury, based on flow injection photochemical vapor generation (PVG) coupled with miniaturized solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectroscopy (SCGD-AES). The SCGD was generated between a miniature hollow titanium tube and a solution emerging from a glass capillary. Cold mercury vapor (Hg(0)) was generated by PVG and subsequently delivered to the SCGD for excitation, and finally the emission signals were recorded by a miniaturized spectrograph. The detection limits (DLs) of Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) were both determined to be 0.2 μg L -1 . Moreover, mercury speciation analysis could also be performed by using different wavelengths and powers from the UV lamp and irradiation times. Both Hg(II) and MeHg can be converted to Hg(0) for the determination of total mercury (T-Hg) with 8 W/254 nm UV lamp and 60 s irradiation time; while only Hg(II) can be reduced to Hg(0) and determined selectively with 4 W/365 nm UV lamp and 20 s irradiation time. Then, the concentration of MeHg can be calculated by subtracting the Hg(II) from the T-Hg. Because of its similar sensitivity and DL at 8 W/254 nm, the simpler and less toxic Hg(II) was used successfully as a primary standard for the quantification of T-Hg. The novel PVG-SCGD-AES system provides not only a 365-fold improvement in the DL for Hg(II) but also a nonchromatographic method for the speciation analysis of mercury. After validating its accuracy, this method was successfully used for mercury speciation analysis of water and biological samples.

  6. Development of a sequential injection-square wave voltammetry method for determination of paraquat in water samples employing the hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luciana B O; Infante, Carlos M C; Masini, Jorge C

    2010-03-01

    This work describes the development and optimization of a sequential injection method to automate the determination of paraquat by square-wave voltammetry employing a hanging mercury drop electrode. Automation by sequential injection enhanced the sampling throughput, improving the sensitivity and precision of the measurements as a consequence of the highly reproducible and efficient conditions of mass transport of the analyte toward the electrode surface. For instance, 212 analyses can be made per hour if the sample/standard solution is prepared off-line and the sequential injection system is used just to inject the solution towards the flow cell. In-line sample conditioning reduces the sampling frequency to 44 h(-1). Experiments were performed in 0.10 M NaCl, which was the carrier solution, using a frequency of 200 Hz, a pulse height of 25 mV, a potential step of 2 mV, and a flow rate of 100 µL s(-1). For a concentration range between 0.010 and 0.25 mg L(-1), the current (i(p), µA) read at the potential corresponding to the peak maximum fitted the following linear equation with the paraquat concentration (mg L(-1)): i(p) = (-20.5 ± 0.3)C (paraquat) - (0.02 ± 0.03). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.0 and 7.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery studies using spiked water samples that were also analyzed by molecular absorption spectrophotometry after reduction of paraquat with sodium dithionite in an alkaline medium. No evidence of statistically significant differences between the two methods was observed at the 95% confidence level.

  7. The method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method for non-grey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayan, Fatma Nihan; Selcuk, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    A radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media was developed by incorporation of a gas spectral radiative property model, namely wide band correlated-k (WBCK) model, which is compatible with MOL solution of DOM. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by applying it to 1-D parallel plate and 2-D axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure problems containing absorbing-emitting medium and benchmarking its predictions against line-by-line solutions available in the literature. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with WBCK model produces accurate results for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics codes based on the same approach

  8. Validation of analytical method for quality control of B12 Vitamin-10 000 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet Garcia, Martha; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Troche Concepcion, Yenilen; Cannizares Arencibia, Yanara; Moreno Correoso, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Analytical method reported by USA Pharmacopeia was validated for quality control of injectable B 1 2 Vitamin (10 000 U) by UV spectrophotometry because this is a simpler and low-cost method allowing quality control of finished product. Calibration curve was graphed at 60 to 140% interval, where it was linear with a correlation coefficient similar to 0, 9999; statistical test for interception and slope was considered non-significant. There was a recovery of 99.7 % in study concentrations interval where the Cochran (G) and Student(t) test were not significant too. Variation coefficient in repetition study was similar to 0.59 % for the 6 assayed replies, whereas in intermediate precision analysis, the Fisher and Student tests were not significant. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in study concentrations interval

  9. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Batch and flow-injection methods for the spectrophotometric determination of olanzapine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinska, A.; Nalewajko, E

    2004-04-22

    An indirect batch spectrophotometric and direct flow-injection (FI) visible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the novel anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLA). The batch method is based on the oxidation of olanzapine by a known excess of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in the presence of the mixture of sulphuric and phosphoric acids (1:1 (v/v)). The absorbance of unreacted oxidant is measured at 425 nm. The absorbance decreases linearly with increasing concentration of the assayed drug. The FI method with detection at 540 nm is based on the direct oxidation of olanzapine one of two oxidants, cerium(IV) sulphate or potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in acidic medium. The calibration graph were linear over the range of 2.5-40 {mu}g ml{sup -1} in the batch method and 0.05-300 and 0.5-250 {mu}g ml{sup -1} in the FI methods, used cerium (IV) sulphate and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) respectively. Both FI methods gave similar results in terms of precision and accuracy. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was <1%. The accuracy, obtained from recovery experiments, was 97.9-99.4%. The batch method gave slightly higher R.S.D. values (up to 2.3%) and lower values of accuracy (the recovery was between 96.5 and 96.6%). The methods developed were applied to the determination of olanzapine in a pharmaceutical product.

  11. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  12. Stopped-flow injection method for determination of phosphate in soils and fertilisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Jakmunee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A stopped-flow injection system for the determination of phosphate has been developed. It involves the phosphate-molybdate-ascorbic acid reactions in the molybdenum blue method. The system is controlled by a semi-automatic stopped-FI analyser with a light emitting diode (LED-colorimeter for monitoring the absorbance change relating to the concentration of a reaction product formed during the stopping period while the injected zone of a standard or sample is being in the flow cell. The slope of the FIAgram obtained is linearly proportional to the reaction rate, which depends on the phosphate concentration. Effects of concentration of reagents, viz. sodium molybdate, ascorbic acid and nitric acid, on the slope of the FIAgram were studied. The suitable concentration is 0.02 M, 0.25 %w/v and 0.15 M, respectively. A linear calibration graph in the range of 0.3-6.0 mg P L-1 was employed for the determination of phosphate in soil and fertiliser samples. The results obtained agree well with those from a standard spectrophotometric method.

  13. Photoelectric schlieren method used to study the properties of diesel engine injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznicek, R.

    1987-01-01

    The time dependence of the fuel flow rate issuing from the injector nozzle represents very important information concerning the properties of Diesel engine injection systems. By analysing the delivery rate, it is possible to judge a new design, and the modifications and adjustments of Diesel engine injection systems. A number of devices for measuring the delivery rate, frequently founded on mechanical principles, have also been constructed. Mechanical methods are laborious, require complicated measuring instruments, and the analysis of the results is quite tedious. For investigating the delivery rate, one can also use the intensity of the luminous flux of the light ray which is intersected, and consequently its intensity decreased, by the flow of the delivered fuel. The schlieren method can be used for this purpose, employing a thin beam of parallel light rays and a photoelectric sensor placed immediately beyond the cut-off slit. After adjustment and calibration, the variations of the original electric signal represent the time variation of the delivery rate by the nozzle

  14. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulatio...... amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light....

  15. A gravimetric simplified method for nucleated marrow cell counting using an injection needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Toshiki; Fang, Liu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2005-08-01

    A simplified gravimetric marrow cell counting method for rats is proposed for a regular screening method. After fresh bone marrow was aspirated by an injection needle, the marrow cells were suspended in carbonate buffered saline. The nucleated marrow cell count (NMC) was measured by an automated multi-blood cell analyzer. When this gravimetric method was applied to rats, the NMC of the left and right femurs had essentially identical values due to careful handling. The NMC at 4 to 10 weeks of age in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats was 2.72 to 1.96 and 2.75 to 1.98 (x10(6) counts/mg), respectively. More useful information for evaluation could be obtained by using this gravimetric method in addition to myelogram examination. However, some difficulties with this method include low NMC due to blood contamination and variation of NMC due to handling. Therefore, the utility of this gravimetric method for screening will be clarified by the accumulation of the data on myelotoxicity studies with this method.

  16. Trace and ultratrace analysis methods for the determination of phosphorus by flow-injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomizu, Shoji; Li, Zhen-Hai

    2005-04-15

    Trace (phosphorus determination by flow-injection analysis are reviewed. Most of the methods cited in this review are fundamentally based on the reaction of orthophosphate with molybdate to form heteropoly acids, such as molybdenum yellow and molybdenum blue, and some of the methods are based on the formation of such secondary reactions as ion associates and their aggregates with bulky cations, such as cationic dyes and quaternary ammonium ions. The heteropoly acids themselves can be measured by spectrophotometry, and the ion associate formed with a cationic dye, Malachite Green (MG), can be measured based on the coloration of MG. Light scattering detection methods can be used for measuring the aggregates of ion associates formed with bulky cations. Highly sensitive detection of phosphorus can be accomplished by fluorophotometry; Rhodamine B (RB) and its analogues react with molybdophosphate to form ion associates, which shows fluorescence quenching of RB: LOD is about 5 nM. The detection method based on the chemiluminescence of luminal oxidized with molybdophosphoric acids is probably the most sensitive of all the detection methods reported so far: LOD of the method is as low as 1nM. The LOD of the molybdenum blue method can be improved by using a liquid core waveguide: LOD is 0.5 nM.

  17. The Semianalytical Solutions for Stiff Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations by Using Variational Iteration Method and Modified Variational Iteration Method with Comparison to Exact Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tarik Atay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Variational Iteration Method (VIM and Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are used to find solutions of systems of stiff ordinary differential equations for both linear and nonlinear problems. Some examples are given to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of these methods. We compare our results with exact results. In some studies related to stiff ordinary differential equations, problems were solved by Adomian Decomposition Method and VIM and Homotopy Perturbation Method. Comparisons with exact solutions reveal that the Variational Iteration Method (VIM and the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are easier to implement. In fact, these methods are promising methods for various systems of linear and nonlinear stiff ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, VIM, or in some cases MVIM, is giving exact solutions in linear cases and very satisfactory solutions when compared to exact solutions for nonlinear cases depending on the stiffness ratio of the stiff system to be solved.

  18. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

    Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on φm2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on φmRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme φm2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme

  19. Method for 236U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a flow injection (FI) system was developed for rapid determination of 236U in 10 L seawater samples. 238U was used as a chemical yield tracer for the whole procedure, in which extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was exploited to purify uranium, after...... experimental parameters affecting the analytical effectiveness were investigated and optimized in order to achieve high chemical yields and simple and rapid analysis as well as low procedure background. Besides, the operational conditions for the target preparation prior to the AMS measurement were optimized......, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80−100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional...

  20. An image-based method for objectively assessing injection moulded plastic quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemose, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Zsíros, László

    2017-01-01

    In high volume productions based on casting processes, like high-pressure die casting (HPDC) or injection moulding, there is a wide range of variables that affect the end quality of produced parts. These variables include production parameters (temperature, pressure, mixture), and external factors...... (humidity, temperature, etc.). With this many variables it is a challenge to maintain a stable output quality, wherefore massive amounts of resources are spent on quality assurance (QA) of produced parts. Currently, this QA is done manually through visual inspection. We demonstrate how a multispectral...... imaging system can be used to automatically rate the quality of a produced part using an autocorrelation and a Fourier-based method. These methods are compared with human rankings and achieve good correlations on a variety of samples....

  1. Qualification Methods of Al2O3 Injection Molding Raw Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egész, Á; Gömze, L A

    2015-01-01

    For producing ceramic arc tube parts (plugs), there are used two different major components for producing injection molding raw material (feedstock): high purity alumina powder as the main component, and an organic paraffin wax as a binder material. It is expressly important to know the material, physical and chemical properties of these components, since mainly these have effect on the homogenity of feedstock, and therefore on the quality of end product. In this research, both of the main components and the moldable raw material was investigated by visual, physical, and thermal methods. As most important and main statement, the researchers found that the dynamic viscosity of raw material depends more on the applied temperature, than on the deformation speed gradient.Applied analitycal methods were laser granulometry, sieve analysis, differential thermal analysis and rheology analysis. (paper)

  2. Chemiluminescence determination of ultramicro DNA with a flow-injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Zhou Min; Jin Xiaoyong; Song Yumin; Zhang Ziyu; Ma Yongjun

    2002-01-01

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for determination of calf thymus DNA and herring sperm DNA has been developed. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of Rhodamine B-cerium(IV)-thermally denatured DNAs in sulfuric acid media. The proposed procedure allows quantitation of DNAs in the range 2.6x10 -5 to 0.26 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA and 5.0x10 -8 to 5.0x10 -5 μg ml -1 for herring sperm DNA with correlation coefficients 0.9998 and 0.9996 (both n=11), respectively. The detection limits (3σ) are 6.5x10 -6 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA and 4.3x10 -8 μg ml -1 for herring sperm DNA. The possible mechanism of chemiluminescence in the system is discussed

  3. Electroerosion method for preparation of saturated solutions of ruthenium hydroxochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalev, V.A.; Andrianov, G.A.; Zhadanov, B.V.; Ryazanov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot plant for carrying out electroerosion processes using pulse current of high unit power is developed. The solution process of metallic Ru in concentrated HCl is investigated. The possibility of preparation of ruthenium hydroxochloride solutions of 300 g/l concentration is established; it gives the possibility of Ru solution under conditions similar to the process of salting out

  4. Composition and method for solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.; Watts, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that, in the solution mining of uranium ores using ammonium carbonate solutions containing hydrogen peroxide or ozone as an oxidant, the tendency of the formation being treated to become less permeable during the leaching process can be overcome by including in the leaching solution a very small concentration of sodium silicate

  5. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  6. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  7. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  8. Methods of using the quadratic assignment problem solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Kudelska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quadratic assignment problem (QAP is one of the most interesting of combinatorial optimization. Was presented by Koopman and Beckamanna in 1957, as a mathematical model of the location of indivisible tasks. This problem belongs to the class NP-hard issues. This forces the application to the solution already approximate methods for tasks with a small size (over 30. Even though it is much harder than other combinatorial optimization problems, it enjoys wide interest because it models the important class of decision problems. Material and methods: The discussion was an artificial intelligence tool that allowed to solve the problem QAP, among others are: genetic algorithms, Tabu Search, Branch and Bound. Results and conclusions: QAP did not arise directly as a model for certain actions, but he found its application in many areas. Examples of applications of the problem is: arrangement of buildings on the campus of the university, layout design of electronic components in systems with large scale integration (VLSI, design a hospital, arrangement of keys on the keyboard.

  9. Method for ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals and potassium microimpurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Kostromina, O.N.; Ogorodnikova, A.A.; Khajnakov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    A method of deep ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals (iron, nickel, copper, lead) and potassium microimpurities is developed. The method includes multiple sorption of microimpurities on titanium phosphate with their subsequent desorption by sorbent processing with a solution with a solution of 3-6 N nitric acid, first, and then with a neutral solution of 2 % sodium thiosulfate. The given method permits to increase the purification degree of sodium iodide solution by 25-30 %. 2 tabs

  10. New Exact Solutions of Time Fractional Gardner Equation by Using New Version of F -Expansion Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandir, Yusuf; Duzgun, Hasan Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we consider analytical solutions of the time fractional derivative Gardner equation by using the new version of F-expansion method. With this proposed method multiple Jacobi elliptic functions are situated in the solution function. As a result, various exact analytical solutions consisting of single and combined Jacobi elliptic functions solutions are obtained. (paper)

  11. A simple and effective approach to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone repair: Syringe-foaming using a viscous hydrophilic polymeric solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Weizhen; Gauthier, Olivier; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Rethore, Gildas; Khairoun, Khalid; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Tancret, Franck; Weiss, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) by syringe-foaming via hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution, such as using silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent. The Si-HPMC foamed CPCs demonstrate excellent handling properties such as injectability and cohesion. After hardening the foamed CPCs possess hierarchical macropores and their mechanical properties (Young's modulus and compressive strength) are comparable to those of cancellous bone. Moreover, a preliminary in vivo study in the distal femoral sites of rabbits was conducted to evaluate the biofunctionality of this injectable macroporous CPC. The evidence of newly formed bone in the central zone of implantation site indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy that will have to be optimized by further extensive animal experiments. A major challenge in the design of biomaterial-based injectable bone substitutes is the development of cohesive, macroporous and self-setting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that enables rapid cell invasion with adequate initial mechanical properties without the use of complex processing and additives. Thus, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous CPCs through syringe-foaming using a hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution (silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent, that simultaneously meets all the aforementioned aims. Evidence from our in vivo studies shows the existence of newly formed bone within the implantation site, indicating the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy, which could be used in various CPC systems using other hydrophilic viscous polymeric solutions. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formulación de metotrexato 50 mg solución inyectable Formulation of metotrexate 50 mg injectable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Gato del Monte

    2006-08-01

    possible to obtain a formulation of metotrexate 50 mg injectable solution with adequate characteristics, and physical, chemical, biological and microbiological stability. The formulation was industrially escalated and was bottled in ampuls that meet the established quality parameters satisfactorily. The quality parameters of the finished product that appear in the USP 26 were proved by the stability study of these batches. An expiration date of 2 years was established under the conditions of controlled temperature 2-8 ºC and protected from light

  13. Numerical analysis of isothermal JET injection into a denser liquid pool using RD-MPS Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. S. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jeun, G. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In this study, the rigid body dynamics coupled moving particle semi-implicit (RD-MPS) method was used to simulate a plunging liquid jet penetrating into a denser liquid pool. The phenomenon is related to fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) during severe accidents in nuclear power plants when coolant water is forcedly injected into a melt pool. A numerical particle method like MPS enables to simulate the complex multiphase flow in that significant deformation of fluids occurs due to its inherent grid less algorithm. However, the MPS method alone cannot continue the calculation for a long time as shown in the Ikea's work due to the large deformation of fluid surfaces and the difference in both liquid densities. In the RD-MPS method, the rigid body dynamics was coupled with the moving particle semi-implicit method to increase the overall stability of calculations and to calculate the multi-phase behavior of fluids. We performed two and three dimensional calculations to simulate jet penetration behaviors in a denser liquid pool, and the result was in good agreement with that of experiment. The simulation results suggested that the coupled model be useful in simulating dynamic interactions of multi-phase incompressible fluids as well as that the 3-D simulation for the plunging jet in a confined geometry predicted better agreement with experimental results than the 2-D simulation did.

  14. Numerical analysis of isothermal JET injection into a denser liquid pool using RD-MPS Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Park, H. S.; Jeun, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the rigid body dynamics coupled moving particle semi-implicit (RD-MPS) method was used to simulate a plunging liquid jet penetrating into a denser liquid pool. The phenomenon is related to fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) during severe accidents in nuclear power plants when coolant water is forcedly injected into a melt pool. A numerical particle method like MPS enables to simulate the complex multiphase flow in that significant deformation of fluids occurs due to its inherent grid less algorithm. However, the MPS method alone cannot continue the calculation for a long time as shown in the Ikea's work due to the large deformation of fluid surfaces and the difference in both liquid densities. In the RD-MPS method, the rigid body dynamics was coupled with the moving particle semi-implicit method to increase the overall stability of calculations and to calculate the multi-phase behavior of fluids. We performed two and three dimensional calculations to simulate jet penetration behaviors in a denser liquid pool, and the result was in good agreement with that of experiment. The simulation results suggested that the coupled model be useful in simulating dynamic interactions of multi-phase incompressible fluids as well as that the 3-D simulation for the plunging jet in a confined geometry predicted better agreement with experimental results than the 2-D simulation did

  15. Two-Step Injection Method for Collecting Digital Evidence in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital forensic investigations, the investigators take digital evidence from computers, laptops or other electronic goods. There are many complications when a suspect or related person does not want to cooperate or has removed digital evidence. A lot of research has been done with the goal of retrieving data from flash memory or other digital storage media from which the content has been deleted. Unfortunately, such methods cannot guarantee that all data will be recovered. Most data can only be recovered partially and sometimes not perfectly, so that some or all files cannot be opened. This paper proposes the development of a new method for the retrieval of digital evidence called the Two-Step Injection method (TSI. It focuses on the prevention of the loss of digital evidence through the deletion of data by suspects or other parties. The advantage of this method is that the system works in secret and can be combined with other digital evidence applications that already exist, so that the accuracy and completeness of the resulting digital evidence can be improved. An experiment to test the effectiveness of the method was set up. The developed TSI system worked properly and had a 100% success rate.

  16. Study of the method of water-injected meat identifying based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianmei; Lin, Qing; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Zheng; Ai, Zhujun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study to apply low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technique was to study regular variation of the transverse relaxation spectral parameters of water-injected meat with the proportion of water injection. Based on this, the method of one-way ANOVA and discriminant analysis was used to analyse the differences between these parameters in the capacity of distinguishing water-injected proportion, and established a model for identifying water-injected meat. The results show that, except for T 21b, T 22e and T 23b, the other parameters of the T 2 relaxation spectrum changed regularly with the change of water-injected proportion. The ability of different parameters to distinguish water-injected proportion was different. Based on S, P 22 and T 23m as the prediction variable, the Fisher model and the Bayes model were established by discriminant analysis method, qualitative and quantitative classification of water-injected meat can be realized. The rate of correct discrimination of distinguished validation and cross validation were 88%, the model was stable.

  17. Effects of large volume injection of aliphatic alcohols as sample diluents on the retention of low hydrophobic solutes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor; Galaon, Toma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-03

    Recent studies showed that injection of large volume of hydrophobic solvents used as sample diluents could be applied in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). This study reports a systematic research focused on the influence of a series of aliphatic alcohols (from methanol to 1-octanol) on the retention process in RP-LC, when large volumes of sample are injected on the column. Several model analytes with low hydrophobic character were studied by RP-LC process, for mobile phases containing methanol or acetonitrile as organic modifiers in different proportions with aqueous component. It was found that starting with 1-butanol, the aliphatic alcohols can be used as sample solvents and they can be injected in high volumes, but they may influence the retention factor and peak shape of the dissolved solutes. The dependence of the retention factor of the studied analytes on the injection volume of these alcohols is linear, with a decrease of its value as the sample volume is increased. The retention process in case of injecting up to 200μL of upper alcohols is dependent also on the content of the organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in mobile phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujiu Hu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05 across all treatments. The amino acid (AA profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05 by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05. The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  19. Method of determination of radiochemical purity of gallium-67 citrate injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanji

    1985-01-01

    A simple method is used to compare the effect of five developing agents on the radiochemical purity of neutral products of 67 GaCit and on Rsub(f) values. Two preferable developing agents are recommended as suitable for the identification of 67 GaCit injection in its production. The effect of six pH values of different developing agents on radiochemical purity, Rsub(f) and chromatogram are compared for the neutral products. The results of the experiments show that the ascending paper chromatography with 1:2:4 pyridine/ethanol/water and 85:15 methanol/water is preferable for the determination of the radiochemical purity of 67 GaCit. The other developing agents also can be used if there are not any impurities except gallium radioisotopes

  20. Injection of colloidal size particles of Fe0 in porous media with shearthinning fluids as a method to emplace a permeable reactive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of injecting suspensions of micron-size zero-valent (FeO) particles into porous media as a method to emplace a permeable reactive zone. Further studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of several shearthinning fluids on enhancing the injectability of micron-size FeO particles into porous media. In contrast to Newtonian fluids, whose viscosities are constant with shear rate, certain non-Newtonian fluids are shearthinning, that is, the viscosity of these fluids decreases with increasing shear rate. The primary benefit of using these fluids for this application is that they increase the viscosity of the aqueous phase without adversely decreasing the hydraulic conductivity. A suspension formulated with a shearthinning fluid will maintain a relatively high viscosity in solution near the FeO particles (where the shear stress is low) relative to locations near the surfaces of the porous media, where the shear stress is high. The increased viscosity decreases the rate of gravitational settling of the dense FeO colloids (7.6 9/cm3) while maintaining a relatively high hydraulic conductivity that permits pumping the colloid suspensions into porous media at greater flowrates and distances. Aqueous solutions of three polymers at different concentrations were investigated. It was determined that, the use of shear thinning fluids greatly increases the injectability of the colloidal FeO suspensions in porous media

  1. Combustion characteristics and optimal factors determination with Taguchi method for diesel engines port-injecting hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Horng-Wen; Wu, Zhan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the L 9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method to find out the best hydrogen injection timing, hydrogen-energy-share ratio, and the percentage of exhaust gas circulation (EGR) in a single DI diesel engine. The injection timing is controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) and the quantity of hydrogen is controlled by hydrogen flow controller. For various engine loads, the authors determine the optimal operating factors for low BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption), NO X , and smoke. Moreover, net heat-release rate involving variable specific heat ratio is computed from the experimental in-cylinder pressure. In-cylinder pressure, net heat-release rate, A/F ratios, COV (coefficient of variations) of IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure), NO X , and smoke using the optimum condition factors are compared with those by original baseline diesel engine. The predictions made using Taguchi's parameter design technique agreed with the confirmation results on 95% confidence interval. At 45% and 60% loads the optimum factor combination compared with the original baseline diesel engine reduces 14.52% for BSFC, 60.5% for NO X and for 42.28% smoke and improves combustion performance such as peak in-cylinder pressure and net heat-release rate. Adding hydrogen and EGR would not generate unstable combustion due to lower COV of IMEP. -- Highlights: ► We use hydrogen injector controlled by ECU and cooled EGR system in a diesel engine. ► Optimal factors by Taguchi method are determined for low BSFC, NO X and smoke. ► The COV of IMEP is lower than 10% so it will not cause the unstable combustion. ► We improve A/F ratio, in-cylinder pressure, and heat-release at optimized engine. ► Decrease is 14.5% for BSFC, 60.5% for NO X , and 42.28% for smoke at optimized engine.

  2. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P J

    2013-01-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead

  3. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead.

  4. Flow injection methods for the determination of a-tocopherol with spectrophotometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rishi, L.; Waseem, A.; Yaqoob, M.; Nabi, A.; Jadoon, S.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes flow injection procedures for a-tocopherol determination in pharmaceuticals and infant milk powder based on spectrophotometric detection. These two procedures are based on the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) and of Mo(Vi) to Mo(V) by a-tocopherol and subsequent formation of iron(II)-o-phenanthroline, and phospho molybdenum complexes which were monitored at 510 and 695 nm respectively. Calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 0.21-43 mu g/mL for iron(III) and 0.25-10 mu g/mL for Mo(Vi) reduction methods respectively. The limits of detection (3s) of 0.05 and 0.1 mu g/mL with sample throughput of 30 and 50/h respectively were obtained. The relative standard deviations of 1.2- 3.8% (n = 4) was achieved in the concentration range studied. The developed methods were applied to pharmaceuticals and infant milk powders and the results obtained were compared with official method and no significant difference between these methods was observed at 95% confidence level. (author)

  5. A Visualization Technique for Accessing Solution Pool in Interactive Methods of Multiobjective Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Kurasova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Interactive methods of multiobjective optimization repetitively derive Pareto optimal solutions based on decision maker’s preference information and present the obtained solutions for his/her consideration. Some interactive methods save the obtained solutions into a solution pool and, at each iteration, allow the decision maker considering any of solutions obtained earlier. This feature contributes to the flexibility of exploring the Pareto optimal set and learning about the op...

  6. A new apparatus and method for mixing solutes for injection tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-17

    Jul 17, 2009 ... ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 37 No. 2 April 2011 ... the push-pull test, a tracer is introduced to the standing water .... the assembly leak-proof. ..... ment of Rural Water Supply Management Strategies for Secondary.

  7. Sexual and injection-related risks in Puerto Rican-born injection drug users living in New York City: A mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpí-Acosta Camila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data were collected as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS study. NHBS is a cross-sectional study to investigate HIV behavioral risks among core risk groups in 21 U.S. cities with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. This analysis examines data from the NHBS data collection cycle with IDU conducted in New York City in 2009. We explored how the recency of migration from Puerto Rico (PR to New York City (NYC impacts both syringe sharing and unprotected sex among injection drug users (IDU currently living in NYC. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to examine differences in risk between US-born IDU, PR IDU who migrated to NYC more than three years ago (non-recent migrants, and PR IDU who migrated in the last three years (recent migrants. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used to recruit the sample (n = 514. In addition, qualitative individual and group interviews with recent PR migrants (n = 12 and community experts (n = 2 allowed for an in-depth exploration of the IDU migration process and the material and cultural factors behind continued risk behaviors in NYC. Results In multiple logistic regression controlling for confounding factors, recent migrants were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual intercourse with casual or exchange partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.37-5.76 and receptive syringe sharing (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.20-4.97 in the past year, compared to US-born IDU. HIV and HCV seroprevalence were highest among non-recent migrants. Qualitative results showed that risky injection practices are partly based on cultural norms acquired while injecting drugs in Puerto Rico. These same results also illustrate how homelessness influences risky sexual practices. Conclusions Poor material conditions (especially homelessness may be key in triggering risky sexual practices. Cultural norms (ingrained while using drugs in PR around injection drug

  8. Measurement of hydroxyl radical production in ultrasonic aqueous solutions by a novel chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Zhujun; Yang, Chunyan

    2008-07-01

    Measurement methods for ultrasonic fields are important for reasons of safety. The investigation of an ultrasonic field can be performed by detecting the yield of hydroxyl radicals resulting from ultrasonic cavitations. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for detecting hydroxyl radicals by a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-K5[Cu(HIO6)2](DPC). The yield of hydroxyl radicals is calculated directly by the relative CL intensity according to the corresponding concentration of H2O2. This proposed CL method makes it possible to perform an in-line and real-time assay of hydroxyl radicals in an ultrasonic aqueous solution. With flow injection (FI) technology, this novel CL reaction is sensitive enough to detect ultra trace amounts of H2O2 with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 4.1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The influences of ultrasonic output power and ultrasonic treatment time on the yield of hydroxyl radicals by an ultrasound generator were also studied. The results indicate that the amount of hydroxyl radicals increases with the increase of ultrasonic output power (< or = 15 W mL(-1)). There is a linear relationship between the time of ultrasonic treatment and the yield of H2O2. The ultrasonic field of an ultrasonic cleaning baths has been measured by calculating the yield of hydroxyl radicals.

  9. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, M; Bobek, J; Habr, J; Běhálek, L; Šafka, J; Nováková, I

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO 2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO 2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO 2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses. (paper)

  10. Enhanced Silver Nanoparticle Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate using Sequential Injection Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarfaj, N.A.; Aly, F.A.; Tamimi, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence detection has been proposed for the determination of the antibiotic gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX). The developed method is based on the enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the chemiluminescence (CL) signal of luminol-potassium ferricyanide reaction in alkaline medium. The introduction of gemifloxacin in this system produced a significant decrease in the CL intensity in presence of (Ag NPs). The optimum conditions for CL emission were investigated. Linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and concentration was obtained in the range 0.01-1000 ng mL-1, (r = 0.9997) with detection limit of 2.0 pg mL-1 and quantification limit of 0.01 pg mL-1. The relative standard deviation was 1.3 %. The proposed method was employed for the determination of gemifloxacin in bulk drug, in its pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids such as human serum and urine. The interference of some common additive compounds such as glucose, lactose, starch, talc and magnesium stearate was investigated, and no interference was found from these excipients. The obtained SIA results were statistically compared with those obtained from a reported method and did not show any significant difference at confidence level 95%. (author)

  11. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann [Niskayuna, NY; DeLancey, James Peter [Corinth, NY; Primus, Roy James [Niskayuna, NY; Pintgen, Florian Peter [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  12. Physico-chemical Stability of MabThera Drug-product Solution for Subcutaneous Injection under in-use Conditions with Different Administration Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Dietel, Elke; Heynen, Severin R; Nalenz, Heiko; Goldbach, Pierre; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Schmidt, Johannes; Grauschopf, Ulla; Schoenhamnmer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    MabThera is an essential component of the standard-of-care regimens in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia. MabThera for subcutaneous injection is a novel line extension that has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This study aimed to evaluate in-use stability data of MabThera subcutaneous drug-product solution in single-use syringes for subcutaneous administration according to the European Medicines Agency guideline. The drug-product solution was exposed to material contact surfaces of five different administration setups commonly used in subcutaneous drug delivery. MabThera subcutaneous was transferred under aseptic conditions into polypropylene and polycarbonate syringes and stored for 1, 2, and 4 weeks at 2°C to 8°C followed by 24 hours at 30°C. After storage, subcutaneous administration was simulated and MabThera subcutaneous drug-product solution quality attributes were evaluated by using compendial physico-chemical tests, as well as suitable and validated molecule- and formulation-specific analytical methods. MabThera subcutaneous vials were treated and analyzed in parallel. The physico-chemical results of MabThera subcutaneous in the different setups were comparable to the control for all timepoints. No change in drug-product quality after storage and simulated administration was found compared to the control. However, since single-dose products do not contain preservatives, microbial contamination and growth needs to be avoided and product sterility needs to be ensured. The results showed that MabThera subcutaneous remains compatible and stable, from a physico-chemical perspective, for up to 4 weeks at 2°C to 8°C followed by 24 hours at 30°C with the contact materials tested in this study. In order to avoid and minimize microbial growth, MabThera subcutaneous should be used immediately after removal from the original

  13. Multiple Revolution Solutions for the Perturbed Lambert Problem using the Method of Particular Solutions and Picard Iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn M.; Read, Julie L.; Probe, Austin B.; Junkins, John L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method for solving the multiple revolution perturbed Lambert problem using the method of particular solutions and modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration. The method of particular solutions differs from the well-known Newton-shooting method in that integration of the state transition matrix (36 additional differential equations) is not required, and instead it makes use of a reference trajectory and a set of n particular solutions. Any numerical integrator can be used for solving two-point boundary problems with the method of particular solutions, however we show that using modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration affords an avenue for increased efficiency that is not available with other step-by-step integrators. We take advantage of the path approximation nature of modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration (nodes iteratively converge to fixed points in space) and utilize a variable fidelity force model for propagating the reference trajectory. Remarkably, we demonstrate that computing the particular solutions with only low fidelity function evaluations greatly increases the efficiency of the algorithm while maintaining machine precision accuracy. Our study reveals that solving the perturbed Lambert's problem using the method of particular solutions with modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration is about an order of magnitude faster compared with the classical shooting method and a tenth-twelfth order Runge-Kutta integrator. It is well known that the solution to Lambert's problem over multiple revolutions is not unique and to ensure that all possible solutions are considered we make use of a reliable preexisting Keplerian Lambert solver to warm start our perturbed algorithm.

  14. The extended hyperbolic function method and exact solutions of the long-short wave resonance equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2008-01-01

    The extended hyperbolic functions method for nonlinear wave equations is presented. Based on this method, we obtain a multiple exact explicit solutions for the nonlinear evolution equations which describe the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) the solitary wave solutions of bell-type for S and L, (b) the solitary wave solutions of kink-type for S and bell-type for L, (c) the solitary wave solutions of a compound of the bell-type and the kink-type for S and L, (d) the singular travelling wave solutions, (e) periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle function types, and solitary wave solutions of rational function types. The variety of structure to the exact solutions of the long-short wave equation is illustrated. The methods presented here can also be used to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in n dimensions

  15. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  16. Soliton-like solutions to the GKdV equation by extended mapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ranchao; Sun Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    In this note, many new exact solutions of the generalized KdV equation, such as rational solutions, periodic solutions like Jacobian elliptic and triangular functions, soliton-like solutions, are constructed by symbolic computation and the extended mapping method, with the auxiliary ordinary equation replaced by a more general one

  17. Multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations using a unified algebraic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2002-01-01

    A new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. Compared with most of the existing tanh methods, the Jacobi elliptic function method or other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only gives new and more general solutions, but also provides a guideline to classify the various types of the travelling wave solutions according to the values of some parameters. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) kink-shaped and bell-shaped soliton solutions, (b) rational solutions, (c) triangular periodic solutions and (d) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic wave solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations such as those considered in this paper, KdV-MKdV, Ito's fifth MKdV, Hirota, Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov, Broer-Kaup, generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma, coupled Schroedinger-KdV, (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave, (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson equations. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the soliton solutions and Jacobi doubly periodic solutions for the Hirota equation are shown by some figures. The links among our proposed method, the tanh method, extended tanh method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are clarified generally. (author)

  18. Elliptic equation rational expansion method and new exact travelling solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Wang Qi; Li Biao

    2005-01-01

    Based on a new general ansatz and a general subepuation, a new general algebraic method named elliptic equation rational expansion method is devised for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions in terms of rational special function for nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). We apply the proposed method to solve Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation and explicitly construct a series of exact solutions which include rational form solitary wave solution, rational form triangular periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions as special cases. In addition, the links among our proposed method with the method by Fan [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;20:609], are also clarified generally

  19. Methods of Uranium Determination in solutions of Tributyl Phosphate and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrement Eguiluz, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.

    1962-01-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of uranium in organic solutions of tributyl phosphate and kerosene is proposed. In this method the uranium is reextracted from the aqueous phase by reduction with cadmium in acid solution. The uranium can be determined in this solution by the usual methods. In case of very diluted solutions, a direct spectrophtometrical determination of uranium in the organic phase with dibenzoylmethane is proposed. (Author) 21 refs

  20. An Algebraic Method for Constructing Exact Solutions to Difference-Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zhang Hongqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to solve difference differential equation(s). As an example, we apply this method to discrete KdV equation and Ablowitz-Ladik lattice equation. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained with the help of Maple including soliton solutions presented by hyperbolic functions sinh and cosh, periodic solutions presented by sin and cos and rational solutions. This method can also be used to other nonlinear difference-differential equation(s).

  1. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of fault coverage for digitalized systems in NPPs using simulated fault injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Joon

    2004-02-01

    Even though digital systems have numerous advantages such as precise processing of data, enhanced calculation capability over the conventional analog systems, there is a strong restriction on the application of digital systems to the safety systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This is because we do not fully understand the reliability of digital systems, and therefore we cannot guarantee the safety of digital systems. But, as the need for introduction of digital systems to safety systems in NPPs increasing, the need for the quantitative analysis on the safety of digital systems is also increasing. NPPs, which are quite conservative in terms of safety, require proving the reliability of digital systems when applied them to the NPPs. Moreover, digital systems which are applied to the NPPs are required to increase the overall safety of NPPs. however, it is very difficult to evaluate the reliability of digital systems because they include the complex fault processing mechanisms at various levels of the systems. Software is another obstacle in reliability assessment of the systems that requires ultra-high reliability. In this work, the fault detection coverage for the digital system is evaluated using simulated fault injection method. The target system is the Local Coincidence Logic (LCL) processor in Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). However, as the LCL processor is difficult to design equally for evaluating the fault detection coverage, the LCL system has to be simplified. The simulations for evaluating the fault detection coverage of components are performed by dividing into two cases and the failure rates of components are evaluated using MIL-HDBK-217F. Using these results, the fault detection coverage of simplified LCL system is evaluated. In the experiments, heartbeat signals were just emitted at regular interval after executing logic without self-checking algorithm. When faults are injected into the simplified system, fault occurrence can be detected by

  3. Method for Non-Invasive Determination of Chemical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul W. (Inventor); Jones, Alan (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for non-invasively determining a chemical property of an aqueous solution is provided. The method provides the steps of providing a colored solute having a light absorbance spectrum and transmitting light through the colored solute at two different wavelengths. The method further provides the steps of measuring light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different transmitted light wavelengths, and comparing the light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different wavelengths to determine a chemical property of an aqueous solution.

  4. Design of Position Estimation Strategy of Sensorless Interior PMSM at Standstill Using Minimum Voltage Vector Injection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xuan; Huang, Shoudao; Liu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new initial rotor position estimation method for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. The proposed method includes two steps: firstly, the minimum voltage vectors are injected to estimate the rotor position. Secondly, in order to identify the magnet polarity...

  5. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides. [US Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Holleman, J.W.

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  6. Chemiluminescence determination of ultramicro DNA with a flow-injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hui; Zhou Min; Jin Xiaoyong; Song Yumin; Zhang Ziyu; Ma Yongjun

    2002-02-12

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for determination of calf thymus DNA and herring sperm DNA has been developed. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of Rhodamine B-cerium(IV)-thermally denatured DNAs in sulfuric acid media. The proposed procedure allows quantitation of DNAs in the range 2.6x10{sup -5} to 0.26 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA and 5.0x10{sup -8} to 5.0x10{sup -5} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for herring sperm DNA with correlation coefficients 0.9998 and 0.9996 (both n=11), respectively. The detection limits (3{sigma}) are 6.5x10{sup -6} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA and 4.3x10{sup -8} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for herring sperm DNA. The possible mechanism of chemiluminescence in the system is discussed.

  7. A multisyringe flow injection method for the determination of thorium in water samples using spectrophotometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Aracely Hernandez-Ramirez; Lopez-Chuken, U.J.; Lopez-de-Alba, P.L.; Victor Cerda

    2011-01-01

    A fast and simple multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) method for routine determination of thorium in water samples was developed. The methodology was based on the complexation reaction of thorium with arsenazo (III) at pH 2.0. Thorium concentrations were spectrophotometrically detected at 665 nm. Under optimal conditions, Beer's law was obeyed over the range from 0.2 to 4.5 μg mL -1 thorium, a 3σ detection limit of 0.05 μg mL -1 , and a 10σ quantification limit of 0.2 μg mL -1 were obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSD, %) at 0.5, 2.5 and 4.5 μg mL -1 was 2.8, 1.5 and 0.8%, respectively (n = 10). It was found that most of the common metal ions and anions did not interfere with the thorium determination. The proposed method was successfully applied to its analysis in various water samples. (author)

  8. Calibration curves for on-line leakage detection using radiotracer injection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Khatooni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements for industrial pipelines is the leakage detection. In this paper, detection of leak and determination of its amount using radioactive tracer injection method has been simulated by Monte Carlo MCNP code. The detector array included two NaI (Tl detectors which were located before and after the considered position, measure emitted gamma from radioactive tracer. After calibration of radiation detectors, the amount of leakage can be calculated based on the count difference of detectors. Also, the effect of material and thickness and diameter of pipe, crystal dimension, types of fluid, activity of tracer and its type (24Na, 82Br, 131I, 99mTc, 113mIn as well as have been investigated on the detectable amount of leakage. According to the results, for example, leakage more than 0.007% in volume of the inlet fluid for iron pipe with outer diameter 4 inch and thickness of 0.5 cm, Petrol as fluid inside pipe, 3 3 inch detector and 24Na with activity of 100 mCi can be detected by this presented method.

  9. Comparison of Three Popular Methods for Recruiting Young Persons Who Inject Drugs for Interventional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Melissa G; Garfein, Richard S; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2017-08-01

    Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for adverse health outcomes as a result of their drug use, and the resulting social stigma makes this a difficult population to reach for interventions aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. During our study of adult PWID aged ≤40 years living in San Diego during 2009 and 2010, we compared three different sampling methods: respondent-driven sampling (RDS), venue-based sampling at one syringe exchange program (SEP), and street-based outreach. We compared demographic, socioeconomic, health, and behavioral factors and tested participants for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and compared across the three methods. Overall, 561 (74.8%) of the targeted 750 PWID were enrolled. Venue-based convenience sampling enrolled 96% (242/250) of the targeted participants, followed closely by street-based outreach with 92% (232/250) recruited. While RDS yielded the fewest recruits, producing only 35% (87/250) of the expected participants, those recruited through RDS were more likely to be female, more racially diverse, and younger.

  10. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  11. Characterization methods of nano-patterned surfaces generated by induction heating assisted injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Ravn, Christian; Menotti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An induction heating-assisted injection molding (IHAIM) process developed by the authors is used to replicate surfaces containing random nano-patterns. The injection molding setup is developed so that an induction heating system rapidly heats the cavity wall at rates of up to 10◦C/s. In order...

  12. Construct solitary solutions of discrete hybrid equation by Adomian Decomposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zhang Hongqing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the Adomian Decomposition Method to solving the differential-difference equations. A typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the Adomian Decomposition Method in solving differential-difference equation. Kink shaped solitary solution and Bell shaped solitary solution are presented. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the Adomian Decomposition Method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations.

  13. Modified harmonic balance method for the solution of nonlinear jerk equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Hasan, A. S. M. Z.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a second approximate solution of nonlinear jerk equations (third order differential equation) can be obtained by using modified harmonic balance method. The method is simpler and easier to carry out the solution of nonlinear differential equations due to less number of nonlinear equations are required to solve than the classical harmonic balance method. The results obtained from this method are compared with those obtained from the other existing analytical methods that are available in the literature and the numerical method. The solution shows a good agreement with the numerical solution as well as the analytical methods of the available literature.

  14. Further improved F-expansion method and new exact solutions of Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dengshan; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, with the aid of the symbolic computation we improve the extended F-expansion method in [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004; 22:111] and propose the further improved F-expansion method. Using this method, we have gotten many new exact solutions which we have never seen before within our knowledge of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky equation. In addition,the solutions we get are more general than the solutions that the extended F-expansion method gets.The solutions we get include Jacobi elliptic function solutions, soliton-like solutions, trigonometric function solutions and so on. Our method can also apply to other partial differential equations and can also get many new exact solutions

  15. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  16. Substep methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Aarnio, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bateman solution based depletion requires constant microscopic reaction rates. → Traditionally constant approximation is used for each depletion step. → Here depletion steps are divided to substeps which are solved sequentially. → This allows piecewise constant, rather than constant, approximation for each step. → Discretization errors are almost completely removed with only minor slowdown. - Abstract: When material changes in burnup calculations are solved by evaluating an explicit solution to the Bateman equations with constant microscopic reaction rates, one has to first predict the development of the reaction rates during the step and then further approximate these predictions with their averages in the depletion calculation. Representing the continuously changing reaction rates with their averages results in some error regardless of how accurately their development was predicted. Since neutronics solutions tend to be computationally expensive, steps in typical calculations are long and the resulting discretization errors significant. In this paper we present a simple solution to reducing these errors: the depletion steps are divided to substeps that are solved sequentially, allowing finer discretization of the reaction rates without additional neutronics solutions. This greatly reduces the discretization errors and, at least when combined with Monte Carlo neutronics, causes only minor slowdown as neutronics dominates the total running time.

  17. Solutions of differential equations with regular coefficients by the methods of Richmond and Runge-Kutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the differential equation which describe the electric field within an inhomogeneous layer of permittivity, upon which a perpendicularly-polarized plane wave is incident, are considered. Richmond's method and the Runge-Kutta method are compared for linear and exponential profiles of permittivities. These two approximate solutions are also compared with the exact solutions.

  18. Generation of new solutions of the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations by a double complex function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the solution of certain differential equations, the double complex function method, is developed, combining ordinary complex numbers and hyperbolic complex numbers. This method is applied to the theory of stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations in general relativity. A family of exact double solutions, double transformation groups, and n-soliton double solutions are obtained

  19. Fundamental solution of the problem of linear programming and method of its determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The idea of a fundamental solution to a problem in linear programming is introduced. A method of determining the fundamental solution and of applying this method to the solution of a problem in linear programming is proposed. Numerical examples are cited.

  20. A direct algebraic method applied to obtain complex solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using some exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact complex solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is implemented for the NLS equation, a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation, the coupled Schrodinger-KdV equations and the Hirota-Maccari equations. New exact complex solutions are obtained.

  1. The modified simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Efimova, Olga Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The modification of simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented. Using this method we obtain exact solutions of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with cubic source and exact solutions of third-order Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation describing nonlinear waves in liquids with gas bubbles.

  2. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of labelled antituberculotics for clarifying specific problems in therapy optimization. 1. Preparation of tritiated isoniazid and injectable solutions, investigation of the stability of labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsel, K.; Iwainsky, H. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Lungenkrankheiten und Tuberkulose, Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic)); Mittag, E.; Kiessling, M. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf bei Dresden (German Democratic Republic)); Koehler, H. (Zentralklinik fuer Herz- und Lungenkrankheiten, Bad Berka (German Democratic Republic))

    1985-09-01

    The preparation of tritium labelled isoniazid according to the Wilzbach method and by catalytic exchange is described. The purified labelled isoniazid is adjusted to an activity of 37 MBq/300 mg isoniazid. It meets the requirements for an injectable pharmaceutical. The tritium labelling is stable under in vitro conditions and in the macroorganism.

  4. High Frequency Voltage Injection Methods and Observer Design for Initial Position Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xinhai; Ni, Ronggang; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The information of the initial rotor position is essential for smooth start up and robust control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs). RoTating Voltage Injection (RTVI) methods in the stationary reference frame have been commonly adopted to detect the initial rotor position at stands......The information of the initial rotor position is essential for smooth start up and robust control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs). RoTating Voltage Injection (RTVI) methods in the stationary reference frame have been commonly adopted to detect the initial rotor position...

  5. Radioactivity measurements of 32P solutions by calorimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, T.; Nataredja, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactivity of 32 P solution is measured with a twin-cup heat-flow microcalorimeter. In order to convert whole decay energy evolved from the 32 P solution in a glass vial into thermal power, 5 mm-thick lead container was used as a radiation absorber. Corrections for heat loss due to thermal radiation and bremsstrahlung escape as well as an effect of impurity ( 33 P) are conducted. The overall uncertainty of the nondestructive measurement as a sample is in a container is estimated to be ± 1.5 %. Discussion about estimates of uncertainties is also given in detail. (author)

  6. Numerical soliton-like solutions of the potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation by the decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Dogan; El-Sayed, Salah M.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter we present an Adomian's decomposition method (shortly ADM) for obtaining the numerical soliton-like solutions of the potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (shortly PKP) equation. We will prove the convergence of the ADM. We obtain the exact and numerical solitary-wave solutions of the PKP equation for certain initial conditions. Then ADM yields the analytic approximate solution with fast convergence rate and high accuracy through previous works. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical solutions

  7. Bubble-size distributions produced by wall injection of air into flowing freshwater, saltwater and surfactant solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc

    2004-12-01

    As air is injected into a flowing liquid, the resultant bubble characteristics depend on the properties of the injector, near-wall flow, and flowing liquid. Previous research has shown that near-wall bubbles can significantly reduce skin-friction drag. Air was injected into the turbulent boundary layer on a test section wall of a water tunnel containing various concentrations of salt and surfactant (Triton-X-100, Union Carbide). Photographic records show that the mean bubble diameter decreased monotonically with increasing salt and surfactant concentrations. Here, 33 ppt saltwater bubbles had one quarter, and 20 ppm Triton-X-100 bubbles had one half of the mean diameter of freshwater bubbles.

  8. A numerical dressing method for the nonlinear superposition of solutions of the KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trogdon, Thomas; Deconinck, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the unification of two existing numerical methods for the construction of solutions of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. The first method is used to solve the Cauchy initial-value problem on the line for rapidly decaying initial data. The second method is used to compute finite-genus solutions of the KdV equation. The combination of these numerical methods allows for the computation of exact solutions that are asymptotically (quasi-)periodic finite-gap solutions and are a nonlinear superposition of dispersive, soliton and (quasi-)periodic solutions in the finite (x, t)-plane. Such solutions are referred to as superposition solutions. We compute these solutions accurately for all values of x and t. (paper)

  9. The generalized tanh method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the generalized tanh method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, and we obtain solitons and exact solutions of some important equations of the mathematical physics.

  10. Traveling Wave Solutions of ZK-BBM Equation Sine-Cosine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a relatively new technique which is called sine-cosine method for ZK-BBM equations. Solution procedure and obtained results re-confirm the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  11. Enhanced exact solution methods for the Team Orienteering Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshtkaran, M.; Ziarati, K.; Bettinelli, A.; Vigo, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Team Orienteering Problem (TOP) is one of the most investigated problems in the family of vehicle routing problems with profits. In this paper, we propose a Branch-and-Price approach to find proven optimal solutions to TOP. The pricing sub-problem is solved by a bounded bidirectional dynamic

  12. WYD method for an eigen solution of coupled problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Harapin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing efficient and stable algorithm for finding the eigenvalues andeigenvectors is very important from the static as well as the dynamic aspectin coupled problems. Modal analysis requires first few significant eigenvectorsand eigenvalues while direct integration requires the highest value toascertain the length of the time step that satisfies the stability condition.The paper first presents the modification of the well known WYDmethod for a solution of single field problems: an efficient and numericallystable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and the correspondingeigenvectors. The modification is based on the special choice of thestarting vector. The starting vector is the static solution of displacements forthe applied load, defined as the product of the mass matrix and the unitdisplacement vector. The starting vector is very close to the theoreticalsolution, which is important in cases of small subspaces.Additionally, the paper briefly presents the adopted formulation for solvingthe fluid-structure coupled systems problems which is based on a separatesolution for each field. Individual fields (fluid and structure are solvedindependently, taking in consideration the interaction information transferbetween them at every stage of the iterative solution process. The assessmentof eigenvalues and eigenvectors for multiple fields is also presented. This eigenproblem is more complicated than the one for the ordinary structural analysis,as the formulation produces non-symmetrical matrices.Finally, a numerical example for the eigen solution coupled fluidstructureproblem is presented to show the efficiency and the accuracy ofthe developed algorithm.

  13. Computer Facilitated Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering--Similarity Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2006-01-01

    High-performance computers coupled with highly efficient numerical schemes and user-friendly software packages have helped instructors to teach numerical solutions and analysis of various nonlinear models more efficiently in the classroom. One of the main objectives of a model is to provide insight about the system of interest. Analytical…

  14. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talib, Abou; Pandey, Sunil; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2015-01-01

    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5–30 nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD 50 : 50 mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5 mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors. - Highlights: • Synthesis of hydrophobic carbon dots from polymer based Paraplast • Deep blue color under the influence of UV light • Typical optical properties used for biological imaging • Biological imaging of breast cancer stem cells revealing potential of carbon dots

  15. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs. Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  16. Magneto-plasmonic Au-Coated Co nanoparticles synthesized via hot-injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João B., Jr.; Varanda, Laudemir C.

    2018-02-01

    A synthetic procedure is described for the obtaining of superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles (NPs) via hot-injection method in the presence of sodium borohydride. The Co NPs obtained have an average diameter of 5.3 nm and saturation magnetization of 115 emu g-1. A modified Langevin equation is fitted to the magnetization curves using a log-normal distribution for the particle diameter and an effective field to account for dipolar interactions. The calculated magnetic diameter of the Co NPs is 0.6 nm smaller than TEM-derived values, implying a magnetic dead layer of 0.3 nm. The magnetic core is coated with Au to prevent oxidation, resulting in water-stable magneto-plasmonic Co/Au core/shell NPs with saturation of 71.6 emu g-1. The coating adds a localized surface plasmon resonance property with absorbance in the so-called ‘therapeutic window’ (690-900 nm), suitable for biomedical applications. It is suggested that these multifunctional NPs are distinguished as a potential platform for applied and fundamental research.

  17. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Abou [Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Pandey, Sunil [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Thakur, Mukeshchand [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hui@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5–30 nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD{sub 50}: 50 mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5 mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors. - Highlights: • Synthesis of hydrophobic carbon dots from polymer based Paraplast • Deep blue color under the influence of UV light • Typical optical properties used for biological imaging • Biological imaging of breast cancer stem cells revealing potential of carbon dots.

  18. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar; Muhammet Kurulay

    2013-01-01

    A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as...

  19. A novel fault location scheme for power distribution system based on injection method and transient line voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuehua; Li, Xiaomin; Cheng, Jiangzhou; Nie, Deyu; Wang, Zhuoyuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel fault location method by injecting travelling wave current. The new methodology is based on Time Difference Of Arrival(TDOA)measurement which is available measurements the injection point and the end node of main radial. In other words, TDOA is the maximum correlation time when the signal reflected wave crest of the injected and fault appear simultaneously. Then distance calculation is equal to the wave velocity multiplied by TDOA. Furthermore, in case of some transformers connected to the end of the feeder, it’s necessary to combine with the transient voltage comparison of amplitude. Finally, in order to verify the effectiveness of this method, several simulations have been undertaken by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software packages. The proposed fault location is useful to short the positioning time in the premise of ensuring the accuracy, besides the error is 5.1% and 13.7%.

  20. Regularized variable metric method versus the conjugate gradient method in solution of radiative boundary design problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsary, F.; Pooladvand, K.; Pourshaghaghy, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an appropriate distribution of the heating elements' strengths in a radiation furnace is estimated using inverse methods so that a pre-specified temperature and heat flux distribution is attained on the design surface. Minimization of the sum of the squares of the error function is performed using the variable metric method (VMM), and the results are compared with those obtained by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) established previously in the literature. It is shown via test cases and a well-founded validation procedure that the VMM, when using a 'regularized' estimator, is more accurate and is able to reach at a higher quality final solution as compared to the CGM. The test cases used in this study were two-dimensional furnaces filled with an absorbing, emitting, and scattering gas

  1. Estimating the number of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok: a capture--recapture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, T D; Kitayaporn, D; Weniger, B G; Vanichseni, S; Laosunthorn, V; Uneklabh, T; Uneklabh, C; Choopanya, K; Limpakarnjanarat, K

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the number of injection drug users infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Bangkok to allow planning for health services for this population. A two-sample capture-recapture method was used. The first capture listed all persons on methadone treatment for opiate addiction from April 17 through May 17, 1991, at 18 facilities in Bangkok. The second capture involved urine testing of persons held at 72 Bangkok police stations from June 3 through September 30, 1991. Persons whose urine tests were positive for opiate metabolites or methadone were included on the second list. The first capture comprised 4064 persons and the recapture 1540 persons. There were 171 persons included on both lists, yielding an estimate of 36,600 opiate users in Bangkok. Existing data indicate that 89% of opiate users in Bangkok inject drugs and that about one third are infected with HIV, yielding an estimate of approximately 12,000 HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok in 1991. During the 1990s the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other HIV-related diseases, including tuberculosis, in the population of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok will increase dramatically, placing new demands on existing health care facilities. The capture-recapture method may be useful in estimating difficult-to-count populations, including injection drug users.

  2. UV disinfection of injection and drinking water - an accepted method on offshore oil platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.; Klein, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet disinfection packages have been developed for the treatment of drinking water and injection water on offshore oil platforms. Large-scale tests with sulphate reducing bacteria out outlined. (Auth.)

  3. Powder Injection Molding - An innovative manufacturing method for He-cooled DEMO divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Norajitra, Prachai; Piotter, Volker; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Hans-Joachim; Spatafora, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a He-cooled divertor design for future fusion power plants has been developed. This concept is based on the use of modular cooling fingers made from tungsten and tungsten alloy, which are presently considered the most promising divertor materials to withstand the specific heat load of 10 MW/m 2 . Since a large number of the finger modules (n > 250,000) are needed for the whole reactor, developing a mass-oriented manufacturing method is indispensable. In this regard, an innovative manufacturing technology, Powder Injection Molding (PIM), has been adapted to W processing at KIT since a couple of years. This production method is deemed promising in view of large-scale production of tungsten parts with high near-net-shape precision, hence, offering an advantage of cost-saving process compared to conventional machining. The complete technological PIM process for tungsten materials and its application on manufacturing of real divertor components, including the design of a new PIM tool is outlined and, results of the examination of the finished product after heat-treatment are discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed and successfully tested in molding experiments. After design, simulation and manufacturing of a new PIM tool, real divertor parts are produced. After heat-treatment (pre-sintering and HIP) the successful finished samples showed a sintered density of approximately 99%, a hardness of 457 HV0.1, a grain size of approximately 5 μm and a microstructure without cracks and porosity.

  4. A dilute-and-shoot flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of phenobarbital in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagandula, Ravali; Zhou, Xiang; Guo, Baochuan

    2017-01-15

    Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized. This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system. Briefly, a urine sample containing phenobarbital was first diluted by 10 times, followed by flow injection of the diluted sample to mass spectrometer. Quantification and detection of phenobarbital were achieved by an electrospray negative ionization MS/MS system operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the stable-isotope-labeled drug as internal standard. The dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method developed was linear with a dynamic range of 50-2000 ng/mL of phenobarbital and correlation coefficient > 0.9996. The coefficients of variation and relative errors for intra- and inter-assays at four quality control (QC) levels (50, 125, 445 and 1600 ng/mL) were 3.0% and 5.0%, respectively. The total run time to quantify one sample was 2 min, and the sensitivity and specificity of the method did not deteriorate even after 1200 consecutive injections. Our method can accurately and robustly quantify phenobarbital in urine without LC separation. Because of its 2 min run time, the method can process 720 samples per day. This feasibility study shows that the dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method can be a general way for fast analysis of drugs in urine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. An Optical Method for Measuring Injection Timing in Diesel Engines, Using a Single Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    injection, naturally aspirated marine diesel engine with mechanical unit injectors and showed satisfactory results with blends ranging from 25% HRD/75... injector technology, they further concluded that the mechanical unit injectors found throughout the naval fleet and on the Detroit Diesel 3–53 in the...injection timing in a pump-line- nozzle system of blending Fischer- Tropsch derived diesel fuel with low sulfur, ultra-low sulfur and biodiesel fuels. The

  6. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations Using Spectral Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pashazadeh Atabakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral homotopy analysis method (SHAM as a modification of homotopy analysis method (HAM is applied to obtain solution of high-order nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential problems. The existence and uniqueness of the solution and convergence of the proposed method are proved. Some examples are given to approve the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed method. The SHAM results show that the proposed approach is quite reasonable when compared to homotopy analysis method, Lagrange interpolation solutions, and exact solutions.

  7. A general method for enclosing solutions of interval linear equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-717 ISSN 1862-4472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval linear equations * solution set * enclosure * absolute value inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2012

  8. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Juan-Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

  9. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  10. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  11. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeuchi/software/) for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  12. Method for separation of Cs from acid solution dissolving radionuclides and microanalysis of solution with ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2004-06-01

    The VEGA (Verification Experiments of radionuclides Gas/Aerosol release) program is being performed at JAERI to understand mechanisms of radionuclides release from irradiated fuel during severe accidents. As a part of evaluation in the program, the mass balances of released and deposited FP (Fission Products) onto the test apparatus are estimated from gamma ray measurement for acid solution leached from the apparatus, but short-life nuclides are difficult to be measured because those in the VEGA fuel have been mostly depleted due to cooling for several years. Moreover, the radionuclides without emitting gamma rays and very small quantity of elements cannot be quantified by gamma ray measurement. Therefore, a microanalysis by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry) for the acid solution leached from VEGA apparatuses is being applied to evaluate the released and deposited masses for those elements. Since Cs-134 and -137, which are major FP dissolved in the solution, have high intensity of gamma ray spectrum, they have to be removed from the solution before the microanalysis in order to avoid contamination of ICP system and to decrease exposure to gamma ray. In this report, methods for separation of Cs from acid solution were reviewed and the applicability of them to the ICP-AES analysis was discussed. The method for Cs separation using the inorganic ion exchanger, AMP (Ammonium Molybdate Phosphate) was applied to the solutions of cold and hot test and the effectiveness was examined. The results showed that more than 99.9% of Cs could be removed from the test solutions, and once removed Sb by AMP was recovered by using a complexing agent such as citric acid. Next, the method was applied to an acid solution leached from VEGA-3 apparatus, and ICP-AES analysis was performed for it. The analysis showed that amount of U, Sr and Zr were successfully quantified. Most of elements to be analyzed were measurable except for Sb, Ag and Sn, although

  13. The (′/-Expansion Method for Abundant Traveling Wave Solutions of Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the traveling wave solutions of the fifth-order Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (CDG equation by the (/-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, the trigonometric, and the rational functions. It is shown that the (/-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  14. Comparison of two solution ways of district heating control: Using analysis methods, using artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balate, J.; Sysala, T. [Technical Univ., Zlin (Czech Republic). Dept. of Automation and Control Technology

    1997-12-31

    The District Heating Systems - DHS (Centralized Heat Supply Systems - CHSS) are being developed in large cities in accordance with their growth. The systems are formed by enlarging networks of heat distribution to consumers and at the same time they interconnect the heat sources gradually built. The heat is distributed to the consumers through the circular networks, that are supplied by several cooperating heat sources, that means by power and heating plants and heating plants. The complicated process of heat production technology and supply requires the system approach when solving the concept of automatized control. The paper deals with comparison of the solution way using the analysis methods and using the artificial intelligence methods. (orig.)

  15. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  16. Comparison of zero-sequence injection methods in cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters for large-scale photovoltaic integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yifan; Konstantinou, Georgios; Townsend, Christopher David

    2017-01-01

    to maintain three-phase balanced grid currents with unbalanced power generation. This study theoretically compares power balance capabilities of various zero-sequence injection methods based on two metrics which can be easily generalised for all CHB applications to PV systems. Experimental results based......Photovoltaic (PV) power generation levels in the three phases of a multilevel cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter can be significantly unbalanced, owing to different irradiance levels and ambient temperatures over a large-scale solar PV power plant. Injection of a zero-sequence voltage is required...... on a 430 V, 10 kW, three-phase, seven-level cascaded H-bridge converter prototype confirm superior performance of the optimal zero-sequence injection technique....

  17. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  18. EXACT SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A CLASS OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING DIRECT ALGEBRAIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.

  19. Solution of (3+1-Dimensional Nonlinear Cubic Schrodinger Equation by Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Zedan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four-dimensional differential transform method has been introduced and fundamental theorems have been defined for the first time. Moreover, as an application of four-dimensional differential transform, exact solutions of nonlinear system of partial differential equations have been investigated. The results of the present method are compared very well with analytical solution of the system. Differential transform method can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and reduces the size of computational work. With this method, exact solutions may be obtained without any need of cumbersome work, and it is a useful tool for analytical and numerical solutions.

  20. The First-Integral Method and Abundant Explicit Exact Solutions to the Zakharov Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the system of Zakharov equations which involves the interactions between Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in plasma. Abundant explicit and exact solutions of the system of Zakharov equations are derived uniformly by using the first integral method. These exact solutions are include that of the solitary wave solutions of bell-type for n and E, the solitary wave solutions of kink-type for E and bell-type for n, the singular traveling wave solutions, periodic wave solutions of triangle functions, Jacobi elliptic function doubly periodic solutions, and Weierstrass elliptic function doubly periodic wave solutions. The results obtained confirm that the first integral method is an efficient technique for analytic treatment of a wide variety of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations.

  1. Exact Solutions for Fractional Differential-Difference Equations by an Extended Riccati Sub-ODE Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an extended Riccati sub-ODE method is proposed to establish new exact solutions for fractional differential-difference equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. By a fractional complex transformation, a given fractional differential-difference equation can be turned into another differential-difference equation of integer order. The validity of the method is illustrated by applying it to solve the fractional Hybrid lattice equation and the fractional relativistic Toda lattice system. As a result, some new exact solutions including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions are established. (general)

  2. FAFNER - a fully 3-D neutral beam injection code using Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    A computer code is described which models the injection of fast neutral particles into 3-dimensional toroidal plasmas and follows the paths of the resulting fast ions until they are either lost to the system or fully thermalised. A comprehensive model for the neutral beam injection system is included. The code is written especially for the use on the CRAY-1 computer: in particular, the modular nature of the program should enable the most time consuming sections of the program to be vectorised for each particular experiment to be modelled. The effects of plasma contamination by possible injection of impurities, such as oxygen, with the beams are also included. The code may also be readily adapted to plasmas for which a 1 or 2-dimensional description is adequate. It has also been constructed with a view to ready coupling with a transport or equilibrium code. (orig.)

  3. A computational method for the solution of one-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    embedding parameter p ∈ [0, 1], which is considered as a 'small parameter'. Consid- erable research work has recently been conducted in applying this method to a class of linear and nonlinear equations. This method was further developed and improved by He, and applied to nonlinear oscillators with discontinuities [1], ...

  4. Free-surface viscous flow solution methods for ship hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  5. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  6. Soliton solutions of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation by homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molabahrami, A.; Khani, F.; Hamedi-Nezhad, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, the He's homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to finding the soliton solutions of the two-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation (tdKdVB) for the initial conditions was applied. Numerical solutions of the equation were obtained. The obtained solutions, in comparison with the exact solutions admit a remarkable accuracy. The results reveal that the HPM is very effective and simple

  7. Cataracts in patients injected with a solution of radium 224, colloidal platinum, and the red dye eosin (Peteosthor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, F.H.; Spiess, H.; Mays, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Among 218 patients in the Spiess series injected with 224 Ra as juveniles from 1943 to about 1952, 91 have died. Of the 127 survivors, 47 have been examined in detail with a slitlamp and 25 were found to have some kind of lens opacity. In 14 out of the 25 the cataracts appeared morphologically similar to age-related cataracts. In 11 patients there was a bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. In eight this was a bilateral dense round plaque with a clear subcapsular zone of about 0.5-0.6 mm, corresponding to newly deposited lens fibres during the period of about 40 years from treatment to examination. By June 1984, 12 of the 218 patients were reported to have had cataract as cause of decreased visual acuity. The present study found 32 patients (25 examined recently and seven others) with cataract confirmed with a slitlamp by August 1988. Three additionally reported cataracts could not be updated. (author)

  8. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  9. Single-injection method for evaluation of renal function with 14C-inulin and 3H-tetraethylammonium bromide in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettman, M.J.; Allen, T.A.; Wilke, W.L.; Radin, M.J.; Eubank, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A double-isotope single-injection method without urine collection for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in dogs and cats was evaluated. The GFR was determined, using 14 C-inulin and ERPF was determined, using [ 3 H]tetraethylammonium bromide. Using a modified single exponential, 1-compartment mathematical model, the renal clearance of these solutes was estimated with a plasma radioactivity disappearance curve constructed from samples collected over a 150-minute time period. In 25 dogs, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.55 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 10.51 +/- 0.72 ml/kg/min, and 0.34 +/- 0.02, respectively. In 25 cats, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.24 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 8.14 +/- 0.53 ml/kg/min, and 0.39 +/- 0.02, respectively. This time-efficient and reliable method, using beta-emitting isotopes, yielded renal functional values well within the normal ranges reported by a variety of other isotopic and nonisotopic procedures. The advantages of the present procedure over previous double-isotope single-injection methods include the use of less costly, lower energy-using, and less penetrating beta emittors, as well as a shortened blood sampling schedule

  10. Validated ¹H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for the Quantitative Determination of Glycerol in Drug Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaxi; Wang, Pengli; Wang, Qiuying; Wang, Yanan; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2018-05-15

    In the current study, we employed high-resolution proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H and 13 C NMR) for quantitative analysis of glycerol in drug injections without any complex pre-treatment or derivatization on samples. The established methods were validated with good specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and repeatability. Our results revealed that the contents of glycerol were convenient to calculate directly via the integration ratios of peak areas with an internal standard in ¹H NMR spectra, while the integration of peak heights were proper for 13 C NMR in combination with an external calibration of glycerol. The developed methods were both successfully applied in drug injections. Quantitative NMR methods showed an extensive prospect for glycerol determination in various liquid samples.

  11. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Paaske, W P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    (apparent) interstitial volume of distribution, tev is the mean transit time of the indicator, and klo is the recorded fractional initial washout rate constant. In experiments on open chest dog hearts we examined capillary permeability for 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA with the tissue injection, residue...

  12. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed N. Huseen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

  13. Explicit appropriate basis function method for numerical solution of stiff systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenzhen; Xiao, Hongguang; Li, Haofeng; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An explicit numerical method called the appropriate basis function method is presented. • The method differs from the power series method for obtaining approximate numerical solutions. • Two cases show the method is fit for linear and nonlinear stiff systems. • The method is very simple and effective for most of differential equation systems. - Abstract: In this paper, an explicit numerical method, called the appropriate basis function method, is presented. The explicit appropriate basis function method differs from the power series method because it employs an appropriate basis function such as the exponential function, or periodic function, other than a polynomial, to obtain approximate numerical solutions. The method is successful and effective for the numerical solution of the first order ordinary differential equations. Two examples are presented to show the ability of the method for dealing with linear and nonlinear systems of differential equations

  14. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikoglu, Aytac; Ozkol, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply

  15. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikoglu, Aytac [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkol, Ibrahim [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozkol@itu.edu.tr

    2007-12-15

    In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply.

  16. Two new solutions to the third-order symplectic integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsu, Reima

    2009-01-01

    Two new solutions are obtained for the symplecticity conditions of explicit third-order partitioned Runge-Kutta time integration method. One of them has larger stability limit and better dispersion property than the Ruth's method.

  17. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  18. Cataracts in patients injected with a solution of radium 224, colloidal platinum, and the red dye eosin (Peteosthor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, F.H.; Spiess, H.

    1989-01-01

    Among 218 patients in the Spiess series injected with 224 Ra as juveniles from 1943 to about 1952, 91 have died leaving 127 alive. Of these, 47 have been examined in detail with a slitlamp by an ophthalmologist and 25 were found to have some kind of lens opacity. In 14 out of the 25 the cataracts appeared morphologically similar to age-related cataracts. In 11 patients there was a bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. In eight this was a bilateral dense round plaque with a clear subcapsular zone of about 0.5-0.6 mm. This clear zone corresponds to newly deposited lens fibres during the period of about 40 years from treatment to examination. By June 1984, 12 of the 218 were reported to have had cataract as cause of decreased visual acuity. The present study found 32 patients (25 examined recently and seven others) with cataract confirmed with a slitlamp by August 1988. Three additionally reported cataracts could not be updated. (author)

  19. Small angle neutron scattering in polyelectrolyte solutions: investigation of polymethacrylic acid solutions by contrast variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavata, D.; Pleshtil, I.; Kunchenko, A.B.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron experiments performed by the contrast (background) variation method allows to understand better the role that hydration plays in the study of macromolecules and to draw the connection between the excess scattering amplitude of hydrated molecule with its partial volume. The observed dependence of the compensation point on the degree of neutralization apparently plays an important role in the investigation of polyelectrolytes of biological origin

  20. Solution of linear ordinary differential equations by means of the method of variation of arbitrary constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif

    1997-01-01

    An alternative formula for the solution of linear differential equations of order n is suggested. When applicable, the suggested method requires fewer and simpler computations than the well-known method using Wronskians.......An alternative formula for the solution of linear differential equations of order n is suggested. When applicable, the suggested method requires fewer and simpler computations than the well-known method using Wronskians....

  1. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  2. In situ solution mining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learmont, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

  3. Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Quttineh, Yousef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...

  4. Cocaine Hydrochloride Structure in Solution Revealed by Three Chiroptical Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagan, P.; Kocourková, L.; Tatarkovič, M.; Králík, F.; Kuchař, M.; Setnička, V.; Bouř, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 16 (2017), s. 2258-2265 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17012 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : analytical methods * circular dichroism * density functional calculations * Raman spectroscopy * structure elucidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  5. Efficient solution method for optimal control of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.; Chambre, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the utilization of existing fuel sources, the use of optimization techniques is becoming more important. A technique for solving systems of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial, boundary, and/or intermediate conditions is given. This method has a number of inherent advantages over existing techniques as well as being efficient in terms of computer time and space requirements. An example of computing the optimal control for a spatially dependent reactor model with and without temperature feedback is given. 10 refs

  6. Efficient solution of parabolic equations by Krylov approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical techniques for solving parabolic equations by the method of lines is addressed. The main motivation for the proposed approach is the possibility of exploiting a high degree of parallelism in a simple manner. The basic idea of the method is to approximate the action of the evolution operator on a given state vector by means of a projection process onto a Krylov subspace. Thus, the resulting approximation consists of applying an evolution operator of a very small dimension to a known vector which is, in turn, computed accurately by exploiting well-known rational approximations to the exponential. Because the rational approximation is only applied to a small matrix, the only operations required with the original large matrix are matrix-by-vector multiplications, and as a result the algorithm can easily be parallelized and vectorized. Some relevant approximation and stability issues are discussed. We present some numerical experiments with the method and compare its performance with a few explicit and implicit algorithms.

  7. A method of adjusting SUV for injection-acquisition time differences in {sup 18}F-FDG PET Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, Eric [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pessac (France); Clermont, Henri de [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Marthan, Roger [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)

    2011-11-15

    A time normalisation method of tumour SUVs in {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is proposed that has been verified in lung cancer patients. A two-compartment model analysis showed that, when SUV is not corrected for {sup 18}F physical decay (SUV{sub uncorr}), its value is within 5% of its peak value (t = 79 min) between 55 and 110 min after injection, in each individual patient. In 10 patients, each with 1 or more malignant lesions (n = 15), two PET acquisitions were performed within this time delay, and the maximal SUV of each lesion, both corrected and uncorrected, was assessed. No significant difference was found between the two uncorrected SUVs, whereas there was a significant difference between the two corrected ones: mean differences were 0.04 {+-} 0.22 and 3.24 {+-} 0.75 g.ml{sup -1}, respectively (95% confidence intervals). Therefore, a simple normalisation of decay-corrected SUV for time differences after injection is proposed: SUV{sub N} = 1.66*SUV{sub uncorr}, where the factor 1.66 arises from decay correction at t = 79 min. When {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is performed within the range 55-110 min after injection, a simple SUV normalisation for time differences after injection has been verified in patients with lung cancer, with a {+-}2.5% relative measurement uncertainty. (orig.)

  8. DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winniford, Michael D

    2013-02-08

    Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of

  9. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  10. Solutions to defect-related problems in implanted silicon by controlled injection of vacancies by high-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.G.; Holland, O.W.; Duggan, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Amorphization and a dual implant technique have been used to manipulate residual defects that persist following implantation and post-implant thermal treatments. Residual defects can often be attributed to ion-induced defect excesses. A defect is considered to be excess when it occurs in a localized region at a concentration greater than its complement. Sources of excess defects include spatially separated Frenkel pairs, excess interstitials resulting from the implanted atoms, and sputtering. Preamorphizing prior to dopant implantation has been proposed to eliminate dopant broadening due to ion channeling as well as dopant diffusion during subsequent annealing. However, transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) of implanted boron has been observed in pre-amorphized Si. The defects driving this enhanced boron diffusion are thought to be the extended interstitial-type defects that form below the amorphous-crystalline interface during implantation. A dual implantation process was applied in an attempt to reduce or eliminate this interfacial defect band. High-energy, ion implantation is known to inject a vacancy excess in this region. Vacancies were implanted at a concentration coincident with the excess interstitials below the a-c interface to promote recombination between the two defect species. Preliminary results indicate that a critical fluence, i.e., a sufficient vacancy concentration, will eliminate the interstitial defects. The effect of the reduction or elimination of these interfacial defects upon TED of boron will be discussed. Rutherford backscattering/channeling and cross section transmission electron microscopy analyses were used to characterize the defect structure within the implanted layer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to profile the dopant distributions. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  12. Sonographically guided posteromedial approach for intra-articular knee injections: a safe, accurate, and efficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresley, Jonathan; Jose, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee can be a debilitating and extremely painful condition. In patients who desire to postpone knee arthroplasty or in those who are not surgical candidates, percutaneous knee injection therapies have the potential to reduce pain and swelling, maintain joint mobility, and minimize disability. Published studies cite poor accuracy of intra-articular knee joint injections without imaging guidance. We present a sonographically guided posteromedial approach to intra-articular knee joint injections with 100% accuracy and no complications in a consecutive series of 67 patients undergoing subsequent computed tomographic or magnetic resonance arthrography. Although many other standard approaches are available, a posteromedial intra-articular technique is particularly useful in patients with a large body habitus and theoretically allows for simultaneous aspiration of Baker cysts with a single sterile preparation and without changing the patient's position. The posteromedial technique described in this paper is not compared or deemed superior to other standard approaches but, rather, is presented as a potentially safe and efficient alternative. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Lanreotide depot deep subcutaneous injection: a new method of delivery and its associated benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael JD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John D CarmichaelDepartment of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary tumor. Treatment options include surgery, medical therapy, and in some cases, radiation therapy. Current medical therapy consists of treatment with somatostatin analog medications or a growth hormone receptor antagonist. There are two somatostatin analogs currently in use, octreotide and lanreotide. Both are supplied in long-acting formulations and are of comparable biochemical efficacy. Lanreotide is supplied in a prefilled syringe and is injected into deep subcutaneous tissue. Studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of self- or partner administration, and have demonstrated that injection of lanreotide can be accomplished reliably and safely outside a physician's office. For patients who have achieved biochemical control with lanreotide, the FDA has recently approved an extended dosing interval. Selected patients may be able to receive the medication less frequently with injections of 120 mg administered every 6 or 8 weeks. This review focuses on the use of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly, the safety and efficacy of the drug, and the benefits afforded to patients because of unique aspects of the delivery of lanreotide.Keywords: acromegaly, treatment, lanreotide, somatostatin analog, pituitary tumor

  14. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing paraquat in soil solution samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Mansell, Robert S; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed to analyze paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium dichloride) herbicide content in soil solution samples. The analytical method was compared with the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method using 14C-paraquat. Agreement obtained between the two methods was reasonable. However, the detection limit for paraquat analysis was 0.5 mg L(-1) by the HPLC method and 0.05 mg L(-1) by the LSC method. The LSC method was, therefore, 10 times more precise than the HPLC method for solution concentrations less than 1 mg L(-1). In spite of the high detection limit, the UC (nonradioactive) HPLC method provides an inexpensive and environmentally safe means for determining paraquat concentration in soil solution compared with the 14C-LSC method.

  15. Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method: Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olvera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach called the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM that is based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and the usage of time subintervals to find the approximate solution of differential equations with strong nonlinearities. We also study the convergence of our proposed EMHPM approach based on the value of the control parameter h by following the homotopy analysis method (HAM. At the end of the paper, we compare the derived EMHPM approximate solutions of some nonlinear physical systems with their corresponding numerical integration solutions obtained by using the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta method via the amplitude-time response curves.

  16. Solutions of First-Order Volterra Type Linear Integrodifferential Equations by Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa A. Agbolade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solutions of linear integrodifferential equations of Volterra type have been considered. Power series is used as the basis polynomial to approximate the solution of the problem. Furthermore, standard and Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto collocation points were, respectively, chosen to collocate the approximate solution. Numerical experiments are performed on some sample problems already solved by homotopy analysis method and finite difference methods. Comparison of the absolute error is obtained from the present method and those from aforementioned methods. It is also observed that the absolute errors obtained are very low establishing convergence and computational efficiency.

  17. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as well as a more general fractional differential equation.

  18. The Multi-Wave Method for Exact Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Pandir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we use the multi-wave method to obtain new exact solutions for generalized forms of 5th order KdV equation and fth order KdV (fKdV equation with power law nonlinearity. Computations are performed with the help of the mathematics software Mathematica. Then, periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions with free parameters are obtained by this approach. It is shown that this method is very useful and effective.

  19. A method for the solution of the RPA eigenvalue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.J.H.; De Kock, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    The RPA eigenvalue problem requires the diagonalization of a 2nx2n matrix. In practical calculations, n (the number of particle-hole basis states) can be a few hundred and the diagonalization of such a large non-symmetric matrix may take quite a long time. In this report we firstly discuss sufficient conditions for real and non-zero RPA eigenvalues. The presence of zero or imaginary eigenvalues is related to the relative importance of the groundstate correlations to the total interaction energy. We then rewrite the RPA eigenvalue problem for the cases where these conditions are fulfilled in a form which only requires the diagonalization of two symmetric nxn matrices. The extend to which this method can be applied when zero eigenvalues occur, is also discussed

  20. Singular characteristic tracking algorithm for improved solution accuracy of the discrete ordinates method with isotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo, J. I.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new method, the Singular Characteristics Tracking algorithm, is developed to account for potential non-smoothness across the singular characteristics in the exact solution of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. Numerical results show improved rate of convergence of the solution to the discrete ordinates equations in two spatial dimensions with isotropic scattering using the proposed methodology. Unlike the standard Weighted Diamond Difference methods, the new algorithm achieves local convergence in the case of discontinuous angular flux along the singular characteristics. The method also significantly reduces the error for problems where the angular flux presents discontinuous spatial derivatives across these lines. For purposes of verifying the results, the Method of Manufactured Solutions is used to generate analytical reference solutions that permit estimating the local error in the numerical solution. (authors)

  1. Effects of Two Different Anesthetic Solutions on Injection Pain, Efficacy, and Duration of Soft-Tissue Anesthesia with Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block for Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbay, Ülkü Şermet; Elbay, Mesut; Kaya, Emine; Yıldırım, Sinem

    The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy, injection pain, duration of soft tissue anesthesia, and postoperative complications of two different anesthetics (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine and 3% plain mepivacaine) in pediatric patients in inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) administered by a computer-controlled delivery system (CCDS). The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled-crossover, double-blind clinical trial with 60 children requiring bilateral pulpotomy or extraction of primary mandibular molars. A CCDS was used to deliver 3% mepivacaine to 1 primary tooth and 2% lidocaine to the contralateral tooth with an IANB technique. Severity of pain and efficacy of anesthesia were evaluated using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability Scale, and comfort and side effects were assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon t, and Fisher exact tests. Patients receiving 2% lidocaine experienced significantly less pain during injection than those receiving 3% mepivacaine, and no significant differences were found in the pain scores during treatments or in postoperative complications between the two anesthetics. The mean durations of anesthesia for 3% mepivacaine and 2% lidocaine were 139.68 minutes and 149.10 minutes, respectively. Plain mepivacaine and 2% lidocaine were similarly effective in pulpotomy and the extraction of primary mandibular molars. Although the use of 3% mepivacaine provided a shorter duration of anesthesia than 2% lidocaine, both solutions showed similar results in terms of postoperative complications.

  2. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  3. Effect of turbo charging and steam injection methods on the performance of a Miller cycle diesel engine (MCDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of a diesel engine is simulated by finite time thermodynamics. • Effect of steam injection on performance of a Miller cycle engine is examined. • Model results are verified with the experimental data with less than 7% error. - Abstract: In this study, application of the steam injection method (SIM), Miller cycle (MC) and turbo charging (TC) techniques into a four stroke, direct-injection diesel engine has been numerically and empirically conducted. NOx emissions have detrimental influences on the environment and living beings. They are formed at the high temperatures, thus the Diesel engines are serious NOx generation sources since they have higher compression ratios and higher combustion temperatures. The international regulations have decreased the emission limits due to environmental reasons. The Miller cycle (MC) application and steam injection method (SIM) have been popular to abate NOx produced from the internal combustion engines (ICEs), in the recent years. However, the MC application can cause a reduction in power output. The most known technique which maximizes the engine power and abates exhaust emissions is TC. Therefore, if these three techniques are combined, the power loss can be tolerated and pollutant emissions can be minimized. While the application of the MC and SIM causes to diminish in the brake power and brake thermal efficiency of the engine up to 6.5% and 10%, the TC increases the brake power and brake thermal efficiency of the engine up to 18% and 12%. The experimental and theoretical results have been compared in terms of the torque, the specific fuel consumption (SFC), the brake power and the brake thermal efficiency. The results acquired from theoretical modeling have been validated with empirical data with less than 7% maximum error. The results showed that developed combination can increase the engine performance and the method can be easily applied to the Diesel engines.

  4. Modeling Solution of Nonlinear Dispersive Partial Differential Equations using the Marker Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the solution of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details

  5. Evaluation and comparison of two complexometric titration methods for determining of lanthanum in cloridric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.F.; Santos, R.L.C. dos; Goes, M.A.C. de

    1994-01-01

    The fast determination of total rare earth concentration in aqueous solutions is based on titrimetric methods using EDTA as complexing agent. This paper evaluates two among several others titrimetric methods used in the determination of lanthanum in hydrochloric acid solutions, using xylenol orange and a mixture of methyl orange and xylenol orange as indicators. The applied statistical evaluation allowed the determination of the stability, accuracy and adequacy of these methods on a given technical specification. (author). 12 refs., 03 tabs., 01 fig

  6. A New Method for Constructing Travelling Wave Solutions to the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Mao, Wang; Miao, Zhang; Wen-Liang, Zhang; Rui, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Han

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method to find the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, with the aid of the symbolic computation. Based on this method, we successfully solve the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney equation, and obtain some new solutions which can be expressed by trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. (general)

  7. On the method of solution of the differential-delay Toda equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Javier; Ablowitz, Mark J.

    1993-09-01

    The method of solution of the Toda differential-delay equation, which is a reduction of the Toda equation in 2+1 dimensions, is described. An important feature of the solution process is to obtain and study a novel Riemann-Hilbert problem. The latter problem requires factorization across an infinite number of strips with a suitable branching structure. Explicit soliton solutions are given.

  8. Extension of a dynamic headspace multi-volatile method to milliliter injection volumes with full sample evaporation: Application to green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori; MacNamara, Kevin

    2015-11-20

    An extension of multi-volatile method (MVM) technology using the combination of a standard dynamic headspace (DHS) configuration, and a modified DHS configuration incorporating an additional vacuum module, was developed for milliliter injection volume of aqueous sample with full sample evaporation. A prior step involved investigation of water management by weighing of the water residue in the adsorbent trap. The extended MVM for 1 mL aqueous sample consists of five different DHS method parameter sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. An initial two DHS sampling sets at 25°C with the standard DHS configuration using a carbon-based adsorbent trap target very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>10 kPa) and volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-10 kPa). Subsequent three DHS sampling sets at 80°C with the modified DHS configuration using a Tenax TA trap target solutes with low vapor pressure (88%) for 17 test aroma compounds and moderate recoveries (44-71%) for 4 test compounds. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9913) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.1-0.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The improved sensitivity of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed green tea. Compared to the original 100 μL MVM procedure, this extension to 1 mL MVM allowed detection of nearly twice the number of aroma compounds, including 18 potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (e.g. 2,3-butanedione, coumarin, furaneol, guaiacol, cis-3-hexenol, linalool, maltol, methional, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, and vanillin). Sensitivity for 23 compounds improved by a factor of 3.4-15 under 1 mL MVM conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic labeling method for injectable {sup 15}O-oxygen using hemoglobin-containing liposome vesicles and its application for measurement of brain oxygen consumption by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vijay Narayan [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)], E-mail: tiwaridr@u-fukui.ac.jp; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masato; Mori, Tetsuya; Kudo, Takashi [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Research and Education Program for Life Science, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Research and Education Program for Life Science, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)], E-mail: yfuji@u-fukui.ac.jp

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop an injectable {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} system using hemoglobin-containing vesicles (HbV), a type of artificial red blood cell, and to investigate the feasibility of {sup 15}O{sub 2}-labeled HbV ({sup 15}O{sub 2}-HbV) to measure cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in rats. Methods: The direct bubbling method was combined with vortexing to enhance labeling efficiency of HbV with {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} gas. L-Cysteine was added as a reductant to protect hemoglobin molecules in HbV from oxidation at different concentrations, and labeling efficiencies were also compared. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO{sub 2} in five normal rats was performed using a small animal PET scanner after the injection of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O and {sup 15}O{sub 2}-HbV to evaluate the precision of hemodynamic parameters quantitatively. Results: The labeling efficiency of HbV was significantly increased when vortexing and bubbling were combined compared with the simple bubbling method (P<.05). The most efficient method for labeling was bubbling of {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} combined with vortexing and the addition of 2.8 mM L-cysteine in HbV solution. The mean radioactivity of 214.4{+-}7.8 MBq/mL HbV was obtained using this method. PET scans using {sup 15}O{sub 2}-HbV and H{sub 2}{sup 15}O yielded a mean CMRO{sub 2} value of 6.8{+-}1.4 (mL/min per 100 g) in rats with normal CBF of 51.4{+-}7.9 (mL/min per 100 g). Conclusion: Addition of L-cysteine to HbV and simple direct bubbling of {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} gas combined with vortexing was the most efficient method for preparation of {sup 15}O{sub 2}-HbV. The present injectable system using {sup 15}O{sub 2}-HbV was successfully utilized to measure CMRO{sub 2} in rats, indicating that this new method could be useful for animal models to measure oxygen metabolism in the brain.

  10. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  11. Adjusted permutation method for multiple attribute decision making with meta-heuristic solution approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Karimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The permutation method of multiple attribute decision making has two significant deficiencies: high computational time and wrong priority output in some problem instances. In this paper, a novel permutation method called adjusted permutation method (APM is proposed to compensate deficiencies of conventional permutation method. We propose Tabu search (TS and particle swarm optimization (PSO to find suitable solutions at a reasonable computational time for large problem instances. The proposed method is examined using some numerical examples to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The preliminary results show that both approaches provide competent solutions in relatively reasonable amounts of time while TS performs better to solve APM.

  12. ANALYSIS OF BETAMETHASONE DISODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION AND OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION BY HPLC, KINETIC INTERPRETATION AND DETERMINATION OF SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbarpour

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used in therapeutics in different formulations. Betamethasone disodium phosphate is one of the most soluble of the adrenocorticosteroidal agents. It is therefore very suitable for intravenous use and particularly for ophthalmic formulations."nAcceleration method is used to determine expiration date of aqueous formulations manufactured in Iran.

  13. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  14. A Simple and Rapid Flow-Injection Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Noscapine with Ru(phen)32+-Ce(4) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, B.; Mokhtari, A.; Khayamian, T.

    2007-01-01

    A new flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) system was used for the determination of noscapine. This technique is based on the reduction effect of noscapine on the Ru(phen) 3 3+ , which is produced by reaction between Ru(phen) 3 2+ and acidic Ce(4) solutions, and this rapid reduction produces strong CL. Calibration plots were linear over the range of 3.0x10 -7 -2.0x10 -6 mol L -1 and 2.0x10 -6 -2.0x10 -4 mol L -1 . The CL intensity was so high, that it is able to produce a detection limit of 6.6x10 -8 M noscapine (3σ). The relative standard deviation of 2.0x10 -6 M noscapine was 1.0% (n=10). The proposed method was successfully applied for the flow injection determination of noscapine in cough and Tonin syrup samples. The results of real sample analyses show good recovery percentages (97.3-102.4%). The minimum sampling rate was 100 samples per hour

  15. Inverse scattering transform method and soliton solutions for Davey-Stewartson II equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkadiev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The inverse scattering method for Davey-Stewartson II (DS-II) equation including both soliton and continuous spectrum solutions is developed. The explicit formulae for N-soliton solutions are given. Note that our solitons decrease as |z| -2 with z tending to infinity. (author). 8 refs

  16. The Method of Subsuper Solutions for Weighted p(r-Laplacian Equation Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimei Qiu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of solutions for weighted p(r-Laplacian ordinary boundary value problems. Our method is based on Leray-Schauder degree. As an application, we give the existence of weak solutions for p(x-Laplacian partial differential equations.

  17. Method and apparatus for efficient injection of CO2 in oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Olivia R.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Liang, Liyuan

    2003-07-29

    A liquid CO.sub.2 injection system produces a negatively buoyant consolidated stream of liquid CO.sub.2, CO.sub.2 hydrate, and water that sinks upon release at ocean depths in the range of 700-1500 m. In this approach, seawater at a predetermined ocean depth is mixed with the liquid CO.sub.2 stream before release into the ocean. Because mixing is conducted at depths where pressures and temperatures are suitable for CO.sub.2 hydrate formation, the consolidated stream issuing from the injector is negatively buoyant, and comprises mixed CO.sub.2 -hydrate/CO.sub.2 -liquid/water phases. The "sinking" characteristic of the produced stream will prolong the metastability of CO.sub.2 ocean sequestration by reducing the CO.sub.2 dissolution rate into water. Furthermore, the deeper the CO.sub.2 hydrate stream sinks after injection, the more stable it becomes internally, the deeper it is dissolved, and the more dispersed is the resulting CO.sub.2 plume. These factors increase efficiency, increase the residence time of CO2 in the ocean, and decrease the cost of CO.sub.2 sequestration while reducing deleterious impacts of free CO.sub.2 gas in ocean water.

  18. Automatic labeling method for injectable 15O-oxygen using hemoglobin-containing liposome vesicles and its application for measurement of brain oxygen consumption by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Vijay Narayan; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masato; Mori, Tetsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop an injectable 15 O-O 2 system using hemoglobin-containing vesicles (HbV), a type of artificial red blood cell, and to investigate the feasibility of 15 O 2 -labeled HbV ( 15 O 2 -HbV) to measure cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) in rats. Methods: The direct bubbling method was combined with vortexing to enhance labeling efficiency of HbV with 15 O-O 2 gas. L-Cysteine was added as a reductant to protect hemoglobin molecules in HbV from oxidation at different concentrations, and labeling efficiencies were also compared. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO 2 in five normal rats was performed using a small animal PET scanner after the injection of H 2 15 O and 15 O 2 -HbV to evaluate the precision of hemodynamic parameters quantitatively. Results: The labeling efficiency of HbV was significantly increased when vortexing and bubbling were combined compared with the simple bubbling method (P 15 O-O 2 combined with vortexing and the addition of 2.8 mM L-cysteine in HbV solution. The mean radioactivity of 214.4±7.8 MBq/mL HbV was obtained using this method. PET scans using 15 O 2 -HbV and H 2 15 O yielded a mean CMRO 2 value of 6.8±1.4 (mL/min per 100 g) in rats with normal CBF of 51.4±7.9 (mL/min per 100 g). Conclusion: Addition of L-cysteine to HbV and simple direct bubbling of 15 O-O 2 gas combined with vortexing was the most efficient method for preparation of 15 O 2 -HbV. The present injectable system using 15 O 2 -HbV was successfully utilized to measure CMRO 2 in rats, indicating that this new method could be useful for animal models to measure oxygen metabolism in the brain.

  19. A Method for Generating Approximate Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard application of similarity method to find solutions of PDEs mostly results in reduction to ODEs which are not easily integrable in terms of elementary or tabulated functions. Such situations usually demand solving reduced ODEs numerically. However, there are no systematic procedures available to utilize these numerical solutions of reduced ODE to obtain the solution of original PDE. A practical and tractable approach is proposed to deal with such situations and is applied to obtain approximate similarity solutions to different cases of an initial-boundary value problem of unsteady gas flow through a semi-infinite porous medium.

  20. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  1. A novel solidified floating organic drop microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of copper ions by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Cigdem Arpa; Tokgoez, Ilknur

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, simple and cost effective solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination (FI-FAAS) method for copper was developed. In this method, a free microdrop of 1-undecanol containing 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) as the complexing agent was transferred to the surface of an aqueous sample including Cu(II) ions, while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of the solution. Under the proper stirring conditions, the suspended microdrop can remain at the top-center position of the aqueous sample. After the completion of the extraction, the sample vial was cooled by placing it in a refrigerator for 10 min. The solidified microdrop was then transferred into a conical vial, where it melted immediately and diluted to 300 μL with ethanol. Finally, copper ions in 200 μL of diluted solution were determined by FI-FAAS. Several factors affecting the microextraction efficiency, such as type of extraction solvent, pH, complexing agent concentration, extraction time, stirring rate, sample volume and temperature were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions for 100 mL of solution, the preconcentration factor was 333 and the enrichment factor was 324. The limit of detection (3 s) was 0.4 ng mL -1 , the limit of quantification (10 s) was 1.1 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicate measurements of 10 ng mL -1 copper was 0.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in different water samples.

  2. Exact Solutions of the Space Time Fractional Symmetric Regularized Long Wave Equation Using Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Güner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the functional variable method, exp-function method, and (G′/G-expansion method to establish the exact solutions of the nonlinear fractional partial differential equation (NLFPDE in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. The results show that these methods are very effective and powerful mathematical tools for solving nonlinear fractional equations arising in mathematical physics. As a result, these methods can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  3. Spectral methods and their implementation to solution of aerodynamic and fluid mechanic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    Fundamental concepts underlying spectral collocation methods, especially pertaining to their use in the solution of partial differential equations, are outlined. Theoretical accuracy results are reviewed and compared with results from test problems. A number of practical aspects of the construction and use of spectral methods are detailed, along with several solution schemes which have found utility in applications of spectral methods to practical problems. Results from a few of the successful applications of spectral methods to problems of aerodynamic and fluid mechanic interest are then outlined, followed by a discussion of the problem areas in spectral methods and the current research under way to overcome these difficulties.

  4. An effective method for finding special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Maochang; Fan Guihong

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting methods can be utilized to construct special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with constant coefficients. However, most of these methods are not applicable to nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. A new method is presented in this Letter, which can be used to find special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. This method is based on seeking appropriate Bernoulli equation corresponding to the equation studied. Many well-known equations are chosen to illustrate the application of this method

  5. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Paaske, William P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    ) diffusion coefficient of the indicator within the tissue, D', in order to determine the permeability-surface area product, PdS = Vev.D.D'-1.tev-1 = Vev'.klo where D is the diffusion coefficient in free aqueous solution, Vev is the physical interstitial water volume of distribution, Vev' is the virtual...

  6. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  7. A validated stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of cefuroxime sodium and sulbactam sodium in injection dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A fixed dose combination of cefuroxime sodium (β lactam antibiotic and sulbactam sodium (β Lactamase inhibitor is used in ratio of 2:1 as powder for injection for the treatment of resistant lower respiratory tract and other infections. Aims: A simple, precise, and accurate ion-pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of cefuroxime Na(CEF and sulbactam Na(SUL in injection. Materials and Methods: Isocratic RP-HPLC separation was achieved on an ACE C 18 column (150×4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size using the mobile phase 0.002 M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide sulfate (TBAH in 10 mm potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (86:14 v/v, pH 3.7 at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Results and Conclusion: The retention time of sulbactam Na and cefuroxime Na were 3.2 min and 10.2 min, respectively. The ion-pairing reagent improved the retention of highly polar sulbactam Na on reverse-phase column. The detection was performed at 210 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, solution stability, and specificity. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, solution stability, and specificity. The method was linear in the concentration range of 10-100 μg/ml for cefuroxime Na and 5-50 μg/ml for sulbactam Na, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 0.9998 for the respective drugs. The intraday precision was 0.13-0.21% and 0.48-0.65%, and the interday precision was 0.32-0.81% and 0.60-0.83% for cefuroxime Na and sulbactam Na, respectively. The accuracy (recovery was found to be in the range of 98.76-100.61% and 98.99-100.30% for cefuroxime Na and sulbactam Na, respectively. The drugs were found to degrade under hydrolytic and oxidative conditions. The drugs could be effectively separated from different degradation products, and hence the method can be used for stability analysis.

  8. A perturbation method for dark solitons based on a complete set of the squared Jost solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Shengmei; Yan Jiaren

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method for dark solitons is developed, which is based on the construction and the rigorous proof of the complete set of squared Jost solutions. The general procedure solving the adiabatic solution of perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger + equation, the time-evolution equation of dark soliton parameters and a formula for calculating the first-order correction are given. The method can also overcome the difficulties resulting from the non-vanishing boundary condition

  9. Two Novel Methods and Multi-Mode Periodic Solutions for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Gianni; Koch, Hans; Terracini, Susanna

    2005-04-01

    We introduce two novel methods for studying periodic solutions of the FPU β-model, both numerically and rigorously. One is a variational approach, based on the dual formulation of the problem, and the other involves computer-assisted proofs. These methods are used e.g. to construct a new type of solutions, whose energy is spread among several modes, associated with closely spaced resonances.

  10. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  11. Solution of two group neutron diffusion equation by using homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), proposed in 1992 by Shi Jun Liao and has been developed since then, is based on differential geometry as well as homotopy which is a fundamental concept in topology. It has proved to be useful for obtaining series solutions of many such problems involving algebraic, linear/non-linear, ordinary/partial differential equations, differential-integral equations, differential-difference equations, and coupled equations of them. Briefly, through HAM, it is possible to construct a continuous mapping of an initial guess approximation to the exact solution of the equation of concern. An auxiliary linear operator is chosen to construct such kind of a continuous mapping and an auxiliary parameter is used to ensure the convergence of series solution. We present the solutions of two-group neutron diffusion equation through HAM in this work. We also compare the results with that obtained by other well-known solution analytical and numeric methods.

  12. Computing multiple periodic solutions of nonlinear vibration problems using the harmonic balance method and Groebner bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolet, Aurelien; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of vibration of mechanical systems with geometric nonlinearities. The harmonic balance method is used to derive systems of polynomial equations whose solutions give the frequency component of the possible steady states. Groebner basis methods are used for computing all solutions of polynomial systems. This approach allows to reduce the complete system to an unique polynomial equation in one variable driving all solutions of the problem. In addition, in order to decrease the number of variables, we propose to first work on the undamped system, and recover solution of the damped system using a continuation on the damping parameter. The search for multiple solutions is illustrated on a simple system, where the influence of the retained number of harmonic is studied. Finally, the procedure is applied on a simple cyclic system and we give a representation of the multiple states versus frequency.

  13. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  14. The exact solutions and approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on symmetry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Litao; Bilige, Sudao; Jie, Yingmo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we successfully obtained the exact solutions and the approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Lie symmetry, the extended tanh method and the homotopy perturbation method. In first part, we obtained the symmetries of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Wu-differential characteristic set algorithm and reduced it. In the second part, we constructed the abundant exact travelling wave solutions by using the extended tanh method. These solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions respectively. It should be noted that when the parameters are taken as special values, some solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solutions. Finally, we apply the homotopy perturbation method to obtain the approximate analytic solutions based on four kinds of initial conditions.

  15. Novel method for solution of coupled radial Schrödinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, S. N.; Vaagen, J. S.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major problems in numerical solution of coupled differential equations is the maintenance of linear independence for different sets of solution vectors. A novel method for solution of radial Schrödinger equations is suggested. It consists of rearrangement of coupled equations in a way that is appropriate to avoid usual numerical instabilities associated with components of the wave function in their classically forbidden regions. Applications of the new method for nuclear structure calculations within the hyperspherical harmonics approach are given.

  16. Solution of the neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry by the decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method

  17. Solution identification and quantitative analysis of fiber-capacitive drop analyzer based on multivariate statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Qiu, Zurong; Huo, Xinming; Fan, Yuming; Li, Xinghua

    2017-03-01

    A fiber-capacitive drop analyzer is an instrument which monitors a growing droplet to produce a capacitive opto-tensiotrace (COT). Each COT is an integration of fiber light intensity signals and capacitance signals and can reflect the unique physicochemical property of a liquid. In this study, we propose a solution analytical and concentration quantitative method based on multivariate statistical methods. Eight characteristic values are extracted from each COT. A series of COT characteristic values of training solutions at different concentrations compose a data library of this kind of solution. A two-stage linear discriminant analysis is applied to analyze different solution libraries and establish discriminant functions. Test solutions can be discriminated by these functions. After determining the variety of test solutions, Spearman correlation test and principal components analysis are used to filter and reduce dimensions of eight characteristic values, producing a new representative parameter. A cubic spline interpolation function is built between the parameters and concentrations, based on which we can calculate the concentration of the test solution. Methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and saline solutions are taken as experimental subjects in this paper. For each solution, nine or ten different concentrations are chosen to be the standard library, and the other two concentrations compose the test group. By using the methods mentioned above, all eight test solutions are correctly identified and the average relative error of quantitative analysis is 1.11%. The method proposed is feasible which enlarges the applicable scope of recognizing liquids based on the COT and improves the concentration quantitative precision, as well.

  18. Evaluation of element migration from food plastic packagings into simulated solutions using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saiki, Mitiko; Wiebeck, Helio

    2005-01-01

    In the present study a radiometric method was established to determine the migration of elements from food plastic packagings to a simulated acetic acid solution. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating plastic samples with neutrons at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for a period of 16 hours under a neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 and, then to expose them to the element migration into a simulated solution. The radioactivity of the activated elements transferred to the solutions was measured to evaluate the migration. The experimental conditions were: time of exposure of 10 days at 40 deg C and 3% acetic acid solution was used as simulated solution, according to the procedure established by the National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA). The migration study was applied for plastic samples from soft drink and juice packagings. The results obtained indicated the migration of elements Co, Cr and Sb. The advantage of this methodology was no need to analyse the blank of simulantes, as well as the use of high purity simulated solutions. Besides, the method allows to evaluate the migration of the elements into the food content instead of simulated solution. The detention limits indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  19. Temperature-assisted On-column Solute Focusing: A General Method to Reduce Pre-column Dispersion in Capillary High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Solvent-based on-column focusing is a powerful and well known approach for reducingthe impact of pre-column dispersion in liquid chromatography. Here we describe an orthogonal temperature-based approach to focusing called temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF). TASF is founded on the same principles as the more commonly used solvent-based method wherein transient conditions are created thatlead to high solute retention at the column inlet. Combining the low thermal mass of capillary columns and the temperature dependence of solute retentionTASF is used effectivelyto compress injection bands at the head of the column through the transient reduction in column temperature to 5 °C for a defined 7 mm segment of a 6 cm long 150 μm I.D. column. Following the 30 second focusing time, the column temperature is increased rapidly to the separation temperature of 60 °C releasing the focused band of analytes. We developed a model tosimulate TASF separations based on solute retention enthalpies, focusing temperature, focusing time, and column parameters. This model guides the systematic study of the influence of sample injection volume on column performance.All samples have solvent compositions matching the mobile phase. Over the 45 to 1050 nL injection volume range evaluated, TASF reducesthe peak width for all soluteswith k’ greater than or equal to 2.5, relative to controls. Peak widths resulting from injection volumes up to 1.3 times the column fluid volume with TASF are less than 5% larger than peak widths from a 45 nL injection without TASF (0.07 times the column liquid volume). The TASF approach reduced concentration detection limits by a factor of 12.5 relative to a small volume injection for low concentration samples. TASF is orthogonal to the solvent focusing method. Thus, it canbe used where on-column focusing is required, but where implementation of solvent-based focusing is difficult. PMID:24973805

  20. A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2015-01-01

    The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Knee Osteoarthritis Treated With an Autologous Protein Solution Injection: A 1-Year Pilot Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Elizaveta; Engebretsen, Lars; Verdonk, Peter; Nehrer, Stefan; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease resulting in substantial pain and functional limitations. A novel blood derivative has been developed to concentrate both growth factors and antagonists of inflammatory cytokines, with promising preliminary findings in terms of safety profile and clinical improvement. To investigate if one intra-articular injection of autologous protein solution (APS) can reduce pain and improve function in patients affected by knee OA in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, saline-controlled study. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-six patients with unilateral knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence 2 or 3) were randomized into the APS group (n = 31), which received a single ultrasound-guided injection of APS, and the saline (control) group (n = 15), which received a single saline injection. Patient-reported outcomes and adverse events were collected at 2 weeks and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months through visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Clinical Global Impression of Severity/Change (CGI-S/C), Patient Global Impression of Severity/Change (PGI-S/C), and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) responder rate. Imaging evaluation was also performed with radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after treatment (12 months and 3 and 12 months, respectively). The safety profile was positive, with no significant differences in frequency and severity of adverse events between groups. The improvement from baseline to 2 weeks and to 1, 3, and 6 months was similar between treatments. At 12 months, improvement in WOMAC pain score was 65% in the APS group and 41% in the saline group ( P = .02). There were no significant differences in VAS pain improvement between groups. At 12 months, APS group showed improved SF-36 Bodily Pain

  2. A Marker Method for the Solution of the Damped Burgers' Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome L.V. Lewandowski

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the solution of the damped Burgers equation is described. The marker method relies on the definition of a convective field associated with the underlying partial differential equation; the information about the approximate solution is associated with the response of an ensemble of markers to this convective field. Some key aspects of the method, such as the selection of the shape function and the initial loading, are discussed in some details. The marker method is applicable to a general class of nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations

  3. The Telegraph Equation and Its Solution by Reduced Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet K. Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation was formulated using Ohm’s law and solved by a recent and reliable semianalytic method, namely, the reduced differential transform method (RDTM. Using this method, it is possible to find the exact solution or a closed approximate solution of a differential equation. Three numerical examples have been carried out in order to check the effectiveness, the accuracy, and convergence of the method. The RDTM is a powerful mathematical technique for solving wide range of problems arising in science and engineering fields.

  4. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...... target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...

  5. A contrast enhancement and scanning techniques for CT angiography of head and neck. One phase injection method for simultaneous imaging of vessels and tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yasuhiko; Indo, Hiroko; Noikura, Takenori

    1999-01-01

    We report on a method of CT-Angiography useful for examining lesion of the head and neck using three-dimensional images and measured CT value. This study focused on some of the important blood vessels in the head and neck. The aim of this method was to obtain high-contrast enhancement for both vessels and tumors at same time. A total amount of 100 ml nonionic contrast media (Omnipaque 240, 240 mg iodine per milliliter, Daiichi seiyaku, Tokyo, Japan) was injected intravenously with a flow of 1.5 ml/sec. Spiral scans, 24 rotations with 24 seconds, were started at a time when remaining amount of contrast media had become 30 to 20 ml. All CT scans were performed using double speed spiral scan technique with a slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm and table speeds from 3 to 5 mm/rotation. The patients populations consisted of 9 men and 6 women who ranged in age from 37 to 85 years. Sixteen CT-angiography were performed according to this method. Mean CT values of major blood vessels were measured in order to find out threshold at the level of submandibular gland in 13 examinations for 12 subjects. Important vessels like the common, internal, and the external artery, internal and external jugular vein were clearly visible in all subjects. Three dimensional images of these vessels could also be reconstructed for 15 of the subjects. Mean CT values were 211 Hounsfield units (HU) and 209 HU for the right and left internal carotid artery, respectively, and 204 HU and 206 HU for the right and left external carotid artery, respectively. Mean CT values for right and left internal jugular vein were 195 HU and 194 HU respectively. Measured CT values at each important blood vessels showed this method could yields acceptable enhancements. Good enhancement effect of tumor and blood vessels in the same scan seems to be mutually incompatible. One very important trade-off is the early enhancement effect at blood vessels versus the late enhancement effect at tumors. The other important trade

  6. Plastic Injection Quality Controlling Using the Lean Six Sigma and FMEA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Mu'alim; Sunaryo

    2016-01-01

    PT. Yogya Presisi Teknikatama Industri (PT. YPTI) is a mold, precision part, and plastic injection maker company. One of the obstacles faced by the company is the high level of nonconformity on its production results. The waste on production process can be identified and classified into four types, i.e.: a). during the process of injection molding machines, b). finishing and cutting processes, c). quality control process and d). the packaging process. The objectives of this research are minimizing the defective goods and reducing the waste using Lean Six Sigma and FMEA approaches, especially for Bush product. From the analysis result, defective types on Bush product can be classified into bubble, speckle, short shoot, sunken, sink mark, over-cut, flashing, and discolor. Based on the attributes data on Bush product, the DPMO score is 988.42 or the sigma level is 4.6, While the DPMO score on the variable data on each dimension i.e.: a). Slit width on the bottom side has DPMO score of 30119 (sigma level 3.37), b). Diameter of the circle on the top side has DPMO score of 392294 (sigma level 1.77), c). Product thickness on the top side has DPMO score of 70474 (sigma level 2.97), d). Product height has DPMO score of 82107 (sigma level 2.89), product thickness on the bottom side has DPMO score of 24448 (sigma level 3.47), and f). Diameter of the circle on the bottom side has DPMO score of 24448 (sigma level 3.47). The highest RPN score on the dominant types of product defects which needs improvement are the defective goods of bubble type has RPN score of 729, flashing and the molten material out on the heating channel has RPN score of 384, over cutting has RPN score of 324 and sink mark has RPN score of 270. The recommendations for improvement that can be given from this research are making checklist for maintenance and production monitoring, enhancing work supervision and inspection, as well as improving the environment and work stations.

  7. General method and exact solutions to a generalized variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ., Shangai; Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    A general method to uniformly construct exact solutions in terms of special function of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented by means of a more general ansatz and symbolic computation. Making use of the general method, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan (J. Phys. A., 36 (2003) 7009) and find other new and more general solutions, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solution, soliton solutions, soliton-like solutions and Jacobi, Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. A general variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation is chosen to illustrate the method. As a result, some new exact soliton-like solutions are obtained. planets. The numerical results are given in tables. The results are discussed in the conclusion

  8. A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method for the solution of three-dimensional vortical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Helene Marie

    1992-01-01

    A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of three-dimensional rotational flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A Lagrangian particle tracking method using particle markers is added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure and provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solutions is used to integrate the Lagrangian state-vector along the particles trajectories. The Lagrangian correction technique does not require any a-priori information on the structure or position of the vortical regions. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers, used as 'accuracy boosters,' take advantage of the accurate convection description of the Lagrangian solution and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of standard Eulerian finite-volume methods. The combined solution procedures is tested in several applications. The convection of a Lamb vortex in a straight channel is used as an unsteady compressible flow preservation test case. The other test cases concern steady incompressible flow calculations and include the preservation of turbulent inlet velocity profile, the swirling flow in a pipe, and the constant stagnation pressure flow and secondary flow calculations in bends. The last application deals with the external flow past a wing with emphasis on the trailing vortex solution. The improvement due to the addition of the Lagrangian correction technique is measured by comparison with analytical solutions when available or with Eulerian solutions on finer grids. The use of the combined Eulerian/Lagrangian scheme results in substantially lower grid resolution requirements than the standard Eulerian scheme for a given solution accuracy.

  9. A new method for determining the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Lejeune, M.; Rey, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for determining the pool of radionuclides in the soil solution, available for root uptake, has been compared to existing methods. The new method is based on extracting the soil solution at a soil moisture below saturation. It uses the soaking capacity of a polyacrylamide resin deposited on a cellulose acetate membrane laid on the soil surface. The new method exhibited the best reproductibility amongst the methods tested. It allowed us to extract more 134 Cs and a similar amount of 85 Sr relative to the other methods. The correlation between the observed ratio of radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants and the radionuclide concentration of the soil solution using the new method was better than using the existing methods. Using the measurement of 134 Cs and natural potassium in the soil solution by the new method, based on a multiple regression equation involving an exponential form, the uptake of 134 Cs by bean and wheat was predicted with a 0.9 determination coefficient. As far as the uptake of 85 Sr is considered, this method was not very successful since the equation with a linear form involved a large number of parameters. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Solution of problems in calculus of variations via He's variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatari, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    In the modeling of a large class of problems in science and engineering, the minimization of a functional is appeared. Finding the solution of these problems needs to solve the corresponding ordinary differential equations which are generally nonlinear. In recent years He's variational iteration method has been attracted a lot of attention of the researchers for solving nonlinear problems. This method finds the solution of the problem without any discretization of the equation. Since this method gives a closed form solution of the problem and avoids the round off errors, it can be considered as an efficient method for solving various kinds of problems. In this research He's variational iteration method will be employed for solving some problems in calculus of variations. Some examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique

  11. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praher, B.; Straka, K.; Usanovic, J.; Steinbichler, G.

    2014-01-01

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements

  12. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praher, B., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Straka, K., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Usanovic, J., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Steinbichler, G., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at [Institute of Polymer Injection Moulding and Process Automation, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements.

  13. Method development for the determination of arsenic by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry using long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punrat, Eakkasit; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Kaneta, Takashi; Motomizu, Shoji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-11-15

    An automated method has been developed for determining the concentration of inorganic arsenic. The technique uses sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry with a long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. The long-lasting gold electrode was electrochemically deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a supporting electrolyte solution of 1M hydrochloric acid. Under optimal conditions and the applied potentials, the electrode demonstrated that it can be used for a long time without a renewal process. The linear range for the determination of arsenic(III) was 1-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) in standard solutions was as low as 0.03 μg L(-1) for a deposition time of 120 s and sample volume of 1 mL. This method was used to determine the concentration of arsenic(III) in water samples with satisfactory results. The LOD in real samples was found to be 0.5 μg L(-1). In addition, speciation between arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) has been achieved with the proposed method using deposition potentials of -0.5 V and -1.5 V for the determination of the arsenic(III) concentration and the total arsenic concentration, respectively; the results were acceptable. The proposed method is an automated system that offers a less expensive alternative for determining trace amounts of inorganic arsenic. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Method of Lines Solution of the Regularized Long-Wave Equation Using Runge-Kutta Time Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Bakodah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of lines approach to the numerical solution of nonlinear wave equations typified by the regularized long wave (RLW is presented. The method developed uses a finite differences discretization to the space. Solution of the resulting system was obtained by applying fourth Runge-Kutta time discretization method. Using Von Neumann stability analysis, it is shown that the proposed method is marginally stable. To test the accuracy of the method some numerical experiments on test problems are presented. Test problems including solitary wave motion, two-solitary wave interaction, and the temporal evaluation of a Maxwellian initial pulse are studied. The accuracy of the present method is tested with and error norms and the conservation properties of mass, energy, and momentum under the RLW equation.

  15. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  16. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment

  17. ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF EXISTING SOLUTION METHODS OF QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza KARAMI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP is known as one of the most difficult combinatorial optimization problems that is classified in the category of NP-hard problems. Quadratic Assignment Problem Library (QAPLIB is a full database of QAPs which contains several problems from different authors and different sizes. Many exact and meta-heuristic solution methods have been introduced to solve QAP. In this study we focus on previously introduced solution methods of QAP e.g. Branch and Bound (B&B, Simulated Annealing (SA Algorithm, Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP for dense and sparse QAPs. The codes of FORTRAN for these methods were downloaded from QAPLIB. All problems of QAPLIB were solved by the abovementioned methods. Several results were obtained from the computational experiments part. The Results show that the Branch and Bound method is able to introduce a feasible solution for all problems while Simulated Annealing Algorithm and GRASP methods are not able to find any solution for some problems. On the other hand, Simulated Annealing and GRASP methods have shorter run time comparing to the Branch and Bound method. In addition, the performance of the methods on the objective function value is discussed.

  18. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  19. Improvement of precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization and its use in plutonium solutions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.V.; Stepanov, D.A.; Nikitina, S.A.; Gogoleva, T.D.; Grigor'eva, M.G.; Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Panteleev, Yu.A.; Pevtsova, E.V.; Domkin, V.D.; Pen'kin, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization is used for analysis of pure Pu solutions. Improvement of the spectrophotometer and spectrophotometric method of analysis is done to decrease accidental constituent of relative error of the method. Influence of U, Np impurities and corrosion products on systematic constituent of error of the method, and effect of fluoride-ion on completeness of Pu oxidation in sample preparation are studied [ru

  20. Exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations using Exp-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Boz, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The Klein-Gordon, Burger-Fisher and Sharma-Tasso-Olver equations are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. The Exp-function method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations

  1. Determination of Anthracycline Drug Residual in Cleaning Validation Swabs of Stainless-Steel Equipment after Production of Cytostatic Injections Using HPLC Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Slivová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning procedures of production line equipment were verified after manufacture of cytostatic injections containing Anthracycline derivate substance. Residual content of Anthracycline drug substance on stainless-steel equipment surface was determined using swab sampling with a specific HPLC-DAD analysis. The acceptance limit was decided as 200.0 μg/100 cm2. Recovery from the stainless-steel surface was 90.1%. Linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 0.155–194 μg/mL when estimated using Zorbax TMS (5 μm, 0.25 m × 4.6 mm ID column at 1.3 mL/min flow rate and 254 nm (DAD 190–600 nm. The mobile phase consisted of lauryl hydrogen sulphate solution (3.7 g/L : methanol : acetonitrile (54 : 16 : 30, v/v/v with pH adjusted to 2.5 using phosphoric acid (85%. The LOD and LOQ for Anthracycline derivate were found to be 0.047 and 0.155 μg/mL, respectively. The method validation confirmed the method provides acceptable degree of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision for the intended purposes.

  2. Numerical solution of sixth-order boundary-value problems using Legendre wavelet collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Haq, Sirajul; Mukhtar, Safyan; Khan, Imad

    2018-03-01

    An efficient method is proposed to approximate sixth order boundary value problems. The proposed method is based on Legendre wavelet in which Legendre polynomial is used. The mechanism of the method is to use collocation points that converts the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. For validation two test problems are discussed. The results obtained from proposed method are quite accurate, also close to exact solution, and other different methods. The proposed method is computationally more effective and leads to more accurate results as compared to other methods from literature.

  3. Applicability of the Galerkin method to the approximate solution of the multigroup diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, D.

    1970-04-01

    In the study of the nuclear reactors space-time behaviour the modal analysis is very often used though some basic mathematical problems connected with application of this methods are still unsolved. In this paper the modal analysis is identified as a set of the methods in the mathematical literature known as the Galerkin methods (or projection methods, or sometimes direct methods). Using the results of the mathematical investigations of these methods the applicability of the Galerkin type methods to the calculations of the eigenvalue and eigenvectors of the stationary and non-stationary diffusion operator, as well as for the solutions of the corresponding functional equations, is established (author)

  4. Periodic Solutions of the Duffing Harmonic Oscillator by He's Energy Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-Naggar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duffing harmonic oscillator is a common model for nonlinear phenomena in science and engineering. This paper presents He´s Energy Balance Method (EBM for solving nonlinear differential equations. Two strong nonlinear cases have been studied analytically. Analytical results of the EBM are compared with the solutions obtained by using He´s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (FAF and numerical solutions using Runge-Kutta method. The results show the presented method is potentially to solve high nonlinear oscillator equations.

  5. Iterative solution of the inverse Cauchy problem for an elliptic equation by the conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Kardashevsky, A. M.; Popov, V. V.; Prokopev, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents results of computational experiment carried out using a finite-difference method for solving the inverse Cauchy problem for a two-dimensional elliptic equation. The computational algorithm involves an iterative determination of the missing boundary condition from the override condition using the conjugate gradient method. The results of calculations are carried out on the examples with exact solutions as well as at specifying an additional condition with random errors are presented. Results showed a high efficiency of the iterative method of conjugate gradients for numerical solution

  6. Solutions manual to accompany An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Epperson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis, Second Edition An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis, Second Edition reflects the latest trends in the field, includes new material and revised exercises, and offers a unique emphasis on applications. The author clearly explains how to both construct and evaluate approximations for accuracy and performance, which are key skills in a variety of fields. A wide range of higher-level methods and solutions, including new topics such as the roots of polynomials, sp

  7. Numerical method for solution of transient, homogeneous, equilibrium, two-phase flows in one space dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1979-10-01

    A solution method is presented for transient, homogeneous, equilibrium, two-phase flows of a single-component fluid in one space dimension. The method combines a direct finite-difference procedure and the method of characteristics. The finite-difference procedure solves the interior points of the computing domain; the boundary information is provided by a separate procedure based on the characteristics theory. The solution procedure for boundary points requires information in addition to the physical boundary conditions. This additional information is obtained by a new procedure involving integration of characteristics in the hodograph plane. Sample problems involving various combinations of basic boundary types are calculated for two-phase water/steam mixtures and single-phase nitrogen gas, and compared with independent method-of-characteristics solutions using very fine characteristic mesh. In all cases, excellent agreement is demonstrated

  8. Interaction of sodium monoborate and boric acid with some mono- and disaccharides in aqueous solutions (from data on isomolar solutions method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvarts, E.M.; Ignash, R.T.; Belousova, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of sodium monoborate Na[B(OH) 4 ] and boric acid with D-glucose, D-fructose, D-saccharose and D-lactose in aqueous solution depending on the solution total concentration is studied through the method of isomolar solutions with application of conductometry and polarimetry. It is shown by the D-glucose and D-fructose examples that the method of isomolar solutions leads to results compatible with the data obtained by other methods and it may be applied to other saccharides [ru

  9. Solution of the multilayer multigroup neutron diffusion equation in cartesian geometry by fictitious borders power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Rodrigo; Petersen, Caudio Zen [Univ. Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Schramm, Marcello [Univ. Federal de Pelotas (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias; Zabadal, Jorge Rodolfo [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Tramandai (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper a solution for the one-dimensional steady state Multilayer Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation in cartesian geometry by Fictitious Borders Power Method and a perturbative analysis of this solution is presented. For each new iteration of the power method, the neutron flux is reconstructed by polynomial interpolation, so that it always remains in a standard form. However when the domain is long, an almost singular matrix arises in the interpolation process. To eliminate this singularity the domain segmented in R regions, called fictitious regions. The last step is to solve the neutron diffusion equation for each fictitious region in analytical form locally. The results are compared with results present in the literature. In order to analyze the sensitivity of the solution, a perturbation in the nuclear parameters is inserted to determine how a perturbation interferes in numerical results of the solution.

  10. Synthesis method based on solution regions for planar four bar straight line linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Rong, Yin; Cong, Mao; Jian you, Han; Tong, Yang; Juan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method for synthesizing and selecting desired four-bar straight line mechanisms based on solution regions is presented. Given two fixed pivots, the point position and direction of the target straight line, an infinite number of mechanism solutions can be produced by employing this method, both in the general case and all three special cases. Unifying the straight line direction and the displacement from the given point to the instant center into the same form with different angles as parameters, infinite mechanism solutions can be expressed with different solution region charts. The mechanism property graphs have been computed to enable the designers to find out the involved mechanism information more intuitively and avoid aimlessness in selecting optimal mechanisms

  11. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...

  12. NMR determination of chemically related metals in solution as a new method of inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    An NMR spectroscopic method for the determination of chemically related metals in solution is suggested. The metals are determined in complexes with specially selected polydentate ligands. Structural requirements to ligands, analytical properties and general limits of the application of the method are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  14. The preparation method of solid boron solution in silicon carbide in the form of micro powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampuch, R.; Stobierski, L.; Lis, J.; Bialoskorski, J.; Ermer, E.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation method of solid boron solution in silicon carbide in the form of micro power has been worked out. The method consists in introducing mixture of boron, carbon and silicon and heating in the atmosphere of inert gas to the 1573 K

  15. A Three Step Explicit Method for Direct Solution of Third Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study produces a three step discrete Linear Multistep Method for Direct solution of third order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations of the form y'''= f(x,y,y',y''). Taylor series expansion technique was adopted in the development of the method. The differential system from the basis polynomial function to ...

  16. Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmai, Tamas; Apagyi, Barnabas; Horvath, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events

  17. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the mass fraction of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality containing more than 100 g/kg of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method

  18. Exact solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations via Exp-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Exp-function method, exact solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations are obtained. The KdV equation, Burgers' equation and the combined KdV-mKdV equation are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method

  19. An induced current method for measuring zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a novel and very simple method for measuring the zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface. When a measuring electrode contacts the electrolyte solution-air interface, an electrical current will be generated due to the potential difference between the electrode-air surface and the electrolyte solution-air interface. The amplitude of the measured electric signal is linearly proportional to this potential difference; and depends only on the zeta potential at the electrolyte solution-air interface, regardless of the types and concentrations of the electrolyte. A correlation between the zeta potential and the measured voltage signal is obtained based on the experimental data. Using this equation, the zeta potential of any electrolyte solution-air interface can be evaluated quickly and easily by inserting an electrode through the electrolyte solution-air interface and measuring the electrical signal amplitude. This method was verified by comparing the obtained results of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 solutions of different pH values and concentrations with the zeta potential data reported in the published journal papers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Legendre Wavelet Operational Matrix Method for Solution of Riccati Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Legendre wavelet operational matrix method (LWM is presented for the solution of nonlinear fractional-order Riccati differential equations, having variety of applications in quantum chemistry and quantum mechanics. The fractional-order Riccati differential equations converted into a system of algebraic equations using Legendre wavelet operational matrix. Solutions given by the proposed scheme are more accurate and reliable and they are compared with recently developed numerical, analytical, and stochastic approaches. Comparison shows that the proposed LWM approach has a greater performance and less computational effort for getting accurate solutions. Further existence and uniqueness of the proposed problem are given and moreover the condition of convergence is verified.

  1. Nonlocal symmetry and explicit solutions from the CRE method of the Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Han, Bo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the integrability of the Boussinesq equation by using the truncated Painlevé expansion and the CRE method. Based on the truncated Painlevé expansion, the nonlocal symmetry and Bäcklund transformation of this equation are obtained. A prolonged system is introduced to localize the nonlocal symmetry to the local Lie point symmetry. It is proved that the Boussinesq equation is CRE solvable. The two-solitary-wave fusion solutions, single soliton solutions and soliton-cnoidal wave solutions are presented by means of the Bäcklund transformations.

  2. Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.

  3. Direct methods of solution for problems in mechanics from invariance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Direct solutions to problems in mechanics are developed from variational statements derived from the principle of invariance of the action integral under a one-parameter family of infinitesimal transformations. Exact, direct solution procedures for linear systems are developed by a careful choice of the arbitrary functions used to generate the infinitesimal transformations. It is demonstrated that the well-known methods for the solution of differential equations can be directly adapted to the required variational statements. Examples in particle and continuum mechanics are presented

  4. Method of moments solution of volume integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    An efficient higher-order method of moments (MoM) solution of volume integral equations is presented. The higher-order MoM solution is based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order geometry modeling. An unstructured mesh composed of 8-node trilinear and/or curved 27...... of magnitude in comparison to existing higher-order hierarchical basis functions. Consequently, an iterative solver can be applied even for high expansion orders. Numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement with the analytical Mie series solution for a dielectric sphere as well as with results obtained...

  5. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Using data from the train driver schedule of the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the Train Driver Recovery Problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP...... the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. Preliminarily results are encouraging, showing that nearly all tested real-life instances produce integer solutions to the LP relaxation and solutions are found within a few seconds....

  6. Finding all solutions of nonlinear equations using the dual simplex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kiyotaka; Fujioka, Tsuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Recently, an efficient algorithm has been proposed for finding all solutions of systems of nonlinear equations using linear programming. This algorithm is based on a simple test (termed the LP test) for nonexistence of a solution to a system of nonlinear equations using the dual simplex method. In this letter, an improved version of the LP test algorithm is proposed. By numerical examples, it is shown that the proposed algorithm could find all solutions of a system of 300 nonlinear equations in practical computation time.

  7. The Rational Third-Kind Chebyshev Pseudospectral Method for the Solution of the Thomas-Fermi Equation over Infinite Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tavassoli Kajani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a pseudospectral method for solving the Thomas-Fermi equation which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infinite interval. This approach is based on the rational third-kind Chebyshev pseudospectral method that is indeed a combination of Tau and collocation methods. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. Comparison with some numerical solutions shows that the present solution is highly accurate.

  8. Variable separation solutions for the Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation via the extended tanh-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefang; Dai Chaoqing; Zong Fengde

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, with the variable separation approach and based on the general reduction theory, we successfully generalize this extended tanh-function method to obtain new types of variable separation solutions for the following Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov (NNV) equation. Among the solutions, two solutions are new types of variable separation solutions, while the last solution is similar to the solution given by Darboux transformation in Hu et al 2003 Chin. Phys. Lett. 20 1413

  9. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, Wahlberg; Imre, Pazsit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a series of model transport problems, for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. Due to the non-linear character of the embedding equations, their solution can only be obtained numerically. However, this can be done via a robust and effective iteration scheme. In return, the domain of applicability is far wider than the model problems investigated in this paper. The use of the invariant embedding method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel and unexpected application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the reflected flux from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast and monotonically converging to the exact solutions. (authors)

  10. Method development for the enantiomeric purity determination of low concentrations of adrenaline in local anaesthetic solutions by capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari E.; Ek, Anders G.; Widahl-Näsman, Monica E.; Andersson, E. K Margareta

    2006-01-01

    L-Adrenaline is often included in local anaesthetic (LA) solutions for injection to improve the quality of the anaesthetic block. The concentration of the LA is between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml and the concentration of adrenaline is typically ≤0.1% of the LA concentration. In order to follow the

  11. Final report of a scalable, automated, semipermanent seismic array (SASSA) method for detecting CO2 extent during geologic CO2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnison, Shaughn [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Livers-Douglas, Amanda [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Barajas-Olalde, Cesar [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Jin, Lu [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Vettleson, Heidi [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hamiling, John [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Gorecki, Charles [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The scalable, automated, semipermanent seismic array (SASSA) project led and managed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was designed as a 3-year proof-of-concept study to evaluate and demonstrate an innovative application of the seismic method. The concept was to use a sparse surface array of 96 nodal seismic sensors paired with a single, remotely operated active seismic source at a fixed location to monitor for CO2 saturation changes in a subsurface reservoir by processing the data for time-lapse changes at individual, strategically chosen reservoir reflection points. The combination of autonomous equipment and modern processing algorithms was used to apply the seismic method in a manner different from the normal paradigm of collecting a spatially dense data set to produce an image. It was used instead to monitor individual, strategically chosen reservoir reflection points for detectable signal character changes that could be attributed to the passing of a CO2 saturation front or, possibly, changes in reservoir pressure. Data collection occurred over the course of 1 year at an oil field undergoing CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and focused on four overlapping “five-spot” EOR injector–producer patterns. Selection, procurement, configuration, installation, and testing of project equipment and collection of five baseline data sets were completed in advance of CO2 injection within the study area. Weekly remote data collection produced 41 incremental time-lapse records for each of the 96 nodes. Validation was provided by two methods: 1) a conventional 2-D seismic line acquired through the center of the study area before injection started and again after the project ended and processed in a time-lapse manner and 2) by CO2 saturation maps created from reservoir simulations based on injection and production history matching. Interpreted results were encouraging but mixed, with

  12. An injected gamma-tracer method for soil-moisture movement investigations in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the in-situ determination of soil-moisture transport rates using K 3 60 Co(CN) 6 is discussed. The tracer compares well with tritiated water in laboratory investigations and the results obtained in limited field studies are very encouraging. The method promises to be of specific interest in arid-zone investigations where the soil-moisture fluxes in liquid and vapour phases could cause complications for tritium tracer data interpretation. (author)

  13. Methodical bias for comparison of periodontal ligament injection and local infiltration anesthesia for routine extractions in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kämmerer PW

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer W Kämmerer, Monika Daubländer Department of Oral, Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, University Medical Centre Mainz, Mainz, GermanyWe read the article by Al-Shayyab1 with great interest, though we think that there is a methodical bias. Usage of standard dental syringes with 27-gauge needles is not recommended for periodontal ligament (PDL injections as they are very unlikely to achieve the correct pressure needed for successful single tooth anesthesia. In accordance with this, specialized syringes with short 30-gauge needles are commonly used all over the literature.2 The author addresses this in the “Discussion” section and writes that “a standard conventional dental syringe was used in the present study, not a special PDL syringe, since the former is readily available in the clinic and proves equally successful when a standard 27-gauge short needle was used,” citing Malamed from 1982 (a time during which the modern PDL syringes were not developed yet3 and Madan et al who write that “intraligamentary injection technique is equally effective when a standard 27-gauge needle is used”.4 The second assumption refers to the needle only, not the syringe. In addition, this needle issue is not proven by any reference or study. Therefore, one might come to the conclusion that PDL was not carried out correctly. Also, the authors did not evaluate pulp or tissue anesthesia and started the extraction procedure after a latency period of 5 minutes in all cases. In accordance with this, the success rates of the PDL injection cannot be given, but would be of interest.View the original paper by Al-Shayyab and colleagues.

  14. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  15. The solution of a coupled system of nonlinear physical problems using the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S A; Abdou, M A

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been applied to solve coupled nonlinear evolution equations in physics. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated by applying it to two nonlinear evolution equations, namely coupled nonlinear diffusion reaction equations and the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov Veselov system. The results obtained by this method show good agreement with the ones obtained by other methods. The proposed method is a powerful and easy to use analytic tool for nonlinear problems and does not need small parameters in the equations. The HAM solutions contain an auxiliary parameter that provides a convenient way of controlling the convergence region of series solutions. The results obtained here reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple for solving nonlinear evolution equations. The basic ideas of this approach can be widely employed to solve other strongly nonlinear problems.

  16. Maximum Likelihood and Restricted Likelihood Solutions in Multiple-Method Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhin, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    A formulation of the problem of combining data from several sources is discussed in terms of random effects models. The unknown measurement precision is assumed not to be the same for all methods. We investigate maximum likelihood solutions in this model. By representing the likelihood equations as simultaneous polynomial equations, the exact form of the Groebner basis for their stationary points is derived when there are two methods. A parametrization of these solutions which allows their comparison is suggested. A numerical method for solving likelihood equations is outlined, and an alternative to the maximum likelihood method, the restricted maximum likelihood, is studied. In the situation when methods variances are considered to be known an upper bound on the between-method variance is obtained. The relationship between likelihood equations and moment-type equations is also discussed.

  17. A Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin and Enrofloxacin Combination in an Injectable Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin is a well-known mixture of veterinary drugs; it is used for the treatment of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the scientific literature, there is no high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of this combination. The objective of this work is to develop and validate an HPLC method for the determination of this combination. In this regard, a new, simple and efficient reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of inactive excipients, has been developed and validated. The HPLC separation method was performed using a reversed-phase (RP-C18e (250 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μm column at room temperature, with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer containing methanol at pH 5.0, a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 267 nm. This method was validated in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria. A stability-indicating study was also carried out and indicated that this method can also be used for purity and degradation evaluation of these formulations.

  18. The cerebral blood flow measurement without absolute input function value for PET O-15 injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tadashige

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the method of the measurement for the region of interest's (ROI's) cerebral blood flow (CBF) using PET data and the input function without the absolute density value of the radio activity. The value of the input function and the output function are fixed from the clinical data by regression analysis. The input function and the output function are transformed by the Fourier transform. The transfer function of the differential equation of the compartment model is got by these Fourier transforms. The CBF can be estimated by the transfer function regression analysis. Results are compared between the proposal and conventional methods. (author)

  19. Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A modified Hauser–Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb–Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained

  20. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  1. High Throughput Screening Method for Systematic Surveillance of Drugs of Abuse by Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Alicia; Rampersaud, Dianne; Lee, Howard; Kim, Marcus; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-11-07

    New technologies are urgently required for reliable drug screening given a worldwide epidemic of prescription drug abuse and its devastating socioeconomic impacts on public health. Primary screening of drugs of abuse (DoA) currently relies on immunoassays that are prone to bias and are not applicable to detect an alarming array of psychoactive stimulants, tranquilizers, and synthetic opioids. These limitations impact patient safety when monitoring for medication compliance, drug substitution, or misuse/abuse and require follow-up confirmatory testing by more specific yet lower throughput instrumental methods. Herein, we introduce a high throughput platform for nontargeted screening of a broad spectrum of DoA and their metabolites based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS). We demonstrate that MSI-CE-MS enables serial injections of 10 samples within a single run (high resolution MS with full-scan data acquisition. Unambiguous drug identification was achieved by four or more independent parameters, including comigration with a deuterated internal standard or in silico prediction of electromigration behavior together with accurate mass, most likely molecular formula, as well as MS/MS as required for confirmation testing. Acceptable precision was demonstrated for over 50 DoA at 3 concentration levels over 4 days (median coefficient of variance = 13%, n = 117) with minimal ion suppression, isobaric interferences, and sample carry-over (screening cutoff levels in human urine while allowing for systematic surveillance, specimen verification, and retrospective testing of designer drugs that elude conventional drug tests.

  2. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV-KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Saha, Ray

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV-Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KdV-KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV-KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation.

  3. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV–KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Ray, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV–Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KdV–KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV–KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation. (paper)

  4. A novel solidified floating organic drop microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of copper ions by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpa Şahin Ç.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and inexpensive solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination (FI-FAAS method for copper was developed. 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral red, NR was used as the complexing agent. Several factors affecting the microextraction efficiency, such as, pH, NR and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS concentration, extraction time, stirring rate, and temperature were investigated and optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions an enrichment factor of 541 was obtained for 100 mL of sample solution. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 – 20.0 ng mL–1 and the limit of detection (3s was 0.18 ng mL–1, the limit of quantification (10s was 0.58 ng mL–1. The relative standard deviation (RSD for 10 replicate measurements of 10 ng mL–1 copper was 2.7%. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of copper in different certified reference materials (Estuarine water, Slew 3 and fortified water, TM 23.2 and real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  5. Common Rail Direct Injection Mode of CI Engine Operation with Different Injection Strategies - A Method to Reduce Smoke and NOx Emissions Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khandal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression ignition (CI engines are most efficient and robust prime movers used in transportation, power generation applications but suffer from the problems of higher level of exhaust smoke and NOx tailpipe emissions with increased use of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel that replaces diesel and at the same time that result in lower smoke and NOx emissions is presently needed. Therefore the main aim of this experimental study is to lower the smoke and NOx emissions and to use non edible oils that replace the diesel. For this locally available honge biodiesel (BHO and cotton seed biodiesel (BCO were selected as alternative fuels to power CI engine operated in common rail direct injection (CRDI mode. In the first part, optimum fuel injection timing (IT and injection pressure (IP for maximum engine brake thermal efficiency (BTE was obtained. In the second part, performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the CRDI engine was studied with two different fuel injectors having 6 and 7 holes each having 0.2 mm orifice diameter. The CRDI engine results obtained were compared with the baseline date reported. The combustion chamber (CC used for the study was toroidal re-entrant (TRCC. The experimental tests showed that BHO and BCO fuelled CRDI engine showed overall improved performance with 7 hole injector when engine was operated at optimized fuel IT of 10° before top dead centre (bTDC and IP of 900 bar. The smoke emission reduced by 20% to 26% and NOx reduced by 16% to 20% in diesel and biodiesel powered CRDI engine as compared to conventional CI mode besides replacing diesel by biodiesel fuel (BDF.

  6. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

  7. New exact solutions of coupled Boussinesq–Burgers equations by Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Ravi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we build the new analytical exact solutions of a nonlinear differential equation, specifically, coupled Boussinesq–Burgers equations by means of Exp-function method. Then, we analyze the results by plotting the three dimensional soliton graphs for each case, which exhibit the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method. The primary purpose of this paper is to employ a new approach, which allows us victorious and efficient derivation of the new analytical exact solutions for the coupled Boussinesq–Burgers equations.

  8. Determination of Periodic Solution for Tapered Beams with Modified Iteration Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mashinchi Joubari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implemented the Modified Iteration Perturbation Method (MIPM for approximating the periodic behavior of a tapered beam. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear ordinary differential equation with linear and nonlinear terms. The solution is quickly convergent and does not need to complicated calculations. Comparing the results of the MIPM with the exact solution shows that this method is effective and convenient. Also, it is predicated that MIPM can be potentially used in the analysis of strongly nonlinear oscillation problems accurately.

  9. The method of determination of micro quantities of labeled iodide in carrier free Na125 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of determination of microquantities of labelled iodide in Na 125 carrier-free solution was elaborated. This method permits to increase the sensitivity and radiation protection of the determination of labeled iodide. It includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphuric acid with molar concentration 0,03-0,04 mole/l. The extraction of I 2 is made by toluene. The coloured solution is made and optical density is measured at λ=640 nm at the 10 mm optical path .(A.A.D.)

  10. Method of solution for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, M; Russo, Q [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Almeida, M S; Bozzo, S [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    1975-03-01

    A method of solutions is presented for the determination of the velocity profiles in turbulent flow through annular tubes, based on the Von Karman similarity theory developed by Quarmby. The parameters found by Quarmby appearing in the velocity profiles and determined experimentally by different authors were approximated by polynonial functions of variable degree, as function of the Reynolds numbers. The Runge-Kutta-Nystrom method was used in the integration of the differential equations and the systematic of solution is presented in a computer program. The calculated results were compared to the experimental date and presented a deviation of 10/sup -2/%.

  11. Exact solitary wave solution for higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation using He's variational iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Monika; Bhatti, Harbax S.; Singh, Vikramjeet

    2017-11-01

    In optical communication, the behavior of the ultrashort pulses of optical solitons can be described through nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This partial differential equation is widely used to contemplate a number of physically important phenomena, including optical shock waves, laser and plasma physics, quantum mechanics, elastic media, etc. The exact analytical solution of (1+n)-dimensional higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation by He's variational iteration method has been presented. Our proposed solutions are very helpful in studying the solitary wave phenomena and ensure rapid convergent series and avoid round off errors. Different examples with graphical representations have been given to justify the capability of the method.

  12. On the nonlinear dynamics of trolling-mode AFM: Analytical solution using multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has resolved many imaging problems by a considerable reduction of the liquid-resonator interaction forces in liquid environments. The present study develops a nonlinear model of the meniscus force exerted to the nanoneedle of TR-AFM and presents an analytical solution to the distributed-parameter model of TR-AFM resonator utilizing multiple time scales (MTS) method. Based on the developed analytical solution, the frequency-response curves of the resonator operation in air and liquid (for different penetration length of the nanoneedle) are obtained. The closed-form analytical solution and the frequency-response curves are validated by the comparison with both the finite element solution of the main partial differential equations and the experimental observations. The effect of excitation angle of the resonator on horizontal oscillation of the probe tip and the effect of different parameters on the frequency-response of the system are investigated.

  13. Effect of rhenium injection methods on emission characteristics of metalloceramic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostach, E.M.; Redega, K.P.; Savranskaya, E.S.; Chapajkina, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Ni-29% Re-3.6% BaBe 3 O 5 pseudoalloy prepared by chemical mixing had a higher secondary electron emission coefficient than the same alloy prepared by mechanical mixing. This is apparently due to more uniform distribution of Re and BaBe 3 O 5 in the former case. In the chemical mixing method, rhenic acid and Ni, Ba, and Be nitrates were the starting materials. The metals were precipitated by means of (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . The precipitate was filtered out, dried, and partially reduced in H to give a fine powder containing the desired amounts of Ni, Re, and uniformly dispersed BaBe 3 O 5 . In the mechanical mixing method, Ni powder (8-10 μm), coarse Re powder (40-60 μm) or fine Re powder ( 3 O 5 obtained by preliminary calcining of a mixture of BaCO 3 and BeO were mixed

  14. Higher order analytical approximate solutions to the nonlinear pendulum by He's homotopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Alvarez, M L; Mendez, D I; Yebra, M S; Hernandez, A

    2009-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate the periodic solutions of a nonlinear pendulum. The method has been modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution and substituting a finite number of terms in the second-order linear differential equation. As can be seen, the modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for high values of the initial amplitude. Excellent agreement of the analytical approximate period with the exact period has been demonstrated not only for small but also for large amplitudes A (the relative error is less than 1% for A < 152 deg.). Comparison of the result obtained using this method with the exact ones reveals that this modified method is very effective and convenient.

  15. Comparison of different methods for the solution of sets of linear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilfinger, T.; Schmidt, F.

    1978-06-01

    The application of the conjugate-gradient methods as novel general iterative methods for the solution of sets of linear equations with symmetrical systems matrices led to this paper, where a comparison of these methods with the conventional differently accelerated Gauss-Seidel iteration was carried out. In additon, the direct Cholesky method was also included in the comparison. The studies referred mainly to memory requirement, computing time, speed of convergence, and accuracy of different conditions of the systems matrices, by which also the sensibility of the methods with respect to the influence of truncation errors may be recognized. (orig.) 891 RW [de

  16. A New Method to Solve Numeric Solution of Nonlinear Dynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the cubic spline function has advantages of simple forms, good convergence, approximation, and second-order smoothness. A particular class of cubic spline function is constructed and an effective method to solve the numerical solution of nonlinear dynamic system is proposed based on the cubic spline function. Compared with existing methods, this method not only has high approximation precision, but also avoids the Runge phenomenon. The error analysis of several methods is given via two numeric examples, which turned out that the proposed method is a much more feasible tool applied to the engineering practice.

  17. An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made...

  18. Solution of the equations for one-dimensional, two-phase, immiscible flow by geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronin, Ivan; Shevlyakov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    Buckley-Leverett equations describe non viscous, immiscible, two-phase filtration, which is often of interest in modelling of oil production. For many parameters and initial conditions, the solutions of these equations exhibit non-smooth behaviour, namely discontinuities in form of shock waves. In this paper we obtain a novel method for the solution of Buckley-Leverett equations, which is based on geometry of differential equations. This method is fast, accurate, stable, and describes non-smooth phenomena. The main idea of the method is that classic discontinuous solutions correspond to the continuous surfaces in the space of jets - the so-called multi-valued solutions (Bocharov et al., Symmetries and conservation laws for differential equations of mathematical physics. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1998). A mapping of multi-valued solutions from the jet space onto the plane of the independent variables is constructed. This mapping is not one-to-one, and its singular points form a curve on the plane of the independent variables, which is called the caustic. The real shock occurs at the points close to the caustic and is determined by the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions.

  19. Semi-exact solution of elastic non-uniform thickness and density rotating disks by homotopy perturbation and Adomian's decomposition methods. Part I: Elastic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojjati, M.H.; Jafari, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, two powerful analytical methods, namely homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and Adomian's decomposition method (ADM), are introduced to obtain distributions of stresses and displacements in rotating annular elastic disks with uniform and variable thicknesses and densities. The results obtained by these methods are then compared with the verified variational iteration method (VIM) solution. He's homotopy perturbation method which does not require a 'small parameter' has been used and a homotopy with an imbedding parameter p element of [0,1] is constructed. The method takes the full advantage of the traditional perturbation methods and the homotopy techniques and yields a very rapid convergence of the solution. Adomian's decomposition method is an iterative method which provides analytical approximate solutions in the form of an infinite power series for nonlinear equations without linearization, perturbation or discretization. Variational iteration method, on the other hand, is based on the incorporation of a general Lagrange multiplier in the construction of correction functional for the equation. This study demonstrates the ability of the methods for the solution of those complicated rotating disk cases with either no or difficult to find fairly exact solutions without the need to use commercial finite element analysis software. The comparison among these methods shows that although the numerical results are almost the same, HPM is much easier, more convenient and efficient than ADM and VIM

  20. Finite element method solution of simplified P3 equation for flexible geometry handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eun Hyun; Joo, Han Gyu

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain efficiently core flux solutions which would be much closer to the transport solution than the diffusion solution is, not being limited by the geometry of the core, the simplified P 3 (SP 3 ) equation is solved with the finite element method (FEM). A generic mesh generator, GMSH, is used to generate linear and quadratic mesh data. The linear system resulting from the SP 3 FEM discretization is solved by Krylov subspace methods (KSM). A symmetric form of the SP 3 equation is derived to apply the conjugate gradient method rather than the KSMs for nonsymmetric linear systems. An optional iso-parametric quadratic mapping scheme, which is to selectively model nonlinear shapes with a quadratic mapping to prevent significant mismatch in local domain volume, is also implemented for efficient application of arbitrary geometry handling. The gain in the accuracy attainable by the SP 3 solution over the diffusion solution is assessed by solving numerous benchmark problems having various core geometries including the IAEA PWR problems involving rectangular fuels and the Takeda fast reactor problems involving hexagonal fuels. The reference transport solution is produced by the McCARD Monte Carlo code and the multiplication factor and power distribution errors are assessed. In addition, the effect of quadratic mapping is examined for circular cell problems. It is shown that significant accuracy gain is possible with the SP 3 solution for the fast reactor problems whereas only marginal improvement is noted for thermal reactor problems. The quadratic mapping is also quite effective handling geometries with curvature. (author)