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Sample records for solution combustion synthesis

  1. The solution combustion synthesis of nanophosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Stephanie C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Nanophosphors are defined as nano-sized (1-100mn), insulating, inorganic materials that emit light under particle or electromagnetic excitation. Their unique luminescence properties provide an excellent potential for applications in radiation detection and imaging. Herein, solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is presented as a method to prepare nanophosphor powders, while X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), and other techniques were used to characterize their structural and optical properties. The goal of this work is to synthesize bright, high-quality powders of nanophosphors, consolidate them into bulk materials and study their structural and optical properties using XRD, TEM, PL, and PLE. SCS is of interest because it is a robust, inexpensive, and facile technique, which yields a significant amount of a wide variety of oxide materials, in a short amount of time. Several practical nanophosphors were synthesized and investigated in this work, including simple oxides such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, complex oxides such as Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn, and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce. Results demonstrate that altering the processing parameters such as water content of the precursor solution, ignition temperature, fuel type and amount, and post-synthesis annealing can significantly improve light output, and that it is possible to optimize the luminescence output of oxyorthosilicates by reducing the amount of silica in the precursor mixture.

  2. Solution combustion synthesis and characterization of nanosized bismuth ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kumar, V. Sesha; Rao, K. Venkateswara; Krishnaveni, T.; Kishore Goud, A. Shiva; Reddy, P. Ranjith

    2012-06-01

    The present paper describes a simple method of nanosized BiFeO3 by the solution combustion synthesis using bismuth and iron nitrates as oxidizers and the combination fuel of citric acid and ammonium hydroxide, with fuel to oxidizer ratio (Ψ = 1) one. The X-ray Diffraction results indicated rhombohedral phase (R3m) with JCPDS data card no: 72-2035. The ferroelectric transition of the sample at 8310C was detected by differential thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was done by Thermal gravimetric-Differential thermal analyzer and obtained results were presented in this paper.

  3. Modelling of flame temperature of solution combustion synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The basis of combustion synthesis technique comes from the ... of oxidizer to fuel is calculated using the total oxidizing ..... +. −. ∑. (4) where S/Nm is the mean S/N ratio of all the experimental ..... Minitab Inc., User manual of MINITAB. TM.

  4. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  5. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal, R.

    2014-08-01

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ c ) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  6. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  7. Solution combustion synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Tang; Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-10-01

    The design and synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials is one of the key steps for achieving highly efficient energy conversion and storage on an industrial scale. Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a time- and energy-saving method as compared with other routes, especially for the preparation of complex oxides which can be easily adapted for scale-up applications. This review summarizes the synthesis of various metal oxide nanomaterials and their applications for energy conversion and storage, including lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen and methane production, fuel cells and solar cells. In particular, some novel concepts such as reverse support combustion, self-combustion of ionic liquids, and creation of oxygen vacancies are presented. SCS has some unique advantages such as its capability for in situ doping of oxides and construction of heterojunctions. The well-developed porosity and large specific surface area caused by gas evolution during the combustion process endow the resulting materials with exceptional properties. The relationship between the structural properties of the metal oxides studied and their performance is discussed. Finally, the conclusions and perspectives are briefly presented.

  8. Mixture of fuels for solution combustion synthesis of porous Fe3O4 powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnianfar, H.; Masoudpanah, S. M.; Alamolhoda, S.; Fathi, H.

    2017-06-01

    The solution combustion synthesis of porous magnetite (Fe3O4) powders by a mixture of glycine and urea fuels was investigated concerning the thermodynamic aspects and powder characteristics. The adiabatic combustion temperature and combusted species were thermodynamically calculated as a function of the fuel to oxidant molar ratio (ϕ). The combustion behavior, phase evolution, porous structure and magnetic properties were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, N2 adsorption-desorption, electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Nearly single phase Fe3O4 powders were synthesized by the mixture of fuels at ϕ values of 0.75 and 1. The as-combusted Fe3O4 powders at ϕ = 1 exhibited porous structure with the specific surface area of 83.4 m2/g. The highest saturation magnetization of 75.5 emu/g and the lowest coercivity of 84 Oe were achieved at ϕ = 1, due to the high purity and large crystallite size, inducing from the highest adiabatic combustion temperature.

  9. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmer, Tiago M.; Barreiro, Oscar; Souza, Vania Caldas; Santos, Luis Alberto dos, E-mail: tiagovolkmer@gmail.com, E-mail: oscarbafer@hotmail.com, E-mail: vania.souza@ufrgs.br, E-mail: luis.santos@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biomateriais

    2009-07-01

    Bioceramics based on calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphates (TCP) are the most used biomaterials as bone substitutes. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) synthesized by the solution combustion method. The solution combustion synthesis (SCS) can be considered as faster and simpler as other methods, furthermore it allows the obtainment of high purity α-TCP. In the calcium phosphates (CPC), α-TCP reacts with water forming needle like HA, which restrain the movement of grains, increasing mechanical resistance. In the present paper the influence of particle size on mechanical properties of α-TCP cements were evaluated. The α-TCP powder were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and laser diffraction to asses particle size while the CPC bodies by SEM, Arquimedes method and compression tests. Increasing the milling time, the particle size decreases, resulting in samples with less porosity and consequently with higher compression resistance. (author)

  10. Spray-combustion synthesis: efficient solution route to high-performance oxide transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinge; Smith, Jeremy; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yu; Alvarez, Ana; Aghion, Stefano; Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Chang, Robert P H; Bedzyk, Michael J; Ferragut, Rafael; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2015-03-17

    Metal-oxide (MO) semiconductors have emerged as enabling materials for next generation thin-film electronics owing to their high carrier mobilities, even in the amorphous state, large-area uniformity, low cost, and optical transparency, which are applicable to flat-panel displays, flexible circuitry, and photovoltaic cells. Impressive progress in solution-processed MO electronics has been achieved using methodologies such as sol gel, deep-UV irradiation, preformed nanostructures, and combustion synthesis. Nevertheless, because of incomplete lattice condensation and film densification, high-quality solution-processed MO films having technologically relevant thicknesses achievable in a single step have yet to be shown. Here, we report a low-temperature, thickness-controlled coating process to create high-performance, solution-processed MO electronics: spray-combustion synthesis (SCS). We also report for the first time, to our knowledge, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) transistors having densification, nanoporosity, electron mobility, trap densities, bias stability, and film transport approaching those of sputtered films and compatible with conventional fabrication (FAB) operations.

  11. Solution combustion method for synthesis of nanostructured hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junjie; Dong, Xiaochen; Bian, Mengmeng [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhang, Yao; Sun, Yue [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • We report a synthesis of HA, Fap and Clap vio a modified solution combustion method. The nucleation of β-TCP was inhibited in the abundant-calcium system (Ca/P = 2.3>>1.67) in this study. F{sup −} brushed into the structure of HA and replace the position of OH{sup −} is easier than that of Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAP), fluorapatite (Fap) and chlorapatite (Clap) were prepared by solution combustion method with further annealing at 800 °C. The characterization and structural features of the synthesized powders were evaluated by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Characterization results from XRD and Rietveld analysis revealed that OH{sup −} in the HAP lattice were gradually substituted with the increase of F{sup −} and Cl{sup −} content and totally substituted at the molar concentration of 0.28 and 0.6, respectively. The results from FI-IR have also confirmed the incorporation of substituted anions in the apatite structure.

  12. Development and characterization of Mn2+-doped MgO nanoparticles by solution combustion synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Md. Hussain; Gopal, N. O.; Rao, J. L.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2015-06-01

    Mn doped MgO Nanoparticles have been prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis. The synthesized sample is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The prepared MgO:Mn (1 mol%) nano crystals appear to be of simple cubic crystalline phase with lattice parameters a = 4.218(2) Å and cell volume = 74.98 (7) Å3. SEM micrograph of powders show highly porous, many agglomerates with irregular morphology, large voids, cracks and pores. EPR spectrum of the sample at room temperature exhibit an isotropic sextet hyperfine pattern, centered at g=1.99, characteristic if Mn2+ ions with S=I=5/2.The observed g value and the hyperfine value reveal the ionic bonding between Mn2+ and its surroundings.

  13. Development and characterization of Mn2+-doped MgO nanoparticles by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, Md. Hussain; Gopal, N. O.; Rao, J. L.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Mn doped MgO Nanoparticles have been prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis. The synthesized sample is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The prepared MgO:Mn (1 mol%) nano crystals appear to be of simple cubic crystalline phase with lattice parameters a = 4.218(2) Å and cell volume = 74.98 (7) Å 3 . SEM micrograph of powders show highly porous, many agglomerates with irregular morphology, large voids, cracks and pores. EPR spectrum of the sample at room temperature exhibit an isotropic sextet hyperfine pattern, centered at g=1.99, characteristic if Mn 2+ ions with S=I=5/2.The observed g value and the hyperfine value reveal the ionic bonding between Mn 2+ and its surroundings

  14. Fuel effect on solution combustion synthesis of Co(Cr,Al)2O4 pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilabert, J.; Palacios, M.D.; Sanz, V.; Mestre, S.

    2017-01-01

    The fuel effect on the synthesis of a ceramic pigment with a composition CoCr2−2ΨAl2ΨO4 (0≤Ψ≤1) by means of solution combustion synthesis process (SCS) has been studied. Three different fuels were selected to carry out the synthesis (urea, glycine and hexamethylentetramine (HMT)). Highly foamy pigments with very low density were obtained. Fd-3m spinel-type structure was obtained in all the experiments. Nevertheless, crystallinity and crystallite size of the spinels show significant differences with composition and fuel. The use of glycine along with the chromium-richest composition favours ion rearrangement to obtain the most ordered structure. Lattice parameter does not seem to be affected by fuel, although it evolves with Ψ according to Vegard's law. Colouring power in a transparent glaze shows important variations with composition. On the other hand, fuel effect presents a rather low influence since practically the same shades are obtained. However, it exerts certain effect on luminosity (L*). [es

  15. A novel solution combustion synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles as negative-electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wei; Wu Jinming; Tu Jiangping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the electrochemical performance of cobalt oxides fabricated by solution combustion synthesis for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. ► The additive of NaF in precursor results in an eruption combustion mode. ► The eruption combustion leads to fluffy networks with smaller grains and more macroporous voids. ► The network contributes to higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Low cost mass production of cobalt oxide nanoparticles with high electrochemical performance is of practical interest for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In this report, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by solution combustion synthesis, with the introduction of NaF into the precursor to alter the combustion mode. The novel eruption combustion resulted in fluffy networks with smaller particles and more macroporous voids, which contributed to the higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance when compared with that achieved by the conventional combustion mode.

  16. Mixture of fuels for solution combustion synthesis of porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnianfar, H.; Masoudpanah, S.M., E-mail: masoodpanah@iust.ac.ir; Alamolhoda, S.; Fathi, H.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Mixture of glycine and urea fuels was applied for solution combustion synthesis of Fe3O4 powders. • The phase and crystallite size of the as-combusted powders depends on the fuel to oxidant ratio (ϕ). • The maximum density (0.033 cm{sup 3}/g) was observed for the as-combusted powders at ϕ = 1. • The highest Ms of 75.5 emu/g and the lowest Hc of 84 Oe were achieved at ϕ = 1. - Abstract: The solution combustion synthesis of porous magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) powders by a mixture of glycine and urea fuels was investigated concerning the thermodynamic aspects and powder characteristics. The adiabatic combustion temperature and combusted species were thermodynamically calculated as a function of the fuel to oxidant molar ratio (ϕ). The combustion behavior, phase evolution, porous structure and magnetic properties were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Nearly single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by the mixture of fuels at ϕ values of 0.75 and 1. The as-combusted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders at ϕ = 1 exhibited porous structure with the specific surface area of 83.4 m{sup 2}/g. The highest saturation magnetization of 75.5 emu/g and the lowest coercivity of 84 Oe were achieved at ϕ = 1, due to the high purity and large crystallite size, inducing from the highest adiabatic combustion temperature.

  17. Solution Combustion Preparation Of Nano-Al2O3: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farahmandjou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminum oxide materials are widely used in ceramics, refractories and abrasives due to their hardness, chemical inertness, high melting point, non-volatility and resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The paper describes work done on synthesis of α-alumina by using the simple, non-expensive solution combustion method using glycine as fuel.Aluminum oxide (Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by aluminum nitrate 9-hydrate as precursor and glycine as fuel. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. As there are many forms of transition aluminas produced during this process, x-ray diffraction (XRD technique was used to identify α-alumina. The diameter of sphere-like as-prepared nanoparticles was about 10 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observation. The surface morphological studies from SEM depicted the size of alumina decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the small bandgap energy of 2.65 ev and the bandgap energy increased with increasing annealing temperature because of reducing the size.

  18. YAG:Dy – Based single white light emitting phosphor produced by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, J.F.C., E-mail: correiacarreira@ua.pt; Sedrine, N. Ben; Monteiro, T.; Rino, L.

    2017-03-15

    Dysprosium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Dy) phosphor was successfully produced by a Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) using a mixture of two fuels (urea and glycine). The effects of Dy concentration and annealing temperature were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE). X-ray diffraction results show that the phosphors are single phase YAG with crystallite size ranging from 45 to 82 nm. Raman spectroscopy corroborates these results and show that the introduction of Dy ions in the YAG lattice results in additional Raman modes. Room temperature photoluminescence results confirm the introduction of the ion in the host lattice and its optical activation for all the Dy concentrations. CIE1931 color coordinates show that the samples’ emission lays in the near white region. The highest intraionic emission intensity was achieved for a Dy concentration of 2 mol% and annealing temperature of 1400 °C. Photoluminescence excitation results show that the ions luminescence is preferential excited with 351.8 and 365.8 nm wavelength photons.

  19. Synthesis of nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders through solution combustion route under different reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samir Kumar; Roy, Sujit Kumar; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (HAp) was synthesized by combustion in the aqueous system containing calcium nitrate-diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate with urea and glycine as fuels. These ceramics are important materials for biomedical applications. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis were employed to understand the nature of synthesis process during combustion. Effects of different process parameters namely, nature of fuel (urea and glycine), fuel to oxidizer ratio (0.6-4.0) and initial furnace temperature (300-700 o C) on the combustion behavior as well as physical properties of as-formed powders were investigated. A series of combustion reactions were carried out to optimize the reaction parameters for synthesis of nano-sized HAp powders. The combustion temperature (T f ) for the oxidant and fuels were calculated to be 896 deg. C and 1035 deg. C for the stoichiometric system of urea and glycine respectively. The stoichiometric glycine-calcium nitrate produced higher flame temperature (both calculated and measured) and powder with lower specific surface area (8.75 m 2 /g) compared to the stoichiometric urea-calcium nitrate system (10.50 m 2 /g). Fuel excess combustion in both glycine and urea produced powders with higher surface area. Nanocrystalline HAp powder could be synthesized in situ with a large span of fuel to oxidizer ratio (φ) in case of urea system (0.8 < φ < 4) and (0.6 < φ < 1.5) for the glycine system. Calcium hydroxyapatite particles having diameters ranging between 20 nm and 120 nm could be successfully synthesized through optimized process variable.

  20. Thermoluminescence study of Mn doped lithium tetraborate powder and pellet samples synthesized by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, A.; Yegingil, Z.; Nur, N.; Kurt, K.; Tuken, T.; Depci, T.; Tansug, G.; Altunal, V.; Guckan, V.; Sigircik, G.; Yu, Y.; Karatasli, M.; Dolek, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics under beta-ray, x-ray and gamma-ray excitations of powder and pellet Mn-doped lithium tetraborates (LTB) which were produced by solution combustion synthesis technique were investigated, and the results were compared with that of TLD-100 chips. The chemical composition and morphologies of the obtained LTB and Mn-doped LTB (LTB:Mn) were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX. LTB:Mn was studied using luminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the effects of sintering and annealing temperatures and times on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of LTB:Mn were investigated. The glow curves of powder samples as well as pellet samples exposed to different beta doses exhibited a low temperature peak at about 100 °C followed by an intense principal high temperature peak at about 260 °C. The kinetic parameters (E, b, s) associated with the prominent glow peaks were estimated using T m –T stop , initial rise (IR) and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The TL response of integral TL output increased linearly with increasing the dose in the range of 0.1–10 Gy and was followed by a superlinearity up to 100 Gy both for powder and pellet samples using beta-rays. Powder and pellet LTB:Mn were irradiated to a known dose by a linear accelerator with 6 and 18 MV photon beams, 6–15 MeV electron beams and a traceable 137 Cs beam to investigate energy response. Further, TL sensitivity, fading properties and recycling effects related with beta exposure of LTB:Mn phosphor were evaluated and its relative energy response was also compared with that of TLD-100 chips. The comparison of the results showed that the obtained phosphors have good TL dose response with adequate sensitivity and linearity for the measurement of medical doses.

  1. Solution-combustion synthesis of Tb3+-doped Y3Al5O12 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, H.M.H.; Tang, C.C.; Elsanousi, A.; Ding, X.X.; Qi, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-sized YAG:Tb powder phosphors were prepared by a solution-combustion method, using the general inorganic salts as starting materials. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that the precursor can be well-crystallized at 900 deg. C. As-prepared particles have sizes mostly in the range between 30 and 100 nm as obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transition electron microscope (TEM). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns proved that the larger particles are monocrystalline. The effects of annealing temperature and Tb-doping concentration on the luminescence intensity were studied

  2. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Lu, Hongbin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Yu, Wencong [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA > BCP-1-BSA > BCP-2-BSA > HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion. - Highlights: • Solution combustion method was an efficient way to produced CaP powders. • Ca/P (molar) ratios provided a favorable control in the different proportions of phase composition. • BSA release rate varied depending on the phase composition of the CaP particles. • Two kinetic models were chosen to simulate the release kinetics of the drugs from CaP carriers.

  3. Effects of Fuel to Synthesis of CaTiO3 by Solution Combustion Synthesis for High-Level Nuclear Waste Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Ku; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2016-02-01

    A solution combustion process for the synthesis of perovskite (CaTiO3) powders is described. Perovskite is one of the crystalline host matrics for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) because it immobilizes Sr and Lns elements by forming solid solutions. Solution combustion synthesis, which is a self-sustaining oxi-reduction reaction between nitrate and organic fuel, the exothermic reaction, and the heat evolved convert the precursors into their corresponding oxide products above 1100 degrees C in air. To investigate the effects of amino acid on the combustion reaction, various types of fuels were used; a glycine, amine and carboxylic ligand mixture. Sr, La and Gd-nitrate with equivalent amounts of up to 20% of CaTiO3 were mixed with Ca and Ti nitrate and amino acid. X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM and TEM were conducted to confirm the formed phases and morphologies. While powders with an uncontrolled shape are obtained through a general oxide-route process, Ca(Sr, Lns)TiO3 powders with micro-sized soft agglomerates consisting of nano-sized primary particles can be prepared using this method.

  4. Synthesis, characterisation, luminescence and defect centres in solution combustion synthesised CaZrO3:Tb3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay; Watanabe, S.; Gundu Rao, T.K.; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Haase, Markus; Jho, Young-Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Tb 3+ doped CaZrO 3 has been prepared by an easy solution combustion synthesis method. The combustion derived powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. A room temperature photoluminescence study showed that the phosphors can be efficiently excited by 251 nm light with a weak emission in the blue and orange region and a strong emission in green light region. CaZrO 3 :Tb 3+ exhibits three thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks at 126 °C, 200 °C and 480 °C. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies were carried out to study the defect centres induced in the phosphor by gamma irradiation and also to identify the centres responsible for the TL peaks. The room temperature ESR spectrum of irradiated phosphor appears to be a superposition of two distinct centres. One of the centres (centre I) with principal g-value 2.0233 is identified as an O − ion. Centre II with an axial symmetric g-tensor with principal values g ⊥ =1.9986 and g ⊥ =2.0023 is assigned to an F + centre (singly ionised oxygen vacancy). An additional defect centre is observed during thermal annealing experiments and this centre (assigned to F + centre) seems to originate from an F centre (oxygen vacancy with two electrons). The F centre and also the F + centre appear to correlate with the observed high temperature TL peak in CaZrO 3 :Tb 3+ phosphor. - Highlights: ► Powder phosphor of CaZrO 3 :Tb 3+ was prepared by an easy solution combustion synthesis method. ► The phosphor exhibits a bright green emission at 545 nm ( 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ) of the Tb 3+ ion. ► Electron Spin Resonance studies have been carried out to identify the defect centres responsible for the observed thermoluminescence peaks.

  5. Solution combustion synthesis of the nanocrystalline NCM oxide for lithium-ion battery uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Amirhosein; Jalaly, Maisam; Rahmanifard, Roohollah; Ghorbanzadeh, Milad

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the NCM cathode with a chemical composition of {{{LiNi}}}1/3}{{{Co}}}1/3}{{{Mn}}}1/3}{{{O}}}2 were synthesized through a solution combustion method. In this method, metal nitrates and urea were used as precursors and fuel, respectively. The powder obtained from combustion were transferred into a alumina crucible and insert to the muffle furnace and calcined at 750 °C for 15 h. The crystallite size of the sample was calculated with sherer equation to be about 41 nm. The prepared cathode were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and battery charge-discharge test. The initial charge and discharge capacities of {{{LiNi}}}1/3}{{{Co}}}1/3}{{{Mn}}}1/3}{{{O}}}2 electrode containing 94% active material at a rate of 0.05 C in voltage window of 2.5-4.3 V at room temperature was obtained 168.03 and 150.01 mAh g-1, respectively.

  6. Solution combustion method for synthesis of nanostructured hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Dong, Xiaochen; Bian, Mengmeng; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Yao; Sun, Yue; Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP), fluorapatite (Fap) and chlorapatite (Clap) were prepared by solution combustion method with further annealing at 800 °C. The characterization and structural features of the synthesized powders were evaluated by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Characterization results from XRD and Rietveld analysis revealed that OH- in the HAP lattice were gradually substituted with the increase of F- and Cl- content and totally substituted at the molar concentration of 0.28 and 0.6, respectively. The results from FI-IR have also confirmed the incorporation of substituted anions in the apatite structure.

  7. Visible and NIR luminescence of nanocrystalline β-Ga2O3:Er3+ prepared by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljan, Tomislav; Gajovic, Andreja; Meic, Zlatko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on facile solution combustion synthesis of erbium doped β-Ga 2 O 3 with urea as fuel. The product was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction and TEM showed that the material is nanostructured. Luminescence properties of β-Ga 2 O 3 :Er are studied with excitation in near infrared (Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm) and visible (argon laser at 514.5 nm). A strong NIR emission of Er 3+ in the window of minimal optical loss in silica based optical fibers, due to the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition at 1.55 μm has been observed. Codoping with Yb 3+ significantly increases the intensity of that important emission

  8. Development and characterization of Mn{sup 2+}-doped MgO nanoparticles by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basha, Md. Hussain; Gopal, N. O., E-mail: nogopal@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Vikrama Simhapuri University Post Graduate Center, Kavali-524201 (India); Rao, J. L. [Department of physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502 (India); Nagabhushana, H. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Nano Research, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572103 (India); Nagabhushana, B. M. [Department of Chemistry, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore - 560054 (India); Chakradhar, R. P. S. [CSIR- National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore -560017 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Mn doped MgO Nanoparticles have been prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis. The synthesized sample is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The prepared MgO:Mn (1 mol%) nano crystals appear to be of simple cubic crystalline phase with lattice parameters a = 4.218(2) Å and cell volume = 74.98 (7) Å{sup 3}. SEM micrograph of powders show highly porous, many agglomerates with irregular morphology, large voids, cracks and pores. EPR spectrum of the sample at room temperature exhibit an isotropic sextet hyperfine pattern, centered at g=1.99, characteristic if Mn{sup 2+} ions with S=I=5/2.The observed g value and the hyperfine value reveal the ionic bonding between Mn{sup 2+} and its surroundings.

  9. Thermoluminescence of novel zinc oxide nano phosphors obtained by glycine-based solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide nano phosphors synthesized by a solution combustion method in a glycine-nitrate process are presented for the very first time in this work. Sintered particles with sizes ranging between ∼500 nm and ∼2 μm were obtained by annealing the synthesized Zn O at 900 degrees C during 2 h in air. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the presence of the Zn O hexagonal phase, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima: one located at ∼ 149 degrees C and another at ∼ 308 degrees C, the latter being the dosimetric component of the curve. The integrated Tl fading displays an asymptotic behaviour for times longer than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as a linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the studied dose interval (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such features place synthesized Zn O as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications. (Author)

  10. Thermoluminescence of novel zinc oxide nano phosphors obtained by glycine-based solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide nano phosphors synthesized by a solution combustion method in a glycine-nitrate process are presented for the very first time in this work. Sintered particles with sizes ranging between ∼500 nm and ∼2 μm were obtained by annealing the synthesized Zn O at 900 degrees C during 2 h in air. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the presence of the Zn O hexagonal phase, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima: one located at ∼ 149 degrees C and another at ∼ 308 degrees C, the latter being the dosimetric component of the curve. The integrated Tl fading displays an asymptotic behaviour for times longer than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as a linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the studied dose interval (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such features place synthesized Zn O as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications. (Author)

  11. Antitubercular activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion synthesis using lemon juice as bio-fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Prashanth; Paduvarahalli Ananthaswamy, Prashanth; Trivedi, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Bhangi Mutta, Nagabhushana; Sannaiah, Ananda; Erra, Amani; Yadavalli, Tejabhiram

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis, structural and morphological characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using solution combustion synthesis method where lemon juice was used as the fuel. In vitro anti-tubercular activity of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and their biocompatibility studies, both in vitro and in vivo were carried out. The synthesized nanoparticles showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra strain at concentrations as low as 12.5μg/mL. In vitro cytotoxicity study performed with normal mammalian cells (L929, 3T3-L1) showed that ZnO nanoparticles are non-toxic with a Selectivity Index (SI) >10. Cytotoxicity performed on two human cancer cell lines DU-145 and Calu-6 indicated the anti-cancer activity of ZnO nanoparticles at varied concentrations. Results of blood hemolysis indicated the biocompatibility of ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, in vivo toxicity studies of ZnO nanoparticles conducted on Swiss albino mice (for 14days as per the OECD 423 guidelines) showed no evident toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solution combustion synthesis of strontium aluminate, SrAl2O4, powders: single-fuel versus fuel-mixture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianoş, Robert; Istratie, Roxana; Păcurariu, Cornelia; Lazău, Radu

    2016-01-14

    The solution combustion synthesis of strontium aluminate, SrAl2O4, via the classic single-fuel approach and the modern fuel-mixture approach was investigated in relation to the synthesis conditions, powder properties and thermodynamic aspects. The single-fuel approach (urea or glycine) did not yield SrAl2O4 directly from the combustion reaction. The absence of SrAl2O4 was explained by the low amount of energy released during the combustion process, in spite of the highly negative values of the standard enthalpy of reaction and standard Gibbs free energy. In the case of single-fuel recipes, the maximum combustion temperatures measured by thermal imaging (482 °C - urea, 941 °C - glycine) were much lower than the calculated adiabatic temperatures (1864 °C - urea, 2147 °C - glycine). The fuel-mixture approach (urea and glycine) clearly represented a better option, since (α,β)-SrAl2O4 resulted directly from the combustion reaction. The maximum combustion temperature measured in the case of a urea and glycine fuel mixture was the highest one (1559 °C), which was relatively close to the calculated adiabatic temperature (1930 °C). The addition of a small amount of flux, such as H3BO3, enabled the formation of pure α-SrAl2O4 directly from the combustion reaction.

  13. Solution combustion synthesis of (La, K) FeO3 orthoferrite ceramics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and magnetic and optical property ... Among many perovskite ceramics, LaFeO3 is of cur- ... example, in anode-supported SOFCs, doped LaFeO3 used ... doped with K+, synthesized by a simple combustion ... single phase formation was limited to ... magnetic field of 1000 Oe.

  14. A microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis to produce europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhiskers for bioimaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Darcy E; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-09-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles possessing fluorescent properties offer attractive possibilities for multifunctional bioimaging and/or drug and gene delivery applications. Many of the limitations with current imaging systems center on the properties of the optical probes in relation to equipment technical capabilities. Here we introduce a novel high aspect ratio and highly crystalline europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhisker produced using a simple microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis method for use as a multifunctional bioimaging probe. X-ray diffraction confirmed the material phase as europium-doped hydroxyapatite. Fluorescence emission and excitation spectra and their corresponding peaks were identified using spectrofluorimetry and validated with fluorescence, confocal and multiphoton microscopy. The nanowhiskers were found to exhibit red and far red wavelength fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation with an optimal peak emission of 696 nm achieved with a 350 nm excitation. Relatively narrow emission bands were observed, which may permit their use in multicolor imaging applications. Confocal and multiphoton microscopy confirmed that the nanoparticles provide sufficient intensity to be utilized in imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of solution combustion method in the synthesis of Fe-ZrSiO4 based coral pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, A.; Aghaei, A.

    2008-01-01

    Auto-ignited gel combustion process has been used for producing a red hematite-zircon based pigment. The combustible mixtures contained the metal nitrates and citric acid as oxidizers and fuel, respectively. Sodium silicate (water glass) was used as silica source for producing zircon phase. X-Ray Diffractometry, Electron Microscopy and Simultaneous Thermal Analysis were used for characterization of reactions happened in the resulted dried gel during its heat-treatment. L*a*b* color parameters were measured by the CIE (Commission International de I'Eclairage) colorimetric method. This research has showed that solution combustion was unable 10 produce coral pigment as the end product of combustion without the need for any further heat treatment process

  16. Combustion synthesis and preliminary luminescence studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polycrystalline sample of LiBaPO4 : Tb3+ (LBPT) was successfully synthesized by solution combustion synthesis and studied for its luminescence characteristics. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of LBPT material consists of two peaks at 204.54 and 251.21°C. The optimum concentration was 0.005 mol to ...

  17. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canillas, M.; Rivero, R.; García-Carrodeguas, R.; Barba, F.; Rodríguez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties. [es

  18. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Canillas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties.

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of CaSixOy:Tb3+ phosphors prepared using solution-combustion method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dejene, FB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Tb3+ ion concentrations on the structural and persistence luminescence properties of CaSixOy:Tb3+ crystals were evaluated using powders grown by the solution combustion technique. The XRD study indicates the change of phase from CaSiO3...

  20. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2017-10-31

    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  1. Fast solution combustion synthesis of porous NaFeTi3O8 with superior sodium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Bao; Li, Xue; Xiao, Qian

    2018-01-01

    In this work, NaFeTi3O8 with three-dimensional porous net-like sheet morphology is firstly prepared by a simple and effective solution combustion method. Encouragingly, when being assessed as an anode electrode for sodium ion batteries, the NaFeTi3O8 net-like sheet composite exhibits superior electrochemical properties. We also study the effect of the combustion fuel glycine. The results indicate that the NaFeTi3O8 composite tends to be porous with glycine as the combustion fuel, which displays more excellent long cyclic stability (discharge capacity of 91 mA h g-1 after 1000 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g-1) and superior rate performance (84.4 mA h g-1 even at 1.6 A g-1) than that of NaFeTi3O8 without glycine as the combustion agent. The enhanced electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the unique porous morphology, which achieves better electrolyte infiltration and faster ion diffusion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Low-temperature metal-oxide thin-film transistors formed by directly photopatternable and combustible solution synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Lim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the formation of ultraviolet (UV)-assisted directly patternable solution-processed oxide semiconductor films and successfully fabricated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on these films. An InGaZnO (IGZO) solution that was modified chemically with benzoylacetone (BzAc), whose chelate rings decomposed via a π-π* transition as result of UV irradiation, was used for the direct patterning. A TFT was fabricated using the directly patterned IGZO film, and it had better electrical characteristics than those of conventional photoresist (PR)-patterned TFTs. In addition, the nitric acid (HNO3) and acetylacetone (AcAc) modified In2O3 (NAc-In2O3) solution exhibited both strong UV absorption and high exothermic reaction. This method not only resulted in the formation of a low-energy path because of the combustion of the chemically modified metal-oxide solution but also allowed for photoreaction-induced direct patterning at low temperatures.

  3. Structural, morphological and optical investigations on BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ elaborated by a microwave induced solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradal, Nathalie; Potdevin, Audrey; Chadeyron, Genevieve; Mahiou, Rachid

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract (with Research highlights). This is a paragraph for graphical abstract. Research highlights: → Synthesis of BAM:Eu 2+ by MISCS using different fuel to oxidizer molar ratios. → Both blue and red phosphors were obtained. → Majority of blue phosphors was obtained for fuel-rich synthesis. → A specific morphology was observed for each contribution. -- Abstract: Blue-emitting Eu 2+ -doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaMgAl 10 O 17 :Eu 2+ ) for advanced displays and lighting devices was prepared by a microwave induced solution combustion synthesis using urea as combustion fuel and nitrates as oxidizer. Purity control of as-synthesized blue phosphor particles was undertaken by modifying the fuel to oxidizer molar ratio. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence were used to investigate powders crystallinity, particles size, morphology and luminescent properties, respectively. Fuel-rich urea reactions preferentially lead to pure phases compared to the powders synthesized with a stoichiometric fuel to oxidizer ratio. In both cases, we produce a nearly pure well-crystallized and nanostructured BaMgAl 10 O 17 :Eu 2+ . Photoluminescence measurements exhibit the characteristic blue emission of Eu 2+ under UV light excitation however a weak red emission associated to Eu 3+ is also detected.

  4. Sintering evaluation of spinel MA nanostructured obtained via synthesis of combustion in solution; Avaliacao da sinterizacao de espinelio MA nanoestruturado obtido via combustao em solucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitor, P.A.M.; Braganca, S.R.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: pedroaugusto89@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2016-07-01

    Specimens were shaped from powders of spinel MA (MgAl2O4) obtained via synthesis combustion in solution (SCS) from the trio chemical precursor aluminum nitrate, magnesium nitrate and sucrose in water, and then sintered at different temperatures between 1350 and 1650 ° C. Were evaluated the physical properties (density, porosity, water absorption and linear shrinkage), mechanical (flexural 4 points), and the microstructures (SEM) as a function of sintering temperature. The densification increased with growing the value of the sintering temperature, wherein the temperature to 1650 ° C had the highest flexural strength and higher elastic modulus: 51.33 (± 6.83) and 26.16 MPa (± 5.06) GPa respectively. The study confirmed the microstructure of the densification of the particles, confirming the purity and nature of nanometric powders obtained via the SCS. (author)

  5. Synthesis, characterisation, luminescence and defect centres in solution combustion synthesised CaZrO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijay, E-mail: vijayjiin2006@yahoo.com [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, S.; Gundu Rao, T.K. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, 05508-090 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Al-Shamery, Katharina [Physical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Chemistry and Center of Interface Science University of Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Haase, Markus [Department of Inorganic Chemistry I-Materials Research, Institute of Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck, Barbarastrabe 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany); Jho, Young-Dahl, E-mail: jho@gist.ac.kr [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Tb{sup 3+} doped CaZrO{sub 3} has been prepared by an easy solution combustion synthesis method. The combustion derived powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. A room temperature photoluminescence study showed that the phosphors can be efficiently excited by 251 nm light with a weak emission in the blue and orange region and a strong emission in green light region. CaZrO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} exhibits three thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks at 126 Degree-Sign C, 200 Degree-Sign C and 480 Degree-Sign C. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies were carried out to study the defect centres induced in the phosphor by gamma irradiation and also to identify the centres responsible for the TL peaks. The room temperature ESR spectrum of irradiated phosphor appears to be a superposition of two distinct centres. One of the centres (centre I) with principal g-value 2.0233 is identified as an O{sup -} ion. Centre II with an axial symmetric g-tensor with principal values g{sub Up-Tack }=1.9986 and g{sub Up-Tack }=2.0023 is assigned to an F{sup +} centre (singly ionised oxygen vacancy). An additional defect centre is observed during thermal annealing experiments and this centre (assigned to F{sup +} centre) seems to originate from an F centre (oxygen vacancy with two electrons). The F centre and also the F{sup +} centre appear to correlate with the observed high temperature TL peak in CaZrO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powder phosphor of CaZrO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} was prepared by an easy solution combustion synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphor exhibits a bright green emission at 545 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5}) of the Tb{sup 3+} ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron Spin Resonance studies have been carried out to identify the defect centres responsible for the observed thermoluminescence peaks.

  6. Solution-combustion synthesis of Bi1–xLnxO1⋅ 5 (Ln= Y and La–Yb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combustion synthesis of Bi1–LnO1.5 (Ln = Y and La–Yb) oxide ion conductors. Manjunath B Bellakki A S Prakash C Shivakumara M S Hegde A K Shukla. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 29 Issue 4 August 2006 pp 339-345 ...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of BaxMgyAl2O4: Eu,Dy nanophosphors prepared using solution-combustion method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Europium-doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaxMgyAl2O4:Eu) phosphors were obtained at low temperature using the solution-combustion of corresponding metal nitrate-urea solution mixtures. The particle sizes, morphology, structural and luminescent...

  8. Luminescence properties of ZnMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}:Y{sup 3+} materials synthesized by solution combustion synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Naveen, E-mail: vermanaveen17@gmail.com; Singh, Krishan Chander; Jindal, Jitender; Yadav, Suprabha [Department of chemistry, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001 – India (India); Mari, Bernabe; Mollar, Miguel [Institut de Disseny per la Fabricació Automatitzada - Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 València (Spain)

    2016-04-13

    The Zn{sub (1-x-y)}MoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}{sub (x)}: Y{sup 3+}{sub (y)} (x = 1 mol% and y = 1 or 2 mol%) compounds were prepared by combustion synthesis method. The crystal structure of the samples was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photoluminescence properties were investigated and it is observed that the co-doping of Y{sup 3+} enhances the luminescence emission intensity of ZnMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} material. The Y{sup 3+} acts as a sensitizer in the ZnMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} lattice. The particle size is calculated from XRD data by using Scherer Equation. The particles has been found in the range of 30-40 nm.

  9. One-step solution combustion synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peiyang; Deng, Jiachun; Li, Ying [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liang, Wei, E-mail: liangwei@tyut.edu.cn [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Kun [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kang, Litao, E-mail: kangltxy@gmail.com [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zeng, Shaozhong; Yin, Shanhui; Zhao, Zhigang [Chery Automobile Co. Ltd., Wuhu 241006 (China); Liu, Xuguang; Yang, Yongzhen [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite anode materials were prepared by a solution combustion process. • The carbon content could be adjusted by regulating the ratio of oxidizer/fuel. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite showed capacity 470 mA h g{sup −1} at the 80th cycle at 125 mA g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: This article describes a one-step solution combustion route (within 30 min at 350 °C in air) to prepare Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) from Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O solution with citric acid. XRD, SEM-EDX and TEM showed that the product consisted a mixture of nano-sized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals that agglomerated into porous particles. Significantly, in situ formed carbon could be introduced into the product (i.e., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites) by simply increasing the dosage of citric acid in the precursor solution. The as-prepared Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composite exhibited high reversible capacities of 470 and 419 mA h g{sup −1} at the 80th and 200th cycles with a current density of 125 mA g{sup −1}, which are much higher than those of counterparts without carbon (i.e., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles). Comparison experiments correlated with the performance improvement of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites with in situ formed carbon, well-developed mesopores and relatively high specific surface areas.

  10. Combustion synthesis and structural characterization of Li–Ti mixed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Combustion synthesis and structural characterization of Li–Ti mixed nanoferrites ... were prepared by combustion method at lower temperatures compared to the ... first time at low temperatures, using PEG which acts as a new fuel and oxidant.

  11. Combustion synthesis and structural characterization of Li–Ti mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pared by combustion method at lower temperatures compared to the conventional high temperature sintering for ... Li–Ti mixed ferrites; combustion synthesis; hysteresis. 1. ... Quantum model - VSM 6000) at an applied field of ±10 kOe.

  12. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Shastri, Lokesh; Kumar, G.S.; Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T c ) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 ) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T c ) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T c due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample

  13. Synthesis of functional materials in combustion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. D.; Bamburov, V. G.; Ermakova, L. V.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    The conditions for obtaining oxide compounds in combustion reactions of nitrates of metals with organic chelating-reducing agents such as amino acids, urea, and polyvinyl alcohol are reviewed. Changing the nature of internal fuels and the reducing agent-to-oxidizing agent ratio makes possible to modify the thermal regime of the process, fractal dimensionality, morphology, and dispersion of synthesized functional materials. This method can be used to synthesize simple and complex oxides, composites, and metal powders, as well as ceramics and coatings. The possibilities of synthesis in combustion reactions are illustrated by examples of αand γ-Al2O3, YSZ composites, uranium oxides, nickel powder, NiO and NiO: YSZ composite, TiO2, and manganites, cobaltites, and aluminates of rare earth elements.

  14. Synthesis of Pr0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ and Nd0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ powders by solution-combustion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Azevedo Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Powders of Pr0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ (PSM and Nd0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ (NSM compositions are being investigated as alternative cathode materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The compositions were synthesized by a solution-combustion method using metal nitrates and urea as fuel. Combustion synthesis is a highly suitable synthesis route for achieving fine and homogeneous powders at low temperatures. Single phase pseudo-perovskite was obtained by X-ray diffraction after heat treatment of PSM and NSM powders at 900 ºC. The synthesized and milling powders had an average particle size between 0.27 to 0.07 μm. Chemical analyses of the powders calcined was performed by X-ray fluorescence and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with literature values, indicating characteristics adjusted for preparation of ceramic suspensions.

  15. Ultrasonic-assisted solution combustion synthesis of porous Na{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C: formation mechanism and sodium storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiuyun; Liu, Qing [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology (China); Chu, Xiangcheng; Zhang, Yiling [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramic and Fine Processing (China); Yan, Youwei; Xue, Lihong, E-mail: xuelh@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Wuxing, E-mail: zhangwx@hust.edu.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology (China)

    2017-04-15

    Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is an effective and rapid method for synthesizing nanocrystalline materials. However, the control over size, morphology, and microstructure are rather limited in SCS. Here, we develop a novel ultrasonic-assisted solution combustion route to synthesize the porous and nano-sized Na{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composites, and reveal the effects of ultrasound on the structural evolution of NVP/C. Due to the cavitation effects generated from ultrasonic irradiation, the ultrasonic-assisted SCS can produce honeycomb precursor, which can be further transformed into porous Na{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C with reticular and hollow structures after thermal treatment. When used as cathode material for Na-ion batteries, the porous Na{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C delivers an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and an initial coulombic efficiency of 85%. It can retain 93.8% of the initial capacity after 120 cycles at 0.2 C. The results demonstrate that ultrasonic-assisted SCS can be a new strategy to design crystalline nanomaterials with tunable microstructures.

  16. Combustion synthesis of inorganic materials; Muki zairyo no nensho gose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyanagi, M. [Ryukoku University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Combustion synthesis of porous titan carbide is outlined. In combustion synthesis, exothermic chain reaction, which is induced by igniting at one point of the simple substance mixture, propagates the combustion wave, and the compound is synthesized, which can be sintered by it. By this method, to this day intermetallic compounds, ceramics and high melting point composite materials have been synthesized, and synthetics can be made compact by adding pressure during or just after the reaction. Recently, applying the induction heating jointly, preheating before the reaction and heat treatment after the reaction can be controlled, accordingly, many high melting point inorganic compounds and composite materials can be made by combustion synthesis under pressure. (NEDO)

  17. Nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 derived by HMTA-assisted solution combustion synthesis as a lithium-intercalating cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, G.T.-K.; Cho, Y.-D.; Kumar, T. Prem

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized by a self-sustaining solution combustion method with hexamethylenetetramine as a fuel. Ammonium nitrate was used as an additional oxidant-and-porogen. Thermal analytical studies showed the formation of LiMn 2 O 4 by a single-step decomposition process between 300 and 380 deg. C. The products were highly crystalline with an average crystallite size of ∼30 nm. Charge-discharge studies showed that the optimal heat treatment protocol was a 10 h calcination at 700 deg. C. A product obtained under these conditions from a precursor containing a 1:1 molar ratio of [LiNO 3 + Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ] and NH 4 NO 3 sustained 202 cycles between 3.0 and 4.3 V at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C before reaching an 80% charge retention cut-off value. Nanocrystalline particles provide small diffusion pathways that lead to an improvement in the lithium-ion intercalation kinetics and minimize surface distortions during cycling. These factors are believed to confer excellent electrochemical properties to the product

  18. Fuel effect on solution combustion synthesis of Co(Cr,Al)2O4 pigments; Efecto del combustible en la síntesis de pigmentos Co(Cr,Al)2O4 por combustión de una disolución

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilabert, J.; Palacios, M.D.; Sanz, V.; Mestre, S.

    2017-11-01

    The fuel effect on the synthesis of a ceramic pigment with a composition CoCr2−2ΨAl2ΨO4 (0≤Ψ≤1) by means of solution combustion synthesis process (SCS) has been studied. Three different fuels were selected to carry out the synthesis (urea, glycine and hexamethylentetramine (HMT)). Highly foamy pigments with very low density were obtained. Fd-3m spinel-type structure was obtained in all the experiments. Nevertheless, crystallinity and crystallite size of the spinels show significant differences with composition and fuel. The use of glycine along with the chromium-richest composition favours ion rearrangement to obtain the most ordered structure. Lattice parameter does not seem to be affected by fuel, although it evolves with Ψ according to Vegard's law. Colouring power in a transparent glaze shows important variations with composition. On the other hand, fuel effect presents a rather low influence since practically the same shades are obtained. However, it exerts certain effect on luminosity (L*). [Spanish] Se ha estudiado el efecto del combustible en la síntesis de pigmentos cerámicos tipo CoCr2-2ΨAl2ΨO4 (0≤Ψ≤1), obtenidos mediante síntesis por combustión de una disolución. Se seleccionaron 3 tipos de combustible diferentes: urea, glicina y hexametilentetramina. Todos los pigmentos obtenidos presentaron una textura altamente esponjosa y con muy baja densidad. Las estructuras cristalinas desarrolladas en todos los casos fueron tipo espinela Fd-3m. Sin embargo, tanto la cristalinidad como el tamaño de cristalito presentaron diferencias significativas dependiendo de la composición y del combustible utilizado. El uso de glicina, junto con las composiciones más ricas en cromo, favorece la reorganización de los iones para obtener estructuras más ordenadas y con mayor cristalinidad. El parámetro de red no parece verse afectado por el combustible, aunque sí evoluciona con Ψ de acuerdo con la Ley de Vegard. El poder colorante desarrollado

  19. Combustion synthesis of LaFeO3 sensing nanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaza, F.; Serra, E.; Pallozzi, V.; Pasquali, M.

    2014-01-01

    Since industrial revolution, human activities drive towards unsustainable global economy due to the overexploitation of natural resources and the unacceptable emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases. In order to address that issue, engineering research has been focusing on gas sensors development for monitoring gas emissions and controlling the combustion process sustainability. Semiconductors metal oxides sensors are attractive technology because they require simple design and fabrication, involving high accessibility, small size and low cost. Perovskite oxides are the most promising sensing materials because sensitivity, selectivity, stability and speed-response can be modulated and optimized by changing the chemical composition. One of the most convenient synthesis process of perovskite is the citrate-nitrate auto-combustion method, in which nitrate is the oxidizing agent and citrate is the fuel and the chelating argent in the same time. Since the sensibility of perovskite oxides depends on the defective crystallographic structure and the nanomorphology, the experimental was designed in order to study the dependence of powder properties on the synthesis conditions, such as the solution acidity and the relative amount of metals, nitrates and citric acid. Crystalline structure was studied in depth for defining the effects of synthesis conditions on size, morphology and crystallographic structure of nanopowders of LaFeO 3

  20. Gel combustion synthesis of yttria stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Soja K.; Chandramouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nano - crystalline 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were synthesized by gel combustion technique employing both microwave heating as well as conventional heating method. Three different fuels - citric acid, urea and glycine were used for the synthesis with fuel to oxidant ratio as 1:1. The effect of fuel on the crystal structure, particle size, specific surface area, morphology and sintering density was studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), BET gas adsorption technique, dynamic light scattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the powders. The results obtained for powders obtained using both methods - microwave assisted and hotplate - were compared. The specific surface area of powders in all cases are comparable except in the case of urea as fuel where microwave assisted synthesis yielded powders with lower surface area. The particle size distribution of all samples obtained using microwave method was unimodal, whereas the particle size distribution of samples prepared using hot plate method using urea fuel showed bimodal distribution. The compacts obtained using powders with citric acid and glycine as fuel showed more than 94% theoretical density, whereas the samples obtained using urea showed density below 90% of theoretical density. (author)

  1. Combustion Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Various Flame Configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important semiconducting metal oxide and is expected to play an important role in future applications related to photonic crystals, energy storage, and photocatalysis. Two aspects regarding the combustion synthesis have

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Gd doped ceria by combustion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadhav, L. D.; Chourashiya, M. G.; Subhedar, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    chemical method of combustion where in the combustion of precursors results in the formation of nanoparticles relatively at lower processing temperature. The thermogravimetric study was carried out to understand the ignition temperature and optimize the fuel-to-oxidant ratio. The successful synthesis...

  3. Combustion synthesis of boride and other composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, D.C.; Lum, B.Y.; Munir, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight B 4 C/TiB 2 composites. It is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the B 4 C and TiB 2 reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the B 4 C component. B 4 C-rich composites are obtained by varying the initial temperature of the reactants. The product is hard, porous material whose toughness can be enhanced by filling the pores with aluminum or other metal phases using a liquid metal infiltration process. The process can be extended to the formation of other composites having a low exothermic component.0:008360his patent describes a neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods

  4. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  5. Combustion Synthesis Of Ultralow-density Nanoporous Gold Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Bruce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steiner, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A new synthetic pathway for producing nanoporous gold monoliths through combustion synthesis from Au bistetrazoJeamine complexes has been demonstrated. Applications of interest for Au nanofoams include new substrates for nanoparticle-mediated catalysis, embedded antennas, and spectroscopy. Integrated support-and-catalystin-one nanocomposites prepared through combustion synthesis of mixed AuBTA/metal oxide pellets would also be an interesting technology approach for low-cost in-line catalytic conversion media. Furthermore, we envision preparation of ultrahigh surface area gold electrodes for application in electrochemical devices through this method.

  6. Testing a model-guided approach to the development of new thermoluminescent materials using YAG:Ln produced by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, E.D.; Oliveira, L.C.; Denis, G.; Yukihara, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to test a model-guided approach, coupled with an efficient material synthesis method, for the development of new thermoluminescent (TL) material using yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) as a model material. We systematically investigated undoped and lanthanide-doped YAG using x-ray diffraction (XRD), TL, and radioluminescence (RL) to understand the role of the lanthanides in the TL process, i.e., whether they act as trapping centers or recombination centers. We also prepared samples with multiple dopants to test the possibility of creating materials with multiple TL peaks. The initial rise method of TL analysis was used to estimate the activation energies associated with the TL peaks. The role of the lanthanide impurities predicted using the lanthanide energy level diagram was largely confirmed, as evidenced by the TL curves, TL emission spectra and activation energy analysis. However, our data suggests that the exact role of the lanthanide dopants during the TL process depends on the thermal stability of the trapped charges, i.e. the same lanthanide can act as a trapping center in one system and as a recombination center in another system. These results demonstrate the possibility of introducing appropriate TL peaks and recombination centers in YAG produced by SCS by lanthanide doping, where the role of the lanthanide dopant is consistent with a model for the lanthanide energy levels. This allows for a more guided approach to the development of new TL materials with peaks in certain temperature range or multiple TL peaks, at least in conditions in which the model applies. - Highlights: ► TL peaks and recombination centers introduced in YAG by Ln doping. ► Role of the Ln consistent with model for the Ln energy levels. ► Model-guided approach to the development of new TL materials demonstrated.

  7. Internal Combustion Engine Powered by Synthesis Gas from Pyrolysed Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chríbik Andrej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of plastics in petrol engine. The appropriate experimental measurements were performed on a combustion engine LGW 702 designated for micro-cogeneration unit. The power parameters, economic parameters in term of brake specific fuel consumption, and internal parameters of the engine were compared to the engine running on the reference fuel - natural gas and synthesis gas. Burning synthesis gas leads to decreased performance by about 5% and to increased mass hourly consumption by 120 %. In terms of burning, synthesis gas has similar properties as natural gas. Compared with [5] a more detailed study has been prepared on the effects of angle of spark advance on the engine torque, giving more detailed assessment of engine cycle variability and considering specification of start and end of combustion in the logarithm p-V diagram.

  8. Combustion synthesis of graphene and ultracapacitor performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphene sheets are synthesized by a simple method starting from graphitic oxide as a precursor. Reaction of graphitic oxide at 250 °C with a combustion mixture of urea and ammonium nitrate results in the formation of thin graphene sheets. Graphene formation is characterized by XRD, TGA, XPS and TEM. Graphene ...

  9. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine and car manufacturers are experiencing the demand concerning fuel efficiency and low emissions from both consumers and governments. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI is an alternative combustion technology that is cleaner and more efficient than the other types of combustion. Although the thermal efficiency and NOx emission of HCCI engine are greater in comparison with traditional engines, HCCI combustion has several main difficulties such as controlling of ignition timing, limited power output, and weak cold-start capability. In this study a literature review on HCCI engine has been performed and HCCI challenges and proposed solutions have been investigated from the point view of Ignition Timing that is the main problem of this engine. HCCI challenges are investigated by many IC engine researchers during the last decade, but practical solutions have not been presented for a fully HCCI engine. Some of the solutions are slow response time and some of them are technically difficult to implement. So it seems that fully HCCI engine needs more investigation to meet its mass-production and the future research and application should be considered as part of an effort to achieve low-temperature combustion in a wide range of operating conditions in an IC engine.

  10. Auto-combustion Synthesis, Characterization and Photovoltaic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    Ag-NiTiO3, sol-gel method, semiconductor, photovoltaic, doping. 1. Introduction ... convenient for synthesis of pure mixed metal oxides nanoparticles. Furthermore .... current density voltage (I-V) curve for Ag-NiTiO3 was carried out under the ...

  11. Combustion synthesis and characterization of uranium and thorium tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czechowicz, D.G.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes an investigation of the chemical systems uranium-tellurium and thorium-tellurium. A novel synthesis technique, combustion synthesis, which uses the exothermic heat of reaction rather than externally supplied heat, was utilized to form the phases UTe, U 3 Te 4 , and UTe 2 in the U-Te system and the phases ThTe, Th 2 Te 3 , and ThTe 2 in the Th-Te system from reactions of the type U/sub x/ + Te/sub y/ = U/sub x/Te/sub y/. With this synthetic method, U-Te and Th-Te products could be formed in a matter of seconds, and the purity of the products was often greater than that of the starting materials used. Control over final product stoichiometry was found to be very difficult. The product phase distribution observed in combustion products, as determined by x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, and optical metallographic methods, was found to be spatially complex. Lattice constants were calculated from x-ray diffraction patterns for the compounds UTe, U 3 Te 4 , and ThTe. SOLGASMIX thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed using available and estimated thermodynamic data on the system U-Te-O in an attempt to understand the products formed by combustion. Adiabatic combustion reaction temperatures for specific U-Te and Th-Te reactions were also calculated utilizing available and estimated thermodynamic data. 71 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  13. Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanus cajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunath, K.; Ravishankar, T.N. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura Talluk (India); Kumar, Dhanith [Department of Chemistry, B.M.S. Instsitute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore (India); Priyanka, K.P; Varghese, Thomas [Nanoscience Research Centre, Department of Physics, Nirmala College, Muvattupuzha, Kerala (India); Naika, H.Raja [Department of Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur (India); Nagabhushana, H. [CNR Rao Center for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur (India); Sharma, S.C. [Chattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai (India); Dupont, J. [Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Ramakrishnappa, T. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura Talluk (India); Nagaraju, G., E-mail: nagarajugn@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, B.M.S. Instsitute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore (India)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanuscajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications.Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a combustible fuel for the first time. The as-prepared product shows good photocatalytic, dielectric, antibacterial, electrochemical properties. - Highlights: • ZnO Nps were synthesized via combustion method using pigeon pea as a fuel. • The structure of the product was confirmed by XRD technique. • The morphology was confirmed by SEM and TEM images. • The as-prepared product shown good photocatalytic activity, dielectric property. • It has also shown good antibacterial and electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a fuel for the first time. X-Ray diffraction pattern reveals that the product belongs to hexagonal system. FTIR spectrum of ZnO Nps shows the band at 420 cm{sup −1} associated with the characteristic vibration of Zn–O. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are found to be ∼40–80 nm. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZnO Nps exhibits good photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB), indicating that they are indeed a promising photocatalytic semiconductor. The antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders were investigated by their bactericidal activity against four bacterial strains.

  14. Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanus cajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunath, K.; Ravishankar, T.N.; Kumar, Dhanith; Priyanka, K.P; Varghese, Thomas; Naika, H.Raja; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S.C.; Dupont, J.; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Nagaraju, G.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanuscajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications.Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a combustible fuel for the first time. The as-prepared product shows good photocatalytic, dielectric, antibacterial, electrochemical properties. - Highlights: • ZnO Nps were synthesized via combustion method using pigeon pea as a fuel. • The structure of the product was confirmed by XRD technique. • The morphology was confirmed by SEM and TEM images. • The as-prepared product shown good photocatalytic activity, dielectric property. • It has also shown good antibacterial and electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a fuel for the first time. X-Ray diffraction pattern reveals that the product belongs to hexagonal system. FTIR spectrum of ZnO Nps shows the band at 420 cm −1 associated with the characteristic vibration of Zn–O. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are found to be ∼40–80 nm. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZnO Nps exhibits good photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB), indicating that they are indeed a promising photocatalytic semiconductor. The antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders were investigated by their bactericidal activity against four bacterial strains

  15. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  16. Combustion synthesis of ceramic matrices for immobilization of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc-Rouessac, F.; Marin-Ayral, R.M.; Haidoux, A.; Massoni, N.; Bart, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the use of combustion synthesis for immobilization of 14 C was considered. Ceramic matrices have been prepared by this method using two different devices: one non-conventional with preheating of the samples and the other conventional device where ignition was produced thanks to tungsten filament. These two devices gave rise to different mechanisms of reactions involving different amounts of unreacted carbon graphite inside the matrix. The SHS samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  17. Evaluation of biological activities of nanocrystalline zirconia synthesis via combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakare, V.G.; Omanwar, S.K.; Bhatkar, V.B.; Wadegaokar, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the following study was synthesis of nanocrystalline zirconia by modified solution combustion synthesis method and evaluation of its structural and biological properties. The sample was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and evaluated for cytotoxicity study using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, the antibacterial property are investigated by spread plate method against E. coli bacterial pathogen and studied for degradation using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The XRD pattern shows that the monoclinic phase of nanocrystalline zirconia was obtained. The FESEM images showed that the prepared sample consists of particles in the range of 45 nm and homogenous particle size distribution. The sample of zirconia has excellent tissue biocompatibility and does not show any toxicity towards normal 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. It also inhibited the bacterial growth. The sample shows stability at physiological condition and does not show degradation. (author)

  18. A new combustion route to γ-Fe2O3 synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new combustion route for the synthesis of -Fe2O3 is reported by employing purified -Fe2O3 as aprecursor in the present investigation. This synthesis which is similar to a self propagation combustion reaction, involves fewer steps, a shorter overall processing time, is a low energy reaction without the need of any ...

  19. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel via nitrate-citrate combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi, Ali; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Sarpoolaky, Hosein; Willert-Porada, Monika; Gerdes, Thorsten; Simon, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) was synthesized using metal nitrates, citric acid and ammonium solutions. The precursor and the calcined powders at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combustion mechanism was also studied by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) which coupled to STA. The generated heat through the combustion of the mixture of ammonium nitrate and citrate based complexes decreased the synthesis temperature of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. The synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 spinel at 900 deg. C has faced shape with crystallite size in the range of 18-24 nm

  20. Combustion synthesis of LaFeO{sub 3} sensing nanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaza, F., E-mail: fabio.zaza@enea.it; Serra, E. [ENEA-Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Pallozzi, V.; Pasquali, M. [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, La Sapienza University, Via A. Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    Since industrial revolution, human activities drive towards unsustainable global economy due to the overexploitation of natural resources and the unacceptable emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases. In order to address that issue, engineering research has been focusing on gas sensors development for monitoring gas emissions and controlling the combustion process sustainability. Semiconductors metal oxides sensors are attractive technology because they require simple design and fabrication, involving high accessibility, small size and low cost. Perovskite oxides are the most promising sensing materials because sensitivity, selectivity, stability and speed-response can be modulated and optimized by changing the chemical composition. One of the most convenient synthesis process of perovskite is the citrate-nitrate auto-combustion method, in which nitrate is the oxidizing agent and citrate is the fuel and the chelating argent in the same time. Since the sensibility of perovskite oxides depends on the defective crystallographic structure and the nanomorphology, the experimental was designed in order to study the dependence of powder properties on the synthesis conditions, such as the solution acidity and the relative amount of metals, nitrates and citric acid. Crystalline structure was studied in depth for defining the effects of synthesis conditions on size, morphology and crystallographic structure of nanopowders of LaFeO{sub 3}.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of CaTiO3 powder by combustion synthesis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C. W.; Shin, H. C.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, H. Y.; Hong, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Synroc is considered as a one of the most promising candidate for HLW solidification. CaTiO 3 , perovskite, which is a component of Synroc, can immobilize lanthanide and actinides by forming solid solutions. Generally most of the radioactive wastes elements were treated as a nitrate form. Therefore, the combustion process using metal nitrates as reactant materials can be easily applied to immobilize the radioactive waste elements. In this study, the feasibility of preparing fine, single-phase powders of multi-component oxide by a combustion process was investigated. Generally, the powder synthesized by combustion process showed different characteristics depending on the type and amount of fuel. And the spherical CaTiO 3 particles were directly prepared from the aqueous solution by an ultrasonic mist combustion process using an ultrasonic nebulizers as mist generators. The particles prepared with simple spray pyrolysis method using nitrate solution without fuel as precursor solution showed porous and hollow morphology, while the particles prepared with precursor solutions containing fuel showed dense solid morphology. Among various kinds of fuel tested, glycine showed the best result in reaction kinetics and crystalline phase purity

  2. Carbohydrate-Assisted Combustion Synthesis To Realize High-Performance Oxide Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binghao; Zeng, Li; Huang, Wei; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Sheets, William C; Chi, Lifeng; Bedzyk, Michael J; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Owing to high carrier mobilities, good environmental/thermal stability, excellent optical transparency, and compatibility with solution processing, thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on amorphous metal oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are promising alternatives to those based on amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and low-temperature (IGZO) TFTs suffer from low carrier mobilities and/or inferior bias-stress stability versus their sputtered counterparts. Here we report that three types of environmentally benign carbohydrates (sorbitol, sucrose, and glucose) serve as especially efficient fuels for IGZO film combustion synthesis to yield high-performance TFTs. The results indicate that these carbohydrates assist the combustion process by lowering the ignition threshold temperature and, for optimal stoichiometries, enhancing the reaction enthalpy. IGZO TFT mobilities are increased to >8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on SiO2/Si gate dielectrics with significantly improved bias-stress stability. The first correlations between precursor combustion enthalpy and a-MO densification/charge transport are established.

  3. Mechanochemical and combustion synthesis of CeB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akguen, Baris [Roketsan Missiles Inc., Ankara (Turkey); Sevinc, Naci; Topkaya, Yavuz [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineerung; Camurlu, H. Erdem [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-04-15

    CeB{sub 6} powder was prepared via combustion synthesis (CS) and mechanochemical processing (MCP) methods starting from CeO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mg powder mixtures. In CS, reactant mixtures were ignited in a preheated pot furnace under argon atmosphere. Products contained CeB{sub 6}, MgO and Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}, as revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis. After leaching in 1 M HCl for 15h, MgO was removed but Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6} could not be removed from the products. Ball milling of products in ethanol prior to leaching made the removal of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6} possible by leaching. Yield of CeB{sub 6} was 68.6% in CS. MCP was performed in a stainless steel vial with a planetary ball mill at 300 rpm for 30h. MCP products contained CeB{sub 6}, MgO and small amount of Fe. Leaching in 1 M HCl for 30min was sufficient to remove MgO. Yield of CeB{sub 6} was 84.4% in MCP. According to scanning electron microscopy examinations, particles of CeB6 prepared by CS and MCP had submicrometer size. Average particle sizes were determined as 290nm and 240nm, respectively.

  4. Combustion synthesis of TiB2-based cermets: modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Pacheco, M.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Katgerman, L.

    2008-01-01

    TiB 2 -based cermets are prepared by combustion synthesis followed by a pressing stage in a granulate medium. Products obtained by combustion synthesis are characterized by a large remaining porosity (typically 50%). To produce dense cermets, a subsequent densification step is performed after the combustion process and when the reacted material is still hot. To design the process, numerical simulations are carried out and compared to experimental results. In addition, physical and electrical properties of the products related to electrical contact applications are evaluated. (orig.)

  5. Numerical investigation of high temperature synthesis gas premixed combustion via ANSYS Fluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the synthesis gas pre-mixed combustion is developed. The research was carried out via ANSYS Fluent software. Verification of the numerical results was carried out using experimental data. A visual comparison of the flame contours that obtained by the synthesis gas combustion for Re = 600; 800; 1000 was performed. A comparison of the wall temperature of the combustion chamber, obtained with the help of the developed model, with the results of a physical experiment was also presented. For all cases, good convergence of the results is observed. It is established that a change in the temperature of the syngas/air mixture at the inlet to the combustion chamber does not significantly affect the temperature of the combustion products due to the dissipation of the H2O and CO2 molecules. The obtained results are of practical importance for the design of heat engineering plants with thermochemical heat recovery.

  6. Photoelectroactivity of bismuth vanadate prepared by combustion synthesis: effect of different fuels and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Renata; Serafim, Jessica A.; Lucilha, Adriana C.; Dall' Antonia, Luiz H., E-mail: luizh@uel.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Materiais; Silva, Marcelo R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CTI/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Colegio Tecnico Industrial; Lepre, Luiz F.; Ando, Romulo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Espectroscopia Molecular

    2014-04-15

    The bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) is a semiconductor that has attracted much attention due to the photocatalytic efficiency in the visible light region. The objective of this work was to synthesize monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} by solution combustion synthesis, with different surfactants and fuels and apply it as photoelectrodes. The characterization by infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed that all samples showed characteristic bands of the monoclinic structure BiVO{sub 4}. The samples synthesized with glycine and glycine/Tween® 80 had V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The film obtained from the alanine/ Tween® 80 showed highest photocurrent values, which may be related to smaller size particles (200 to 300 nm) observed by scanning electron microscopy images. The films obtained using alanine showed highest values of rate constant reaction and percentage discoloration of methylene blue. (author)

  7. Combustion synthesis of red emitting borate host PDP phosphor YCaBO4: Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, J.T.; Hargunani, S.P.; Sonekar, R.P.; Nagpure, P.A.; Omanwar, S.K.; Moharil, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The red emitting borate host phosphor YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ has been prepared by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate). The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples of YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ has been investigated under UV and VUV excitation. The phosphor shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 173 nm VUV radiation. Under UV 254 nm excitation, YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ exhibits intense red emission around 610 nm. Under VUV excitation of 173 nm, the phosphor emits intense red emission around 610 nm and few weak emissions. These weak emissions could be suppressed by annealing the sample repeatedly at proper temperature and the borate phosphor YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ could be a good red emitting phosphor for PDP display and mercury free lamps. (author)

  8. Using Combustion Synthesis to Reinforce Berms and Other Regolith Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Moonraker Excavator and other tools under development for use on the Moon, Mars, and asteroids will be employed to construct a number of civil engineering projects and to mine the soil. Mounds of loose soil will be subject to the local transport mechanisms plus artificial mechanisms such as blast effects from landers and erosion from surface vehicles. Some of these structures will require some permanence, with a minimum of maintenance and upkeep. Combustion Synthesis (CS) is a family of processes and techniques whereby chemistry is used to transform materials, often creating flame in a hard vacuum. CS can be used to stabilize civil engineering works such as berms, habitat shielding, ramps, pads, roadways, and the like. The method is to unroll thin sheets of CS fabric between layers of regolith and then fire the fabric, creating a continuous sheet of crusty material to be interposed among layers of loose regolith. The combination of low-energy processes, ISRU (in situ resource utilization) excavator, and CS fabrics, seems compelling as a general method for establishing structures of some permanence and utility, especially in the role of robotic missions as precursors to manned exploration and settlement. In robotic precursory missions, excavator/ mobility ensembles mine the Lunar surface, erect constructions of soil, and dispense sheets of CS fabrics that are covered with layers of soil, fired, and then again covered with layers of soil, iterating until the desired dimensions and forms are achieved. At the base of each berm, for example, is a shallow trench lined with CS fabric, fired and filled, mounded, and then covered and fired, iteratively to provide a footing against lateral shear. A larger trench is host to a habitat module, backfilled, covered with fabric, covered with soil, and fired. Covering the applied CS fabric with layers of soil before firing allows the resulting matrix to incorporate soil both above and below the fabric ply into the fused layer

  9. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  10. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  11. Combustion Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Various Flame Configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed Anwar

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important semiconducting metal oxide and is expected to play an important role in future applications related to photonic crystals, energy storage, and photocatalysis. Two aspects regarding the combustion synthesis have been investigated; scale-up in laboratory synthesis and advanced nanoparticle synthesis. Concerning the scale-up issue, a novel curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was designed for flame synthesis. This was achieved by injecting precursors of TiO2 through a central port into different flames zones that were stabilized by supplying fuel/air mixtures as an annular-inward jet over the curved wall. This provides a rapid mixing of precursors in the reaction zone with hot products. In order to increase the contact surface between the precursor and reactants as well as its residence time within the hot products, we proposed two different modifications. The CWJ burner was modified by adding a poppet valve on top of the central port to deliver the precursor tangentially into the recirculating flow upstream within the recirculation zone. Another modification was made by adopting double-slit curved wall-jet (DS-CWJ) configuration, one for the reacting mixture and the other for the precursor instead of the central port. Particle growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their phases were investigated. Ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and methane (CH4) were used with varying equivalence ratio and Reynolds number and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was the precursor. Flow field and flame structure were quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and BET nitrogen adsorption for surface area analysis. The flow field quantified by PIV consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone, an

  12. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  13. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  14. Influence of foreign cations (Zr4+, La3+, Pr3+ and Sm3+) on CuO-CeO2: microwave induced solution combustion synthesis, characterization and CO oxidation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Lankela H.; Devaiah, D.; Jampaiah, D.; Venkata Swamy, P.; Reddy, Benjaram M.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide treatment by catalytic oxidation, such as water-gas-shift reaction (WGSR), preferential oxidation of CO in H 2 rich streams (PROX) and its simple oxidation have received a great attention by the scientific community. The noble metal-based nanocomposites have proven to be the highly effective candidates towards the CO oxidation. However, some of the disadvantages associated with the noble metals leads to an extensive search for alternative materials. In recent years, copper-cerium based mixed oxides have received much attention because they are inexpensive, environmentally benign and can be prepared easily. Therefore, the present study was aimed at developing a new class of copper promoted metal doped CeO 2 catalysts using microwave-assisted combustion method

  15. Combustion synthesis: A new approach for preparation of thermoelectric zinc antimonide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouessac, F., E-mail: Florence.Rouessac@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, C2M Universite Montpellier 2, CC 1504 Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Ayral, R.-M. [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, C2M Universite Montpellier 2, CC 1504 Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reliable preparation method of thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of zinc antimonide by the combustion synthesis method is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHS: a new way for synthesizing thermoelectric materials. - Abstract: Due to the interesting properties of Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} thermoelectric material, a reliable preparation method of this material is required. In this study, the formation of zinc antimonides by the combustion synthesis method is investigated and subjected to characterization using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature. The results show that combustion synthesis can be a new way for synthesizing these thermoelectric materials.

  16. Combustion synthesis of advanced materials. [using in-situ infiltration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. J.; Feng, H. J.; Perkins, N.; Readey, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites using an in-situ liquid infiltration technique is described. The effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e. solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g. thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized products is also described. Alternatively, conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment is also discussed, in which advantages can be gained from the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport. In each case, the effect of the presence or absence of gravity (density) driven fluid flow and vapor transport is discussed as is the potential for producing new and perhaps unique materials by conducting these SHS reactions under microgravity conditions.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of reactions by nanoferrites Co2Fe2O4 combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Dantas, B.B.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work CoFe 2 O 4 of magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion reaction and the structural and morphological characteristics of the synthesized samples as well as the parameters of synthesis temperature and reaction time were investigated in order to assess the reproducibility of the synthesis. The maximum temperature and time of the combustion flame were obtained with pyrometer coupled to a computer with online measurement and a stopwatch. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maximum temperature achieved during synthesis for all reactions ranged from 623 deg C and 755 deg C. The combustion flame time varied between 18 and 23 seconds. The XRD showed the formation of only CoFe 2 O 4 inverse spinel phase, with crystallite size 28 nm and crystallinity 78%, with typical morphology of the formation of agglomerates of uniform size, brittle and comprising nanoparticles together by weak forces. (author)

  18. Fast Reacting Nano Composite Energetic Materials: Synthesis and Combustion Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    nanoenergetic composites finding extensive use in ordnance and industrial applications, because of its high heat of combustion (~32 kJ/g) (S. H. Fischer ...2011. Farley, Cory. "Reactions of Aluminum with Halogen Containing Oxides." Dissertation. Lubbock, TX, May 2013. Gesner, Jeff , Michelle Pantoya, and...characteristics of novel hybrid nanoenergetic formulations." Combustion and Flame 158 (2011): 964- 978. S. H. Fischer , M. C. Grubelich. "Theoretical

  19. Uranium nanoparticle synthesis from leaching solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, Z.; Sklodowska, A.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium from leaching and bioleaching solutions is of great significance for an environment protection. In comparison with conventional separation techniques, synthesis of uranium nanoparticles has a number of benefits. It has been demonstrated that the uranium nanoparticles show high catalytic activity. In the present studies a variety of synthesis systems have been used for reduction of uranium from bioleaching solution. Among various catalytical templates the hematite Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles are most interest It was presented the report on development of synthesis method to produce nano structured Fe_2O_3 particles. The efficiency of hematite nanoparticles for adsorption of uranium ions from bioleaching solutions was investigated. Bacterial leaching is alternate technique used to extract uranium from mining wastes. The bioleaching process is environment friendly and gives the extraction yield of over 90%. The bioleaching solutions were obtained from bioleaching experiments using waste materials from different places at Lower Silesia (Kowary, Grzmiaca, Kopaniec, Radoniow). Chemoautotrophic bacteria were used for bioleaching tests. The significant adsorption capacity of U(VI) onto iron oxide and hydroxides (goethite, hematite, and magnetite) was observed. The sorption of U(VI) onto the hematite surface was connected with the chemical reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by Fe"2"+ ions. The initial reaction system contained excess of Fe"2"+ ions which were used to reduce of U(VI). The reduction of U(VI) occurred at pH at the vicinity of pH=2.4. The colloid particles of hematite with UO_2 nanoparticles were obtained. The results of zeta potential measurements of hematite nanoparticles showed that at the ionic strength equals 10"-"3M NaCl, the average zeta potential was +32.4±3.5 mV at pH = 2.6. The interaction of hematite nanoparticles with the bioleaching solutions led to decrease of positive zeta potential to the value of 6.4± 2.7 mV. (author)

  20. Overview of the EBFGT installation solutions applicable for flue gases from various fuels combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Pawelec, A.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The overview of the solutions used in EBFGT process and adaptation of process parameters for flue gas from combustion of various fuels was presented. The inlets parameters of flue gas from four fuels with high emission of pollutants, process parameters and process constrain were analysed. Also the main problems of this technology and their solutions were presented. (author)

  1. Overview of the EBFGT installation solutions applicable for flue gases from various fuels combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Tyminski, B.; Pawelec, A.; Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Świerk (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The overview of the solutions used in EBFGT process and adaptation of process parameters for flue gas from combustion of various fuels was presented. The inlets parameters of flue gas from four fuels with high emission of pollutants, process parameters and process constrain were analysed. Also the main problems of this technology and their solutions were presented. (author)

  2. In situ synthesis of NiAl–NbB2 composite powder through combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokati, Ali Akbar; Parvin, Nader; Sabzianpour, Naser; Shokati, Mohammad; Hemmati, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Novel NiAl matrix composite powder with 0–40 wt.% NbB 2 was synthesized. ► Composite powders were synthesized by thermal explosion reaction of Ni–Al–Nb–B system. ► Microhardness of NiAl considerably increased with raising NbB 2 content. ► Synthesized composite powders is a good candidate as precursor for thermal barrier application. - Abstract: Synthesis of a novel NiAl matrix composite powder reinforced with 0–40 wt.% NbB 2 by combustion synthesis in thermal explosion mode was investigated. The elemental powders of Ni, Al, Nb, and amorphous boron were used as starting material. For all compositions final products consisted of only the NiAl and NbB 2 phases. Coarser NbB 2 with a relatively uniform distribution in NiAl matrix was formed with rising NbB 2 content. Microhardness of NiAl considerably increased from 377 ± 13 HV 0.05 to 866 ± 81 HV 0.05 for NiAl with 40 wt.% NbB 2 . High microhardness, proper size and distribution of NbB 2 in NiAl matrix make it a good candidate as precursor for thermal spray application.

  3. Low-reactive circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ashes as source material for geopolymer synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Li Qin; Shen Lifeng; Zhang Mengqun; Zhai Jianping

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, low-reactive circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ashes (CFAs) have firstly been utilized as a source material for geopolymer synthesis. An alkali fusion process was employed to promote the dissolution of Si and Al species from the CFAs, and thus to enhance the reactivity of the ashes. A high-reactive metakaolin (MK) was also used to consume the excess alkali needed for the fusion. Reactivities of the CFAs and MK were examined by a series of dissolution tests in sodium hydroxide solutions. Geopolymer samples were prepared by alkali activation of the source materials using a sodium silicate solution as the activator. The synthesized products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractography (XRD), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate that, via enhancing the reactivity by alkali fusion and balancing the Na/Al ratio by additional aluminosilicate source, low-reactive CFAs could also be recycled as an alternative source material for geopolymer production.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  5. Direct Energy Supply to the Reaction Mixture during Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal and Combustion Synthesis of Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves to perform inorganic synthesis allows the direct transfer of electromagnetic energy inside the reaction mixture, independently of the temperature manifested therein. The conversion of microwave (MW radiation into heat is useful in overcoming the activation energy barriers associated with chemical transformations, but the use of microwaves can be further extended to higher temperatures, thus creating unusual high-energy environments. In devising synthetic methodologies to engineered nanomaterials, hydrothermal synthesis and solution combustion synthesis can be used as reference systems to illustrate effects related to microwave irradiation. In the first case, energy is transferred to the entire reaction volume, causing a homogeneous temperature rise within a closed vessel in a few minutes, hence assuring uniform crystal growth at the nanometer scale. In the second case, strong exothermic combustion syntheses can benefit from the application of microwaves to convey energy to the reaction not only during the ignition step, but also while it is occurring and even after its completion. In both approaches, however, the direct interaction of microwaves with the reaction mixture can lead to practically gradient-less heating profiles, on the basis of which the main observed characteristics and properties of the aforementioned reactions and products can be explained.

  6. Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite nano particles. D BAHADUR*, S RAJAKUMAR and ANKIT KUMAR. Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology,. Mumbai 400 076 e-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in. Abstract. Single-domain barium ferrite nano ...

  7. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  8. Facile combustion synthesis of novel CaZrO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A facile sol–gel combustion route was reported for the direct preparation of CaZrO3:Eu3+ and CaZrO3:Eu3+, Gd3+. The obtained deposits were characterized by XRD, TGA-DSC, SEM, EDS, PL measurements and microscope fluorescence. When the Gd3+ ions were introduced in this compound, the emissions of ...

  9. Growth mechanism and magnetism in carbothermal synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from solution combustion precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuanli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Qin, Mingli, E-mail: qinml@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Cao, Zhiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pan Zhihua University, Pan Zhihua, 617000 China (China); Jia, Baorui; Gu, Yueru; Qu, Xuanhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by carbothermal reduction using solution combustion synthesis precursors derived from ferric nitrate (oxidizer), glycine (fuel) and glucose (carbon source) mixed solution. In this paper, the growth mechanism and magnetism in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were investigated by adjusting the glucose content in precursor and the heat temperature in carbothermal process. The products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Infrared adsorption method and Vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the more amount of glucose, the earlier Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase generated as temperature increasing. Depending on glucose content and thermal temperature, the average grain size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles varied from 19.9 nm to 48 nm and saturation magnetization changed from 21.2 emu/g to 71.77 emu/g, which indicated that the saturation magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles fell off as the average grain size decreasing. These results were crucial not only from the application stand-point, but more importantly leaded to a new platform for further studies of high quality magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles at nanoscale. - Highlights: • Solution combustion. • Carbothermal. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Magnetic properties.

  10. MnO/N–C anode materials for lithium-ion batteries prepared by cotton-templated combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Gong Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a facile one-pot synthesis of MnO/N-doped carbon (N–C composites via a sustainable cotton-template glycine–nitrate combustion synthesis to yield superior anode materials for Li ion batteries. MnO nanoparticles with several nanometers were well-embedded in a porous N-doped carbon matrix. It displays the unique characteristics, including the shortened Li+-ion transport path, increased contact areas with the electrolyte solution, inhibited volume changes and agglomeration of nanoparticles, as well as good conductivity and structural stability during the cycling process, thereby benefiting the superior cycling performance and rate capability. This favorable electrochemical performance of obtained MnO/N–C composites via a one-pot biomass-templated glycine/nitrate combustion synthesis renders the suitability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Keywords: Biomass, Cotton, Manganese oxide, Lithium ion battery, Porous carbon

  11. Combustion synthesis of TiC-based materials: Mechanisms, densification, and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaSalvia, J.C.; Meyers, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The micromechanisms involved in the combustion synthesis of a Ti-C-Ni-Mo mixture resulting in the formation of a TiC-based composite were examined using the combustion wave quenching technique developed by Rogachev et al. At the micron level, the main reaction occurs at the interface between a Ti-Ni-C melt and C particles, resulting in the formation of a solid TiC x layer on the C particles. This layer undergoes a successive process of rapid growth and decomposition into TiC x spherules until all of the C particle is consumed. This mechanism is consistent with the apparent activation energy (E = 100 kJ/mol) for the process obtained from a macrokinetic investigation of the system. The apparent uniformity in size (d = 1 μm) of the TiC x spherules upon formation indicates a critical condition in the stability of the energetics involved in the process. These TiC x spherules undergo growth due to Ostwald ripening and coalescence mechanisms resulting in a final apparent size of 2.5 μm. For the compositions investigated, the addition of Mo did not affect either the micromechanisms or macrokinetics of the combustion synthesis process. Densification of the porous body after the combustion synthesis process can be carried out while it is still in a easily deformable state. The highly porous body is densified by a combination of fracture (communition), plastic deformation, and sintering. The mechanisms are identified for the case of combustion synthesized TiC. Mechanical properties and microstructures of a number of materials (e.g. TiC, TiB 2 , Al 2 O 3 -TiB 2 , TiB 2 -SiC, TiC-Ni-Mo) produced by combustion synthesis combined with a high-velocity forging step are reviewed

  12. Thermoluminescence of magnesium oxide doped with cerium and lithium obtained by a glycine-based solution combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar O, F. M.; Orante B, V. R.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: It is well known that glycine, fulfills two principal purposes: first, complexes with metal cations formed, which increases their solubility and prevents selective precipitation as water is evaporated; and second, it serves as fuel for the combustion reaction, being oxidized by the nitrate ions. The glycine molecule has a carboxylic acid group at one end and an amine group at the other end, both of which can participate in the complexation of metal ions. This zwitterionic character allows effective complexation with metal cations of different ionic size. Novel Mg O:Ce 3+ , Li + phosphor was obtained for the very first time by solution combustion synthesis (Scs) in which a redox combustion process between metallic nitrates and glycine at 500 degrees C was accomplished. The powder samples obtained were annealed at 900 degrees C during 2 h in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase of Mg O as well as the presence of CeO 2 for the annealed powder samples. Photoluminescence emission spectra showed the characteristic Ce 3+ peak located at 520 nm. The thermoluminescence glow curve obtained after exposure to beta radiation of these samples, displayed three maxima located at ∼ 108 degrees C, ∼ 210 degrees C, and ∼ 310 degrees C. Results from experiments such as dose response and fading showed that annealed Mg O:Ce 3+ , Li + powder obtained by Scs is a promising material for radiation dosimetry applications. (Author)

  13. Organoactinide chemistry: synthesis, structure, and solution dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.G.

    1985-12-01

    This thesis considers three aspects of organoactinide chemistry. In chapter one, a bidentate phosphine ligand was used to kinetically stabilize complexes of the type Cp 2 MX 2 . Ligand redistribution processes are present throughout the synthetic work, as has often been observed in uranium cyclopentadienyl chemistry. The effects of covalent M-L bonding on the solution and solid state properties of U(III) coordination complexes are considered. In particular, the nature of the more subtle interaction between the metal and the neutral ligand are examined. Using relative basicity data obtained in solution, and solid state structural data (and supplemented by gas phase photoelectron measurements), it is demonstrated that the more electron rich U(III) centers engage in significant U → L π-donation. Trivalent uranium is shown to be capable of acting either as a one- or two-electron reducing agent toward a wide variety of unsaturated organic and inorganic molecules, generating molecular classes unobtainable via traditional synthetic approaches, as well as offering an alternative synthetic approach to molecules accessible via metathesis reactions. Ligand redistribution processes are again observed, but given the information concerning ligand lability, this reactivity pattern is applied to the synthesis of pure materials inaccessible from redox chemistry. 214 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs

  14. The use of an electric field as a processing parameter in the combustion synthesis of ceramics and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, Z.A.

    1996-01-01

    The imposition of an electric field is shown to activate self-propagating combustion reactions and thus makes possible the synthesis of a variety of ceramic and composite phases. Experimental observations and modeling studies indicated that activation is accomplished by the localized effect of the current. The relationship between wave propagation and the direction of the applied field was investigated. The synthesis of composites by field-activated combustion synthesis (FACS) was demonstrated. It was shown that the imposition of a field during the combustion synthesis of MoSi 2 results in a decrease /in the product particle size. The results suggest that the field can be used as a processing parameter in self-propagating combustion synthesis

  15. Synthesis and characterization of actinide metal compounds formed by combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; King, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the results of attempts to synthesize arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides of uranium and thorium using Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) techniques. This paper first summarizes the chemistry and thermodynamics of these chemical systems, describes SHS synthesis techniques, and then describes the results of the syntheses using data from powder x-ray diffraction, metallographic, and electron microprobe analyses

  16. MgAl_2O_4 foams obtained by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, G.G.; Rosa, M.A.; Kronbauer, D.P.; Pozzobom, I.F.; Fernandes, C.P.; Oliveira, A.P. Novaes de

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study magnesium aluminate (MgAl_2O_4) ceramic foams obtained by combustion synthesis in solution without the need of surfactants to stabilize bubbles. The precursors, Al(NO_3)_3_.9H_2O and Mg(NO_3)_2_.6H_2_O, dispersed in distilled water (20 wt%) were magnetically stirred under heating (70°C). At the beginning of the reaction, a fuel composed by a mixture of residual glycerins from the production of biodiesel was added. The foams were produced by controlling the stirring speed and temperature. The applied thermal cycle to consolidate the foams consisted of heating at 1°C/min to 600°C/120 min and subsequently raising the temperature at 10°C/min to 1600°C/120 min. The obtained materials were characterized by SEM,TEM and from tomographic images. The results showed that the obtained magnesium aluminate foams have a high porosity (97%), a high connectivity and pore sizes (diameters) between 30 and 1200 μm. (author)

  17. Effects of boron addition on the formation of MoSi2 by combustion synthesis mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peizhong; Wu Jie; Islam, S.H.; Liu Weisheng; Niu Jinan; Wang Xiaohong; Qiang Yinghuai

    2010-01-01

    The combustion synthesis behavior of Mo-Si-B powder was investigated. Test specimens with nominal compositions including MoSi 2 , Mo(Si 0.975 B 0.025 ) 2 , Mo(Si 0.95 B 0.05 ) 2 , Mo(Si 0.925 B 0.075 ) 2 and Mo(Si 0.9 B 0.1 ) 2 were employed. The combustion mode, propagation velocity of combustion wave, combustion temperature and combustion product structure were studied. The results showed that the combustion wave propagated along a spiral trajectory till reaching the bottom of the compacts. The combustion temperature was increased by the addition of boron, to as high as 1922 K in the case of the Mo(Si 0.95 B 0.05 ) 2 sample. However, the flame-front propagation velocity decreased as a result of the addition of boron. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the combustion products of the Mo(Si 0.975 B 0.025 ) 2 and Mo(Si 0.9 B 0.1 ) 2 samples were composed of MoSi 2 with minor MoB. Those of the Mo(Si 0.95 B 0.05 ) 2 and Mo(Si 0.925 B 0.075 ) 2 samples were composed of MoSi 2 with minor MoB and MoB 2 . And traces of Mo 2 B 5 were identified in the Mo(Si 0.95 B 0.05 ) 2 sample.

  18. Thermoluminescence of novel MgO–CeO_2 obtained by a glycine-based solution combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrón, Victor Ramón Orante; Ochoa, Flor María Escobar; Vázquez, Catalina Cruz; Bernal, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel MgO–CeO_2 obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, are presented for the very first time. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of cubic MgO and cerianite (CeO_2) for the annealed powder samples. Dosimetry features such as linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied, as well as asymptotic behaviour of the thermoluminescent signal fading place MgO–CeO_2 phosphor as a promising material for low-dose radiation dosimetry applications. - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry properties of novel MgO–CeO_2 are presented. • TL glow curves display stable and dosimetric components. • Dose response showed a linear trend in the dose interval studied. • TL fading decay curve showed an asymptotic behaviour. • MgO–CeO_2 is suitable for personal, environmental and medical dosimetry.

  19. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Bréon, F.-M.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms......; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions......, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon...

  20. The Effect of Gravity on the Combustion Synthesis of Porous Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M.; Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Ayers, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Production of highly porous composite materials by traditional materials processing is limited by difficult processing techniques. This work investigates the use of self propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS) to create porous tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2), TiB-Ti, and NiTi in low and microgravity. Combustion synthesis provides the ability to use set processing parameters to engineer the required porous structure suitable for bone repair or replacement. The processing parameters include green density, particle size, gasifying agents, composition, and gravity. The advantage of the TiB-Ti system is the high level of porosity achieved together with a modulus that can be controlled by both composition (TiB-Ti) and porosity. At the same time, NiTi exhibits shape memory properties. SHS of biomaterials allows the engineering of required porosity coupled with resorbtion properties and specific mechanical properties into the composite materials to allow for a better biomaterial.

  1. Formation Mechanism of Spherical TiC in Ni-Ti-C System during Combustion Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoliang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Chuanbao; Pan, Weitao; Huang, Haijun; Du, Dafan; Wang, Donghong; Shu, Da; Dong, Anping; Sun, Baode; Jiang, Sheng; Pu, Yilong

    2017-08-29

    The formation mechanism of TiC particles in a Ni-Ti-C system were revealed by using differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, and SEM to identify the reaction products in different temperature ranges. The results indicated that the synthesis mechanism of TiC in Ni-Ti-C system was complex; several reactions were involved in the combustion synthesis of TiC-Ni composite. The Ni-Ti intermediate phases play important roles during the formation of TiC. Moreover, the influence of heating rate on the size range of TiC was also discussed.

  2. Synthesis of Li2MO3 (M = Ti or Zr) by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruza, D.; Bulbuliana, S.; Cruza, D.; Pfeifferc, H.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the combustion method to prepare Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 2 ZrO 3 ceramics were studied. Firstly, the ceramic powders were prepared by the combustion process using LiOH, MO 2 (where M=Ti or Zr) and urea in different molar ratios (from 2:1:3 to 3:1:3) at different temperatures for 5 minutes. Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 2 ZrO 3 were also obtained by the solid-state method, and the results were compared with those obtained by the combustion process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the combustion process reduces the synthesis time of Li 2 TiO 3 (1 minute at 750 C), but it does not have any advantage on producing Li 2 ZrO 3 , due to thermodynamic factors. On the other hand, the combustion process produces carbon contaminants in the solids. It was necessary to add excess of lithium hydroxide, in order to compensate the quantity of Li sublimated during the production of the ceramics. Finally, it seems that both reactions follow the same mechanism, which is determined by the lithium diffusion into the metal oxides. (authors)

  3. Fabrication of a Spherical Titanium Powder by Combined Combustion Synthesis and DC Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi S.H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis is capable of producing many types of refractory and ceramic materials, as well as metals, with a relatively lower cost and shorter time frame than other solid state synthetic techniques. TiO2 with Mg as reductant were dry mixed and hand compacted into a 60 mm diameter mold and then combusted under an Ar atmosphere. Depending on the reaction parameters (Mg concentration 2 ≤ α ≤ 4, the thermocouples registered temperatures between 1160°C and 1710°C · 3 mol of Mg gave the optimum results with combustion temperature (Tc and combustion velocity (Uc values of 1372°C and 0.26 cm/s respectively. Furthermore, this ratio also had the lowest oxygen concentration in this study (0.8 wt%. After combustion, DC plasma treatment was carried out to spheroidize the Ti powder for use in 3D printing. The characterization of the final product was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and N/O analysis.

  4. Effect of the container in the synthesis of the combustion reaction of ZnAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.R.; Cavalcanti, L.R.C.; Moura, A.L.S.; Rocha, M.L.; Neto, O.L.A.; Cabral, I.C.; Viana, K.M.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work is a study on the influence of the container in the synthesis of the combustion reaction ZnAl 2 O 4 . Products of combustion obtained for both synthesis routes, were broken and sieved in 325 mesh (44μm). The powders resulting from two types of synthesis were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. By means of XRD analysis showed the formation of the main phase of zinc aluminate spinel (Z) as phase the mineral guanine in the two procedures synthesis. By means of SEM analysis showed that in the procedure used the crucible metal zinc aluminate is introduced in the form of smaller agglomerates. Therefore, the container used in the synthesis of combustion influences the microstructure of the material synthesized. (author)

  5. High-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration: A new method for preparing cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guanghua; Li, Jiangtao; Yang, Zengchao; Guo, Shibin; Chen, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration is reported for preparing cemented carbides, where hot nickel melt is in situ synthesized from a highly exothermic combustion reaction and then infiltrated into tungsten carbide powder compacts. The as-prepared sample showed a homogeneous microstructure, and its relative density, hardness and flexural strength were 94.4%, 84 HRA and 1.49 GPa, respectively. Compared with conventional powder metallurgy approaches, high-gravity combustion synthesis offers a fast and furnace-free way to produce cemented carbides

  6. Preparation of molybdenum borides by combustion synthesis involving solid-phase displacement reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.L.; Hsu, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of molybdenum borides of five different phases in the Mo-B binary system (including Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 , Mo 2 B 5 , and MoB 4 ) was performed by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with two kinds of the reactant samples. When elemental powder compacts with an exact stoichiometry corresponding to the boride phase were employed, self-sustaining reaction was only achieved in the sample with Mo:B = 1:1 and nearly single-phase MoB was yielded. Therefore, the other four boride compounds were prepared from the reactant compacts composed of MoO 3 , Mo, and B powders, within which the displacement reaction of MoO 3 with boron was involved in combustion synthesis. Experimental evidence shows that the extent of displacement reaction in the overall reaction has a significant impact on sustainability of the synthesis reaction, combustion temperature, reaction front velocity, and composition of the end product. An increase in the solid-phase displacement reaction taking place during the SHS process contributes more heat flux to the synthesis reaction, thus resulting in the increase of combustion temperature and enhancement of the reaction front velocity. Based upon the XRD analysis, formation of Mo 2 B, MoB 2 , and Mo 2 B 5 as the dominant boride phase in the end product was successful through the SHS reaction with powder compacts under appropriate stoichiometries between MoO 3 , Mo, and B. However, a poor conversion was observed in the synthesis of MoB 4 . The powder compact prepared for the production of MoB 4 yielded mostly Mo 2 B 5

  7. Thermoluminescence of magnesium oxide doped with cerium and lithium obtained by a glycine-based solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar O, F. M.; Orante B, V. R.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: flor.escobaroc@gmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: It is well known that glycine, fulfills two principal purposes: first, complexes with metal cations formed, which increases their solubility and prevents selective precipitation as water is evaporated; and second, it serves as fuel for the combustion reaction, being oxidized by the nitrate ions. The glycine molecule has a carboxylic acid group at one end and an amine group at the other end, both of which can participate in the complexation of metal ions. This zwitterionic character allows effective complexation with metal cations of different ionic size. Novel Mg O:Ce{sup 3+}, Li{sup +} phosphor was obtained for the very first time by solution combustion synthesis (Scs) in which a redox combustion process between metallic nitrates and glycine at 500 degrees C was accomplished. The powder samples obtained were annealed at 900 degrees C during 2 h in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase of Mg O as well as the presence of CeO{sub 2} for the annealed powder samples. Photoluminescence emission spectra showed the characteristic Ce{sup 3+} peak located at 520 nm. The thermoluminescence glow curve obtained after exposure to beta radiation of these samples, displayed three maxima located at ∼ 108 degrees C, ∼ 210 degrees C, and ∼ 310 degrees C. Results from experiments such as dose response and fading showed that annealed Mg O:Ce{sup 3+}, Li{sup +} powder obtained by Scs is a promising material for radiation dosimetry applications. (Author)

  8. Manufacturing of Porous Al-Cr Preforms for Composite Reinforcing Using Microwave Activated Combustion Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naplocha K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The combustion synthesis of porous skeletons (preforms of intermetallic Al–Cr compounds intended for metal matrix composite MMC reinforcing was developed. Mixture of Al and Cr powders with granularity of −10, −44, −74mm were cold isostatic pressed and next ignited and synthetized in a microwave reactor under argon atmosphere (microwave-activated combustion synthesis MACS. In order to ignite the synthesis, microwave energy was focused by a tuner on the specimen. The analysis of reaction temperature diagrams revealed that the synthesis proceeded through the following peritectic transformations: L(liquidus+Al7Cr→L+Al11Cr2→L+Al4Cr. Moreover, EDS and XRD examinations showed that the reaction proceeded between a solid Cr and a liquid Al to create a distinct envelope of Al9Cr4 on Cr particle which next extended and spreaded over the entire structure. The produced preforms with uniform structure and interconnected porosity were infiltrated with liquid Cu and Al alloy. The obtained composite materials exhibited high hardness, wear and distinct temperature oxidation resistance.

  9. Nanocrystalline (U0.5Ce0.5)O2±x solid solutions through citrate gel-combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Balakrishnan, S.; Amirthapandian, S.; Joseph, Kitheri; Dasgupta, Arup

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of (U0.5Ce0.5)O2±x solid solutions were synthesized in bulk (100-200 g) through the citrate gel combustion. The fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) mole ratio (R) was varied from 0.1 to 1.0. Two independent lots of the products obtained through the gel-combustion were calcined at 973 K in air and in a mixture of argon containing 8% H2 respectively. All these powders were characterized for their bulk density, X-ray crystallite size, specific surface area, size distribution of the particles, porosity as well as residual carbon. The morphology and microstructures of these powders were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Nanocrystalline single phase fluorite solid solutions having a typical crystallite size of about (7-15 nm) were obtained. These powders were highly porous comprising cuboidal flaky agglomerates. The combustion mixture with an 'R' value of 0.25 was found to undergo volume combustion and was found to yield a product that was distinctly different. The systematic investigation on synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline UCeO2 is reported for the first time.

  10. Synthesis of lithium silicates by the modified method of combustion. XRD and IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion method is fixed in exothermic reactions for producing ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of metal nitrates and the fuels. This method was modified using non-oxidant compounds as lithium hydroxide and silicide acid and urea as fuel. The precursors were heated during 5 minutes at temperatures between 250 C and 550 C allowing so the mixture combustion. The obtained ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The sample pollution with carbonates was evaluated and it was found that the presence of these diminish according as increase the calcination temperature. (Author)

  11. Magneto-thermal and dielectric properties of biferroic YCrO3 prepared by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, A.; Arevalo-Lopez, A.M.; Castillo-Martinez, E.; Garcia-Guaderrama, M.; Moran, E.; Cruz, M.P.; Fernandez, F.; Alario-Franco, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Microstructural, magnetothermal and dielectric properties of YCrO 3 powders prepared by combustion and solid state methods have been studied by a combination of XRD, specific heat, magnetization and permittivity measurements. The TEM and XRD characterization confirm that the combustion powders are amorphous plate-like agglomerates of nano-sized crystalline particles. A more uniform grain size along with an increase of the relative density is observed by SEM in the sintered samples prepared by combustion route with respect to those produced by solid state reaction. Similar to the material obtained through solid state synthesis, the material prepared by the combustion method also shows spin canted antiferromagnetic ordering of Cr +3 (S=3/2) at ∼140 K, which is shown by magnetization as well as λ-type anomaly in the total specific heat. Furthermore, the magnetic contribution to the total specific heat reveals spin fluctuations above T N and a spin reorientation transition at about 60 K. Both YCrO 3 compounds show a diffuse phase transition at about 450 K, typical of a relaxor ferroelectric, which is characterized by a broad peak in the real part of the dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature, with the peak decreasing in magnitude and shifting to higher temperature as the frequency increases. The relaxor dipoles are due to the local non-centrosymmetric structure. Furthermore, the high loss tangent in a broad range of temperature as well as conductivity analysis indicates a hopping mechanism for the electronic conductivity as we believe it is a consequence of the outer d 3 -shell, which have detrimental effects on the polarization and the pooling process in the YCrO 3 bulk material. The more uniform particle size and higher density material synthesized through the combustion process leads to an improvement in the dielectric Properties. - Graphical abstract: Combustion method: An alternative route for synthesized a new family of multiferroics. Amorphous

  12. Direct recovery of boiler residue by combustion synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbaghaee, Homan; Ghaderi Hamidi, Ahmad; Pourabdoli, Mahdi

    2018-04-01

    Boiler residue (BR) of thermal power plants is one of the important secondary sources for vanadium production. In this research, the aluminothermic self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was used for recovering the transition metals of BR for the first time. The effects of extra aluminum as reducing agent and flux to aluminum ratio (CaO/Al) were studied and the efficiency of recovery and presence of impurities were measured. Aluminothermic reduction of vanadium and other metals was carried out successfully by SHS without any foreign heat source. Vanadium, iron, and nickel principally were reduced and gone into metallic master alloy as SHS product. High levels of efficiency (>80%) were achieved and the results showed that SHS has a great potential to be an industrial process for BR recovery. SHS produced two useful products. Metallic master alloy and fused glass slag that is applicable for ceramic industries. SHS can also neutralize the environmental threats of BR by a one step process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

  14. Synthesis and sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders by citric acid sol-gel combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingchao; Li Shipu; Wang Xinyu; Chen Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    The citric acid sol-gel combustion method has been used for the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder from calcium nitrate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate and citric acid. The phase composition of HAP powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD). The morphology of HAP powder was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The HAP powder has been sintered into microporous ceramic in air at 1200 deg. C with 3 h soaking time. The microstructure and phase composition of the resulting HAP ceramic were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD, respectively. The physical characterization of open porosity and flexural strength have also been carried out

  15. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Y2O3:Eu nanophosphors prepared by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, Nguyen; Kim Anh, Tran; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Strek, W.

    2007-01-01

    Eu-doped Y 2 O 3 nanophosphors were prepared using combustion synthesis. In this method, urea was employed as a fuel. The particle size was estimated to be in the range of 10-20 nm as determined by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescent and cathodoluminescent spectra are described by the well-known 5 D 0 →7 F J transition (J=0, 1, 2, etc.) of Eu 3+ ions with the strongest emission for J=2. The optical properties of nanophosphors were compared with commercial with an order of micrometer size. The effects of urea-to-metal nitrate molar ratio and the other synthesis conditions on the particle size and luminescent properties will be discussed in detail. The red emission of Eu-doped Y 2 O 3 nanophosphors is promising materials not only in high-resolution screen but also in telecomunication as well as in biosensor

  16. Combustion of Na2B4O7 + Mg + C to synthesis B4C powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guojian; Xu Jiayue; Zhuang Hanrui; Li Wenlan

    2009-01-01

    Boron carbide powder was fabricated by combustion synthesis (CS) method directly from mixed powders of borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 ), magnesium (Mg) and carbon. The adiabatic temperature of the combustion reaction of Na 2 B 4 O 7 + 6 Mg + C was calculated. The control of the reactions was achieved by selecting reactant composition, relative density of powder compact and gas pressure in CS reactor. The effects of these different influential factors on the composition and morphologies of combustion products were investigated. The results show that, it is advantageous for more Mg/Na 2 B 4 O 7 than stoichiometric ratio in Na 2 B 4 O 7 + Mg + C system and high atmosphere pressure in the CS reactor to increase the conversion degree of reactants to end product. The final product with the minimal impurities' content could be fabricated at appropriate relative density of powder compact. At last, boron carbide without impurities could be obtained after the acid enrichment and distilled water washing.

  17. A study of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol catalysts prepared by flame combustion synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joakim Reimer; Johannessen, Tue; Wedel, Stig

    2003-01-01

    The flame combustion synthesis of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts for the synthesis of methanol from CO, CO2 and H2 is investigated. The oxides are generated in a premixed flame from the acetyl-acetonate vapours of Cu, Zn and Al mixed with the fuel and air prior to combustion. The flame-generated powder...... temperature and quench-cooling of the flame tend to increase the dispersion of the phases and the specific surface area of the particles. Properties of both the ternary composition, the three binary compositions and the pure oxides are discussed. The calculation of simultaneous phase and chemical equilibrium...

  18. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis of TiC in Al-Ti-C system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Rakita, Milan; Xu, Wilson; Wang, Xiaoming; Han, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on the combustion synthesis of TiC particles in Al-Ti-C system. The process involved that high-intensity ultrasound was applied on the surface of a compacted Al-Ti-C pellet directly through a Nb probe during the thermal explosion reaction. By comparing with the sample without ultrasonic treatment, it was found that the thermal explosion reaction for synthesizing TiC phase could take place thoroughly in the ultrasonically treated sample. During the process of synthesizing TiC phase, the dissolution of solid graphite particles into the Al-Ti melt, as well as the nucleation and growth of TiC particles could be promoted effectively due to the effects of ultrasound, leading to an enhancement of the formation of TiC particles. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis as a simple and effective approach was proposed for synthesizing materials in this research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-01-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen

  20. High-performance carbon-coated ZnMn2O4 nanocrystallite supercapacitors with tailored microstructures enabled by a novel solution combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahifar, Mozaffar; Huang, Sheng-Siang; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Shih, Bing-Yi; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Liao, Yen-Fa; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2018-02-01

    Although ZnMn2O4 is widely studied as Li-ion battery anodes, it remains a challenge to tailor suitable microstructures of the oxide for supercapacitor applications. Carbon-coated ZnMn2O4 (C@ZMO) nanocrystallites showing high-performance pseudocapacitor behaviours in neutral aqueous electrolyte are for the first time successfully synthesised via a novel solution combustion process using polyethylene glycol as a multifunctional microstructure-directing agent. Controlling the molecular weight and amount of the polymer in the combustion solution enables the formation of highly-crystalline C@ZMO having substantially higher, by more than 5 folds, specific surface areas with mesoporous structures and conformal carbon coating via the one-pot synthesis process. The resulting C@ZMO supercapacitor electrodes in Na2SO4(aq) electrolyte exhibit ideal capacitive behaviours with specific capacitances up to 150 F g-1 and cycle stability showing no capacitance fade after 10,000 cycles at 60% of full capacity and >99% Coulombic efficiency. This study not only illustrates a new powerful synthesis route capable of producing conductive mesoporous crystalline oxide-based nanomaterials for energy storage applications but also reveals a new class of high-performance pseudocapacitive materials for neutral aqueous electrolytes.

  1. Flash combustion synthesis and characterisation of nanosized proton conducting Yttria-doped barium cerate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, M.; Jing, Y.; Essoumhi, A.; Taillades, G.; Jones, D.J.; Roziere, J. [Montpellier Univ., Montpellier (France). Lab. des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques

    2007-10-15

    The high conversion efficiency of proton ceramic fuel cells renders them a promising technology for electric power conversion. They also function in an intermediate temperature range (400 to 600 degrees C) where the problem of thermal ageing can be avoided. This paper presented a newly developed flash combustion method for the preparation of proton conducting yttrium-doped barium cerate nanopowders. This quick, safe and low cost route takes advantage of the exothermic and self-sustaining redox reaction between high oxygen content metal salts and a suitable fuel that acts as a reducing agent. The parameters that influence the reaction product are the type of fuel, the fuel to oxidizer ratio, and the ignition temperature. Use of suitable fuel in combustion syntheses ensures stability of the chemical composition and high quality of products, and produces non-toxic gases. In this study, the flash combustion synthesis method was used to ignite the mixture at 600 degrees C. The resulting fine powder was characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The resulting nano-sized crystallites allow for the preparation of fully densified materials with densities up to 98 per cent. Water uptake was examined in compressed and sintered samples of BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.95} (BCY10). Bulk and total conductivities were determined with impedance spectroscopy in the range 300 to 600 degrees C. Densified yttria doped barium cerate materials show a bulk conductivity of 2.3 x 10{sup -2} S/cm and a total conductivity of 1.2 x 10{sup -2} S/cm at 500 degrees C. The temperature dependence was close to that of the bulk. It was concluded that flash combustion is an interesting alternative method for preparing proton conducting oxides for intermediate temperature fuel cells. 28 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  2. Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N

    2005-01-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups. (fourth seminar to the memory of d.n. klyshko)

  3. Synthesis of sub-millimeter calcite from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimi, M. A.; Morrison, J. M.; Burns, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    A novel aqueous synthesis that leads to the formation of calcite (CaCO3) crystals, up to 500μm in diameter, will be used to facilitate the study of contaminant transport in aqueous environmental systems. Existing processes tend to be complicated and often yield nanometer-sized or amorphous CaCO3. The synthesis method presented here, which involves slow mixing of concentrated solutions of CaCl2 ¬and (NH4)2CO3, produces single crystals of rhombohedral calcite in 2 to 4 days. Variations on the experimental method, including changes in pH and solution concentration, were explored to optimize the synthesis. Scanning Electron Microscope images show the differences in size and purity observed when the crystals are grown at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The crystals grown from solutions of pH 2 were large (up to 500 micrometers in diameter) with minimal polycrystalline calcium carbonate, while crystals grown from solutions with pH values beyond 4 were smaller (up to 100 micrometers in diameter) with significant polycrystalline calcium carbonate. The synthesis method, materials characterization, and use in future actinide contaminant studies will be discussed.

  4. Optimization and analysis of large chemical kinetic mechanisms using the solution mapping method - Combustion of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael; Wang, Hai; Rabinowitz, Martin J.

    1992-01-01

    A method of systematic optimization, solution mapping, as applied to a large-scale dynamic model is presented. The basis of the technique is parameterization of model responses in terms of model parameters by simple algebraic expressions. These expressions are obtained by computer experiments arranged in a factorial design. The developed parameterized responses are then used in a joint multiparameter multidata-set optimization. A brief review of the mathematical background of the technique is given. The concept of active parameters is discussed. The technique is applied to determine an optimum set of parameters for a methane combustion mechanism. Five independent responses - comprising ignition delay times, pre-ignition methyl radical concentration profiles, and laminar premixed flame velocities - were optimized with respect to thirteen reaction rate parameters. The numerical predictions of the optimized model are compared to those computed with several recent literature mechanisms. The utility of the solution mapping technique in situations where the optimum is not unique is also demonstrated.

  5. Preparation of porous Al2O3-Ti-C perform by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Granat

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Using combustion synthesis porous ceramic preforms for composite reinforcing were produced. Prepared mixture of alumina Saffilfibres, Ti powder and graphite flakes, after drying were placed in waveguide of microwave reactor. Supplied with constant power of 540Wmagnetron ignited and maintained reaction in flowing stream of CO2 gas. Al2O3 fibres should improve preliminary endurance of perform,whereas Ti powder processed to hard titanium carbides and oxides. During microwave heating ignited plasma additionally improveprocess and partly fused metallic Ti. Recorded temperature curves were similar for various samples. The highest synthesis temperature revealed samples containing 10% of Al2O3 , 10% of Ti and 5% of graphite, all percentages atomic. Microscopic observation showed considerable microstructure inhomogeneity of some samples. Both irregular component ordering and partly processed Ti particles inside preform exclude them for subsequent infiltration. Chemical analyze EDS of Ti based compounds partly confirmed work purpose, evidencing presence of Ti oxides and carbides. Independently of graphite content these compounds formed folded strips around solid or empty volume. Depends on CO2 availability, reaction could be slowed down resulting in more compacted Ti compounds. Created as a result of combustion synthesis Ti compound after infiltration with liquid metal properly bounded with the matrix. It could be assumed that redox reaction proceeded and on surface of Ti compound alumina and Al-Ti compounds were created. The preforms of proper strength and homogeneous structure were infiltrated with AlSi7Mg by squeeze casting method. In relation to typical composite reinforced only with fibres no significant increase of defects quantity was observed. Preliminary examination of mechanical properties confirmed that assumed work purpose is reasonable.

  6. Reactive melt infiltration of copper in Al–Cr preforms produced through combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naplocha, Krzysztof; Granat, Kazimierz; Kaczmar, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of microstructure and phase transformation during combustion synthesis and reactive infiltration. • Squeeze casting of Cu inducing reactive infiltration of Al–Cr intermetallic porous preform. • Fabrication of unique composite material resisted to high temperature oxidation. - Abstract: Combustion synthesis of Al–Cr preforms used for infiltration and reinforcing of composite materials was developed. Compacts of powdered Al and Cr with stoichiometric ratio Al/Cr equal to 2/1 were synthesized in a microwave reactor furnished with a pyrometer for controlling phase transformations. Due to low enthalpy of the reaction, green compacts were preheated and ignition occurred together with partial melting of Al at the interface with Cr particles. The synthesis proceeded by peritectic transformations L + Al 7 Cr → L + Al 11 Cr 2 → L + Al 4 Cr, reaching maximum temperature of ca. 1000 °C. Porous structures including residual unprocessed Cr particles were soaked to homogenize them and to transform the phases into the stable intermetallic compound Al 9 Cr 4 . Reactive infiltration of the preforms with molten Cu proceeds along with interfacial diffusion of Al that, released from a preform, infiltrates into the matrix changing its composition to Cu 9 Al 4 (Cr). At the same time, the preform is decomposed and converted into a mixture of globular precipitates of Cr 52 Al 35 Cu 13 embedded in the Cu 47 Al 41 Cr 12 phase. The produced composite materials exhibit significant hardness and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The protective layer is composed of oxides Al 2 O 3 and (AlCu) 2 O 3 created at parabolic constant oxidation rate (k p ) equal to 1.9 × 10 −6 g 2 m −4 s −1

  7. Integrated Frequency Synthesis for Convergent Wireless Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Atallah, Jad G

    2012-01-01

    This book describes the design and implementation of an electronic subsystem called the frequency synthesizer, which is a very important building block for any wireless transceiver. The discussion includes several new techniques for the design of such a subsystem which include the usage modes of the wireless device, including its support for several leading-edge wireless standards. This new perspective for designing such a demanding subsystem is based on the fact that optimizing the performance of a complete system is not always achieved by optimizing the performance of its building blocks separately.  This book provides “hands-on” examples of this sort of co-design of optimized subsystems, which can make the vision of an always-best-connected scenario a reality. Provides up-to-date design information regarding one of the most complex subsystems used in state-of-the-art wireless devices; Describes a wireless front-end solution designed to provide an always-best-connected solution, based on a wireless det...

  8. Uranothorite solid solutions: From synthesis to dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, Dan-Tiberiu

    2012-01-01

    USiO 4 coffinite appears as one of the potential phases formed in the back-end of the alteration of spent fuel, in reducing storage conditions. A study aiming to assess the thermodynamic data associated with coffinite through an approach based on the preparation of Th 1-x U x SiO 4 uranothorite solid solutions was then developed during this work. First, the preparation of uranothorite samples was successfully undertaken in hydrothermal conditions. However, the poly-phased samples systematically formed for x ≥ 0,2 underlined the kinetic hindering linked with the preparation of uranium-enriched samples, including coffinite end-member. Nevertheless, the characterization of the various samples led to confirm the formation of an ideal solid solution and allowed the constitution of a spectroscopic database. The purification of the samples was then performed by the means of different protocols based on physical (dispersion-centrifugation) or chemical (selective dissolution of secondary phases) methods. This latter led to a complete of the impurities (Th 1-y U y O 2 mixed oxide and amorphous silica) through successive washing steps in acid then basic media. Finally, dissolution experiments were undertaken on uranothorite samples (0 ≤ xexp. ≤ 0,5) and allowed pointing out the influence of composition, pH and temperature on the normalized dissolution rate of the compounds. Also, the associated thermodynamic data, such as activation energy, indicate that the reaction is controlled by surface reactions. Once the equilibrium is reached, the analogous solubility constants were determined for each composition studied, then allowing the extrapolation to coffinite value. It was then finally possible to conclude on the inversion of coffinitisation reaction with temperature. (author) [fr

  9. Manganite perovskite nanoparticles for self-controlled magnetic fluidhyperthermia: about the suitability of an aqueous combustion synthesis route

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Epherre, R.; Duguet, E.; Mornet, S.; Pollert, Emil; Louguet, S.; Lecommandoux, S.; Schatz, Ch.; Goglio, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2011), s. 4393-4401 ISSN 0959-9428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : manganese perovskite nanoparticles * aqueouc combustion synthesis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  10. Sol-gel auto-combustion synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanotubes array in porous alumina template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuan; Liu Changsheng; Zhang Yuan; Shan Xiaoqian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an array of highly ordered hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanotubes was synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template for the first time. Based on thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the dried gel, derived from the sol solution with Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and PO(CH 3 O) 3 as precursors and ethylene glycol as the polymeric matrix, exhibited a typical self-propagating combustion behavior at low temperature, directly resulting in hexagonal crystalline HAP materials. The resultant HAP arrays fabricated from the above sol-gel in the AAO template were uniformly distributed, highly ordered nanotubes with uniform length and diameter according to the observations of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electron diffraction (ED), XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey proved the formation of HAP phase with polycrystalline structure in the AAO template. Based on these results, a potential mechanism of 'an auto-combustion from dried gel to nanoparticles and a subsequent in situ reaction from nanoparticles to nanotubes' was proposed

  11. Combustion synthesis and catalytic activity of LaCoO{sub 3} for HMX thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zhi-Xian; Chi, Ying-Nan [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology (China); Hu, Chang-Wen [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science, Technology Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Liu, Hai-Yan [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, North China University, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    2009-10-15

    Perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} was prepared by stearic acid solution combustion method and characterized by XRD, DSC-TG, and XPS techniques. The catalytic activities of LaCoO{sub 3} for HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) thermal decomposition were investigated. The as-prepared LaCoO{sub 3} shows higher activity than the calcined one. This could be due to higher concentration of surface-adsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl species as well as higher BET surface area of the as-prepared LaCoO{sub 3}. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Synthesis, characterization and thermal stability of solid solutions Zr (Y, Fe, MoO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Legorreta-García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Fe3+, Mo4+ and Y3+ fully stabilized zirconia by the nitrate/urea combustion route and thermal stability in air was investigated. The solid solution obtained was characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and used the BET method for determining specific surface. The ceramic powders obtained were calcined at 1473 K in air atmosphere in order to determine their thermal stability. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed a homogeneous grain surface, measuring several tens of micrometers across. The crystallographic study revealed that by this method it was successfully achieved zirconia doped with Fe3+, Mo4+ and Y3+ ions in the zirconia tetragonal monophase, even after calcinations.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and thermal stability of solid solutions Zr (Y, Fe, Mo)O {sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legorreta-Garcia, F.; Esperanza Hernandez-Cruz, L.; Villanueva-Ibanez, M.; Flores-Gonzalez, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of Fe{sup 3}+, Mo{sup 4+} and Y{sup 3+} fully stabilized zirconia by the nitrate/urea combustion route and thermal stability in air was investigated. The solid solution obtained was characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and used the BET method for determining specific surface. The ceramic powders obtained were calcined at 1473 K in air atmosphere in order to determine their thermal stability. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed a homogeneous grain surface, measuring several tens of micrometers across. The crystallographic study revealed that by this method it was successfully achieved zirconia doped with Fe{sup 3+}, Mo{sup 4+} and Y{sup 3+} ions in the zirconia tetragonal monophase, even after calcinations. (Author)

  14. Thermoluminescence properties of Li2B4O7:Cu, B phosphor synthesized using solution combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, A.; Altunal, V.; Kurt, K.; Depci, T.; Yu, Y.; Lawrence, Y.; Nur, N.; Guckan, V.; Yegingil, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of various concentrations of the activators copper (Cu) and boron (B) on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of lithium tetraborate, the phosphor was first synthesized and doped with five different concentrations of copper (0.1–0.005 wt%) using solution combustion method. 0.01 wt% Cu was the concentration which showed the most significant increase in the sensitivity of the phosphor. The second sort of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu material was prepared by adding B (0.001–0.03 wt%) to it. The newly developed copper-boron activated lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu, B) material with 0.01 wt% Cu and 0.001 wt% B impurity concentrations was shown to have promise as a TL phosphor. The material formation was examined using powder x-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of the synthesized polycrystalline powder sample was also recorded. The TL glow curves were analyzed to determine various dosimetric characteristics of the synthesized luminophosphors. The dose response increased in a “linear” way with the beta-ray exposure between 0.1–20 Gy, a dose range being interested in medical dosimetry. The response with changing photon and electron energy was studied. The rate of decay of the TL signal was investigated both for dark storage and under direct sunlight. Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu, B showed no individual variation of response in 9 recycling measurements. The fluorescence spectrum was determined. The kinetic parameters were estimated by different methods and the results discussed. The studied properties of synthesized Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu, B were found all favorable for dosimetric purposes. - Highlights: • Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu, B synthesis using solution combustion method with various concentrations. • Structure analysis of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu, B using XRD, SEM and FTIR methods. • Investigation of thermoluminescent properties of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu, B. • Relatively good

  15. Optical filtering and luminescence property of some molybdates prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. J., E-mail: yadav.pooja75@yahoo.in [Department of Electronics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India); Joshi, C. P. [Physics Department, RCOEM, Nagpur (India); Moharil, S. V., E-mail: svmoharil@yahoo.com [Physics Department, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India)

    2014-10-15

    As an important class of lanthanide inorganic compounds, rare earth ions doped molybdates have gained much attention due to their attractive luminescence and structural properties, supporting various promising applications as phosphor materials in the fields such as white light-emitting diodes, optical fibers, biolabel, lasers, and so on. The molybdate family has promising trivalent cation conducting properties and most of the optical properties result from electron transitions of the 4f shell, which are greatly affected by the composition and structures of rare-earth compounds. In this paper we report the molybdate CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} for red SSL and Bi{sub 1.4}Y{sub 0.6}MoO{sub 6}, Y{sub 6}MoO{sub 12} for optical filtering, prepared by one step combustion synthesis.

  16. Combustion synthesis by reaction and characterization of structural Ni-Zn ferrite doped with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.; Santos, J.R.D.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Feitosa, C.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present stud aims to evaluate the effect of doping with Cu 2+ ions concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol in the synthesis and structure of Ni-Zn ferrite. Samples were synthesized by the method of the combustion reaction and characterized by measuring the temperature as a function of reaction time, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy in Fourier transform (FTIR). The combustion temperature and time were 646, 900, 989, 975 and 735°C and 210, 175, 220, 210 and 110 seconds for the sample doped with 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol of copper, respectively. XRD results show that all concentrations of copper evaluated, there was only a training phase inverse spinel ferrite and Ni-Zn FTIR spectra show absorption bands below 1000cm -1 , which are characteristics of the spinel type AB 2 O 4- (author)

  17. Mechanically activated combustion synthesis of molybdenum borosilicides for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, Alan A.; Shafirovich, Evgeny, E-mail: eshafirovich2@utep.edu

    2016-06-15

    The thermal efficiency of gas-turbine power plants could be dramatically increased by the development of new structural materials based on molybdenum silicides and borosilicides, which can operate at temperatures higher than 1300 °C with no need for cooling. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. Materials based on Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} (called T{sub 2}) phase are promising materials that offer favorable combinations of high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. In the present paper, T{sub 2} phase based materials have been obtained using mechanically activated self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (MASHS). Upon ignition, Mo/Si/B/Ti mixtures exhibited a self-sustained propagation of a spinning combustion wave, but the products were porous, contained undesired secondary phases, and had low oxidation resistance. The “chemical oven” technique has been successfully employed to fabricate denser and stronger Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}–TiC, Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}–TiB{sub 2}, and Mo–Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}–Mo{sub 3}Si materials. Among them, Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}–TiB{sub 2} material exhibits the best oxidation resistance at temperatures up to 1500 °C. - Highlights: • Mechanical activation has enabled combustion synthesis of Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} based materials. • For the first time, the fabrication of Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}–TiB{sub 2} material has been reported. • Among the obtained materials, Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}–TiB{sub 2} exhibits the best oxidation resistance.

  18. Thermodynamic calculation and an experimental study of the combustion synthesis of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohong, E-mail: matinbow@163.com; Lu, Qiong; Wu, Guangzhi; Shi, Jialing; Sun, Zhi

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} alloys were synthesized by a simple and energy-saving process of SHS. • Theoretical adiabatic temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} was calculated for the first time. • The variation of the actual temperature is consistent with theoretical temperature. - Abstract: The theoretical adiabatic temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) is calculated. The results indicate that the theoretical adiabatic temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} increases with an increasing Nb content when (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} is of a single-phase structure, but decreases with an increasing Nb content when (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} is of a double-phase structure. All of the temperatures are higher than 1800 K, indicating that (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) can be prepared by the combustion synthesis method. In this work, (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) alloys are successfully synthesized by the combustion synthesis process from elemental powders of Mo, Nb, and Si. The highest combustion temperature and combustion product structure are studied. The results confirm that the variation of the experimental maximum combustion temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} is consistent with that of the theoretical adiabatic temperature. The combustion products are non-equilibrium species, and a supersaturated solid solution of C11{sub b} type (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} forms during combustion synthesis.

  19. Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Andrew; Brooks, Richard; Shipway, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sources of I.C. engine cold start efficiency are reviewed and quantified. • Potential solutions are reviewed and the benefit quantified together. • Potential conflicts between different engine sub-systems are discussed. • Fuel consumption benefits of up to 7% are observed during cold start. • Emission reductions of up to 40% during cold start are observed. - Abstract: Legislation on vehicle emissions continues to become more stringent in an effort to minimise the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment. One area of significant concern in this respect is that of the cold-start; the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine is significantly lower at cold-start than when the vehicle reaches steady state temperatures owing to sub-optimal lubricant and component temperatures. The drive for thermal efficiency (of both the internal combustion engine and of the vehicle as a whole) has led to a variety of solutions being trialled to assess their merits and effects on other vehicle systems during this warm-up phase (and implemented where appropriate). The approaches have a common theme of attempting to reduce energy losses so that systems and components reach their intended operating temperature range as soon as possible after engine start. In the case of the engine, this is primarily focused on the lubricant system. Lubricant viscosity is highly sensitive to temperature and the increased viscosity at low temperatures results in higher frictional and pumping losses than would be observed at the target operating temperature. The approaches used to tackle the problem include the use of phase change materials (to reduce the cool-down rate during a period following engine running) [1,2] and the use of thermal barrier coatings in an attempt to insulate the cylinder bore and prevent heat loss (thus increasing the amount of energy utilised as brake work [3]). A range of system alterations have also been trialled including

  20. Synthesis of lithium silicates generators of tritium by a modified method of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.

    2003-01-01

    The ceramics of lithium have been proposed as generating materials of tritium through the following reaction: 6 Li + 1 n → 4 He + 3 H . In previous works carried out by Pfeiffer and collaborators, the lithium silicates generators of tritium were prepared using the following methods: reactions of solid state, precipitation and sol-gel synthesis. Although those methods have advantages, it is required of heating at high temperatures (900 C during four hours) to be able to obtain the crystalline compounds. Those products found in these works were diverse crystallization forms of the lithium silicates and of SiO 2 , such as, Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 2 Si 2 0 5 , Li 4 SiO 4 , and quartz (SiO 2 ). The combustion method uses exothermic reactions to take place ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of the nitrate of metal oxidizer and the fuels (urea, glycine, carbohydrazide). However the reported method in the literature, it is not useful to prepare lithium silicates, for what was modified using non oxidizers compounds. The lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and the silicic acid (H 2 SiO 3 ) they were the compounds non oxidizers used, and the urea (CH 4 N 2 O) it was the one fuel. They were carried out two series of experiments; inside the series 1 of experiments are varied the molar ratio of lithium hydroxide and urea (LiOH : H 2 SiO 3 = 1, 2 and 3, LiOH : CH 4 N 2 O = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the prepared mixtures were taken to one muffle previously preheated to a temperature of 450 C during 5 minutes. In the series 2 of experiments was studied the effect of the temperature and of the washed with distilled water in the prepared samples with the following molar ratios: LiOH : H 2 SiO 3 : CH 4 N 2 O = 1:1:3, 2:1:3, 3:1:3 and 3:1:6, those which were heated to temperatures from 450 C up to 750 C and were washed. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (I S), semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS) and Thermal gravimetric

  1. Reduction of dioxins-furans formed in combustion and Denovo synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the acceptance that Denovo synthesis of dioxins and furans occurs on the surface of flyash particles in the temperature range of 200 degrees C-400 degrees C, establishes that post combustion formation of dioxins must be addressed. Dioxin-guran emission reduction can be achieved by addition of synthesis inhibitors, adsorbers, catalytic destruction, or utilization of the inherent capability of silica-alumina for chemisorption of the dioxins and furans within appropriate temperature ranges. The chemisorption procedure, as applied to commercial incinerator operation adds no additional equipment or capital and operating costs to the system. The equilibria rather kinetics controls the absorption. Thus, wide variation in inlets are accepted by the system with no externally induced system response required. Experience at the Commerce, California waste to energy system established reductions of total dioxin and furan cogeners to 1.9 ng/Nm 3 from inlet concentrations ranging from 28 to 735 ng/Mm 3 , within the existing acid gas-particulate-heavy metal removal system, using only temperature control to affect the removal by chemisorption

  2. Synthesis, characterization of nickel aluminate nanoparticles by microwave combustion method and their catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragupathi, C. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600034 (India); Vijaya, J. Judith, E-mail: jjvijayaloyola@yahoo.co.in [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600034 (India); Kennedy, L. John [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600127 (India)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Simple route for the preparation of nickel aluminate. • NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} microwave absorbent was invented by a simple method. • High specific surface area was obtained at low temperature. • Evaluation of magnetic, optical and catalytic properties. - Abstract: Microwave combustion method (MCM) is a direct method to synthesize NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and for the first time we report the using of Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) plant extract in the present study. Solutions of metal nitrates and plant extract as a gelling agent are subsequently combusted using microwave. The structure and morphology of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FT-IR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD pattern confirmed the formation of cubic phase NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The formation of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is also confirmed by FT-IR. The formation of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is confirmed by HR-SEM and HR-TEM. Furthermore, the microwave combustion leads to the formation of fine particles with uniform morphology. The magnetic properties of the synthesized NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano and microstructures were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and their hysteresis loops were obtained at room temperature. Further, NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by MCM using Sesame (S. indicum L.) plant extract is tested for the catalytic activity toward the oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

  3. Mechanically Activated Combustion Synthesis of MoSi2-Based Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafirovich, Evgeny [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The thermal efficiency of gas-turbine power plants could be dramatically increased by the development of new structural materials based on molybdenum silicides and borosilicides, which can operate at temperatures higher than 1300 °C with no need for cooling. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-Mo5Si3 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of Mo5Si3. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicate surface layer. In particular, materials based on Mo5SiB2 phase are promising materials that offer favorable combinations of high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. However, the synthesis of Mo-Si-B multi-phase alloys is difficult because of their extremely high melting temperatures. Mechanical alloying has been considered as a promising method, but it requires long milling times, leading to large energy consumption and contamination of the product by grinding media. In the reported work, MoSi2-Mo5Si3 composites and several materials based on Mo5SiB2 phase have been obtained by mechanically activated self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (MASHS). Short-term milling of Mo/Si mixture in a planetary mill has enabled a self-sustained propagation of the combustion front over the mixture pellet, leading to the formation of MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo/Si/B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of MoB, TiC, or TiB2. Upon ignition, Mo/Si/B and Mo/Si/B/Ti mixtures exhibited spin combustion, but the products were porous, contained undesired secondary phases, and had low oxidation resistance. It has been shown that use of

  4. Structural and luminescence properties of Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce prepared by solution combustion followed by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Seema; Pitale, Shreyas; Singh, S.G.; Ghosh, M.; Tiwari, B.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C., E-mail: gadkari@barc.gov.in; Gupta, S.K.

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Synthesis of triclinic and orthorhombic phases of Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce by a two step process. • Method involves solution combustion followed by a post heat treatment. • Ce concentration is found to affect the orthorhombic phase formation temperature. • First time reporting a double exponential decay in nano sized Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce. - Abstract: A method comprising solution combustion followed by a heat treatment has been employed to synthesize cerium doped gadolinium pyrosilicate (Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce, or GPS:Ce) compounds. The powder obtained after the combustion was annealed at 1200 °C for 4 h and 1600 °C for 3 h to synthesize triclinic and orthorhombic phases of the GPS, respectively. Structural and morphological characterizations of the synthesized compounds were carried out using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) techniques. A change in the enthalpy was observed in the differential thermal analysis data as a consequence of triclinic to orthorhombic phase transition in the GPS. Luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay time were measured at room temperature to characterize emission centers created in GPS compounds doped with trivalent rare earth ion (Ce{sup 3+}). The triclinic GPS:Ce phase exhibited photoluminescence peaks at 379 nm and 410 nm while for the orthorhombic phase emissions at 353 nm and 380 nm were observed. A multi-component exponential decay pattern of the luminescence is observed for both the GPS:Ce phases. In addition, samples of the orthorhombic GPS:Ce were found to exhibit X-ray excited luminescence (XEL)

  5. Solution-phase synthesis of nanomaterials at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the solution-phase synthesis of nanoparticles via some routes at low temperatures, such as room temperature route, wave-assisted synthesis (γ-irradiation route and sonochemical route), directly heating at low temperatures, and hydrothermal/solvothermal methods. A number of strategies were developed to control the shape, the size, as well as the dispersion of nanostructures. Using diethylamine or n-butylamine as solvent, semiconductor nanorods were yielded. By the hydrothermal treatment of amorphous colloids, Bi2S3 nanorods and Se nanowires were obtained. CdS nanowires were prepared in the presence of polyacrylamide. ZnS nanowires were obtained using liquid crystal. The polymer poly (vinyl acetate) tubule acted as both nanoreactor and template for the CdSe nanowire growth. Assisted by the surfactant of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS), nickel nanobelts were synthesized. In addition, Ag nanowires, Te nanotubes and ZnO nanorod arrays could be prepared without adding any additives or templates.

  6. Preparation of MoB and MoB-MoSi2 composites by combustion synthesis in SHS mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.L.; Hsu, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Combustion synthesis in the mode of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was carried out in the Mo-B and Mo-B-Si systems for the preparation of molybdenum boride MoB and the composite of MoB-MoSi 2 from elemental powder compacts. Under a preheating temperature above 150 deg. C , the reaction of Mo with boron in the sample compact of Mo:B = 1:1 is characterized by a planar combustion front propagating in a self-sustaining and steady manner. As the preheating temperature or sample compaction density increased, combustion temperature was found to increase and the propagation rate of the combustion front was correspondingly enhanced. Moreover, the XRD analysis provides evidence of yielding nearly single-phase α-MoB from the Mo-B sample at equiatomic stoichiometry. In the synthesis of MoB-MoSi 2 composites, the starting stoichiometry of the Mo-B-Si powder compact was varied so as to produce the final composites containing 20-80 mol% MoB. It was also found the increase of flame-front velocity and combustion temperature with increasing MoB content formed in the composite. The composition analysis by XRD shows excellent conversion from the Mo-B-Si powder compact to the MoB-MoSi 2 composite through the SHS reaction; that is, in addition to a small amount of Mo 5 Si 3 , the as-synthesized composite is composed entirely of MoB and MoSi 2

  7. Combustion synthesis of MgO nanoparticles using plant extract: Structural characterization and photoluminescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Danith; Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Lingaraju, K.; Manjunath, K.; Suresh, D.; Prasad, Daruka; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Naika, H. Raja; Chikkahanumantharayappa, Nagaraju, G.

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO Nps) have been successfully synthesized via solution combustion method using Parthenium plant extract as fuel for the first time. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern reveal that product belongs to the cubic phase (Periclase). FTIR spectrum shows the band at 822 cm-1 indicates the formation of cubic periclase MgO. The optical band gap of MgO Nps estimated from UV -Vis spectrum was found to be in the range 5.40-5.45 eV. SEM images showed that, the product is agglomerated and particle in nature. Photoluminescence (PL) studies shows violet emission at 390 nm, blue emission at 470 nm and green emission at 550 nm. MgO Nps shows good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under UV/Sun light irradiation.

  8. Combustion synthesis of MgO nanoparticles using plant extract: Structural characterization and photoluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Danith; Chikkahanumantharayappa [Dept. of Physics, Vivekananda First grade College, Bangalore - 560055 (India); Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Nagaraju, G., E-mail: nagarajugn@rediffmail.com [Dept of Chemistry, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka-572103 (India); Lingaraju, K.; Naika, H. Raja [Dept. of Environmental Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka-572103 (India); Manjunath, K. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Karnataka-562112 (India); Suresh, D. [Dept. of Chemistry, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka-572103 (India); Prasad, Daruka [Dept. of Physics, BMS Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560064 (India); Nagabhushana, H. [CNR Rao Center for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka-572103 (India); Sharma, S. C. [Chattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technological University, Bhilai, Chattisgarh-490009 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO Nps) have been successfully synthesized via solution combustion method using Parthenium plant extract as fuel for the first time. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern reveal that product belongs to the cubic phase (Periclase). FTIR spectrum shows the band at 822 cm{sup −1} indicates the formation of cubic periclase MgO. The optical band gap of MgO Nps estimated from UV –Vis spectrum was found to be in the range 5.40–5.45 eV. SEM images showed that, the product is agglomerated and particle in nature. Photoluminescence (PL) studies shows violet emission at 390 nm, blue emission at 470 nm and green emission at 550 nm. MgO Nps shows good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under UV/Sun light irradiation.

  9. Combustion synthesis of MgO nanoparticles using plant extract: Structural characterization and photoluminescence studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Danith; Chikkahanumantharayappa; Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Nagaraju, G.; Lingaraju, K.; Naika, H. Raja; Manjunath, K.; Suresh, D.; Prasad, Daruka; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO Nps) have been successfully synthesized via solution combustion method using Parthenium plant extract as fuel for the first time. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern reveal that product belongs to the cubic phase (Periclase). FTIR spectrum shows the band at 822 cm −1 indicates the formation of cubic periclase MgO. The optical band gap of MgO Nps estimated from UV –Vis spectrum was found to be in the range 5.40–5.45 eV. SEM images showed that, the product is agglomerated and particle in nature. Photoluminescence (PL) studies shows violet emission at 390 nm, blue emission at 470 nm and green emission at 550 nm. MgO Nps shows good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under UV/Sun light irradiation

  10. On the formation of Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals by a novel system through microwave assisted combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinpur, Arman, E-mail: arman_hoseinpur@metaleng.iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaly, Maisam [Nanotechnology Department, School of New Technologies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bafghi, Mohammad Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki, Jalil Vahdati [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775-1111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This research is devoted to microwave assisted combustion synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles. The ternary system of MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C was used as a novel approach for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C in which the zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} was responsible for the combustion to take place. Results showed that the formation of Mo{sub 2}C was assisted by the zincothermic reaction, although further microwave heating up to 6 min was necessary to complete the reaction. The effects of the microwave heating and mechanical activation on the reaction progress were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction was used to examine the synthesis progress. Final products (Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO) were successfully separated from each other and the synthesized carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing the formation of Mo{sub 2}C hexagonal nanocrystals during combustion process. - Highlights: • Hexagonal β-Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. • MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C powder mixture was selected as the initial mixture for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C. • 30 min of mechanical activation was necessary for the carbide formation to be completed. • The zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} by Zn was responsible for the combustion. • The final products included of Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO in which ZnO was removed by acid leaching.

  11. Auto-combustion synthesis and characterization of Mg doped CuAlO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Shraddha, E-mail: shraddhaa32@gmail.com; Parveen, Azra; Naqvi, A. H. [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engg.& Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The synthesis of pure and Mg doped Copper aluminumoxide CuAlO{sub 2}nanoparticles, a promising p-type TCO (transparent conducting oxide) have been done bysol gel auto combustion method using NaOH as a fuel, calcinated at 600°C. The structural properties were examined by XRD and SEM techniques. The optical absorption spectra of CuAlO{sub 2} sample recorded by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 200 to 800 nm have been presented. The crystallite size was determined by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The electrical behavior of pure and Mg doped CuAlO{sub 2} has been studied over a wide range of frequencies by using complex impedance spectroscopy.The variation of a.c. conductivity has been studied as function of frequency and temperature. The data taken together conclude that doping causes decreases in the ac conductivity of the nanoparticles as compared with the pure nanoparticles. Mg doping affects the optical properties and band gap.

  12. Combustion synthesis of CoCrMo orthopedic implant alloys: microstructure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bingyun; Mukasyan, Alexander; Varma, Arvind

    2003-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties, such as corrosion resistance, fatigue strength and biocompatibility, cobalt-based alloys are widely used in total hip and knee replacements, dental devices and support structures for heart valves. In this work, CoCrMo alloys were synthesized using a novel method based on combustion synthesis (CS), an advanced technique to produce a wide variety of materials including alloys and near-net shape articles. This method possesses several advantages over conventional processes, such as low energy requirements, short processing times and simple equipment. The evaluated material properties included density and yield measurements, composition and microstructure analysis, hardness, friction and tensile tests. It was shown that microstructure of CS-material is finer and more uniform as compared to the conventional standard. It was also found that among various additives, Cr 3 C 2 is the most effective one for increasing material hardness. In addition, synthesized CoCrMo alloys exhibited good friction and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  13. Self-ignition combustion synthesis of TiFe in hydrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, R. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: ryuta@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Sasaki, S. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Saita, I. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Sato, M. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Uesugi, H. [Bio Coke Lab., Ltd., 5-34-20 Hirato, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 244-0802 (Japan); Akiyama, T. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2009-07-08

    This paper describes the self-ignition combustion synthesis (SICS) of highly active titanium iron (TiFe) in a high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere without employing an activation process. In the experiments, well-mixed powders of Ti and Fe in the molar ratio of 1:1 were uniformly heated up to 1085 deg. C, the eutectic temperature of Ti-Fe binary system, in pressurized hydrogen at 0.9 MPa. The electric source was disconnected immediately after the ignition between Ti and Fe, and the mixture was cooled naturally. In this study, the exothermic reaction Ti + Fe = TiFe + 40 kJ occurred at around 1085 deg. C after the hydrogenation and decomposition of Ti. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the final product had only one phase-TiFeH{sub 0.06}-which can store hydrogen of 1.55 mass% under hydrogen pressure of 4 MPa. The product obtained by SICS contained considerably more hydrogen quickly as compared to the commercially available product; this fact can be explained by the porous structure of the obtained product, which was observed using a scanning electron microscope. In conclusion, the SICS of TiFe saved time and energy, yields products with high porosity and small crystals, enabled easy hydrogenation, and did not require activation processes.

  14. Thermoluminescence study of aluminium oxide doped germanium prepared by combustion synthesis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharin Nurul Syazlin Binti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the optimum concentration of germanium (Ge dopant in aluminium oxide (AhO3 samples prepared by combustion synthesis (CS method for thermoluminescence (TL studies. The samples were prepared at various Ge concentration i.e. 1 to 5% mol. The phase formation of un-doped and Ge-doped Al2O3 samples was determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The sharp peaks present in the XRD pattern confirms the crystallinity of the samples. The samples were then exposed to 50 Gy Cobalt-60 sources (Gamma cell 220. TL glow curves were measured and recorded using a Harshaw Model 3500 TLD reader. Comparison of TL peaks were observed to obtain the best composition of Ge dopants. A simple glow curves TL peak at around 175̊C for all composition samples was observed. It was also found that the composition of aluminium oxide doped with 3.0% of germanium exhibits the highest thermoluminescence (TL intensity which is 349747.04 (a.u.

  15. Synthesis NiAl1,0Fe1,0O4 catalyst by the combustion reaction to their use in the shift reaction (WGSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Neiva, L.S.; Gama, L.; Argolo, F.; Andrade, H.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at the synthesis of catalyst NiAl 1,0 Fe 1,0 O 4 by combustion reaction using urea as fuel, to evaluate its performance in the production of hydrogen by the reaction of displacement of water vapor (WGSR). The initial composition of the solution was based on valencia total oxidizing and reducing reagents based on the concepts of the chemistry of propellants, using container as a crucible of glassy silica. The resulting powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms (BET), scanning electronic microscope and catalytic tests. The DRX results reveal the presents majoritary phase NiAl 1,0 Fe 1,0 O 4 spinel, the catalyst presents surface area 28 m 2 /g and isotherms type III. Higher conversion CO/CO 2 of 75% CO conversion observed at 500 deg C and catalytic activity of 43 mmolg -1 .h -1 at 450 deg C. (author)

  16. Auto-combustion synthesis, Mössbauer study and catalytic properties of copper-manganese ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velinov, N.; Petrova, T.; Tsoncheva, T.; Genova, I.; Koleva, K.; Kovacheva, D.; Mitov, I.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel ferrites with nominal composition Cu _0_._5Mn _0_._5Fe _2O_4 and different distribution of the ions are obtained by auto-combustion method. Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and catalytic test in the reaction of methanol decomposition is used for characterization of synthesized materials. The spectral results evidence that the phase composition, microstructure of the synthesized materials and the cation distribution depend on the preparation conditions. Varying the pH of the initial solution microstructure, ferrite crystallite size, cation oxidation state and distribution of ions in the in the spinel structure could be controlled. The catalytic behaviour of ferrites in the reaction of methanol decomposition also depends on the pH of the initial solution. Reduction transformations of mixed ferrites accompanied with the formation of Hägg carbide χ-Fe _5C_2 were observed by the influence of the reaction medium.

  17. Auto-combustion synthesis, Mössbauer study and catalytic properties of copper-manganese ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velinov, N., E-mail: nikivelinov@ic.bas.bg; Petrova, T. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Tsoncheva, T.; Genova, I. [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Koleva, K. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Mitov, I. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Spinel ferrites with nominal composition Cu {sub 0.5}Mn {sub 0.5}Fe {sub 2}O{sub 4} and different distribution of the ions are obtained by auto-combustion method. Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and catalytic test in the reaction of methanol decomposition is used for characterization of synthesized materials. The spectral results evidence that the phase composition, microstructure of the synthesized materials and the cation distribution depend on the preparation conditions. Varying the pH of the initial solution microstructure, ferrite crystallite size, cation oxidation state and distribution of ions in the in the spinel structure could be controlled. The catalytic behaviour of ferrites in the reaction of methanol decomposition also depends on the pH of the initial solution. Reduction transformations of mixed ferrites accompanied with the formation of Hägg carbide χ-Fe {sub 5}C{sub 2} were observed by the influence of the reaction medium.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Solid Combustion with a Robust Conjugate-Gradient Solution for Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yi-Zun

    2002-01-01

    A Bi-Conjugate Gradient method (Bi-CGSTAB) is studied and tested for solid combustion in which the gas and solid phases are coupled by a set of conditions describing mass, momentum and heat transport across the interface...

  19. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of CaF{sub 2}:Tm produced by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, D.A.A. de; Khoury, H.J.; Asfora, V.K.; Barros, V.S.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, R.A.P. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (IPCM/UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa em Ciencias dos Materiais. Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Calcium Fluoride is one of the oldest known thermoluminescent materials and is considered to be one of the most sensitive. In particular for thulium doped CaF{sub 2}, since it was introduced in 1977 by Lucas and Kapsar, besides gamma radiation dosimetry, there have been several attempts for its use in application involving mixed radiation fields (ex.: neutron and gamma; alpha and beta), low energy photons, π- dosimetry and neutrino detection. Research for novel improved methods of fabrication are ongoing. This work presents the dosimetric properties results of CaF{sub 2}:Tm produced by combustion synthesis. The X-ray diffraction (Brucker D2 Phaser) confirmed that CaF{sub 2} was successfully produced. Samples were irradiated in a Co-60 (Gammacell 220 Nordion) and Cs-137 (STS/OB-85) gamma sources for high and low doses, respectively. TL emission spectra, obtained using a Hammamatsu optical spectrometer, has the same lines of commercial CaF{sub 2}:Tm, although transitions {sup 3}P{sub 0} → {sup 3}F{sub 4} (455 nm) and {sup 1}G{sub 4}→ {sup 3}H{sub 6} (482 nm) are shown to be proportionally more intense. The dose response lower limit is in the range of 100 μGy. Thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained in a Harshaw 3500 TL reader. The deconvolution technique was employed and seven glow peaks were found as well as its kinetic parameters, similar to the commercial CaF{sub 2}:Tm. A linear dose response curve was obtained for the range 0.1 mGy to 50 Gy, with the onset of a supralinear behavior at 50 Gy up to 100 Gy. The minimum measurable dose for gamma (Cs- 137) was around 100 μGy for a 6.0 mm diameter by 1.0 mm in thickness pellet. Variation of the dose response due to fading was within 6% in 60 days. (author)

  20. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Eaton, Samuel W; Yu, Yi; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2015-07-29

    Halide perovskites have attracted much attention over the past 5 years as a promising class of materials for optoelectronic applications. However, compared to hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, the study of their pure inorganic counterparts, like cesium lead halides (CsPbX3), lags far behind. Here, a catalyst-free, solution-phase synthesis of CsPbX3 nanowires (NWs) is reported. These NWs are single-crystalline, with uniform growth direction, and crystallize in the orthorhombic phase. Both CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are photoluminescence active, with composition-dependent temperature and self-trapping behavior. These NWs with a well-defined morphology could serve as an ideal platform for the investigation of fundamental properties and the development of future applications in nanoscale optoelectronic devices based on all-inorganic perovskites.

  1. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  2. Facile and rapid auto-combustion synthesis of nano-porous γ-Al2O3 by application of hexamethylenetetramine in fuel composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Shiva; Salem, Amin; Parni, Mohammad Hosein; Jafarizad, Abbas

    2018-06-01

    In this article, urea, glycine and hexamethylenetetramine were blended in accordance with the mixture design algorithm to prepare γ-Al2O3 by auto-combustion technique. Aluminum nitrate was then mixed with the stoichiometric contents of prepared fuel solutions to obtain gel systems. The gels exhibited a typical self-propagating combustion behavior at low temperature, directly resulting amorphous materials. The precursors were calcined at various temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 °C. The treated powders were evaluated by determining the methylene blue (MB) adsorption efficiency. The production condition to obtain γ-Al2O3 with maximum surface area depends on fuel composition and calcination temperature. The alumina powder fabricated by this procedure was uniformly distributed and contains nano-sized secondary particles with diameter about 10-30 nm in which the average pore size is 3.2 nm induced large surface area, 240 m2g-1. The employment of hexamethylenetetramine provides a potential for synthesis of γ-Al2O3 at lower temperature, 700 °C, with maximum MB removal efficiency.

  3. Combustion synthesis and optical properties of Oxy-borate phosphors YCa4O(BO3)3:RE3+ (RE = Eu3+, Tb3+) under UV, VUV excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, J.T.; Gawande, A.B.; Sonekar, R.P.; Omanwar, S.K.; Wang, Yuhua; Zhao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: VUV Photoluminescence of YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 : Eu 3+ and YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 : Tb 3+ for PDPs applications. Highlights: • Inorganic Oxy-borate phosphors YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 :Eu 3+ ,Tb 3+ was synthesized by novel solution combustion synthesis. • This single host produces efficient and intense Red and Green color for display applications. • Good agreement with CIE co-ordinates as prescribes by NTCL, for flat panel, PDP display color. • Synthesized materials were characterized using powder XRD, FE-SEM, UV and VUV Spectophotometer. -- Abstract: The inorganic Oxy-borate host phosphors YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 :RE 3+ (RE = Eu 3+ ,Tb 3+ ) were synthesized by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate). The heat generated in reaction is use for auto combustion of precursors. The structures of the prepared samples were confirmed by powder XRD technique. The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples were investigated under UV and VUV excitation; “The phosphor YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 :Eu 3+ and YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 :Tb 3+ shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red and green emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 147 nm VUV radiation”

  4. Synthesis of lithium silicates generators of tritium by a modified method of combustion; Sintesis de silicatos de litio generadores de tritio por un metodo modificado de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz G, D

    2003-07-01

    The ceramics of lithium have been proposed as generating materials of tritium through the following reaction: {sup 6} Li + {sup 1} n {yields} {sup 4} He + {sup 3} H . In previous works carried out by Pfeiffer and collaborators, the lithium silicates generators of tritium were prepared using the following methods: reactions of solid state, precipitation and sol-gel synthesis. Although those methods have advantages, it is required of heating at high temperatures (900 C during four hours) to be able to obtain the crystalline compounds. Those products found in these works were diverse crystallization forms of the lithium silicates and of SiO{sub 2}, such as, Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}0{sub 5}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and quartz (SiO{sub 2}). The combustion method uses exothermic reactions to take place ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of the nitrate of metal oxidizer and the fuels (urea, glycine, carbohydrazide). However the reported method in the literature, it is not useful to prepare lithium silicates, for what was modified using non oxidizers compounds. The lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and the silicic acid (H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) they were the compounds non oxidizers used, and the urea (CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O) it was the one fuel. They were carried out two series of experiments; inside the series 1 of experiments are varied the molar ratio of lithium hydroxide and urea (LiOH : H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} = 1, 2 and 3, LiOH : CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the prepared mixtures were taken to one muffle previously preheated to a temperature of 450 C during 5 minutes. In the series 2 of experiments was studied the effect of the temperature and of the washed with distilled water in the prepared samples with the following molar ratios: LiOH : H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} : CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O = 1:1:3, 2:1:3, 3:1:3 and 3:1:6, those which were heated to temperatures from 450 C up to 750 C and were washed. The obtained samples were characterized by X

  5. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis; Procesamiento de hidroxiapatita obtenida mediante síntesis por combustión

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Rivero, R.; García-Carrodeguas, R.; Barba, F.; Rodríguez, M.A.

    2017-11-01

    One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties. [Spanish] Una de las razones principales de fracaso de los implantes son las fuerzas de estrés que aparecen en la interface material-tejido debido a las diferencias existentes entre sus propiedades mecánicas. Por esta razón, es necesario que el implante posea propiedades mecánicas similares a las del tejido circundante. La síntesis de hidroxiapatita por el método de combustión y su procesamiento se han estudiado con el objetivo de obtener cuerpos cerámicos completamente densificados y, consecuentemente, con propiedades mecánicas mejoradas. El método de combustión provee de polvos nanoestructurados que se caracterizan por una superficie específica elevada que facilita el siguiente proceso de sinterización. Además, este proceso de síntesis se ha realizado en medio acuoso y oxidante. El medio oxidante homogeniza e incrementa la energía liberada durante la

  6. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  7. Aerosol Combustion Synthesis of Nanopowders and Processing to Functional Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eongyu

    In this dissertation, the advantages of liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process in producing nanoparticles (NPs) as well as processing the produced NPs to ceramic/polymer nanocomposite films and high density polycrystalline ceramic films are demonstrated. The LF-FSP process aerosolizes alcohol solutions of metalloorganic precursors by oxygen and combusts them at > 1500 °C. The combustion products are rapidly quenched ( 10s of ms) to green and potentially lower cost alternative. We then show the versatility of NPs in formulating flexible ceramic/polymer nanocomposites (BaTiO3/epoxy) with superior properties. Volume fractions of the BaTiO3 filler and composite film thicknesses were controlled to adjust the net dielectric constant and the capacitance. Measured net dielectric constants further deviated from theory, with increasing solids loadings, due to NP agglomeration. Wound nanocomposite capacitors showed ten times higher capacitance compared to the commercial counterpart. Following series of studies explore the use of flame made NPs in processing Li+ conducting membranes. Systematic doping studies were conducted in the LiTi2(PO4)3 system to modify the lattice constant, conduction channel width, and sintering behavior by introducing Al3+ and Si4+ dopants. Excess Li2O content was also adjusted to observe its effect on final microstructures and phase compositions. Improved densification rates were found in Li1.7 Al0.3Ti1.7Si0.4P2.6O 12 composition and thin films (52+/-1 microm) with conductivities of 0.3-0.5 mS cm-1 were achieved. Li6.25M0.25La3Zr2O12 (M = Al3+, Ga3+) thin films (25-28 microm) with conductivities of 0.2-1.3 mS cm-1 were also successfully processed using flame made NPs, overcoming processing challenges extant, resulting in significantly reduced energy input required for densification. Heating schedules, sintering atmospheres, and types of substrates were controlled to observe their effect on the sintering behavior. Furthermore, green film

  8. Synthesis and characterization of solid solutions in ABCO 4 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, A.; Zimina, G.; Komissarova, L.; Pajaczkowska, A.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of continuous solid solutions with a tetragonal structure of K 2NiF 4-type was investigated by direct solid-state synthesis, carbonate precipitations, the freeze-drying method and the Czochralski crystal growth technique. In the systems of SrLaAlO 4-CaLaAlO 4, SrNdAlO 4-CaNdAlO 4, SrPrAlO 4-CaPrAlO 4, SrLaAlO 4-SrLaGaO 4 and SrLaAlO 4-SrLaFeO 4 solid solutions are formed in the whole concentration range (0.0⩽ x⩽1.0) and in the systems of SrLaAlO 4-SrLaMnO 4 and SrLaAlO 4-SrLaCrO 4 in the limited compositional interval of (0.0⩽ x⩽0.20) and (0.0⩽ x⩽0.25), respectively, with composition dependency of lattice constants following Vegard's law.

  9. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  10. Aqueous amine solution characterization for post-combustion CO_2 capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hadri, Nabil; Quang, Dang Viet; Goetheer, Earl L.V.; Abu Zahra, Mohammad R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The CO_2 solubility of 30 aqueous amine solutions was measured at 30 wt% and 313.15 K. • The CO_2 loading of HMD is the highest, and that of TEA is the lowest. • 2DMAE, 3DMA1P, 1DMA2P, MDEA, TMPAD and 2EAE have a low heat of absorption with CO_2. • 2EAE can be used as an alternative to MEA in the CO_2 capture process. - Abstract: This article presents a thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of CO_2 absorption by 30 aqueous amine solutions. A solvent screening setup (S.S.S.) was used to find the CO_2 loading (α) for 30 different aqueous amine solutions (30 wt%) at a pressure of 1 bar with feed gas containing 15 vol% CO_2 and 85 vol% N_2 at 313.15 K to provide reliable absorber parameters. The structures of various amines (linear, non-linear, polyamines, sterically hindered, etc.) were tested and the S.S.S. results showed that hexamethylenediamine (HMD) has higher CO_2 loading at 1.35 moles of CO_2/mole of amine, and triethanolamine (TEA) has the lowest at 0.39 mole of CO_2/mole of amine. The heat of absorption indicates that MDEA has the lowest and HMD has the highest at −52.51 kJ/mole of CO_2 and −98.39 kJ/mole of CO_2, respectively. The combined data for the CO_2 loading and the absorption heat generated 6 amines that have good properties for the post-combustion CO_2 capture process in comparison with that of MEA. These amines are made up of one secondary amine (2-ethylaminoethanol, 2EAE) and 5 tertiary amines (N-methyldiethanolamine, MDEA, 1-dimethylamino-2-propanol, 1DMA2P, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, 2DMAE, 3-dimethylamino-1-propanol, 3DMA1P and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine, TMPDA). In comparison with the amine reference MEA (ΔH = −85.13 kJ/mole of CO_2 and α = 0.58 mole CO_2/mole of amine), the 6 amines have heats of absorption that are between −68.95 kJ/mole of CO_2 and −52.51 kJ/mole of CO_2, and their CO_2 loading is between 0.52 and 1.16 mole of CO_2/mole amine. The third important parameter, namely the

  11. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator: Modeling and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Sola, R.; Veronesi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator has been simulated numerically and performed with the aim of achieving the highest yields, energy efficiency and process reproducibility. The electromagnetic field modeling of the microwave system allowed to chose the proper experimental set-up and the materials more suitable for the application, minimising the reflected power and the risks of arcing. In all the experimental conditions tested, conversions of 3-5 g 1:1 atomic ratio Ni and Al powder compacts into NiAl ranged from 98.7% to 100%, requiring from 30 to 180 s with power from 500 to 1500 W. The optimisation procedure allowed to determine and quantify the effects of the main process variables on the ignition time, the NiAl yields and the specific energy consumption, leading to a fast, reproducible and cost-effective process of microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics

  12. Tetragonal-cubic phase boundary in nanocrystalline ZrO2-Y2O3 solid solutions synthesized by gel-combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregas, Ismael O.; Craievich, Aldo F.; Fantini, Marcia C.A.; Millen, Ricardo P.; Temperini, Marcia L.A.; Lamas, Diego G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Gel-combustion synthesis yields compositionally homogeneous, single-phased ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 nanopowders, that exhibit the presence at room temperature of three different phases depending on Y 2 O 3 content, namely two tetragonal forms (t' and t'') and the cubic phase. → Phase identification can be achieved by synchrotron XPD (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy since the tetragonal forms and the cubic phase can be distinguished by these techniques. → The crystallographic features of ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 nanopowders were determined by SXPD. They are similar to those reported by Yashima and coworkers for compositionally homogeneous materials containing larger (micro)crystals. However, the lattice parameters are slightly different and the axial ratios c/a of our t' samples are smaller than those reported by these authors. → Compositional t'/t'' and t''/cubic phase boundaries are located at (9 ± 1) and (10.5 ± 0.5) mol% Y 2 O 3 , respectively. → For the whole series of nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solutions studied in the present work, no evidences of the presence of a mixture of phases - as reported by Yashima and coworkers for microcrystalline solid solutions - were detected. - Abstract: By means of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy, we have detected, in a series of nanocrystalline and compositionally homogeneous ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solutions, the presence at room temperature of three different phases depending on Y 2 O 3 content, namely two tetragonal forms and the cubic phase. The studied materials, with average crystallite sizes within the range 7-10 nm, were synthesized by a nitrate-citrate gel-combustion process. The crystal structure of these phases was also investigated by SXPD. The results presented here indicate that the studied nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solutions exhibit the same phases reported in the literature for compositionally homogeneous materials containing larger (micro

  13. Tetragonal-cubic phase boundary in nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions synthesized by gel-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregas, Ismael O. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, Aldo F.; Fantini, Marcia C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Travessa R da Rua do Matao, No. 187, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Millen, Ricardo P.; Temperini, Marcia L.A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Prof. Lineu Prestes 748, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lamas, Diego G., E-mail: dlamas@uncoma.edu.ar [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Caracterizacion de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, (8300) Neuquen Capital, Prov. de Neuquen (Argentina)

    2011-04-21

    Research highlights: > Gel-combustion synthesis yields compositionally homogeneous, single-phased ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders, that exhibit the presence at room temperature of three different phases depending on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, namely two tetragonal forms (t' and t'') and the cubic phase. > Phase identification can be achieved by synchrotron XPD (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy since the tetragonal forms and the cubic phase can be distinguished by these techniques. > The crystallographic features of ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders were determined by SXPD. They are similar to those reported by Yashima and coworkers for compositionally homogeneous materials containing larger (micro)crystals. However, the lattice parameters are slightly different and the axial ratios c/a of our t' samples are smaller than those reported by these authors. > Compositional t'/t'' and t''/cubic phase boundaries are located at (9 {+-} 1) and (10.5 {+-} 0.5) mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. > For the whole series of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions studied in the present work, no evidences of the presence of a mixture of phases - as reported by Yashima and coworkers for microcrystalline solid solutions - were detected. - Abstract: By means of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy, we have detected, in a series of nanocrystalline and compositionally homogeneous ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions, the presence at room temperature of three different phases depending on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, namely two tetragonal forms and the cubic phase. The studied materials, with average crystallite sizes within the range 7-10 nm, were synthesized by a nitrate-citrate gel-combustion process. The crystal structure of these phases was also investigated by SXPD. The results presented here indicate that the studied nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid

  14. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toshima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O, also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surface properties; thus, its morphology is a key issue for its applications as a functional material or precursor for other bioceramics. Here, we report the effects of the initial pH and the Ca and phosphate ion concentrations on the morphology of DCPD particles during aqueous solution synthesis. Crystal morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology phase diagram of DCPD crystallization revealed that increasing the initial pH and/or ion concentration transformed DCPD morphology from petal-like into plate-like structures.

  15. Laser synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles in biocompatible polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of Aluminium (Al) in pure water rapidly forms a thin alumina (Al2O3) layer which drastically modifies surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption characteristics in deep-UV region. Initially, pure aluminium nanoparticles (NPs) are generated in water without any stabilizers or surfactants at low laser fluence which gradually transform to stable Al-Al2O3 core-shell nanostructure with increasing either residency time or fluence. The role of laser wavelength and fluence on the SPR properties and oxidation characteristics of Al NPs has been investigated in detail. We also present a one-step in situ synthesis of oxide-free stable Al NPs in biocompatible polymer solutions using laser ablation in liquid method. We have used nonionic polymers (PVP, PVA and PEG) and anionic surfactant (SDS) stabilizer to suppress the Al2O3 formation and studied the effect of polymer functional group, polymeric chain length, polymer concentration and anionic surfactant on the incipient embryonic aluminium particles and their sizes. The different functional groups of polymers resulted in different oxidation states of Al. PVP and PVA polymers resulted in pure Al NPs; however, PEG and SDS resulted in alumina-modified Al NPs. The Al nanoparticles capped with PVP, PVA, and PEG show a good correlation between nanoparticle stability and monomeric length of the polymer chain.

  16. Excitation temperature of a solution plasma during nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Genki, E-mail: genki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Nakasugi, Yuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2014-08-28

    Excitation temperature of a solution plasma was investigated by spectroscopic measurements to control the nanoparticle synthesis. In the experiments, the effects of edge shielding, applied voltage, and electrode material on the plasma were investigated. When the edge of the Ni electrode wire was shielded by a quartz glass tube, the plasma was uniformly generated together with metallic Ni nanoparticles. The emission spectrum of this electrode contained OH, H{sub α}, H{sub β}, Na, O, and Ni lines. Without an edge-shielded electrode, the continuous infrared radiation emitted at the edge created a high temperature on the electrode surface, producing oxidized coarse particles as a result. The excitation temperature was estimated from the Boltzmann plot. When the voltages were varied at the edge-shielded electrode with low average surface temperature by using different electrolyte concentrations, the excitation temperature of current-concentration spots increased with an increase in the voltage. The size of the Ni nanoparticles decreased at high excitation temperatures. Although the formation of nanoparticles via melting and solidification of the electrode surface has been considered in the past, vaporization of the electrode surface could occur at a high excitation temperature to produce small particles. Moreover, we studied the effects of electrodes of Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, W, Pt, Au, and various alloys of stainless steel and Cu–Ni alloys. With the exception of Ti, the excitation temperatures ranged from 3500 to 5500 K and the particle size depended on both the excitation temperature and electrode-material properties.

  17. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  18. Combustion synthesis of CaSc2O4:Ce3+ nano-phosphors in a closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wenfang; Zou Shaoyu; Liu Guanxi; Xiao Quanlan; Zhang Rui; Xie Lijuan; Cao Liwei; Meng Jianxin; Liu Yingliang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors can be prepared by a single-step combustion method. → The ignition temperature is the lowest in the combustion synthesis of Ce 3+ /Eu 2+ doped phosphors. → The as-prepared nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm and have highly dispersity and fluorescence intensity. → It is a convenient method for preparation of monodispersed oxide nano-phosphors, especially those being sensitive to air at high temperature. - Abstract: The CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors were successfully prepared by a single-step combustion method at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C in a closed autoclave using glycine as a fuel and PEG4000 as a dispersant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results revealed that CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors can be conveniently prepared at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C, which was much lower than that in the ordinary combustion methods. The optimized ignition temperature was 220 deg. C. The CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm. The low ignition temperature and the addition of PEG4000 dispersant play important roles in the formation of small sized nanoparticles. The as-prepared nano-phosphors were incompact aggregates, but highly dispersed nano-phosphors can be obtained after further ultrasonic treatment. The CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors give satisfactory luminescence characteristic benefiting from the closed circumstance, in which cerium atoms can be isolated from the oxidizing atmosphere and non-fluorescent Ce 4+ ions can be ruled out. The present highly dispersed CaSc 2 O 4 :Ce 3+ nano-phosphors with efficient fluorescence are promising in the field of biological labeling, and the present low temperature combustion method is facile and convenient and can

  19. Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria (CeO2) powders by a dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, C.-C.; Huang, T.-H.; Tsai, J.-S.; Lin, C.-S.; Peng, C.-H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, ceria (CeO 2 ) powders were synthesized with 50 g per batch via a combustion technique using two kinds of starting materials-urea [(NH 2 ) 2 CO] (as a fuel) and ceric ammonium nitrate [Ce(NH 4 ) 2 (NO 3 ) 6 ] (acting as both the source of cerium ion and an oxidizer). The starting materials were mixed thoroughly without adding water, and then ignited in the air at room temperature. It underwent a self-combustion process with a large amount of smoke, a voluminous loose product. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), CHN elemental analyzer, surface area measurements, and sinterability. Experimental results revealed that the nanocrystalline CeO 2 powders with low impurity content ( 2 /g and ∼25 nm, respectively, through the stoichiometric fuel/oxidizer ratio reaction. The powder, when cold pressed and sintered in the air at 1250 deg. C for 1 h, was measured to attain the sintered density ∼92% of theoretical density having submicron grain size. In addition, the thermal decomposition and combustion process of the reactant mixture were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques simultaneously. Based on the results of thermal analysis, a possible mechanism concerning the combustion reaction is proposed

  20. SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF La o.9 MnO 3 BY COMBUSTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lao.9MnO3 has been synthesized from lanthanum acetylacetonate, manganese acetylacetonate and urea by combustion method at 800oC. The analysis of the synthesized Lao.9MnO3 show it to be a semi-conducting nanopolycrystalline material having orthorhombic geometry with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.50335Ao; ...

  1. Room temperature synthesis of protonated layered titanate sheets using peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, Narottam; Sinhamahapatra, Apurba; Pahari, Sandip Kumar; Bajaj, Hari C; Panda, Asit Baran

    2011-07-21

    We report the synthesis of peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution as a novel water-soluble precursor for the direct synthesis of layered protonated titanate at room temperature. The synthesized titanates showed excellent removal capacity for Pb(2+) and methylene blue. Based on experimental observations, a probable mechanism for the formation of protonated layered dititanate sheets is also discussed.

  2. Fundamental aspects of nucleation and growth in the solution-phase synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Codoluto, Stephen C.; Baumgardner, William J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via the solution phase reduction of germanium(ii) iodide. We report a systematic investigation of the nanocrystal nucleation and growth as a function of synthesis conditions including the nature

  3. Effect of Fe on the phases and microstructure of TiC-Fe cermets by combustion synthesis/quasi-isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weifang; Zhang Xinghong; Wang Jianli; Hong Changqing

    2004-01-01

    Fully dense TiC-Fe cermets (x = 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.%) were produced from Ti-C-Fe powder mixtures by combustion synthesis with quasi-isostatic pressing. The effect of Fe content on combustion temperature, combustion wave velocity, and final product density was investigated. The final product was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. The combustion temperature and wave velocity decreased with increasing Fe content. Product density increased with increasing Fe content (96% at 30 wt.%). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the final product to contain TiC, Fe phases, lath martensite, and Fe 2 Ti. The TiC particle size decreased with increasing Fe content. In addition, a low density of dislocations was observed in both the TiC particles and Fe binder, indicative of annealing and recrystallization, respectively

  4. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has released two different Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. The first target, released in 2009, is reduction GHG emissions 26% from Business-as-Usual (BAU) level using own budget and up 41% if supported international aids by 2020. The second target is reduction 29% and 41% from BAU by 2030 using own budget and with international support, respectively. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector. The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit. However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas.

  5. Microstructure and kinetics of a functionally graded NiTi-TiC x composite produced by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Moore, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Production of a NiTi-TiC x functionally graded material (FGM) composite is possible through use of a combustion synthesis (CS) reaction employing the propagating mode (SHS). The NiTi-TiC x FGM combines the well-known and understood superelastic and shape memory capabilities of NiTi with the high hardness, wear and corrosion resistance of TiC x . The material layers were observed as functionally graded both in composition and porosity with distinct interfaces, while still maintaining good material interaction and bonding. XRD of the FGM composite revealed the presence of TiC x with equi-atomic NiTi and minor NiTi 2 and NiTi 3 phases. The TiC x particle size decreased with increasing NiTi content. Microindentation performed across the length of the FGM revealed a decrease in hardness as the NiTi content increased

  6. Comparative analysis of synthesis and characterization of La_0_,_9Sr_0_,_1O_3 via sol-gel and combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrago, D.P.; Haeser, G.S.; Malfatti, C.F.; Sousa, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Strontium doped lanthanum manganites (LSM) are potential materials for cathode application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their properties and compatibility with yttria stabilized zirconia. In this work a LSM powder obtained by the sol-gel process is compared others previously obtained combustion synthesis using urea or sucrose as fuel. For the synthesis of LSM the nitrates of lanthanum, strontium and manganese were dissolved in citric acid and ethylene glycol forming a gel that was calcinated at 800 deg C. Both methods allowed the synthesis of a single phase powder, according to the X-ray diffraction patterns. Through gas adsorption it was found a specific surface area of 17m²/g, an intermediary value among the combustion synthesized powders. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed more compact agglomerates in the sol-gel powder, however, the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed smaller and more uniform particles in this powder. (author)

  7. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian

    2004-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb 2 O 3 . The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m 2 /g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a ferrous compound material obtained by combustion of ferroboron and ferrotitanium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, M.A; Fuenzalida, J.L

    2008-01-01

    A ferrous compound material was synthesized in this work, by the air auto-combustion of mixtures of powdered ferroboron and ferrotitanium, compacted under pressures of 79 and 93 MPa and preheated to a temperature of about 1000 o C. The synthesized compounds were characterized by XRD analysis, and macro and micro-hardness tests. The formation of titanium diboride was found in all the synthesized test pieces (au)

  9. Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Single-domain barium ferrite nano particles have been synthesized with narrow particle-size distribution using an auto combustion technique. In this process, citric acid was used as a fuel. Ratios of cation to fuel were maintained variously at 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3. The pH was 7 in all cases. Of all three cases, a cation ...

  10. In situ synthesis and formation mechanism of ZrC and ZrB2 by combustion synthesis from the Co-Zr-B4C system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxian Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ZrC-ZrB2-based composites were prepared by combustion synthesis (CS reaction from 10 wt.% to 50 wt.% Co-Zr-B4C powder mixtures. With increasing Co contents, the particle sizes of near-spherical ZrC and platelet-like ZrB2 decreased from 1 μm to 0.5 μm and from 5 μm to 2 μm, respectively. In addition, the formation mechanism of ZrC and ZrB2 was explored by the phase transition and microstructure evolution on the combustion wave quenched sample in combination with differential scanning calorimeter analysis. The results showed that the production of ZrC was ascribed to the solid-solid reaction between Zr and C and the precipitation from the Co-Zr-B-C melt, while ZrB2 was prepared from the saturated liquid. The low B concentration in the Co-Zr-B-C liquid and high cooling rate during the CS process led to the presence of Co2B and ZrCo3B2 in the composites. The addition of Co in the Co-Zr-B4C system not only prevented ZrC and ZrB2 particulates from growing, but also promoted the occurrence of ZrC-ZrB2-forming reaction.

  11. Self-combustion synthesis and oxygen storage properties of mesoporous gadolinia-doped ceria nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Tao [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology (BUT-CEEE), Chaoyang District 100124, Beijing (China); Xia Dingguo, E-mail: yangtaophoenix@yahoo.com.cn [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology (BUT-CEEE), Chaoyang District 100124, Beijing (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ethyl glycol and citric acid, along with metal nitrates have been used to prepare Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x} nanotubes directed at the anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template by combustion route. The tubes produced by the self-combustion route do not need any further calcination step. XRD patterns show the doped-ceria tubes have the flurite-type structure and no impurities are detected. The specific surface area of the tube is 112.7 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption profiles of the BET measurement shows the tubes are mesoporous. The largest aspect ratio of a nanotube reaches 20:1 and the TEM observation reveals the hollow structure. The Ce:Gd molar ratio calculated from the EDS and ICP-AES is 9:1 and the selected area electron diffraction confirms the flurite-type structure from the XRD characterization. The combined thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis has been carried out to study the combustion reactions in the tube-forming process. The thermal stability of the nanotubes under both reductive and oxidative atmospheres is tested using the dynamic reduction/reoxidation reactions. At last, the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of the nanotubes is calculated to be 695 {mu}mol-O{sup 2} g{sup -1} from the temperature-programed reduction reaction.

  12. Study of influence of fuel on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate ceramics synthesized using solution based combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Malik, M M; Kurchania, Rajnish; Kumar, G S

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing and properties of bismuth titanate (BIT) ceramics obtained by solution combustion route using different fuels are reported in this paper. Dextrose, urea and glycine were used as fuel in this study. The obtained bismuth titanate ceramics were characterized by using XRD, SEM at different stages of sample preparation. It was observed that BIT obtained by using dextrose as fuel shows higher dielectric constant and higher remnant polarization due to smaller grain size and lesser c-axis growth as compared to the samples with urea and glycine as fuel. The electrical behavior of the samples with respect to temperature and frequency was also investigated to understand relaxation phenomenon. (paper)

  13. Investigation on structural and electrical properties of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Mast; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat; Kumar, Arun; Negi, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, nanoparticles of Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) [Zn_1_-_xFe_xO where x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05] were prepared by cost effective solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffractometry confirms the formation of single phase wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the micrsostructure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The DC electrical conductivity was found to increase with temperature and measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-473K. DC electrical conductivity increases with temperature and decreases with Fe doping concentration.

  14. Photoluminescence in Sm3+ doped Ba2P2O7 phosphor prepared by solution combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawade, Sonal P.; Deshmukh, Kavita A.; Dhoble, S. J.; Deshmukh, Abhay D.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, Sm3+ doped Ba2P2O7 phosphors were synthesized via a Solution combustion method. The crystal structure of the phosphor was characterized by XRD. Orange-red emission was observed from these phosphors under near-ultraviolet (UV) excitation at 404 nm. The luminescence properties of the obtained phosphors were characterized by different techniques. The Ba2P2O7:Sm3+ phosphor can be efficiently excited by near-UV and blue light, and their emission spectrum consists of three emission peaks, at 564, 602, and 646 nm, respectively. Based on the results, the as prepared Ba2P2O7:Sm3+ phosphors are promising orange-red-emitting phosphors exhibit great potential may be applicable as a spectral convertor in c-Si solar cell to enhance the efficiency of solar cell in future.

  15. FC and ZFC magnetic properties of ferro-spinels (MFe2O4) prepared by solution-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, G.; Kumar, R. Vijaya; Nathaniyal, V.; Rambabu, T.; Ravinder, D.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic ferro-spinels MFe2O4 (M= Co and Ni) prepared by citrate-gel solution combustion method using metal nitrates with low sintering temperature (500°C). From the XRD and TEM studies confirm that a nano crystalline nature of the prepared samples. Field Cooled (FC) and Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) magnetic studies of the prepared ferro-spinels are measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The resultant magnetization of the prepared samples as a function of an applied magnetic field 10 T was measured at two different temperatures 5 K and 310 K. Field Cooled (FC) and Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100 Oe and 1000 Oe in the temperature range of 5-375 K were carried out, which shows the blocking temperature of these two samples at around 350 K.

  16. Gel-combustion synthesis of CoSb2O6 and its reduction to powdery Sb2Co alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA JOVIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb2Co alloy in powdery form was synthesized via reduction with gaseous hydrogen of the oxide CoSb2O6, obtained by the citrate gel-combustion technique. The precursor was an aqueous solution of antimony nitrate, cobalt nitrate and citric acid. The precursor solution with mole ratio Co(II/Sb(V of 1:2 was gelatinized by evaporation of water. The gel was heated in air up to the temperature of self-ignition. The product of gel combustion was a mixture of oxides and it had to be additionally thermally treated in order to be converted to pure CoSb2O6. The reduction of CoSb2O6 by gaseous hydrogen yielded powdery Sb2Co as the sole phase. The process of oxide reduction to alloy was controlled by thermogravimetry, while X-ray diffractometry was used to control the phase compositions of both the oxides and alloys.

  17. Influence of different fuel agents on the combustion synthesis of the nanostructured Li{sub 1.05}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Fabio A.; Guerra, R.F.; Santana, L.K.; Canobre, S.C., E-mail: fabioamaral@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (LAETE/UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Armazenamento de Energia e Tratamento de Efluentes

    2014-08-15

    In this work nanostructured Li{sub 1.05}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide was obtained by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) using three different fuel agents in order to obtain a unique phase with a crystalline cubic structure belonging to the F{sub d3m} spatial group. The phase of interest could be obtained, following the order: glycine (at 600 °C for 2 h) ‹ urea (at 750 °C for 2 h) ‹ maleic anhydride (at 750 °C for 4 h), with crystallite size in the range from 4.6 to 9.7 nm (nanometric character) and the unit cell parameter of the calcined samples at 750 °C for 2 h were similar to the JCPDS 35-0782 with cubic structure (a = 8.247 Å). Charge and discharge tests from the samples obtained by glycine fuel (at 750 °C for 4 h) presented the highest experimental specific capacities of 115 mA h g{sup -1} and 92% of retention after 10 cycles. (author)

  18. Nanometric solid solutions of the fluorite and perovskite type crystal structures: Synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Bošković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a short review of our results on the synthesis of nanosized CeO2, CaMnO3 and BaCeO3 solid solutions are presented. The nanopowders were prepared by two innovative methods: self propagating room temperature synthesis (SPRT and modified glycine/nitrate procedure (MGNP. Different types of solid solutions with rare earth dopants in concentrations ranging from 0–0.25 mol% were synthesized. The reactions forming solid solutions were studied. In addition, the characteristics of prepared nanopowders, phenomena during sintering and the properties of sintered samples are discussed.

  19. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an “R” value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U–O bond. - Highlights: • Bulk quantities of nanocrystalline urania were prepared for the first time using citrate gel combustion method. • Volume combustion was observed in mixtures with fuel to nitrate ratio (R) 0.25. • The value of R was found to significantly influence the characteristics of the final product. • Typical exfoliated microstructure and nanopores were observed. • Established correlation between particle size distribution and bulk density, X-ray crystallite size and lattice strain. • Relationship between fuel to nitrate (R) mole ratio and physical characteristics of powders were also established.

  20. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  1. Synthesis of micro- and nanodiamonds by the method of oxy- acetylene combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, S; Medyanova, B; Partizan, G; Koshanova, A; Mansurova, M; Lesbayev, B; Mansurov, B; Merkibayev, Ye

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of micro- and nanodiamonds by the method of oxy-acetylene torch on the surface of pre-deposited copper thin films. The influence of the thickness of the buffer copper film and the concentration ratio of oxygen and acetylene on the structure formation of the deposited samples was investigated during performed experiments. Studies by Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that the synthesis of micro- and nano-diamonds occurs under certain experimental conditions. (paper)

  2. Strategies of Successful Synthesis Solutions: Mapping, Mechanisms, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodé, Nicholas E.; Flynn, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Organic synthesis problems require the solver to integrate knowledge and skills from many parts of their courses. Without a well-defined, systematic method for approaching them, even the strongest students can experience difficulties. Our research goal was to identify the most successful problem-solving strategies and develop associated teaching…

  3. Kinematic synthesis of a new 3D printing solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    The object of this article is the kinematic synthesis of a 5Dofs robot, based on two PKM machines, for additive manufacturing in order to compliant with the requirements of this new technology. Robot kinematics have been optimized by genetic algorithm in order to cover the required workspace and the design of the robot and outline of the control system are also given.

  4. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  5. Combustion synthesis of micron-sized Sm2Co17 particles via mechanochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; McCormick, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The spontaneous formation of Sm 2 Co 17 micron-sized particles via a mechanically induced combustion reaction has been investigated. Sm 2 Co 17 alloy particles of 0.1--2 μm in size embedded in a CaO matrix formed directly via a combustion reaction induced by milling the powder mixture of Sm 2 O 3 , CoO, CaO and Ca over a critical time. The micron-sized Sm 2 Co 17 particles were found to have the TbCu 7 -type structure and characterized by a coercivity value of 7.8 kOe while embedded in the CaO matrix. The effect of subsequent heat treatment on the structure and magnetic properties of as-milled samples was also investigated. Removal of the CaO by a carefully controlled washing process yielded micron-sized Sm 2 Co 17 particles without significant oxidation of the particles. These fine Sm 2 Co 17 particles can be used to produce anisotropic bulk or bonded magnets

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and silver colloidal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong; Ngo Hoang Minh; Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Dang Mau Chien

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized rapidly in green conditions by using microwave irradiation and non-toxic chemistry substances (acid oxalic, silver nitrate, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP; Mw = 55 000)). The particle size and morphology of these solutions can be controlled by altering several factors like the time, the power of microwave exposure, and the ratio of silver oxalate and PVP etc. The silver nanoparticles were fabricated by thermal decomposition of silver oxalate. The synthesized silver colloidal solutions and silver nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques like UV- VIS, XRD, TEM, FESEM/EDS and ICP-AAS studies. Finally, we used the synthesized silver colloidal solutions for antibacterial purpose. The obtained results showed that the synthesized silver colloidal solutions, even at very low concentrations, have highly efficient anti-bacterial property.

  7. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li2TiO3, by the modified combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.; Pfeiffer, H.

    2005-01-01

    A modified combustion method to obtain Li 2 TiO 3 it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li 2 TiO 3 were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and urea (CO(NH 2 ) 2 ), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li 2 TiO 3 . The particle size and the morphology found in the Li 2 TiO 3 , showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO 2 used as precursor. (Author)

  8. Synthesis and sintering Ni-Zn ferrite obtained for combustion reaction in large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.A.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Cornejo, D.R.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    This research proposes to evaluate the magnetic properties of ferrite Ni-Zn synthesized by combustion reaction on a large scale and sintered at 1250 deg C in resistive furnace. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and magnetic measurements. The results show that the synthesized product in large scale resulted in soft magnetic material with saturation magnetization of 40 emu·g"-"1 and coercivity of 0.080 kOe, after sintering it was observed an increase to 68 emu·g"-"1 in the magnetization and a reduction to 0.016 kOe in coercivity, indicating that the obtained material has promising characteristics for applications in electro-electronic devices. (author)

  9. A novel rhombohedron-like nickel ferrite nanostructure: Microwave combustion synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on nickel ferrite nanostructures has drawn a great interest because of its inherent chemical, physical and electronic properties. In this study, we have synthesized rhombohedron – like nickel ferrite nanostructure by a rapid microwave assisted combustion method using ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid as a chelating agent. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microanalyser were used to characterize the prepared sample. The magnetic behaviour was analysed by means of field dependent magnetization measurement which indicates that the prepared sample exhibits a soft ferromagnetic nature with saturation magnetization of 63.034 emu/g. This technique can be a potential method to synthesize novel nickel ferrite nanostructure with improved magnetic properties.

  10. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an "R" value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U-O bond.

  11. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence in novel red emitting yttrium gadolinium pyrosilicate nanocrystalline phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedaoo, V.P., E-mail: vraikwar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R. J. College, Ghatkopar, Mumbai, MS 400086 (India); Bhatkar, V.B. [Department of Physics, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati, MS 444602 (India); Omanwar, S.K. [Department of Physics, SGB Amravati University, Amravati, MS 444602 (India)

    2016-07-05

    Yttrium Gadolinium Pyrosilicate Y{sub 2-x}Gd{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) phosphor powder was prepared by facile and time efficient modified combustion method for the first time. The phosphor was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy and color chromaticity coordinates. XRD revealed the monoclinic crystal structure with space group P1¯. The crystallite size was calculated by Williamson-Hall (W–H) analysis. Nanoplates-like morphology was observed in FESEM analysis with size in the range 50–80 nm. TEM images confirmed the particle size and shape. Upon excitation by 254 nm UV light, the phosphor showed the characteristic red emission peaks at 589 nm and 613 nm corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions respectively. It was observed that the nanocrystalline phosphor Y{sub 2-x}Gd{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+}can be tuned to emit orange to red color by adjusting the ratio Y/Gd. This phosphor thus can be a potential candidate as orange to red color emitting tunable nanocrystalline phosphor for optical devices. - Highlights: • A novel Yttrium Gadolinium Pyrosilicate doped with Eu{sup 3+} is reported. • Facile and time efficient modified combustion method is used. • The nanocrystalline structure was shown by X-ray diffraction, W–H analysis. • FESEM and TEM images confirmed the nanocrystalline structure. • The reported phosphor can be tuned from orange to red by varying Y/Gd ratio.

  12. Synthesis, structure and electromagnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrite by sol–gel combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of a thin coating fabricated by mixing Mn–Zn ferrite with epoxy resin (EP) were studied. The spinel ferrites Mn 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) were synthesized with citrate acid as complex agent by sol–gel combustion method. The microstructure and surface morphology of Mn–Zn ferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the fabricated ferrite/EP composites were investigated in terms of their contributions to the absorbing properties in the low frequency (10 MHz to 1 GHz). The microwave absorption of the prepared ferrite/EP composites could be tailored by matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss and by controlling the doped metal ratio. The composites with the ferrite composition x=0.2 are found to show higher reflection loss compared with the composites with other compositions. It is proposed that the prepared composites can potentially be applied in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field. - Highlights: • We designed and synthesized Mn 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8), with citrate acid as complex agent by the sol–gel combustion method. • Citrate acid as the complex agent overcomes the aggregation of ferrite resulting in high purity and homogeneous particles. • We investigated the electromagnetic absorbing performance of a fabricated thin coating by introducing Mn–Zn ferrite into epoxy resin (EP). • The Mn 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 composite coatings could achieve the satisfactory absorbing value of −17 dB at 800 MHz. • The prepared composites can potentially be used for the application in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field

  13. Synthesis of 2D Metal Chalcogenide Thin Films through the Process Involving Solution-Phase Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anupam; Park, Gyeongbae; Yang, Heeseung; Pal, Monalisa; Kwak, Junghyeok; Jeong, Unyong

    2018-04-24

    2D metal chalcogenide thin films have recently attracted considerable attention owing to their unique physicochemical properties and great potential in a variety of applications. Synthesis of large-area 2D metal chalcogenide thin films in controllable ways remains a key challenge in this research field. Recently, the solution-based synthesis of 2D metal chalcogenide thin films has emerged as an alternative approach to vacuum-based synthesis because it is relatively simple and easy to scale up for high-throughput production. In addition, solution-based thin films open new opportunities that cannot be achieved from vacuum-based thin films. Here, a comprehensive summary regarding the basic structures and properties of different types of 2D metal chalcogenides, the mechanistic details of the chemical reactions in the synthesis of the metal chalcogenide thin films, recent successes in the synthesis by different reaction approaches, and the applications and potential uses is provided. In the last perspective section, the technical challenges to be overcome and the future research directions in the solution-based synthesis of 2D metal chalcogenides are discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7-y from nitrate solutions with urea additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, V.I.; Naumov, V.S.; Mozhaev, A.P.; Lyashchenko, A.K.; Pobedina, A.B.; Khajlova, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    Solubility of bariun nitrate is studied in the Y(NO 3 ) 3 -Ba(NO 3 ) 2 -Cu(NO 3 )-CO(NH 2 ) 2 -H 2 O system at the ratio Y:B:Cu-1:2:3 and variable concentration of urea in the solution. Mentioned aqua-salt compositions are used in cryochemical synthesis of HTSC. Solutions of yttrium, barium and copper nitrates with urea additions were demonstrated to be recommended to improvements in the process during development of alternative synthesis from aqua-salt compositions. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. One-step microwave synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles from sodium dextran sulfate water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorina, Alina A.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.; Sapelkin, Andrei V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2018-04-01

    Photoluminescent (PL) carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been synthesized by one-step microwave irradiation from water solution of sodium dextran sulfate (DSS) as the sole carbon source. Microwave (MW) method is very simple and cheap and it provides fast synthesis of CNPs. We have varied synthesis time for obtaining high luminescent CNPs. The synthesized CNPs exhibit excitation-dependent photoluminescent. Final CNPs water solution has a blue- green luminescence. CNPs have low cytotoxicity, good photostability and can be potentially suitable candidates for bioimaging, analysis or analytical tests.

  16. Synthesis of C60(OH)18-20 in aqueous alkaline solution under O2-atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Gustavo Catao; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando; Righi, Ariete; Krambrock, Klaus; Pinheiro, Mauricio Veloso B.; Calado, Hallen Daniel; Gil, Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    In this work we report on an alternative synthesis of water-soluble fullerenes known as fullerols, aiming for biomedical applications. The synthesis is based on a process in which polyethylene glycol (PEG400) is used as phase-transfer catalyst between fullerene/benzene and aqueous NaOH solutions. The polyhydroxylation of the fullerenes occurs in the NaOH solution under a continuous flow of O 2 to enhance the reaction yield. The resulting compound was characterized with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermo-gravimetric analysis and optical absorption. The formation of C 60 (OH) 18-20 in high yields was confirmed. (author)

  17. Increase oil recovery of heavy oil in combustion tube using a new catalyst based nickel ionic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Garnica, M.A.; Hernandez-Perez, J.R.; Cabrera-Reves, M.C.; Schacht-Hernandez, P. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An ionic liquid-based nickel catalyst was used in conjunction with a combustion tube as an in situ process for heavy oil. The experimental system was comprised of a fluid injection system; a combustion tube; a fluid production system; a gas chromatograph; and a data recording system. Injected nitrogen and air was controlled by a mass flow controller. Nitrogen was used to pressurize the combustion tube and flush the system. Air was injected at a rate of 3 L per minute throughout the combustion run. Liquids leaving the combustion tube passed through a 2-stage separation process. Gases passing through the condenser were kept at low temperatures. Fractions of produced gas were analyzed by the chromatograph. Data loggers were used to obtain data at 30 second intervals. Two combustion experiments were conducted to obtain production times, temperature profiles, and the quality of the oil produced by the catalyst. Combustion tests were conducted with and without the catalyst. An analysis of the experimental data showed that use of the nickel catalyst resulted in increases in oil production as well as higher combustion efficiencies. Use of the catalyst also resulted in a faster combustion front and accelerated oil production. It was concluded that the produced oil contained fewer impurities than oil produced during the control experiment. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. COMBUSTION HEAT RELEASE RATE ANALYSIS OF C.I. ENGINE WITH SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF DEE-H2O SOLUTION - A VIBRATIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANA MURTHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the combustion propensity of single cylinder direct injection engine fueled with palm kernel methyl ester (PKME, which is non- edible oil and a secondary co-injection of saturated Diethyl ether (DEE with water. DEE along with water is fumigated through a high pressure nozzle fitted to the inlet manifold of the engine and the flow rate of the secondary injection was electronically controlled. DEE is known to improve the cold starting problem in engines when used in straight diesel fuel. However, its application in emulsion form is little known. Experimental results show that for 5% DEE- H2O solution injection, occurrence of maximum net heat release rate is delayed due to controlled premixed combustion, which normally helped in better torque conversion when the piston is in accelerated mode. Vibration measurements in the frequency range of 900Hz to 1300Hz revealed that a new mode of combustion has taken place with different excitation frequencies.

  19. Alanine synthesis from glyceraldehyde and ammonium ion in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of alanine (ala) form C(14)-glyceraldehyde and ammonium phosphate in the presence or absence of a thiol is reported. At ambient temperature, ala synthesis was six times more rapid in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid than in its absence (0.6 and 0.1 percent, respectively, after 60 days). Similarly, the presence of another thiol, N-acetylcysteinate, increased the production of ala, as well as of lactate. The reaction pathway of thiol-catalyzed synthesis of ala, with the lactic acid formed in a bypath, is suggested. In this, dehydration of glyceraldehyde is followed by the formation of hemithioacetal. In the presence of ammonia, an imine is formed, which eventually yields ala. This pathway is consistent with the observation that the rate ratio of ala/lactate remains constant throughout the process. The fact that the reaction takes place under anaerobic conditions in the presence of H2O and with the low concentrations of simple substrates and catalysts makes it an attractive model prebiotic reaction in the process of molecular evolution.

  20. Enhanced Photoluminescence of Sm3+/Bi3+ Co-Doped La2O3 Nanophosphors by Combustion Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Muying; Zhang, W. F.

    Nanosized La2O3:Sm3+ and La2O3:Sm3+, Bi3+ phosphor powders were prepared via combustion synthesis. The structures and morphology were examined using powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra were investigated at different doping concentrations of Sm3+ and Bi3+ ions. The results indicate that La2O3:Sm3+ (Bi3+) exhibited good crystallinity and spherical-like particles. All phosphors give emission bands centered at 564, 608 and 650 nm corresponding to 4G5/2→6HJ (J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) transitions of Sm3+ ions, respectively. Interestingly, the emission intensity of Sm3+ ions is significantly enhanced with the addition of Bi3+ ions to La2O3:Sm3+ and the maximum occurs at a Bi3+ concentration of 0.8 mol%. The La2O3:Sm3+, Bi3+ phosphor with highly enhanced luminescence is very encouraging for applications in display and tunable solid lasers.

  1. Highly porous CeO2 nanostructures prepared via combustion synthesis for supercapacitor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadirvelayutham, Prasanna; Santhoshkumar, P.; Jo, Yong Nam

    2017-01-01

    We report highly porous CeO2 nanostructures (CeO2 NSs) suitable for supercapacitor applications, synthesized using a fast and cost effective combustion approach. Due to its prominent valence states of Ce3+/Ce4+, CeO2 has emerged as a promising pseudocapacitive material. The drawback of using CeO2...... as a supercapacitor electrode is its poor electrical conductivity. We overcame this drawback of CeO2 by creating oxygen vacancies on its surface, which act to enhance its electrical conductivity. The physical interpretation of the as-synthesized CeO2 NSs shows that they have dense active sites and diffusion pathways...... that enhance the performance of the electrode in a supercapacitor. Electrodes prepared using the synthesized CeO2 NSs exhibited the initial specific capacitance of 134.6 F g-1 and superior cycling stability of 92.5% after 1000 cycles at a constant current density of 1 A g-1, indicating their potential...

  2. Synthesis, structure and electromagnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite by sol-gel combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of a thin coating fabricated by mixing Mn-Zn ferrite with epoxy resin (EP) were studied. The spinel ferrites Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) were synthesized with citrate acid as complex agent by sol-gel combustion method. The microstructure and surface morphology of Mn-Zn ferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the fabricated ferrite/EP composites were investigated in terms of their contributions to the absorbing properties in the low frequency (10 MHz to 1 GHz). The microwave absorption of the prepared ferrite/EP composites could be tailored by matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss and by controlling the doped metal ratio. The composites with the ferrite composition x=0.2 are found to show higher reflection loss compared with the composites with other compositions. It is proposed that the prepared composites can potentially be applied in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field.

  3. Green synthesis of magnetic chitosan nanocomposites by a new sol–gel auto-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Fatemeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317–51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhani, Azam [Department of Chemistry, Kosar University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317–51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized via a new sol–gel auto-combustion route. To prepare the nanocomposites, copper ferrite (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and iron (II) oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures were first prepared utilizing onion as a green reductant for the first time, and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, IR and VSM. Then chitosan was added into the nanostructures dispersed in water. Chitosan was used to functionalize and modify the nanostructures and also to improve surface properties. The nanocomposites were also characterized by several techniques including SEM, TEM, XRD, IR and VSM. The effects of amount of onion and chitosan on the morphology and particle size of nanocomposites were evaluated. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanocomposites were synthesized for the first time. • A simple, low-cost and friendly route was used to synthesize the nanocomposites. • Effects of amount of onion and chitosan were investigated.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaliyamoorthy Venkatesan,1 Dhanakotti Rajan Babu,1 Mane Prabhu Kavya Bai,2 Ravi Supriya,2 Radhakrishnan Vidya,2 Saminathan Madeswaran,1 Pandurangan Anandan,3 Mukannan Arivanandhan,3 Yasuhiro Hayakawa3 1School of Advanced Sciences, 2School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan Abstract: Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311 of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. Keywords: cytotoxicity, HR-TEM, magnetic nanoparticles, VSM 

  5. Oxidation inhibitors for aqueous MEA solutions used in a post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrette, P.L.; Bonnard, L. [IFP, Solaize (France); Delfort, B. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using an aqueous solution of MEA as a solvent for post- combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). MEA is inexpensive, largely available, non toxic and highly effective because of its high capacity for CO{sub 2} capture and its fast reaction kinetics. However, significant oxidative degradation occurs when MEA is exposed to oxygen. Oxidation of MEA is not only a source of solvent consumption but also creates volatile compounds such as ammonia and carboxylic acids that can cause corrosion. As such, degradation control is a major challenge. Oxidative degradation can potentially be solved by the use of antioxidant additives. This presentation reported on a laboratory scale evaluation test of MEA degradation associated with analysis of degradation products. Different antioxidant additives were then evaluated. Conventional antioxidant additives were found to be poorly active or inactive, and some even exhibited a pronounced effect upon degradation. New classes of additives have been found to be effective in considerably reducing degradation.

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of type solid solution in the binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated Bi2O3–Eu2O3 binary system by doping with Eu2O3 in the composition range from 1 to 10 mole% via solid state reactions and succeeded to stabilize -Bi2O3 ... Our experimental observations strongly suggested that oxygen deficiency type non-stoichiometry is present in doped type solid solutions.

  8. Guided synthesis of accumulative solutions for the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Cabrales, Alexis; Gaskins Espinosa, Benjamín Gabriel; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Simeón Monet, Rolando Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design is closely related to a product functional structure and the search of solution principles for its definition. This work exposes an accumulative method for the traceability of the functional structure that implements the guided conceptual synthesis of solutions in the preliminary analysis of this designing process stage. The method constitutes a contribution to Pahls and Beitzs classic design model. In it, the functional information system is manipulated, providing the designer with a help so that he can examine the different solutions that are obtained, giving him the possibility of selecting the most convenient one. The guided analysis of the accumulative solutions synthesis is illustrated by means of the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass. (author)

  9. Soft solution synthesis and intense visible photoluminescence of lamellar zinc oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sağlam, Özge

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of layered zinc oxide films intercalated with dodecyl sulphate ions by a simple soft solution process. The presence of potassium (K + ) and lithium (Li + ) ions in the precursor solution of layered zinc hydroxide resulted in lamellar hybrid zinc oxide films instead of layered zinc hydroxides. On the other hand, the addition of nickel phthalocyanine induces zinc hydroxide host layers which exhibit an intense blue emission. This is also promoted by K + and Li + ions

  10. Combustion synthesis and characterization of Ba2NdSbO6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    citric acid as the complexing agent and ammonium hydroxide as fuel ... Starting materials were barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2 (99⋅9%,. CDH) ... CDH), ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid. ... was then heated on a hot plate at ~ 250°C. The solution.

  11. Synthesis of mono-dispersed nanofluids using solution plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Yong Kang, E-mail: yk@rd.numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Materials Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta, E-mail: maria@rd.numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Materials Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Knowledge Hub Aichi, Yakusa-cho, Nagakute-ku, Toyota (Japan); Ueno, Tomonaga, E-mail: tomo@rd.numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Materials Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Nagahiro, E-mail: hiro@rd.numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Materials Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Knowledge Hub Aichi, Yakusa-cho, Nagakute-ku, Toyota (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-14

    Small-sized and well-dispersed gold nanoparticles (NPs) for nanofluidics have been synthesized by electrical discharge in liquid environment using termed solution plasma processing (SPP). Electrons and the hydrogen radicals are reducing the gold ions to the neutral form in plasma gas phase and liquid phase, respectively. The gold NPs have the smallest diameter of 4.9 nm when the solution temperature was kept at 20 °C. Nucleation and growth theory describe the evolution of the NP diameter right after the reduction reaction in function of the system temperature, NP surface energy, dispersion energy barrier, and nucleation rate. Negative charges on the NPs surface during and after SPP generate repulsive forces among the NPs avoiding their agglomeration in solution. Increasing the average energy in the SPP determines a decrease of the zeta potential and an increase of the NPs diameter. An important enhancement of the thermal conductivity of 9.4% was measured for the synthesized nanofluids containing NPs with the smallest size.

  12. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} ceramic powders prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer, M.T.; Chinarro, E.; Jurado, J.R. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Ist. de Ceramica y Vidrio

    2002-07-01

    Combustion synthesis provides an attractive method of producing ceramic powders because of its low cost, process simplicity and fastness. Materials based on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} can be successfully prepared by combustion synthesis. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} (x = 0, 0.1) accommodates oxygen excess by oxygen interstitials rather than by the more usual cation vacancies. A high concentration of oxygen interstitials offers the possibility of rapid oxygen transport through the ceramic material and thus provide a new type of mixed ionic-electronic conductor. The fast oxide ion diffusion combined with its thermal stability indicate that these materials would be good candidates for use in ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The present work discusses a combustion synthesis technique to prepare La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} (x = 0, 0.1) powders using the corresponding metal nitrates-urea mixtures, at low temperature and short reaction times. The as-prepared combustion powders were characterized by XRD, DTA-TG, SEM/TEM-EDX and BET. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.1) powders with a good compositional control and homogeneity are attained. The as-prepared powders obtained at 300 C (ignition temperature) showed much higher specific surface area than powders obtained via alternative routes and contained La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}, as the major phase present, together with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a small amount of NiO. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} single phase is achieved, respectively at 950 C for x =0.1 and at 975 C for x = 0. (orig.)

  13. The KASY synthesis programme for the approximative solution of the 3-dimensional neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckel, G.; Wouters, R. de; Pilate, S.

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis code KASY for an approximate solution of the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is described; the state of the art as well as envisaged program extensions and the application to tasks from the field of reactor designing are dealt with. (RW) [de

  14. Synthesis and characterization of homogeneous interstitial solutions of nitrogen and carbon in iron-based lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian Klüge

    work in synthesis and characterization of interstitial solutions ofnitrogen and carbon in iron-based lattices. In order to avoid the influences of gradients incomposition and residual stresses, which are typically found in treated surface layers,homogenous samples are needed. These were prepared from...

  15. Synthesis of vanadium oxide powders by evaporative decomposition of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, S.A.; Theby, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Powders of the vanadium oxides V 2 O 4 , V 6 O 13 , and V 2 O 5 were produced by thermal decomposition of aqueous solutions of vanadyl sulfate hydrate in atmospheres of N 2 , H 2 mixed with N 2 , or air. The composition of the oxide powder was determined by the reactor temperature and gas composition. Residual sulfur concentrations in powders produced by decomposition at 740 C were less than 1 at.%, and these powders consisted of hollow, roughly spherical aggregates of particles less than 1 microm in diameter

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of Li2B4O7:Cu, B phosphor synthesized using solution combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, A.; Altunal, V.; Kurt, K.; Depci, T.; Yu, Y.; Lawrence, Y.; Nur, N.; Guckan, V.; Yegingil, Z.

    2017-12-01

    To determine the effects of various concentrations of the activators copper (Cu) and boron (B) on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of lithium tetraborate, the phosphor was first synthesized and doped with five different concentrations of copper (0.1-0.005 wt%) using solution combustion method. 0.01 wt% Cu was the concentration which showed the most significant increase in the sensitivity of the phosphor. The second sort of Li2B4O7:Cu material was prepared by adding B (0.001-0.03 wt%) to it. The newly developed copper-boron activated lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7:Cu, B) material with 0.01 wt% Cu and 0.001 wt% B impurity concentrations was shown to have promise as a TL phosphor. The material formation was examined using powder x-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of the synthesized polycrystalline powder sample was also recorded. The TL glow curves were analyzed to determine various dosimetric characteristics of the synthesized luminophosphors. The dose response increased in a ;linear; way with the beta-ray exposure between 0.1-20 Gy, a dose range being interested in medical dosimetry. The response with changing photon and electron energy was studied. The rate of decay of the TL signal was investigated both for dark storage and under direct sunlight. Li2B4O7:Cu, B showed no individual variation of response in 9 recycling measurements. The fluorescence spectrum was determined. The kinetic parameters were estimated by different methods and the results discussed. The studied properties of synthesized Li2B4O7:Cu, B were found all favorable for dosimetric purposes.

  17. Conventional and microwave combustion synthesis of optomagnetic CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for hyperthermia studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombaiah, K.; Vijaya, J. Judith; Kennedy, L. John; Bououdina, M.; Al-Najar, Basma

    2018-04-01

    Nanosized copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared by conventional (CCM) and microwave (MCM) combustion methods using Hibiscus rosa sinensis plant extract as a fuel. XRD and rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single cubic phase and with crystallite size varying from 25 to 62 nm owing to grain growth after calcination. FT-IR analysis confirms the modes of the cubic CuFe2O4 phase, due to the stretching and bending vibrations. Spherical shaped particles are observed by scanning electron microscopy and the average particle size is found to be in the range of 50-200 nm. The chemical composition is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk function with the help of UV-Visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy, is found to be 2.34 and 2.22 eV for CCM and MCM respectively. Photoluminescence analysis indicates that both samples absorb light in the UV-visible region and exhibit emissions at 360, 376, and 412 nm. Magnetic measurements indicate a ferromagnetic behavior, where both magnetic properties very much influenced by the preparation method and calcination temperature: both saturation magnetization and coercivity are found higher when using CCM and MCM; from 29.40 to 34.09 emu/g while almost double from 224.4 to 432.2 Oe. The observed changes in physical properties are mainly associated with crystallinity, particle size, better chemical homogeneity, and cations distribution among tetrahedral/octahedral sites. The maximum specific absorption rate obtained was 14.63 W/g, which can be considered suitable and favorable for magnetic hyperthermia. This study highlighted the benefits of green synthesis of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles providing better magnetic properties for the platform of hyperthermia application.

  18. Research and Education of CO{sub 2} Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-09-30

    A novel method using environment-friendly chemical magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) solution to capture carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants flue gas has been studied under this project in the post-combustion control area. The project utilizes the chemistry underlying the CO{sub 2}-Mg(OH){sub 2} system and proven and well-studied mass transfer devices for high levels of CO{sub 2} removal. The major goals of this research were to select and design an appropriate absorber which can absorb greater than 90% CO{sub 2} gas with low energy costs, and to find and optimize the operating conditions for the regeneration step. During the project period, we studied the physical and chemical characteristics of the scrubbing agent, the reaction taking place in the system, development and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gas absorber, desorption mechanism, and operation and optimization of continuous operation. Both batch and continuous operations were performed to examine the effects of various parameters including liquid-to-gas ratio, residence time, lean solvent concentration, pressure drop, bed height, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, bubble size, pH, and temperature on the absorption. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles, formation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO{sub 3}), and vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLSE) of the system were also studied. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles and the steady release of magnesium ions into the solution was a crucial step to maintain a level of alkalinity in the CO{sub 2} absorption process. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model, and the dissolution reaction between proton ions and Mg(OH){sub 2} particles was found to be a rate-controlling step. The intrinsic surface reaction kinetics was found to be a strong function of temperature, and its kinetic expression was obtained. The kinetics of MgCO{sub 3} formation was also studied in terms of different pH values and temperatures, and was enhanced under high p

  19. Combustion and gasification of solid biomass: energy solutions for the Amazon; Combustao e gasificacao de biomassa solida: solucoes energeticas para a Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Eduardo Jose Fagundes; Rendeiro, Goncalo; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Brasil, Augusto Cesar de Mendonca; Cruz, Daniel Onofre de Almeida; Guerra, Danielle Regina da Silva; Macedo, Emanuel Negrao; Ichihara, Jorge de Araujo

    2008-07-01

    For electrify isolated rural communities in the Amazon, the Ministerio de Minas e Energia - MME (Brazilian Mining and Energy Ministry), promoted under the 'Luz para todos' (Light for All) program, a series of activities aimed at the development and implementation of projects for small- scale power generation and training professionals, in the region, for the deployment of alternative energy solutions from renewable energy sources. Among these activities are the production of the collection 'Energy Solutions for the Amazon', consisting of five volumes. This is the fourth volume in the series that presents an overview of the combustion and gasification of solid biomass.

  20. NIR to visible upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped CaYAl3O7 phosphor obtained by solution combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Nordmann, Joerg; Haase, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Using the combustion synthesis, CaYAl 3 O 7 :Er 3+ phosphor powders co-doped with Yb 3+ have been prepared at low temperatures (550 o C) in a few minutes. Formation of the compound was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. Near-infrared to visible upconversion fluorescence emission in the Er 3+ doped CaYAl 3 O 7 phosphor powder has been observed. The effect of co-doping with triply ionized ytterbium in the CaYAl 3 O 7 :Er 3+ phosphor has been studied and the process involved is discussed. - Highlights: → The green emitting up-conversion CaYAl 3 O 7 :Er 3+ phosphor powders co-doped with Yb 3+ have been prepared by easy combustion method. → The combustion method is a simple, energy saving, fast and economical viable process. → The luminescence intensity in the co-doped phosphor is enhanced by several times compared to that of the singly (Er 3+ ) doped phosphor.

  1. The synthesis of nucleotide in the aqueous solution induced by low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Wang Xiangqin; Yu Zengliang

    2000-08-01

    A new apparatus was designed to induce reactions in aqueous solution by introducing low energy ions into the aqueous solution, this apparatus overcome the defaults of the old ones which demanded vacuum and made it possible to study the action among solutions, it also expanded the ion implantation biology. The role of low energy ions was introduced into the study of the origin of life, primitive earth conditions were imitated to study prior-life synthesis of nucleotide by introducing low energy ions into aqueous solution, low energy N + was implanted into adenine supersaturation solution including D-ribose and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , it was confirmed that 5'-AMP was gained by HPLC analysis of the products. In comparison with other methods in this field, this one is simpler and nearer to the primitive earth conditions, thus it provided a new try for the studying of the origin of life

  2. Pyrimidine homoribonucleosides: synthesis, solution conformation, and some biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassota, P; Kuśmierek, J T; Stolarski, R; Shugar, D

    1987-05-01

    Conversion of uridine and cytidine to their 5'-O-tosyl derivatives, followed by cyanation with tetraethylammonium cyanide, reduction and deamination, led to isolation of the hitherto unknown homouridine (1-(5'-deoxy-beta-D-allofuranosyl)uracil) and homocytidine (1-(5'-deoxy-beta-D-allofuranosyl)cytosine), analogues of uridine and cytidine in which the exocyclic 5'-CH2OH chain is extended by one carbon to CH2CH2OH. Homocytidine was also phosphorylated to its 6'-phosphate and 6'-pyrophosphate analogues. In addition, it was converted, via its 2,2'-anhydro derivative, to arahomocytidine, an analogue of the chemotherapeutically active araC. The structures of all the foregoing were established by various criteria, including 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, both of which were also applied to analyses of the solution conformations of the various compounds, particularly as regards the conformations of the exocyclic chains. The behaviour of the homo analogues was examined in several enzymatic systems. Homocytidine was a feeble substrate, without inhibitory properties, of E. coli cytidine deaminase. Homocytidine was an excellent substrate for wheat shoot nucleoside phosphotransferase; while homouridine was a good substrate for E. coli uridine phosphorylase. Although homoCMP was neither a substrate, nor an inhibitor, of snake venom 5'-nucleotidase, homoCDP was a potent inhibitor of this enzyme (Ki approximately 6 microM). HomoCDP was not a substrate for M. luteus polynucleotide phosphorylase. None of the compounds exhibited significant activity vs herpes simplex virus type 1, or cytotoxic activity in several mammalian cell lines.

  3. Ultrafast one-step combustion synthesis and thermoelectric properties of In-doped Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuyang [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Liu, Guanghua, E-mail: liugh02@163.com [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Li, Jiangtao, E-mail: lijiangtao@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Chen, Kexin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics & Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); He, Gang; Yang, Zengchao; Han, Yemao; Zhou, Min; Li, Laifeng [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Bulk In-doped Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} samples were prepared by a fast and one-step method of high-gravity combustion synthesis. All the synthesized samples were dense with relative densities of >98%. The influence of Indium-doping on the phase composition of the samples was investigated. SEM and EDS measurements confirm the existence of SnSe and Cu{sub 2}Se as secondary phase in the Cu{sub 2}Sn{sub 1−x}In{sub x}Se{sub 3} samples. In addition, the experimental results show that there is a solubility limit of indium in the Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} matrix. The thermoelectric properties of the samples were measured in a temperature range from 323 K to 773 K, and the Cu{sub 2}Sn{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2}Se{sub 3} sample achieved a maximum ZT of 0.65 at 773 K, which was comparable with the best-reported result for Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} materials prepared by conventional sintering approaches. With much reduced time and energy consumption, high-gravity combustion synthesis may offer a more efficient and economical way for producing thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • Dense bulk Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} materials are prepared by one-step combustion synthesis. • The solubility limit of Indium into the Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} matrix has been discussed. • A maximum ZT of 0.65 is obtained for the Cu{sub 2}Sn{sub 1−x}In{sub x}Se{sub 3} (x = 0.2) at 773 K.

  4. Photon up-conversion production in Tb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped CaF{sub 2} phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, Nikifor, E-mail: nikifor.gomez@univasf.edu.br [PG—Ciência dos Materiais, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, 48902-300 Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Renato B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Maciel, Glauco S., E-mail: glauco@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Up-conversion luminescence from Tb{sup 3+} obtained by energy transfer from Yb{sup 3+} pairs in CaF{sub 2} powder prepared by combustion synthesis. - Highlights: • Calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) powders were prepared by combustion synthesis. • Rare-earth ions doped in this material were found in interstitial sites. • Cooperative up-conversion was observed in Tb{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}:CaF{sub 2} powder. • Energy transfer between Tb{sup 3+} and pairs of Yb{sup 3+} was analyzed using rate equations. - Abstract: Calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) crystalline powders were successfully prepared by the combustion synthesis method. The powder material containing luminescent rare-earth ions, more specifically terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) and ytterbium (Yb{sup 3+}), was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and optical spectroscopy. These ions are allocated in charge compensated interstitial positions of tetragonal (C{sub 4v}) and trigonal (C{sub 3v}) symmetry sites of the cubic (O{sub h}) CaF{sub 2} lattice. Up-conversion (UC) luminescence in Tb{sup 3+} was achieved using a low power diode laser operating at 975 nm. Tb{sup 3+} is insensitive to near-infrared radiation but UC can be achieved via energy transfer from pairs of Yb{sup 3+} ions to Tb{sup 3+} ions. The UC luminescence dynamics of Tb{sup 3+} was used to study the energy transfer mechanism.

  5. Hydrogen storage properties of Mg-23.3wt.%Ni eutectic alloy prepared via hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquan Li; Yunfeng Zhu; Xiaofeng Liu

    2006-01-01

    A Mg-23.3wt.%Ni eutectic alloy was prepared by the process of hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling (HCS+MM). The product showed a high hydriding rate at 373 K and the dehydrogenation started at temperature as low as 423 K. Several reasons contributing to the improvement in hydrogen storage properties were presented. The result of this study will provide attractive information for mobile applications of magnesium hydrogen storage materials, and the process of HCS+MM developed in this study showed its potential for synthesizing magnesium based hydrogen storage materials with novel hydriding/de-hydriding properties. (authors)

  6. Fundamental aspects of nucleation and growth in the solution-phase synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Codoluto, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via the solution phase reduction of germanium(ii) iodide. We report a systematic investigation of the nanocrystal nucleation and growth as a function of synthesis conditions including the nature of coordinating solvents, surface bound ligands, synthesis duration and temperature. NC synthesis in reaction environments with weakly bound phosphine surface ligand led to the coalescence of nascent particles leading to ensembles with broad lognormal particle diameter distributions. Synthesis in the presence of amine or alkene ligands mitigated particle coalescence. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs revealed that NCs grown in the presence of weak ligands had a high crystal defect density whereas NCs grown in amine solutions were predominantly defect-free. We applied infrared spectroscopy to study the NC surface chemistry and showed that alkene ligands project the NCs from surface oxidation. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements showed that alkene ligands passivate surface traps, as indicated by infrared fluorescence, conversely oxidized phosphine and amine passivated NCs did not fluoresce. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-morpholinoaniline in aqueous solutions: Synthesis of a new trimer of 4-morpholinoaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Roya; Nematollahi, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Electrochemical study of 4-morpholinoaniline in various pHs. → Electrochemical trimerization of 4-morpholinoaniline in aqueous solution. → Green method for the synthesis of '4-morpholinoaniline-trimer'. → Potential-pH diagram for 4-morpholinoaniline. - Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation of 4-morpholinoaniline has been studied in various pHs using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The electrochemical trimerization of 4-morpholinoaniline is described and its mechanism has been studied in aqueous solution. This method provides a green, reagent-less, and environmentally friendly procedure with high atom economy, for the synthesis of '4-morpholinoaniline-trimer' using a carbon electrode in an undivided cell in good yield and purity.

  8. Solution-phase parallel synthesis of a library of delta(2)-pyrazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyem, Shankar; Sibi, Mukund P; Lushington, Gerald H; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Schoenen, Frank; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A parallel synthesis of a library (80 members) of 2-pyrazolines in solution phase is described. The 2-pyrazoline core was accessed through the [3 + 2] cycloaddition of nitrilimines with enoyl oxazolidinones. The cycloaddition provided two regioisomers, the major product being the C regioisomer. The oxazolidinone moiety was further reduced to the primary alcohol, producing another library of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrazolines. The Lipinski profiles and calculated ADME properties of the compounds are also reported.

  9. Synthesis and solution self-assembly of side-chain cobaltocenium-containing block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixia; Hardy, Christopher G; Tang, Chuanbing

    2010-07-07

    The synthesis of side-chain cobaltocenium-containing block copolymers and their self-assembly in solution was studied. Highly pure monocarboxycobaltocenium was prepared and subsequently attached to side chains of poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate), yielding poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl cobaltoceniumcarboxylate). The cobaltocenium block copolymers exhibited vesicle morphology in the mixture of acetone and water, while micelles of nanotubes were formed in the mixture of acetone and chloroform.

  10. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  11. Fischer Indole Synthesis in the Gas Phase, the Solution Phase, and at the Electrospray Droplet Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M; Ayrton, Stephen T; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-07-01

    Previous reports have shown that reactions occurring in the microdroplets formed during electrospray ionization can, under the right conditions, exhibit significantly greater rates than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reactions. The observed acceleration under electrospray ionization could result from a solution-phase, a gas-phase, or an interfacial reaction. This study shows that a gas-phase ion/molecule (or ion/ion) reaction is not responsible for the observed rate enhancement in the particular case of the Fischer indole synthesis. The results show that the accelerated reaction proceeds in the microdroplets, and evidence is provided that an interfacial process is involved. Graphical Abstract GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT TEXT HERE] -->.

  12. Microwave combustion synthesis of in situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Zr reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Heguo, E-mail: zhg1200@sina.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Nano Materials and Technology, Jiangsu Province Higher Education Institutions, 210094 (China); Synergetic Center for Advanced Materials Research, Jiangsu Province Higher Education Institutions, 210094 (China); Hua, Bo; Cui, Tao; Huang, Jiewen; Li, Jianliang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Xie, Zonghan, E-mail: zonghan.xie@adelaide.edu.au [School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2015-08-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Zr reinforced aluminum matrix composites were fabricated from Al and ZrO{sub 2} powders by SiC assisted microwave combustion synthesis. The microstructure and reaction pathways were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the heating rate during microwave synthesis was very high and the entire process took several minutes and that the ignition temperature of the reaction was much lower than that of conventional methods. In addition, the resulting microstructure was found to be finer than that prepared by the conventional methods and no cracks can be seen in the Al{sub 3}Zr reinforcements. As such, the newly developed composites have potential for safety-critical applications where catastrophic failure is not tolerated.

  13. The Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Chemical Reduction of Silver Salt Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Budi Harmani; Dewi Sondari; Agus Haryono

    2008-01-01

    Described in this research are the synthesis of silver nanoparticle produced by chemical reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO 3 ) solution. As a reducer, sodium citrate (C 6 H 5 O 7 Na 3 ) was used. Preparation of silver colloid is done by using chemical reduction method. In typical experiment 150 ml of 1.10 -3 M AgNO 3 solution was heated with temperature variation such as 90, 100, 110 degree of Celsius. To this solution 15 ml of 1 % trisodium citrate was added into solution drop by drop during heating. During the process, solution was mixed vigorously. Solution was heated until colour's change is evident (pale yellow solution is formed). Then it was removed from the heating element and stirred until cooled to room temperature. Experimental result showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloid solution is about 28.3 nm (Ag colloid, 90 o C); 19.9 nm (Ag colloid, 100 o C)and 26.4 nm (Ag colloid, 110 o C). Characterization of the silver nanoparticle colloid conducted by using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Particles Size Analyzer (PSA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) indicate the produced structures of silver nanoparticles. (author)

  14. The use of physiological solutions or media in calcium phosphate synthesis and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A Cuneyt

    2014-05-01

    This review examined the literature to spot uses, if any, of physiological solutions/media for the in situ synthesis of calcium phosphates (CaP) under processing conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, concentration of inorganic ions present in media) mimicking those prevalent in the human hard tissue environments. There happens to be a variety of aqueous solutions or media developed for different purposes; sometimes they have been named as physiological saline, isotonic solution, cell culture solution, metastable CaP solution, supersaturated calcification solution, simulated body fluid or even dialysate solution (for dialysis patients). Most of the time such solutions were not used as the aqueous medium to perform the biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphates, and their use was usually limited to the in vitro testing of synthetic biomaterials. This review illustrates that only a limited number of research studies used physiological solutions or media such as Earle's balanced salt solution, Bachra et al. solutions or Tris-buffered simulated body fluid solution containing 27mM HCO3(-) for synthesizing CaP, and these studies have consistently reported the formation of X-ray-amorphous CaP nanopowders instead of Ap-CaP or stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) at 37°C and pH 7.4. By relying on the published articles, this review highlights the significance of the use of aqueous solutions containing 0.8-1.5 mMMg(2+), 22-27mM HCO3(-), 142-145mM Na(+), 5-5.8mM K(+), 103-133mM Cl(-), 1.8-3.75mM Ca(2+), and 0.8-1.67mM HPO4(2-), which essentially mimic the composition and the overall ionic strength of the human extracellular fluid (ECF), in forming the nanospheres of X-ray-amorphous CaP. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the synthesis conditions for nano-Bi_4Ti_3O_1_2 production by the combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Jeferson A.; Nascimento, Cassia C.; Oliveira, Jessica A.; Morelli, Marcio R.

    2016-01-01

    The bismuth titanate has interesting optoelectronic properties. Its production in nanometric scale is important due to the demand of miniaturized electronic devices and greater synthesization facility. This study aims at the evaluation of synthesis parameters for nano-Bi_4Ti_3O_1_2 production by the combustion route. For that, the materials were synthesized and calcined at 600°C, 700°C and 800°C. The materials were posteriorly characterized by X-Ray diffraction, SEM, DSC-TGA, FTIR; DRS and impedance spectroscopy. The results have demonstrated that the combustion method was effective for nanocrystalline powders production, which also showed high levels of purity. Particles size growth was observed for high treatment temperatures. Low level of residual organic matter was determined and the high electrical resistivity was observed. The temperature of 600°C was enough to produce particles with optimal properties. Therefore, the results have confirmed the efficacy of combustion route to produce nanometric Bi_4Ti_3O_1_2. (author)

  16. Effect of particle- and specimen-level transport on product state in compacted-powder combustion synthesis and thermal debinding of polymers from molded powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amir Antonio Martins

    The existence of large gradients within particles and fast temporal variations in the temperature and species concentration prevents the use of asymptotic approximations for the closure of the volume-averaged, specimen-level formulations. In this case a solution of the particle-level transport problem is needed to complement the specimen-level volume-averaged equations. Here, the use of combined specimen-level and particle-level models for transport in reactive porous media is demonstrated with two examples. For the gasless compacted-powder combustion synthesis, a three-scale model is developed. The specimen-level model is based on the volume-averaged equations for species and temperature. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed and the macroscopic mass diffusion and convection fluxes are neglected. The particle-level model accounts for the interparticle diffusion (i.e., the liquid migration from liquid-rich to liquid-lean regions) and the intraparticle diffusion (i.e., the species mass diffusion within the product layer formed at the surface of the high melting temperature component). It is found that the interparticle diffusion controls the extent of conversion to the final product, the maximum temperature, and to a smaller degree the propagation velocity. The intraparticle diffusion controls the propagation velocity and to a smaller degree the maximum temperature. The initial stages of thermal degradation of EVA from molded specimens is modeled using volume-averaged equations for the species and empirical models for the kinetics of the thermal degradation, the vapor-liquid equilibrium, and the diffusion coefficient of acetic acid in the molten polymer. It is assumed that a bubble forms when the partial pressure of acetic acid exceeds the external ambient pressure. It is found that the removal of acetic acid is characterized by two regimes, a pre-charge dominated regime and a generation dominated regime. For the development of an optimum debinding schedule, the

  17. Template-Assisted Wet-Combustion Synthesis of Fibrous Nickel-Based Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Methanation and Methane Steam Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayan, M; Potemkin, D I; Rubio-Marcos, F; Uskov, S I; Snytnikov, P V; Hussainova, I

    2017-12-20

    Efficient capture and recycling of CO 2 enable not only prevention of global warming but also the supply of useful low-carbon fuels. The catalytic conversion of CO 2 into an organic compound is a promising recycling approach which opens new concepts and opportunities for catalytic and industrial development. Here we report about template-assisted wet-combustion synthesis of a one-dimensional nickel-based catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation and methane steam reforming. Because of a high temperature achieved in a short time during reaction and a large amount of evolved gases, the wet-combustion synthesis yields homogeneously precipitated nanoparticles of NiO with average particle size of 4 nm on alumina nanofibers covered with a NiAl 2 O 4 nanolayer. The as-synthesized core-shell structured fibers exhibit outstanding activity in steam reforming of methane and sufficient activity in carbon dioxide methanation with 100% selectivity toward methane formation. The as-synthesized catalyst shows stable operation under the reaction conditions for at least 50 h.

  18. Combustion synthesis as a novel approach in preparation of polycrystalline Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebrel, Z., E-mail: z_gebrel@yahoo.com; Blanusa, J.; Spasojevic, V.; Kusigerski, V.; Mrakovic, A.; Alqat, A.; Perovic, M.

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} was successfully synthesized by both the glycine–nitrate and SHS method. •The reduction of synthesis duration down to 12 h has been achieved. •The detailed crystal structure and magnetic analyses of obtained material are provided. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} were for the first time sintered from precursors obtained by two combustion routes – the glycine–nitrate method (sample S1) and a modified self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (sample S2). The detailed X-ray diffraction analysis has confirmed that both samples are well crystallized and single phase, with the high crystallization degree and cation ordering within a Cu sublattice. Magnetic characterization has shown magnetic behavior typical of pure Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The distinctive advantages of these new synthesis routes in comparison to the ceramic sintering are in simplification of the overall procedure as well as in a significant reduction of synthesis duration from several days down to 31 h (S1) or 12 h (S2)

  19. Synthesis of SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} by combustion synthesis; Obtencao do SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} utilizando a sintese por combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Sousa, V.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LABIOMAT/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais de Biomateriais

    2009-07-01

    The combustion synthesis is a low cost technique for obtaining homogeneous nanostructured compounds with high purity. The ferroelectric memory devices have been widely studied by the electronics industry by presenting high-speed recording, read and rewrite. The PZT, in the form of thin films, is the ceramic materials most used for this purpose, but it presents ferroelectric fatigue. The SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} has a high cycle enables the recording which is good applicability in the PZT. Therefore, this work aims to obtain the SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} using the combustion synthesis and urea as a reducing agent. The characterization of the powder was realized used the technique of x-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the phases present and to evaluate surface area by the BET method. The powder obtained after synthesis showed low crystallinity presenting just the BiOCl like the crystalline phase present, but heat treatment at 800 deg C for 2 hours was sufficient for the formation of SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} . (author)

  20. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  1. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-03-01

    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO 2 to TiO 2 @C and TiO 2 @MnO 2 to TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO 2 shells in TiO 2 @C and organic shells of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C. The TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s -1 ), while the absence of MnO 2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO 2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO 2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis, structural investigation and magnetic properties of Zn2+ substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, A.V.; Barkule, R.S.; Shengule, D.R.; Jadhav, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural morphology and magnetic properties of the Co 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (0.0≤x≥1.0) spinel ferrite system synthesized by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique using nitrates of respective metal ions have been studied. The ratio of metal nitrates to citric acid was taken at 1:3. The as prepared powder of cobalt zinc ferrite was sintered at 600 °C for 12 h after TG/DTA thermal studies. Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive analysis of the X-ray (EDAX) technique. Single phase cubic spinel structure of Co–Zn nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD data. The average crystallite size (t), lattice constant (a) and other structural parameters of zinc substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were calculated from XRD followed by SEM and FTIR. It is observed that the sol–gel auto-combustion technique has many advantages for the synthesis of technologically applicable Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. The present investigation clearly shows the effect of the synthesis method and possible relation between magnetic properties and microstructure of the prepared samples. Increase in nonmagnetic Zn 2+ content in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is followed by decrease in n B , M s and other magnetic parameters. Squareness ratio for the Co-ferrite was 1.096 at room temperature. - Highlights: • Co–Zn nanoparticles are prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Structural properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, and FTIR. • Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by EDAX analysis. • Magnetic parameters were measured by the pulse field hysteresis loop technique

  3. Synthesis, structural investigation and magnetic properties of Zn{sup 2+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, A.V., E-mail: nano9993@gmail.com [Vivekanand Arts and Sardar Dalipsingh Commerce and Science College, Aurangabad, 431004 Maharastra (India); Barkule, R.S.; Shengule, D.R. [Vivekanand Arts and Sardar Dalipsingh Commerce and Science College, Aurangabad, 431004 Maharastra (India); Jadhav, K.M., E-mail: drjadhavkm@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, 431004 Maharastra (India)

    2014-05-01

    Structural morphology and magnetic properties of the Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0≤x≥1.0) spinel ferrite system synthesized by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique using nitrates of respective metal ions have been studied. The ratio of metal nitrates to citric acid was taken at 1:3. The as prepared powder of cobalt zinc ferrite was sintered at 600 °C for 12 h after TG/DTA thermal studies. Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive analysis of the X-ray (EDAX) technique. Single phase cubic spinel structure of Co–Zn nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD data. The average crystallite size (t), lattice constant (a) and other structural parameters of zinc substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were calculated from XRD followed by SEM and FTIR. It is observed that the sol–gel auto-combustion technique has many advantages for the synthesis of technologically applicable Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. The present investigation clearly shows the effect of the synthesis method and possible relation between magnetic properties and microstructure of the prepared samples. Increase in nonmagnetic Zn{sup 2+} content in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is followed by decrease in n{sub B}, M{sub s} and other magnetic parameters. Squareness ratio for the Co-ferrite was 1.096 at room temperature. - Highlights: • Co–Zn nanoparticles are prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Structural properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, and FTIR. • Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by EDAX analysis. • Magnetic parameters were measured by the pulse field hysteresis loop technique.

  4. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB 2 O 4 , BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β−BaB 2 O 4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na 2 B 4 O 7⋅ 10H 2 O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI 2⋅ 2H 2 O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique

  5. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-12-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7ṡ10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2ṡ2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  6. The first preparative solution phase synthesis of melanotan II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanotan II is a synthetic cyclic heptapeptide used to prevent a sunlight-induced skin cancer by stimulating the skin tanning process. In this paper we report the first solution phase synthesis of the title compound. The hexapeptide sequence has been assembled by [(2+2+1+1] scheme. After removing the orthogonal protection, a carbodiimide mediated lactamization, involving the ε-amino group of lysine and γ-carboxy group of aspartic acid, led to a cyclic intermediate. Appending N-acetylnorleucine concluded the assembly of melanotan II molecule. Protection of the lateral groups in arginine and tryptophan was omitted for atom and step economy reasons. The total synthesis of melanotan II was accomplished in 12 steps with 2.6% overall yield, affording >90% pure peptide without using preparative chromatography.

  7. Microwave combustion synthesis of hexagonal prism shaped ZnO nanoparticles and effect of Cr on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yathisha, R.O. [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577 451, Karnataka (India); Nayaka, Y. Arthoba, E-mail: drarthoba@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577 451, Karnataka (India); Vidyasagar, C.C. [Department of Chemistry, School of Basic Sciences, Ranichannamma University, Belgaum 591156, Karnataka (India)

    2016-09-15

    The synthesis and study of semiconducting nanostructure materials have become a considerable interdisciplinary area of research over the past few decades. The control of morphologies and effective doping by right dopant are the two tasks for the synthesis of semiconducting nanoparticles. The present work outlines the synthesis of ZnO and Cr-ZnO nanoparticles via microwave combustion method without using any fuel. The crystal morphology, optical and electrical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction study (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive analysis using X-rays (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Keithley source meter. The crystal size was determined from XRD, whose values were found to be decreased with increase in the concentration of Cr up to 2 wt% and further increase in the dopant concentration resulted the formation secondary phase (ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Scanning electron micrographs shows the hexagonal prism structure of ZnO and Cr-ZnO nanoparticles. EDAX shows the existence of Cr ion in the Cr-ZnO. The optical properties and bandgap studies were undertaken by UV–Visible spectroscopy. I-V characterization study was performed to determine the electrical property of ZnO and Cr-ZnO films. - Highlights: • The prism shaped Zn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) was prepared by microwave combustion method. • Effect of Cr on the properties of ZnO was reported. • Change in crystal size was explained by lattice strain and Zener-Pinning effect. • The optical measurements shows up to 8 wt% of Cr doping had more efficient. • Compared to ZnO, Cr doped ZnO enhance the photo voltaic activity.

  8. Solution based synthesis of perovskite-type oxide films and powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHale, J.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional solid state reactions are diffusion limited processes that require high temperatures and long reaction times to reach completion. In this work, several solution based methods were utilized to circumvent this diffusion limited reaction and achieve product formation at lower temperatures. The solution methods studied all have the common goal of trapping the homogeneity inherent in a solution and transferring this homogeneity to the solid state, thereby creating a solid atomic mixture of reactants. These atomic mixtures can yield solid state products through diffusionless mechanisms. The effectiveness of atomic mixtures in solid state synthesis was tested on three classes of materials, varying in complexity. A procedure was invented for obtaining the highly water soluble salt, titanyl nitrate, TiO(NO 3 ) 2 , in crystalline form, which allowed the production of titanate materials by freeze drying. The freeze drying procedures yielded phase pure, nanocrystalline BaTiO 3 and the complete SYNROC-B phase assemblage after ten minute heat treatments at 600 C and 1,100 C, respectively. Two novel methods were developed for the solution based synthesis of Ba 2 YCu 3 O 7-x and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 . Thin and thick films of Ba 2 YCu 3 O 7-x and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 were synthesized by an atmospheric pressure, chemical vapor deposition technique. Liquid ammonia solutions of metal nitrates were atomized with a stream of N 2 O and ignited with a hydrogen/oxygen torch. The resulting flame was used to coat a substrate with superconducting material. Bulk powders of Ba 2 YCu 3 O 7-x and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 were synthesized through a novel acetate glass method. The materials prepared were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, TGA, DTA, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements

  9. Differential behaviour of combustion and gasification fly ash from Puertollano Power Plants (Spain) for the synthesis of zeolites and silica extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, O.; Moreno, N.; Diez, S.; Querol, X.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Coca, P.; Garcia Pena, F.

    2009-01-01

    Coal gasification (IGCC) and pulverised coal combustion (PCC) fly ashes (FAs), obtained from two power plants fed with the carboniferous bituminous coal from Puertollano (Spain), were characterised and used as raw materials for zeolite synthesis by direct conversion (DC) and by alkaline fusion (Fu), and SiO 2 extraction (Si-Ex) at laboratory scale. The Puertollano FAs are characterised by a high SiO 2 content (59%) with respect to EU coal FAs. High zeolite synthesis yields were obtained from both FAs by using conventional alkaline activation. However, the Si extraction yields were very different. The results of the zeolite synthesis from the Si-bearing extracts from both FAs demonstrated that high purity zeolites with high cation exchange capacity (CEC, between 4.3 and 5.3 meq/g) can be produced. The solid residue arising from Si-Ex is also a relatively high NaP1 zeolite product (CEC 2.4-2.7 meq/g) equivalent to the DC products. The zeolitic materials synthesised from both FAs by Fu showed an intermediate (between the high purity zeolites and the DC products) zeolite content with CEC values from 3.4 to 3.7 meq/g. Low leachable metal contents were obtained from high purity A and X zeolites and zeolite material synthesised by Fu for PCC FA.

  10. High temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca3Co4O9+δ by auto-combustion synthesis and spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Holgate, Tim; Van Nong, Ngo

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method for the synthesis of Ca3Co4O9+δpowder is introduced. The procedure is a modification of the conventional citric-nitrate sol–gelmethod where an auto-combustion process is initiated by a controlled thermal oxidation–reduction reaction. The resulting powders inherit theadvantages...

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of pollucite, analcime and their solid solutions and analysis of their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Zhenzi, E-mail: zzjing@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Cai, Kunchuan; Li, Yan; Fan, Junjie; Zhang, Yi; Miao, Jiajun; Chen, Yuqian [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Jin, Fangming [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Pollucite, as a perfect long-term potential host for radioactive Cs immobilization, barely exists in pure form naturally but in an isomorphism form between pollucite and analcime due to coexistence of Cs and Na. Pollucite could be hydrothermally synthesized with Cs-polluted soil or clay minerals which contain Cs and Na, and it is necessary to study the properties of the synthesis if Cs and Na contained. Pure pollucite, analcime and their solid solutions were hydrothermally synthesized with chemicals, and it was found that the most formed pollucite analcime solid solutions with Cs/(Cs + Na) ratios of 2/6–5/6 had very similar properties in mineral composition, morphology and size, structural water (Cs cations) and coordination environment to pollucite. This also suggests that even coexistence of Cs and Na in nature, pollucite favors to form due to site preference for Cs over Na, which leads to the property and the structure of the most solid solutions similar to that of pollucite. - Highlights: •Pure pollucite barely exists in nature due to coexistence of Cs and Na. •Pollucite, analcime and their solid solutions could be hydrothermally synthesized. •Most formed solid solutions were found to have similar properties to pollucite. •Even coexistence in nature, pollucite favors to form due to site preference for Cs over Na.

  12. Combustion synthesis of CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors in a closed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Wenfang; Zou Shaoyu; Liu Guanxi; Xiao Quanlan; Zhang Rui; Xie Lijuan; Cao Liwei [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Meng Jianxin, E-mail: tmjx@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu Yingliang [Institute of Nano-Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-06-09

    Highlights: > CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors can be prepared by a single-step combustion method. > The ignition temperature is the lowest in the combustion synthesis of Ce{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} doped phosphors. > The as-prepared nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm and have highly dispersity and fluorescence intensity. > It is a convenient method for preparation of monodispersed oxide nano-phosphors, especially those being sensitive to air at high temperature. - Abstract: The CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors were successfully prepared by a single-step combustion method at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C in a closed autoclave using glycine as a fuel and PEG4000 as a dispersant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results revealed that CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors can be conveniently prepared at an ignition temperature as low as 200 deg. C, which was much lower than that in the ordinary combustion methods. The optimized ignition temperature was 220 deg. C. The CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors give a uniform particle size in the range of 15-20 nm. The low ignition temperature and the addition of PEG4000 dispersant play important roles in the formation of small sized nanoparticles. The as-prepared nano-phosphors were incompact aggregates, but highly dispersed nano-phosphors can be obtained after further ultrasonic treatment. The CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors give satisfactory luminescence characteristic benefiting from the closed circumstance, in which cerium atoms can be isolated from the oxidizing atmosphere and non-fluorescent Ce{sup 4+} ions can be ruled out. The present highly dispersed CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} nano-phosphors with efficient fluorescence are promising in the field of biological labeling

  13. Self-propagating combustion synthesis of Pb1–x Srx ZrO3 (0≤ x≤ 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lead strontium zirconate, Pb1–SrZrO3 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.20) ceramics, were prepared by novel glycine–nitrate self-propagating combustion technique. The crystal structure of the ceramics was investigated as a function of composition via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns obtained on these powders showed the ...

  14. Synthesis by the Pechini method and reaction combustion for the preparation of TiO2: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.P.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.; Lira, H.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare TiO 2 powder by Pechini and combustion reaction methods. A comparative analysis between the structural and morphological results obtained by the two methods was investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), infrared analysis, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and particle size distribution. The results from XRD show that the powders prepared by Pechini method and by combustion reaction using aniline as fuel, present anatase as major phase and traces of rutile phase. The values of crystallite size and surface area from BET were: 30 e 44 nm; 6.2 e 4.4 m 2 /g, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The values of particle size were: 21.9 e 5.3 μm, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The Pechini method was more suitable to obtain powders with irregular agglomerates, in the block shape with particles bonded softly and small crystallite size. (author)

  15. Study of photoluminescence properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Eu{sup 2+} prepared by combustion synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingwe, V. S., E-mail: vishwas.hingwe@yahoo.in; Omanwar, S. K. [Department of physics, SGB Amravati University Amravati-444602 (India); Bajaj, N. S. [Toshniwal Arts, Commerce and Science College Sengaon-431542 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Eu{sup 2+} doped alkaline earth metals such as strontium aluminate, calcium aluminate and barium aluminate prepared by using modified combustion synthesis method at 600°C with Urea as fuel. Crystal structure is determined by using XRD and the sample confirmation by using the FTIR. The effect of the host material on the photoluminescence (PL) and phosphorescence properties were studied by using the Hitachi F-7000 spectrofluorimeter equipped with a 450W Xenon lamp, in the range 200-650 nm. The emission spectra of Eu{sup 2+} range from 450 to 500 nm in the Blue to aqua region and the transition 4f{sup 7}-4f{sup 6} 5d{sup 1}. The observed emission in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is 440 nm.

  16. Infrared emissions in MgSrAl10O17:Er3+ phosphor co-doped with Yb3+/Ba2+/Ca2+ obtained by solution combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay; Kumar Rai, Vineet; Venkatramu, V.; Chakradhar, R.P.S.; Hwan Kim, Sang

    2013-01-01

    An intense infrared emitting MgSrAl 10 O 17 :Er 3+ phosphor co-doped with Yb 3+ , Ba 2+ and Ca 2+ ions have been prepared by a solution combustion method. Phase purity of the derived compounds was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The vibrational properties of MgSrAl 10 O 17 phosphor was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The broad and strong infrared emission of Er 3+ ions at around 1.53 μm was observed upon excitation at 980 nm. Effect of co-doping with the Yb 3+ , Ba 2+ and Ca 2+ ions on the infrared luminescence intensity of Er 3+ ions and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the infrared intensity have been discussed. The results indicate that these materials may be suitable for the optical telecommunication window and wavelength division multiplexing applications. - Highlights: ► The hexagonal phase of MgSrAl 10 O 17 could be obtained by the low temperature combustion method. ► The broad and strong infrared emission of Er 3+ ions at around 1.53 μm was observed. ► Effect of co-doping with the Yb 3+ , Ba 2+ and Ca 2+ ions on the infrared luminescence intensity of Er 3+ were reported.

  17. Theory of the thermodynamic influence of solution-phase additives in shape-controlled nanocrystal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Fichthorn, Kristen A

    2017-10-19

    Though many experimental studies have documented that certain solution-phase additives can play a key role in the shape-selective synthesis of metal nanocrystals, the origins and mechanisms of this shape selectivity are still unclear. One possible role of such molecules is to thermodynamically induce the equilibrium shape of a nanocrystal by altering the interfacial free energies of the facets. Using a multi-scheme thermodynamic integration method that we recently developed [J. Chem. Phys., 2016, 145, 194108], we calculate the solid-liquid interfacial free energies γ sl and investigate the propensity to achieve equilibrium shapes in such syntheses. We first apply this method to Ag(100) and Ag(111) facets in ethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), to mimic the environment in polyol synthesis of Ag nanocrystals. We find that although PVP has a preferred binding to Ag(100), its selectivity is not sufficient to induce a thermodynamic preference for {100}-faceted nanocubes, as has been observed experimentally. This indicates that PVP promotes Ag nanocube formation kinetically rather than thermodynamically. We further quantify the thermodynamic influence of adsorbed solution-phase additives for generic molecules, by building a γ sl ratio/nanocrystal shape map as a function of zero-temperature binding energies. This map can be used to gauge the efficacy of candidate additive molecules for producing targeted thermodynamic nanocrystal shapes. The results indicate that only additives with a strong facet selectivity can impart significant thermodynamic-shape change. Therefore, many of the nanocrystals observed in experiments are likely kinetic products.

  18. Convergent solid-phase and solution approaches in the synthesis of the cysteine-rich Mdm2 RING finger domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas; Gatos, Dimitrios

    2009-12-01

    The RING finger domain of the Mdm2, located at the C-terminus of the protein, is necessary for regulation of p53, a tumor suppressor protein. The 48-residues long Mdm2 peptide is an important target for studying its interaction with small anticancer drug candidates. For the chemical synthesis of the Mdm2 RING finger domain, the fragment condensation on solid-phase and the fragment condensation in solution were studied. The latter method was performed using either protected or free peptides at the C-terminus as the amino component. Best results were achieved using solution condensation where the N-component was applied with the C-terminal carboxyl group left unprotected. The developed method is well suited for large-scale synthesis of Mdm2 RING finger domain, combining the advantages of both solid-phase and solution synthesis. (c) 2009 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} foams obtained by combustion synthesis; Espumas de MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtidas via sintese por combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, G.G.; Rosa, M.A.; Kronbauer, D.P.; Pozzobom, I.F.; Fernandes, C.P.; Oliveira, A.P. Novaes de, E-mail: grazzi.guzzi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to study magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramic foams obtained by combustion synthesis in solution without the need of surfactants to stabilize bubbles. The precursors, Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3.}9H{sub 2}O and Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2.}6H{sub 2O}, dispersed in distilled water (20 wt%) were magnetically stirred under heating (70°C). At the beginning of the reaction, a fuel composed by a mixture of residual glycerins from the production of biodiesel was added. The foams were produced by controlling the stirring speed and temperature. The applied thermal cycle to consolidate the foams consisted of heating at 1°C/min to 600°C/120 min and subsequently raising the temperature at 10°C/min to 1600°C/120 min. The obtained materials were characterized by SEM,TEM and from tomographic images. The results showed that the obtained magnesium aluminate foams have a high porosity (97%), a high connectivity and pore sizes (diameters) between 30 and 1200 μm. (author)

  20. Size-dependent magnetic and structural properties of CoCrFeO4 nano-powder prepared by solution self-combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijo, A. K.; Dutta, Dimple P.

    2018-04-01

    The study reports the tuning of magnetic and structural properties of nano-sized CoCrFeO4 via post-annealing treatment. CoCrFeO4 nano-powder has been prepared by solution self-combustion method. The structural and magnetic properties have been studied over a range of annealing temperatures (300-900 °C). The formation of the phase pure CoCrFeO4 spinel has been confirmed from powder XRD analysis. The crystallite size is observed to increase with an increase in annealing temperature. On annealing, the value of magnetic parameters-remanence, coercivity and saturation magnetization have enhanced. All the samples exhibit irreversibility at low-temperature measurements.

  1. Biomimetic synthesis and morphological control of metal carbonates at the air/solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shichoon; Cho, Kilwon; Son, Younggon

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic approaches can provide a means of fabricating nanostructured materials under environmentally benign conditions. In this paper, we synthesized metal carbonate films, such as calcite, strontianite, malachite, and hydrozincite films, at the air-solution interface of solutions containing corresponding metal ions by using inflowing CO 2 from the atmosphere. The addition of acidic polymers, fulfilling the role of an acidic protein in biomineralization, provided CaCO 3 nanofibers, SrCO 3 nanofibers oriented in a specific direction, and copper carbonate and zinc carbonate hydroxide thin films. The metal carbonates prepared in this study were used as precursors for the formation of metal oxide nanocrystals via pyrolysis. This work showed that various metal carbonates and metal oxides with nanostructures can be prepared by using atmospheric CO 2 . - Highlights: ► Biomimetic synthesis of metal carbonate nanofilms at the air/solution interface. ► The reaction between metal ions and carbonate ions derived from CO 2 in the air. ► Calcium, strontium, copper and zinc carbonates were formed. ► The morphologies of the nanofilms were controlled by adding the acidic polymer. ► Nanostructured metal oxides were prepared by pyrolysis of the metal carbonates.

  2. Discharge time dependence of a solution plasma process for colloidal copper nanoparticle synthesis and particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Lee, Sang Yul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a new synthetic route, termed the solution plasma process, for the synthesis of colloidal copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in the presence of an amide and acid capping agent. Gelatin and ascorbic acid were selected as the capping agents to protect the particles against coalescence and oxidation side reaction. Using a high voltage power supply, CuNPs were rapidly formed by 1 min after the discharge. The size and shape of the CuNPs were dependent on the discharge time and were clearly influenced by the effect of the capping agents under two characteristics of the discharge medium (pH and temperature). With a long discharge time, the CuNP size tended to decrease with the formation of anisotropic particle morphologies: spherical, cubic, hexagonal, triangular and rod-like shapes. The decrease in CuNP size as a function of discharge time could be explained by the dissolution of CuNPs in a lower pH solution. After 5 min discharge the capping agent evidently allowed the protection of the synthesized CuNPs against oxidation with the presence of anisotropic CuNP shapes. It is demonstrated that the CuNP shape could be tuned from spherical to anisotropic shapes without the undesirable oxidation by adjusting the discharge time of the solution plasma. These advantages are valuable for material engineering to design the properties of Cu-based nanoparticles for the desired applications. (paper)

  3. Facile synthesis of “green” gold nanocrystals using cynarin in an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katircioğlu, Zeynep; Şakalak, Hüseyin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Ulaşan, Mehmet [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan, E-mail: ahmetceyhan.goren@tubitak.gov.tr [TÜBİTAK UME, Chemistry Group, Organic Chemistry Laboratories, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yavuz, Mustafa Selman, E-mail: selmanyavuz@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • The first time a remarkably simple, versatile, environmentally friendly, one-pot and biogenic fabrication and aqueous synthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles by using cynarin. • Cynarin as a reductant and capping agent. • Exclusion of extra reducing agents or reductant. • Fabrication of Pd and Ag nanoparticles using cynarin in aqueous media. - Abstract: Herein we describe a water-based protocol that generates Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) by mixing aqueous solutions of HAuCl4 and cynarin (a natural product extract from artichoke leaf). Based on the observations from {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of AuNPs, a polyol oxidation mechanism by metal ions which eventually results in AuNPs formation, is proposed. Basically, the aromatic alcohol groups (1,2-benzenediol) of cynarin are oxidized to α-hydroxy ketone intermediate product, and then further oxidized to the vicinal diketone final product while the Au{sup 3+} ions are reduced to its atomic form (Au{sup 0}) which leads the generation of Au nanoparticles. This new protocol has also been employed to prepare multiply twinned Pd nanoparticles and Ag cubical aggregates. Due to exclusion of organic solvent, surfactant, or stabilizer for all these synthesis, this protocol may provide a simple, versatile, and environmentally benign route to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles having various compositions and morphologies.

  4. Facile synthesis of “green” gold nanocrystals using cynarin in an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katircioğlu, Zeynep; Şakalak, Hüseyin; Ulaşan, Mehmet; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first time a remarkably simple, versatile, environmentally friendly, one-pot and biogenic fabrication and aqueous synthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles by using cynarin. • Cynarin as a reductant and capping agent. • Exclusion of extra reducing agents or reductant. • Fabrication of Pd and Ag nanoparticles using cynarin in aqueous media. - Abstract: Herein we describe a water-based protocol that generates Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) by mixing aqueous solutions of HAuCl4 and cynarin (a natural product extract from artichoke leaf). Based on the observations from 1 H NMR spectrum of AuNPs, a polyol oxidation mechanism by metal ions which eventually results in AuNPs formation, is proposed. Basically, the aromatic alcohol groups (1,2-benzenediol) of cynarin are oxidized to α-hydroxy ketone intermediate product, and then further oxidized to the vicinal diketone final product while the Au 3+ ions are reduced to its atomic form (Au 0 ) which leads the generation of Au nanoparticles. This new protocol has also been employed to prepare multiply twinned Pd nanoparticles and Ag cubical aggregates. Due to exclusion of organic solvent, surfactant, or stabilizer for all these synthesis, this protocol may provide a simple, versatile, and environmentally benign route to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles having various compositions and morphologies

  5. Room-temperature solution synthesis of Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowires and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wenjun; Huang Huandi; Zhu Yanjun; Li Xiaoyun; Wang Xuebin; Li Chaorong; Chen Benyong; Wang Ge; Shi Zhan

    2012-01-01

    A simple chemical solution route for the synthesis of large-scale high-quality Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowire at room temperature has been developed. In the synthesis, the protonated amine was intercalated into the molybdenum bronze layers to reduce the electrostatic force of the lamellar structures, and then the Ag nanoparticle functionalized long nanowires could be easily induced by a redox reaction between a molybdenum oxide–amine intermediate and Ag + at room temperature. The intercalation lamellar structures improved the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles, with the result that uniform Ag nanoparticles occurred on the surface of the MoO 3 nanowire. In this way Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of around 6 nm, and high-purity nanowires with mean diameter of around 50 nm and with typical lengths of several tens to hundreds of micrometers were produced. The heteronanostructured nanowires were intricately and inseparably connected to each other with hydrogen bonds and/or bridge oxygen atoms and packed together, forming a paper-like porous network film. The Ag–MoO 3 nanowire film performs a promoted catalytic property for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene, and the heteronanostructured nanowire film sensor shows excellent sensing performance to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. (paper)

  6. Room-temperature solution synthesis of Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowires and their catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjun; Huang, Huandi; Zhu, Yanjun; Li, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xuebin; Li, Chaorong; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Ge; Shi, Zhan

    2012-10-26

    A simple chemical solution route for the synthesis of large-scale high-quality Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowire at room temperature has been developed. In the synthesis, the protonated amine was intercalated into the molybdenum bronze layers to reduce the electrostatic force of the lamellar structures, and then the Ag nanoparticle functionalized long nanowires could be easily induced by a redox reaction between a molybdenum oxide-amine intermediate and Ag(+) at room temperature. The intercalation lamellar structures improved the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles, with the result that uniform Ag nanoparticles occurred on the surface of the MoO(3) nanowire. In this way Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of around 6 nm, and high-purity nanowires with mean diameter of around 50 nm and with typical lengths of several tens to hundreds of micrometers were produced. The heteronanostructured nanowires were intricately and inseparably connected to each other with hydrogen bonds and/or bridge oxygen atoms and packed together, forming a paper-like porous network film. The Ag-MoO(3) nanowire film performs a promoted catalytic property for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene, and the heteronanostructured nanowire film sensor shows excellent sensing performance to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature.

  7. The route from problem to solution in multistep continuous flow synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Péter; Örkényi, Róbert; Lövei, Klára; Lakó, Ágnes; Túrós, György István; Éles, János; Faigl, Ferenc; Greiner, István

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of continuous flow chemistry allow the multistep preparation of complex molecules such as APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) in a telescoped manner. Numerous examples of laboratory-scale applications are described, which are pointing towards novel manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical compounds, in accordance with recent regulatory, economical and quality guidances. The chemical and technical knowledge gained during these studies is considerable; nevertheless, connecting several individual chemical transformations and the attached analytics and purification holds hidden traps. In this review, we summarize innovative solutions for these challenges, in order to benefit chemists aiming to exploit flow chemistry systems for the synthesis of biologically active molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Air Emissions Sampling from Vacuum Thermal Desorption for Mixed Wastes Designated with a Combustion Treatment Code for the Energy Solutions LLC Mixed Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, M.E.; Willoughby, O.H.

    2009-01-01

    EnergySolutions LLC is permitted by the State of Utah to treat organically-contaminated Mixed Waste by a vacuum thermal desorption (VTD) treatment process at its Clive, Utah treatment, storage, and disposal facility. The VTD process separates organics from organically-contaminated waste by heating the material in an inert atmosphere, and captures them as concentrated liquid by condensation. The majority of the radioactive materials present in the feed to the VTD are retained with the treated solids; the recovered aqueous and organic condensates are not radioactive. This is generally true when the radioactivity is present in solid form such as inorganic salts, metals or metallic oxides. The exception is when volatile radioactive materials are present such as radon gas, tritium, or carbon-14 organic chemicals. Volatile radioactive materials are a small fraction of the feed material. On August 28, 2006, EnergySolutions submitted a request to the USEPA for a variance to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) standards for wastes designated with the combustion treatment code (CMBST). The final rule granting a site specific treatment variance was effective June 13, 2008. This variance is an alternative treatment standard to treatment by CMBST required for these wastes under USEPA's rules. The State of Utah provides oversight of the VTD processing operations. A demonstration test for treating CMBST-coded wastes was performed on April 29, 2008 through May 1, 2008. Three separate process cycles were conducted during this test. Both solid/liquid samples and emission samples were collected each day during the demonstration test. To adequately challenge the unit, feed material was spiked with trichloroethylene, o-cresol, dibenzofuran, and coal tar. Emission testing was conducted by EnergySolutions' emissions test contractor and sampling for radioactivity within the off-gas was completed by EnergySolutions' Health Physics department. This report discusses the emission testing

  9. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth

  10. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence properties of LaAlO{sub 3} nanophosphors doped with Yb{sup 3+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhahri, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopole de Borj Cedria, B.P. 73, Soliman 8027 (Tunisia); Horchani-Naifer, K., E-mail: karima_horchani@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopole de Borj Cedria, B.P. 73, Soliman 8027 (Tunisia); Benedetti, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Enrichi, F. [CIVEN – Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie, Via Delle Industrie 5, Marghera, Venice 30175 (Italy); Ferid, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopole de Borj Cedria, B.P. 73, Soliman 8027 (Tunisia)

    2014-09-15

    Ytterbium doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) nanophosphors have been prepared by a combustion process with glycine as a fuel. The structures of the powders were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology of the annealed materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the average crystalline grain sizes have been determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. Pure LaAlO{sub 3} phase was obtained at 800 °C heated for 4 h, with an average crystal size, as determined by TEM, of 60 nm. Emission spectra and decay times of main luminescence transitions were measured at room temperature. A strong emission is reported at 986 nm from the ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) transition, whose intensity depends on Yb concentration. - Highlights: • Ytterbium doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) nanophosphors have been prepared by a combustion process with glycine as a fuel. • Powders were characterized by DRX, FTIR, TEM and fluorescence spectroscopy. • Pure LaAlO{sub 3} phase was obtained at 800 °C heated for 4 h, with an average crystal size of 60 nm. • A strong emission is reported at 986 nm from the ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) transition, whose intensity depends on Yb concentration.

  11. Pollution from Fossil-Fuel Combustion is the Leading Environmental Threat to Global Pediatric Health and Equity: Solutions Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2017-12-23

    Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world's most significant threat to children's health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases-all of which may be "seeded" in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course. By impairing children's health, ability to learn, and potential to contribute to society, pollution and climate change cause children to become less resilient and the communities they live in to become less equitable. The developing fetus and young child are disproportionately affected by these exposures because of their immature defense mechanisms and rapid development, especially those in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and lack of resources compound the effects. No country is spared, however: even high-income countries, especially low-income communities and communities of color within them, are experiencing impacts of fossil fuel-related pollution, climate change and resultant widening inequality and environmental injustice. Global pediatric health is at a tipping point, with catastrophic consequences in the absence of bold action. Fortunately, technologies and interventions are at hand to reduce and prevent pollution and climate change, with large economic benefits documented or predicted. All cultures and communities share a concern for the health and well-being of present and future children: this shared value provides a politically powerful lever for action. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly review the data on the health impacts of fossil-fuel pollution, highlighting the neurodevelopmental

  12. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  13. FOURTH SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N.

    2005-08-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups.

  14. Compatible Solute Synthesis and Import by the Moderate Halophile Spiribacter salinus: Physiology and Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. León

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Spiribacter are found worldwide and are abundant in ecosystems possessing intermediate salinities between seawater and saturated salt concentrations. Spiribacter salinus M19-40 is the type species of this genus and its first cultivated representative. In the habitats of S. salinus M19-40, high salinity is a key determinant for growth and we therefore focused on the cellular adjustment strategy to this persistent environmental challenge. We coupled these experimental studies to the in silico mining of the genome sequence of this moderate halophile with respect to systems allowing this bacterium to control its potassium and sodium pools, and its ability to import and synthesize compatible solutes. S. salinus M19-40 produces enhanced levels of the compatible solute ectoine, both under optimal and growth-challenging salt concentrations, but the genes encoding the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes are not organized in a canonical ectABC operon. Instead, they are scrambled (ectAC; ectB and are physically separated from each other on the S. salinus M19-40 genome. Genomes of many phylogenetically related bacteria also exhibit a non-canonical organization of the ect genes. S. salinus M19-40 also synthesizes trehalose, but this compatible solute seems to make only a minor contribution to the cytoplasmic solute pool under osmotic stress conditions. However, its cellular levels increase substantially in stationary phase cells grown under optimal salt concentrations. In silico genome mining revealed that S. salinus M19-40 possesses different types of uptake systems for compatible solutes. Among the set of compatible solutes tested in an osmostress protection growth assay, glycine betaine and arsenobetaine were the most effective. Transport studies with radiolabeled glycine betaine showed that S. salinus M19-40 increases the pool size of this osmolyte in a fashion that is sensitively tied to the prevalent salinity of the growth medium

  15. Studies on the synthesis of nanocrystalline Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ThO{sub 2} through volume combustion and their sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjay Kumar, D. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Ananthasivan, K., E-mail: asivan@igcar.gov.in [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Venkata Krishnan, R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Material Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Microscopy and Thermo-Physical Property Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-10-15

    Volume combustion was observed in the auto-ignition of the citrate gels containing the nitrates of yttrium/thorium for the first time in mixture with a fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (Y{sup 3+} or Th{sup 4+} nitrate) ratio close to that demanded by the stoichiometry. These nanocrystalline powders were characterized for their bulk density, specific surface area, particle size distribution, carbon residue and X-ray crystallite size and were sintered by both the conventional and the two-step method. The maximum relative sintered density of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 98.9% TD. The sintered density of thoria (97.8% TD) is the highest among the values reported so far, for nanocrystalline ThO{sub 2}. Characterization of the pellets and powders by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy reaffirmed nanocrystallinity and that the sintered pellets comprised faceted sintered grains. The two-step sintering was found to restrict “runaway” sintering. - Highlights: • Scaled-up synthesis of nanocrystalline Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ThO{sub 2} using citrate gel-combustion method. • VCR was observed at a fuel to nitrate ratio (R) of 0.125 and 0.17 in mixtures containing Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} respectively. • The calcined powders were compacted and sintered by using a novel two-step sintering method. • Sintered densities as high as 97.8% T.D. (ThO{sub 2}, T{sub H} = 0.48) and 98.9% T.D. (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, T{sub H} = 0.61) were obtained.

  16. Twenty-fifth symposium (international) on combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the papers presented at this conference are contained in this volume. The other one-third appear in special issues of ''Combustion and Flame'', Vol. 99, 1994 and Vol. 100, 1995. Papers are divided into the following sections: Supersonic combustion; Detonations and explosions; Internal combustion engines; Practical aspects of combustion; Incineration and wastes; Sprays and droplet combustion; Coal and organic solids combustion; Soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Reaction kinetics; NO x ; Turbulent flames; Turbulent combustion; Laminar flames; Flame spread, fire and halogenated fire suppressants; Global environmental effects; Ignition; Two-phase combustion; Solid propellant combustion; Materials synthesis; Microgravity; and Experimental diagnostics. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Facile room-temperature solution-phase synthesis of a spherical covalent organic framework for high-resolution chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Liu, Chang; Cao, Yi-Meng; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2015-08-07

    A simple and facile room-temperature solution-phase synthesis was developed to fabricate a spherical covalent organic framework with large surface area, good solvent stability and high thermostability for high-resolution chromatographic separation of diverse important industrial analytes including alkanes, cyclohexane and benzene, α-pinene and β-pinene, and alcohols with high column efficiency and good precision.

  18. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  19. Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D complex hierarchical structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective on the current challenges and future research.

  20. Room temperature synthesis of 2D CuO nanoleaves in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen; Zhao Jingzhe; Ma Dechong; Hou Shengnan; Li Linzhi; Hao Xinli

    2011-01-01

    A simple room temperature method was reported for the synthesis of CuO nanocrystals in aqueous solution through the sequence of Cu 2+ → Cu(OA) 2 → Cu(OH) 2 → Cu(OH) 4 2- → CuO. Sodium oleate (SOA) was used as the surfactant and shape controller. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It can be seen that 1D Cu(OH) 2 nanowires were first obtained from Cu(OA) 2 and, at room temperature, converted into 2D CuO nanoleaves (CuO NLs) in a short time under a weakly basic environment. On prolonging the reaction time, the top part of these 2D nanoleaves branched and separated along the long axis to form 1D rod-like nano-CuO because of the assistance of SOA. A possible transformation mechanism of Cu(OH) 2 to CuO nanostructures at room temperature in aqueous solution is discussed. The transformation velocity can be controlled by changing the pH value of the system. The prepared CuO NLs were used to construct an enzyme-free glucose sensor. The detecting results showed that the designed sensor exhibited good amperometric responses towards glucose with good anti-interferent ability.

  1. Chemical solution synthesis and ferromagnetic resonance of epitaxial thin films of yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Vila-Fungueiriño, J. M.; Magén, Cesar; Sangiao, Soraya; de Teresa, José Maria; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    We report the fabrication of epitaxial Y3F e5O12 (YIG) thin films on G d3G a5O12 (111) using a chemical solution method. Cubic YIG is a ferrimagnetic material at room temperature, with excellent magneto-optical properties, high electrical resistivity, and a very narrow ferromagnetic resonance, which makes it particularly suitable for applications in filters and resonators at microwave frequencies. But these properties depend on the precise stoichiometry and distribution of F e3 + ions among the octahedral/tetrahedral sites of a complex structure, which hampered the production of high-quality YIG thin films by affordable chemical methods. Here we report the chemical solution synthesis of YIG thin films, with excellent chemical, crystalline, and magnetic homogeneity. The films show a very narrow ferromagnetic resonance (long spin relaxation time), comparable to that obtained from high-vacuum physical deposition methods. These results demonstrate that chemical methods can compete to develop nanometer-thick YIG films with the quality required for spintronic devices and other high-frequency applications.

  2. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  3. Combustion synthesis by reaction and characterization of nano ferrites: study of fuel aniline, citric and its mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.C. da; Coutinho, J.P.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.; Freitas, N.L. de

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the influence of aniline and citric acid used alone and combined in a ratio of 50% each in the characterization of NiZn ferrite synthesized by combustion reaction method in a muffle furnace. Measurements were made of temperature and reaction time. The nano-powders were characterized by XRD, EDX, textural analysis and SEM. The highest temperature was achieved by the reaction using the mixture of fuel and increased reaction time using citric acid. The nano ferrites using different fuels, and the mixture changed phases, the crystallite size and decreased surface area of the samples with aniline, citric acid and a mixture of both, respectively. The powder morphology ranged from presenting the formation of irregular blocks for the use of citric agglomerated in the form of skeins with aniline and a mixture to agglomerate larger particles. (author)

  4. Sol-gel auto-combustion synthesis and properties of Co2Z-type hexagonal ferrite ultrafine powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junliang; Yang, Min; Wang, Shengyun; Lv, Jingqing; Li, Yuqing; Zhang, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Z-type hexagonal ferrite ultrafine powders with chemical formulations of (BaxSr1-x)3Co2Fe24O41 (x varied from 0.0 to 1.0) have been synthesized by a sol-gel auto-combustion technique. The average particle sizes of the synthesized powders ranged from 2 to 5 μm. The partial substitution of Ba2+ by Sr2+ led to the shrinkage of the crystal lattices and resulted in changes in the magnetic sub-lattices, which tailored the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the as-synthesized powders. As the substitution ratio of Ba2+ by Sr2+, the saturation magnetization of the synthesized powders almost consistently increased from 43.3 to 56.1 emu/g, while the real part of permeability approached to a relatively high value about 2.2 owing to the balance of the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy field.

  5. Synthesis by combustion reaction of ZnAl2O4 and application in methyl alcoholysis of soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.B.; Silva, A.S.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Leal, E.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel currently presents itself as a viable alternative to diesel oil front. However, implementation of actions most economic use as heterogeneous catalysts, allows further reduction of this biofuel by procedural steps. This work was supported application of catalytic ZnAl 2 O 4 obtained by combustion reaction in methyl alcoholysis of soybean oil. Samples of the supports were characterized by XRD, textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption and FTIR. The reaction tests were performed at 200°C, molar ratio 1:25, 2 and 4 wt% of catalyst and reaction time of 3 hours. XRD results indicate that the phase was obtained ZnAl 2 O 4 effectively, with surface areas of 14.9 and 8.6 m 2 g -1 . The tests demonstrated that reactional higher content of ester was 56.1 and 63.1% for the percentage of catalyst 2 and 4% respectively. (author)

  6. Low temperature solution synthesis of zinc antimonide, manganese antimonide, and strontium ruthenate compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Jennifer Lenkner

    2011-12-01

    Increasing energy demands are fueling research in the area of renewable energy and energy storage. In particular, Li-ion batteries and superconducting wires are attractive choices for energy storage. Improving safety, simplifying manufacturing processes, and advancing technology to increase energy storage capacity is necessary to compete with current marketed energy storage devices. These advancements are accomplished through the study of new materials and new morphologies. Increasing dependence on and rising demand for portable electronic devices has continued to drive research in the area of Li-ion batteries. In order to compete with existing batteries and be applicable to future energy needs such as powering hybrid vehicles, the drawbacks of Li-ion batteries must be addressed including (i) low power density, (ii) safety, and (iii) high manufacturing costs. These drawbacks can be addressed through new materials and morphologies for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. New intermetallic anode materials such as ZnSb, MnSb, and Mn2Sb are attractive candidates to replace graphite, the current industry standard anode material, because they are safer while maintaining comparable theoretical capacity. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive method that could be used for the synthesis of these electrode materials. Direct electrodeposition allows for excellent electrical contact to the current collector without the use of a binder. To successfully electrodeposit zinc and manganese antimonides, metal precursors with excellent solubility in water were needed. To promote solubility, particularly for the antimony precursor, coordinating ligands were added to the deposition bath solutions. This work shows that the choice of coordinating ligand and metal-ligand speciation can alter both the electrochemistry and the film composition. This work focuses on the search for appropriate coordinating ligands, solution pH, and bath temperatures so that high quality films of ZnSb, MnSb, and

  7. Pollution from Fossil-Fuel Combustion is the Leading Environmental Threat to Global Pediatric Health and Equity: Solutions Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2017-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world’s most significant threat to children’s health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases—all of which may be “seeded“ in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course. By impairing children’s health, ability to learn, and potential to contribute to society, pollution and climate change cause children to become less resilient and the communities they live in to become less equitable. The developing fetus and young child are disproportionately affected by these exposures because of their immature defense mechanisms and rapid development, especially those in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and lack of resources compound the effects. No country is spared, however: even high-income countries, especially low-income communities and communities of color within them, are experiencing impacts of fossil fuel-related pollution, climate change and resultant widening inequality and environmental injustice. Global pediatric health is at a tipping point, with catastrophic consequences in the absence of bold action. Fortunately, technologies and interventions are at hand to reduce and prevent pollution and climate change, with large economic benefits documented or predicted. All cultures and communities share a concern for the health and well-being of present and future children: this shared value provides a politically powerful lever for action. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly review the data on the health impacts of fossil-fuel pollution, highlighting the

  8. Synthesis of calcium carbonate in alkali solution based on graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Sarah Abduljabbar; Yiseen, Ghadah Abdaljabar; Li, Zongjin

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports a new approach of producing CaCO3 particles in alkali solution. CaCO3 particles with pure calcite structure were obtained from the reaction of water-dispersed graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with either Ca(OH)2 or CaO. In Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, the pure calcite structure was demonstrated by fundamental bands at 1425 (ν3), 873 (ν2), and 712 cm-1 (ν4). The Raman spectra showed the characteristic peak of calcite structure at 1085 cm-1 (ν1). X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses further confirmed that only the pure calcite phase of CaCO3 was formed in both synthesis approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) also confirmed that distorted cubic and rhombic calcite particles were obtained with GO, while the pine flower-like and flower-like particles were obtained with rGO, and the average crystallite sizes varied from 26 to 44 nm. The mechanism of the reaction was investigated and it was found that the decomposition of oxygen functional groups on the surface of GO or rGO in certain alkaline media to release CO, CO2, and water was a key process as the released CO2 further reacted with OH- and Ca2+ to form CaCO3. This demonstrated that both GO and rGO could be used as main reactants for the synthesis of calcite.

  9. Synthesis of fluorescent metal nanoparticles in aqueous solution by photochemical reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Kshirsagar, Prakash; Sangaru, Shiv; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada Da; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A facile green chemistry approach for the synthesis of sub-5 nm silver and gold nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis was achieved by a photochemical method using tyrosine as the photoreducing agent. The size of the gold and silver nanoparticles

  10. Solution-based synthesis and design of late transition metal chalcogenide materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Rui; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-09

    Late transition metal chalcogenide (LTMC) nanomaterials have been introduced as a promising Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts because of their low cost, good ORR activity, high methanol tolerance, and facile synthesis. Herein, an overview on the design and synthesis of LTMC nanomaterials by solution-based strategies is presented along with their ORR performances. Current solution-based synthetic approaches towards LTMC nanomaterials include a hydrothermal/solvothermal approach, single-source precursor approach, hot-injection approach, template-directed soft synthesis, and Kirkendall-effect-induced soft synthesis. Although the ORR activity and stability of LTMC nanomaterials are still far from what is needed for practical fuel-cell applications, much enhanced electrocatalytic performance can be expected. Recent advances have emphasized that decorating the surface of the LTMC nanostructures with other functional nanoparticles can lead to much better ORR catalytic activity. It is believed that new synthesis approaches to LTMCs, modification techniques of LTMCs, and LTMCs with desirable morphology, size, composition, and structures are expected to be developed in the future to satisfy the requirements of commercial fuel cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Improved dehydriding property of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated Mg-Ni hydrogen storage nano-composite prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis and wet mechanical milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP coated Mg95Ni5 nano-composites were prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis (HCS plus wet mechanical milling (WM with tetrahydrofuran (THF and donated as WM-x wt% PVP (x = 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively. The phase compositions, microstructures and dehydriding property, as well as the co-effect of PVP and THF were investigated in detail. XRD results showed that the average crystal size of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 23 nm without PVP to 18 nm with 1 wt% PVP. The peak temperature of dehydrogenation of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 293.0 °C without THF to 250.4 °C with THF. The apparent activation energy for decomposition of MgH2 in WM-7 wt% PVP was estimated to be 66.94 kJ/mol, which is 37.70 kJ/mol lower than that of milled Mg95Ni5 without THF and PVP. PVP and THF can facilitate the refinement of particle size during mechanical milling process. Attributed to small particle sizes and synergistic effect of PVP and THF, the composites exhibit markedly improved dehydriding properties. Keywords: Mg-Ni-PVP, Composite, Mg-based alloy, Wet mechanical milling, Dehydriding temperature

  12. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS, selected area diffraction pattern (SAED, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. The size of the iron oxide/iron nanoparticle-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were found to be in the nano range (50–400 nm. The iron oxide/iron nanoparticles mostly crystallized into cubic symmetry which was confirmed by SAED. The XRD pattern indicated that iron oxide/iron nano particles existed in four major phases. That is, γ-Fe2O3, α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe. These iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were tested for arsenic adsorption through batch experiments, revealing that few samples had significant arsenic adsorption.

  13. Fabrication of Cu-riched W–Cu composites by combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration in ultrahigh-gravity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pei [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Guo, Shibin; Liu, Guanghua; Chen, Yixiang [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jiangtao, E-mail: ljt0012@vip.sina.com [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Unadulterated Cu-riched W–Cu composites of W27–Cu73, W34–Cu66, W40–Cu60, W49–Cu51 and W56–Cu44 have been prepared by a novel method called combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration in ultrahigh-gravity field, of which W27–Cu73 and W34–Cu66 showed good ductility and W40–Cu60, W49–Cu51 and W56–Cu44 were brittle. In this technique, Cu melt accompanied with a great amount of heat was produced by thermit reaction and infiltrated into W–Cu powder bed. When the powder bed was Cu-riched powder bed such as W50–Cu50 or W60–Cu40, Cu melt would go through the powder bed, reach the bottom of the graphite crucible and then form a heat dissipation channel. Thus the cooling rate was so fast that the product was mixed up with impurity. The problem can be solved by putting some W powders under W50–Cu50 or W60–Cu40 powder bed to prevent the formation of heat dissipation channel.

  14. Layered Composite of TiC-TiB2 to Ti-6Al-4V in Graded Composition by Combustion Synthesis in High-gravity Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xuegang; Zhao Zhongmin; Zhang Long

    2013-01-01

    By taking combustion synthesis to prepare solidified TiB 2 matrix ceramic in high-gravity field, the layered composite of TiC-TiB 2 ceramic to Ti-6Al-4V substrate in graded composition was achieved. XRD, FESEM and EDS results showed that the bulk full-density solidified TiC-TiB 2 composite was composed of fine TiB 2 platelets, TiC irregular grains, a few of α-Al 2 O 3 inclusions and Cr alloy phases, and α'-Ti phases alternating with Ti-enriched carbides constituted the matrix of the joint in which fine TiB platelets were embedded, whereas some C, B atoms were also detected at the heat-affected zone of Ti-6A1-4V substrate. The layered composite of the solidified ceramic to Ti-6Al-4V substrate in graded composition with continuous microstructure was considered a result of fused joint and inter-diffusion between liquid ceramic and surface-molten Ti alloy, followed by TiB 2 -Ti peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction in TiC-TiB-Ti ternary system.

  15. Preparation of LiMn2O4 Graphene Hybrid Nanostructure by Combustion Synthesis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rangappa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid cathode material has been synthesized by spray drying combustion process. The spinel structure cubic phase LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material was prepared by spray drying process at 120 ℃ and subsequent heat treatment at 700 ℃ for 1 hour. The result indicates that the spinel shaped LiMn2O4 particles wrapped with graphene sheets were formed with particle size in the range of 60-70 nm. The charge-discharge measurement indicates that the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material shows an improved discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g at 0.1C rate. The pristine LiMn2O4 nano crystals present only about 132 mAh/g discharge capacity. The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples show good cyclic performance with only 13% of capacity fading in 30 cycles when compared to the pristine LiMn2O4 that shows 22% of capacity fading in 30 cycles. The capacity retention of the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples is about 10% higher than the pristine cycle after 30 cycles.

  16. Evaluation of the urea content in the synthesis by combustion reaction of the NiAl2O4 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, E.; Sousa, J.-P.L.M.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L.; Argolo, F.; Sasaki, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the urea fuel in the structure and morphology of the NiAl 2 O 4 prepared by combustion reaction. The powders were prepared according to the propellants and explosives theory, using urea in the stoichiometric composition, with 10% of excess and deficiency of this fuel. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, particle size distribution and textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption (BET/BJH). The DRX results showed the presence of NiAl 2 O 4 as major phase and traces of NiO for all the samples. Also show crystallites size between 13 and 21 nm. All the samples showed large agglomerates size distribution, with D 50% between 18.6 and 20.4 μm, and morphology with irregular plates shape. The increase of the urea content caused an increase in the particle size and a reduction in the surface area, from 270 to 52 m 2 /g. (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by sol–gel auto-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankare, P.P., E-mail: p_hankarep@rediffmail.com [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra 416 004 (India); Sanadi, K.R., E-mail: sanadikishor@gmail.com [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra 416 004 (India); Garadkar, K.M. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra 416 004 (India); Patil, D.R. [Material Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, R.L. College, Parola, Jalgaon, Maharashtra 425 111 (India); Mulla, I.S. [Emeritus Scientist-CSIR, Centre for Materials for Electronics and Technology (C-MET), Panchawati, Pune 411 008 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} Mixed Metal oxides. ► Sol–gel auto-combustion method. ► Cubic spinel symmetry. ► Nanocrystaline material. ► Semiconducting nature. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (where x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) were successfully synthesized by sol–gel method using citrate–nitrate precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were effectively utilized to investigate the different structural parameters. XRD showed single cubic spinel phase for all the samples. The decrease in lattice parameter and increase in crystallite size of the ferrispinel was observed with increasing nickel content. The surface morphology and elemental composition were studied by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) respectively. The nanosize of the synthesized material had been identified by TEM investigation and which is lies in between 20–25 nm. The semiconducting nature of the samples was studied by variation of resistivity and thermal emf with temperature.

  18. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  19. On the observation of a huge lattice contraction and crystal habit modifications in LiMn2O4 prepared by a fuel assisted solution combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragavendran, K.; Sherwood, D.; Vasudevan, D.; Emmanuel, Bosco

    2009-01-01

    Two batches of poly-crystalline lithium manganate were prepared by a fuel assisted solution combustion method. LiMn 2 O 4 (S) was prepared using starch as the fuel and LiMn 2 O 4 (P) was prepared using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as the fuel. XRD studies indicated a significant and consistent shift in the 2θ values of all the hkl peaks to higher values in LiMn 2 O 4 (P) compared to LiMn 2 O 4 (S) indicating a lattice contraction in the former. TG/DTA studies indicated a higher formation temperature (∼25 deg. C higher) for LiMn 2 O 4 (P). The higher formation temperature most likely promotes the oxidation of some Mn 3+ to Mn 4+ with a lower ionic radius causing a lattice contraction. This hypothesis is confirmed through XPS studies which indicated the presence of a higher fraction of Mn 4+ in LiMn 2 O 4 (P) than that present in LiMn 2 O 4 (S). A crystal shape algorithm was used to generate the crystal habits of lithium manganate from their XRD data leading to an understanding on the exposed hkl planes in these materials. From the atomic arrangement on the exposed hkl planes it is predicted that LiMn 2 O 4 (P) would be less prone to manganese dissolution and hence would possess a higher cycle life when compared to LiMn 2 O 4 (S).

  20. On the observation of a huge lattice contraction and crystal habit modifications in LiMn 2O 4 prepared by a fuel assisted solution combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, K.; Sherwood, D.; Vasudevan, D.; Emmanuel, Bosco

    2009-08-01

    Two batches of poly-crystalline lithium manganate were prepared by a fuel assisted solution combustion method. LiMn 2O 4(S) was prepared using starch as the fuel and LiMn 2O 4(P) was prepared using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as the fuel. XRD studies indicated a significant and consistent shift in the 2 θ values of all the hkl peaks to higher values in LiMn 2O 4(P) compared to LiMn 2O 4(S) indicating a lattice contraction in the former. TG/DTA studies indicated a higher formation temperature (∼25 °C higher) for LiMn 2O 4(P). The higher formation temperature most likely promotes the oxidation of some Mn 3+ to Mn 4+ with a lower ionic radius causing a lattice contraction. This hypothesis is confirmed through XPS studies which indicated the presence of a higher fraction of Mn 4+ in LiMn 2O 4(P) than that present in LiMn 2O 4(S). A crystal shape algorithm was used to generate the crystal habits of lithium manganate from their XRD data leading to an understanding on the exposed hkl planes in these materials. From the atomic arrangement on the exposed hkl planes it is predicted that LiMn 2O 4(P) would be less prone to manganese dissolution and hence would possess a higher cycle life when compared to LiMn 2O 4(S).

  1. Low-temperature CO oxidation over Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Amit; Gupta, Shipra Mital

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) nanoparticles co-doped with Cu and Pt were applied as catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. These materials were prepared through solution combustion in order to obtain highly active and stable catalytic nanomaterials. This method allows Pt 2+ and Cu 2+ ions to dissolve into the ZrO 2 lattice and thus creates oxygen vacancies due to lattice distortion and charge imbalance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results showed Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO 2 nanoparticles with a size of ca. 10 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra confirmed cubic structure and larger oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles showed excellent activity for CO oxidation. The temperature T 50 (the temperature at which 50% of CO are converted) was lowered by 175 °C in comparison to bare ZrO 2 . Further, they exhibited very high stability for CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 70 h). This is due to combined effect of smaller particle size, large oxygen vacancies, high specific surface area and better thermal stability of the Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO 2 nanoparticles. The apparent activation energy for CO oxidation is found to be 45.6 kJ·mol -1 . The CO conversion decreases with increase in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and initial CO concentration.

  2. Experimental study on thermal conductivity of solution combustion synthesized MgO nanoparticles dispersed in water and ethylene glycol (50:50) binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseel Jai Krishnan, S.; P. K., Nagarajan

    2017-05-01

    In this present investigation, experiments were conducted on the magnesia nanoparticles (8-18 nm) synthesized by the solution combustion method, which was dispersed in the binary mixture of water-ethylene glycol (50:50) to prepare stable MgO-water-ethylene glycol (50:50) nanofluids through continuous 26h ultrasonication. The effect of nanoparticle concentration (0 to 0.2 vol%) and temperature (25°C to 60°C) on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was investigated. The results clearly indicate that an increase in the nanoparticle concentration increases the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Similarly the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid increases with increase in temperature. The enhanced thermal conductivity in the nanofluids may be due to either or both, the Brownian movement and the nano-interfacial layering. The maximum enhancement of 16% was obtained at 0.2 vol% nanoparticle concentration and at 60°C. An accurate correlation, modeling the thermal conductivity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and temperature was also proposed based on the experimental data.

  3. Properties of nano-structured Ni/YSZ anodes fabricated from plasma sprayable NiO/YSZ powder prepared by single step solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, B. Shri; Balaji, N.; Kumar, S. Senthil; Aruna, S.T., E-mail: staruna194@gmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of plasma grade NiO/YSZ powder in single step. • Fabrication of nano-structured Ni/YSZ coating. • Conductivity of 600 S/cm at 800 °C. - Abstract: NiO/YSZ anode coatings are fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying at different plasma powers from plasma grade NiO/YSZ powders that are prepared in a single step by solution combustion method. The process adopted is devoid of multi-steps that are generally involved in conventional spray drying or fusing and crushing methods. Density of the coating increased and porosity decreased with increase in the plasma power of deposition. An ideal nano-structured Ni/YSZ anode encompassing nano YSZ particles, nano Ni particles and nano pores is achieved on reducing the coating deposited at lower plasma powers. The coating exhibit porosities in the range of 27%, sufficient for anode functional layers. Electronic conductivity of the coatings is in the range of 600 S/cm at 800 °C.

  4. Thermally stimulated luminescence and persistent luminescence of β-irradiated YAG:Pr"3"+ nanophosphors produced by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Meléndrez, R.; Gil-Tolano, M.I.; Jimenez, J.A.; Makale, M.T.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Castaneda, B.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; McKittrick, J.; Hirata, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and persistent luminescence (PLUM) properties of praseodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Pr"3"+) exposed to β-irradiation are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms a single phase of YAG obtained by the combustion method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that powder particles appear to be irregular crystals with an average size of 67 nm. TSL glow-curve deconvolution of YAG:Pr"3"+ after β-irradiation consist in six peaks centered at 394, 450, 467, 543, 637 and 705 K. The TSL fading and PLUM signals were found to be associated with at least with two different kinds of traps, corresponding to the peaks located at 394, 450 and 467 K. YAG:Pr"3"+ nanophosphors analyzed in this work showed interesting features about the dosimetric sensitivity as well as the reproducibility for both TSL/PLUM techniques, with good linearity dose response. These results indicate that nanocrystalline YAG:Pr3"+ is a good candidate for dosimetric applications in the range of 80 mGy-20 Gy. - Highlights: • β-irradiated YAG:Pr"3"+ TSL consist in 394, 450, 467, 543, 637 and 705 K peaks. • YAG:Pr"3"+ is a good candidate for dosimetry in the range of 80 mGy-20 Gy. • PLUM can be potentially used for in vivo, in situ and quasi in real time dosimetry.

  5. Particle size, morphology and color tunable ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors via plant latex mediated green combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, M. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Department of Physics, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 107 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sharma, S.C. [B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sudheer kumar, K.H. [Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, Shimoga 577 451 (India); Department of Chemistry, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Dhananjaya, N. [Department of Physics, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); B.S. Narayan Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials, B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sunitha, D.V. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Shivakumara, C. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nagabhushana, B.M. [Department of Chemistry, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 054 (India)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared by green synthesis route. • Morphology and particle size was tuned by varying the concentration of plant latex. • The phosphor show excellent chromaticity coordinates in the white region. -- Abstract: Efficient ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} (1–11 mol%) nanophosphors were prepared for the first time by green synthesis route using Euphorbia tirucalli plant latex. The final products were well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), etc. The average particle size of ZnO:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%) was found to be in the range 27–47 nm. With increase of plant latex, the particle size was reduced and porous structure was converted to spherical shaped particles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the peaks situated at ∼590, 615, 648 and 702 nm were attributed to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub j(j=1,2,3,4)} transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The highest PL intensity was recorded for 7 mol% with Eu{sup 3+} ions and 26 ml plant latex concentration. The PL intensity increases with increase of plant latex concentration up to 30 ml and there after it decreases. The phosphor prepared by this method show spherical shaped particles, excellent chromaticity co-ordinates in the white light region which was highly useful for WLED’s. Further, present method was reliable, environmentally friendly and alternative to economical routes.

  6. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  7. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas G, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline nuclear ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.; Chandramouli, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights the utility of the gel-combustion synthesis in making solid solutions containing the oxides of U, Th, and Ce. The synthesis of a series of solid solutions of ceria with thoria and urania using the gel-combustion technique with citric acid as the fuel is presented as a typical case. The x-ray crystallite size, specific surface area, and residual carbon of the precursors and final products are discussed. The sinterability of these powders is analysed using their sintered densities. Solid solutions of thoria-ceria with a density higher than 85% TD (theoretical density) and those of urania ceria with a density as high as 96% TD were obtained. The microstructure of the thoria-ceria powders were analysed using high resolution electron microscopy. (author)

  9. Synthesis and spectral properties of axially substituted zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) water soluble phthalocyanines in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasymchuk, Y.S.; Volkov, S.V.; Chernii, V.Ya.; Tomachynski, L.A.; Radzki, St.

    2004-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of novel water soluble axially substituted Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines with gallic, 5-sulfosalicyllic, oxalic acids, and methyl ester of gallic acid as axial ligands coordinated to the central atom metal of phthalocyanine are presented. The absorption spectra of complex solutions in various solvents were characterized. The dependence of the spectral red shift from Reichardt's empirical polarity parameter is described. The deviation from the linearity of Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law was investigated for the range of concentration 5x10 -6 to 10x10 -5 M. Fluorescent properties of axially substituted phthalocyaninato metal complexes in DMSO solutions were investigated

  10. Synthesis of 5'-CMP and 5'-dCMP in aqueous solution induced by low energy ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Wang Xiangqin; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    Low energy N + ions produced by N 2 are accelerated and then introduced into aqueous solution to induce chemical reactions. This process avoids the need of a vacuum chamber and makes it possible to investigate the actions of low energy ions in aqueous solution. In order to explore prebiotic synthesis of nucleotide via reaction between low energy ions and aqueous solution under the primitive earth conditions, low energy N + is implanted into aqueous solution containing cytosine, D-ribose, D-2-deoxyribose and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . It is confirmed that 5'-CMP and 5'-dCMP are produced by HPLC and 1 H-NMR analyses. The relation between yields of 5'-CMP and 5'-dCMP and irradiation time has been obtained

  11. Combustion synthesis of NiO–Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 nanocomposite anode and its electrical characteristics of semi-cell configured SOFC assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari-Fakhrabadi, A.; Avila, Ricardo E.; Carrasco, Hector E.; Ananthakumar, S.; Mangalaraja, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combustion synthesis was followed to prepare NiO–GDC nanocomposite. ► NiO–GDC anode was applied over GDC electrolyte to fabricate a semi-cell. ► Electrical conductivity of the semi-cell was characterized. ► Structure, composition, particle size and morphology of NiO–GDC were studied. - Abstract: NiO–Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (NiO–10GDC) nanocomposite anode material was synthesized through combustion technique for possible low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT–SOFCs). A low weight loss is seen in the TG/DTA thermogram that indicates the complete combustion of the reactant mixtures. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the presence of NiO, GDC and Ni crystallite phases in the as combusted product. Upon calcination at 600 °C, the metallic Ni oxidized to NiO. TEM images showed a wide size distribution of fine spherical GDC and large irregularly shaped NiO particles. This NiO–10GDC anode material was applied over GDC electrolyte as a porous thin layer. Using this surface engineered GDC electrolyte a semi-cell (electrode/electrolyte structure) was fabricated. The electrical conductivity of the semi-cell was characterized with respect to temperature.

  12. Effect of fuels on conductivity, dielectric and humidity sensing properties of ZrO2 nanocrystals prepared by low temperature solution combustion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Madhusudhana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using two different fuels namely glycine and oxalyldihydrazide (ODH. The phase confirmation was done by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and Raman spectral analysis. Use of glycine resulted in ZrO2 with mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phase with average crystallite size of ∼30 nm. However, ODH as fuel aids in the formation of ZrO2 with mixture of tetragonal and cubic phase with average crystallite size ∼20 nm. Further, in present work we present novel way to tune conductivity property of the nano ZrO2. We show that merely changing the fuel from glycine to ODH, we obtain better DC conductivity and dielectric constant. On the other hand use of glycine leads to the formation of ZrO2 with better AC conductivity and humidity sensing behavior. The dielectric constants calculated for samples prepared with glycine and ODH were found to be 45 and 26 respectively at 10 MHz. The AC and DC conductivity values of the samples prepared with glycine was found to be 9.5 × 10−4 S cm−1, 1.1 × 10−3 S cm−1 and that of ODH was 7.6 × 10−4 S cm−1, 3.6 × 10−3 S cm−1 respectively.

  13. The complex synthesis and solid state chemistry of ceria-lanthana solid solutions prepared via a hexamethylenetetramine precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.G.; Holmes, J.D.; Otway, D.J.; Morris, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed oxide solid solutions are becoming ever more commercially important across a range of applications. However, their synthesis can be problematical. Here, we show that ceria-lanthana solid solutions can be readily prepared via simple precipitation using hexamethylenetetramine. However, the solution chemistry can be complex, which results in the precipitated particles having a complex structure and morphology. Great care must be taken in both the synthesis and characterisation to quantify the complexity of the product. Even very high heat treatments were not able to produce highly homogeneous materials and X-ray diffractions reveals the non-equilibrium form of particles prepared in this way. Unexpected crystal structures are revealed including a new metastable cubic La 2 O 3 phase. - Graphical abstract: The suggested mechanism for the formation of dual fluorite phase particles, where Step 1 corresponds to room temperature aging, Step 2; heating the solution to 90 deg. C, Step 3; cooling of the solution to room temperature, Step 4; calcination to 500 deg. C, Step 5; calcination to 700 deg. C and Step 6; calcination to 1300 deg. C. The terminology of e.g. La 1-x Ce x (OH) 3 is used to indicate the formation of a mixed oxy-hydroxy participate rather than a definitive assignment of stoichiometry. Similarly, La 1-y Ce y O 2 only implies a mixed solid solution. Highlights: → Mol% of prepared Ce-La oxides did not follow that of reactant mol%. → Complex reaction pathway found to be dependent on metal solution concentrations. → At certain concentrations core shell particles were found to form. → A reaction model was produced based on cationic solubility. → Report lanthana solubility higher than previously reported in CeO 2 .

  14. An efficient method for the synthesis of photo catalytically active ZnO nanoparticles by a gel-combustion method for the photo-degradation of Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesha Bedre Jagannatha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by gel-combustion method using a novel bio-fuel tapioca starch pearls, derived from the tubers of Mannihot esculenta, to investigate the photocatalytic degradation of ccaffeine. The ZnO photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometry result for the ZnO nanoparticles exhibit normal crystalline phase features. All observed peaks can be indexed to the pure hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures. There are no other impurities in the diffraction peak. In addition, SEM measurement shows that most of the nanoparticles are spongy and spherical in shape and fairly mono dispersed. A significant degradation of the Caffeine was observed when the catalyst was added into the solution even without the UV light exposure. In addition, the photo degradation increaseds with the photocatalyst loading. Besides the photocatalyst loading, the effect of some parameters on the photo degradation efficiency such as initial concentration and pH were also studied.

  15. Sol-gel auto-combustion synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-doped NiZn ferrite by using various fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Dashi Jen, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: khwu@ccit.edu.tw; Ting, T.H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Dashi Jen, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China); Li, M.C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Dashi Jen, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China); Ho, W.D. [Chemical Systems Research Division, Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2006-03-15

    A nitrate-chelate-silica gel was prepared from metallic nitrates, citric acid and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) by sol-gel process with different complexing agents such as glycine, hydrazine and citric acid, and it was further used to synthesize Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/20 wt% SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites by auto-combustion. The effect of varying complexing agent on the structural and magnetic properties of the composites was studied by FTIR, {sup 29}Si CP/MAS NMR, XRD, TEM, EPR and SQUID measurements. The complexing agent in the starting solution influenced the magnetic interaction between NiZn ferrite and silica, and then determined on the particle size. Further, the complexing agent type had a direct effect on the EPR parameters ({delta}H {sub PP}, g-factor and T {sub 2}) and SQUID parameters (M {sub s}, M {sub r} and H {sub c}) of the as-synthesized powder.

  16. Combustion synthesis and characterization of MV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+ (M = Gd, La, Y)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloung, Selepe J.; Lephoto, Mantwa A.; Tshabalala, Kamohelo G.; Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, GdV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+, LaV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+ and YV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+ phosphor powders were prepared by solution combustion method using urea as a fuel. The phase purity, surface morphology, optical and photoluminescence properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD results indicated that the prepared powders are of a single phase and crystallized in tetragonal structure for Gd and Y systems while monoclinic phase was observed for La system. SEM showed that the samples consisted of mixed structures. The estimated band gaps were 2.2, 2.4 and 2.3 eV for Y, Gd and La systems respectively. The photoluminescence results showed four emission peaks. One peak is assigned to 1G4 - 3H6 transition of Tm3+, and three other emission peaks are attributed to 6G5/2 - 6H5/2, 6G5/2 - 6H7/2 and 6G5/2 - 6H9/2 transitions of Sm3+. The photoluminescent intensity was the highest in the gadolinium system.

  17. The effect of laser repetition rate on the LASiS synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles in aqueous starch solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamiri R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri,1 Azmi Zakaria,1,* Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar,2 Majid Darroudi,3 Golnoosh Zamiri,1 Zahid Rizwan,1 Gregor PC Drummen4,* 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bio&Nano-Solutions, Düsseldorf, Germany*These authors contributed to this work equallyAbstract: Laser ablation-based nanoparticle synthesis in solution is rapidly becoming popular, particularly for potential biomedical and life science applications. This method promises one pot synthesis and concomitant bio-functionalization, is devoid of toxic chemicals, does not require complicated apparatus, can be combined with natural stabilizers, is directly biocompatible, and has high particle size uniformity. Size control and reduction is generally determined by the laser settings; that the size and size distribution scales with laser fluence is well described. Conversely, the effect of the laser repetition rate on the final nanoparticle product in laser ablation is less well-documented, especially in the presence of stabilizers. Here, the influence of the laser repetition rate during laser ablation synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of starch as a stabilizer was investigated. The increment of the repetition rate does not negatively influence the ablation efficiency, but rather shows increased productivity, causes a red-shift in the plasmon resonance peak of the silver–starch nanoparticles, an increase in mean particle size and size distribution, and a distinct lack of agglomerate formation. Optimal results were achieved at 10 Hz repetition rate, with a mean particle size of ~10 nm and a

  18. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  19. Investigating the synthesis of ligated metal clusters in solution using a flow reactor and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Astrid; Laskin, Julia; Johnson, Grant E

    2014-09-18

    The scalable synthesis of ligated subnanometer metal clusters containing an exact number of atoms is of interest due to the highly size-dependent catalytic, electronic, and optical properties of these species. While significant research has been conducted on the batch preparation of clusters through reduction synthesis in solution, the processes of metal complex reduction as well as cluster nucleation, growth, and postreduction etching are still not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate a prototype temperature-controlled flow reactor for qualitatively studying cluster formation in solution at steady-state conditions. Employing this technique, methanol solutions of a chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold precursor, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane capping ligand, and borane-tert-butylamine reducing agent were combined in a mixing tee and introduced into a heated capillary with a known length. In this manner, the temperature dependence of the relative abundance of different ionic reactants, intermediates, and products synthesized in real time was characterized qualitatively using online mass spectrometry. A wide distribution of doubly and triply charged cationic gold clusters was observed as well as smaller singly charged organometallic complexes. The results demonstrate that temperature plays a crucial role in determining the relative population of cationic gold clusters and, in general, that higher temperature promotes the formation of doubly charged clusters and singly charged organometallic complexes while reducing the abundance of triply charged species. Moreover, the distribution of clusters observed at elevated temperatures is found to be consistent with that obtained at longer reaction times at room temperature, thereby demonstrating that heating may be used to access cluster distributions characteristic of different stages of batch reduction synthesis in solution.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Solution and Melt Processible Poly(Acrylonitrile-Co-Methyl Acrylate) Statistical Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisipati, Padmapriya

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and its copolymers are used in a wide variety of applications ranging from textiles to purification membranes, packaging material and carbon fiber precursors. High performance polyacrylonitrile copolymer fiber is the most dominant precursor for carbon fibers. Synthesis of very high molecular weight poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) copolymers with weight average molecular weights of at least 1.7 million g/mole were synthesized on a laboratory scale using low temperature, emulsion copolymerization in a closed pressure reactor. Single filaments were spun via hybrid dry-jet gel solution spinning. These very high molecular weight copolymers produced precursor fibers with tensile strengths averaging 954 MPa with an elastic modulus of 15.9 GPa (N = 296). The small filament diameters were approximately 5 im. Results indicated that the low filament diameter that was achieved with a high draw ratio, combined with the hybrid dry-jet gel spinning process lead to an exponential enhancement of the tensile properties of these fibers. Carbon fibers for polymer matrix composites are currently derived from polyacrylonitrile copolymer fiber precursors where solution spinning accounts for ˜40 % of the total fiber production cost. To expand carbon fiber applications into the automotive industry, the cost of the carbon fiber needs to be reduced from 8 to ˜3-5. In order to develop an alternative melt processing route several benign plasticizers have been investigated. A low temperature, persulfate-metabisulfite initiated emulsion copolymerization was developed to synthesize poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) copolymers with acrylonitrile contents between 91-96 wt% with a molecular weight range of 100-200 kg/mol. This method was designed for a potential industrial scale up. Furthermore, water was investigated as a potential melting point depressant for these copolymers. Twenty-five wt% water lead to a decrease in the Tm of a 93/7 wt/wt % poly

  1. Factors influencing the adoption of self-management solutions: an interpretive synthesis of the literature on stakeholder experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J; Dopson, S; McManus, R J; Powell, J

    2015-11-13

    In a research context, self-management solutions, which may range from simple book diaries to complex telehealth packages, designed to facilitate patients in managing their long-term conditions, have often shown cost-effectiveness, but their implementation in practice has frequently been challenging. We conducted an interpretive qualitative synthesis of relevant articles identified through systematic searches of bibliographic databases in July 2014. We searched PubMed (Medline/NLM), Web of Science, LISTA (EBSCO), CINAHL, Embase and PsycINFO. Coding and analysis was inductive, using the framework method to code and to categorise themes. We took a sensemaking approach to the interpretation of findings. Fifty-eight articles were selected for synthesis. Results showed that during adoption, factors identified as facilitators by some were experienced as barriers by others, and facilitators could change to barriers for the same adopter, depending on how adopters rationalise the solutions within their context when making decisions about (retaining) adoption. Sometimes, when adopters saw and experienced benefits of a solution, they continued using the solution but changed their minds when they could no longer see the benefits. Thus, adopters placed a positive value on the solution if they could constructively rationalise it (which increased adoption) and attached a negative rationale (decreasing adoption) if the solution did not meet their expectations. Key factors that influenced the way adopters rationalised the solutions consisted of costs and the added value of the solution to them and moral, social, motivational and cultural factors. Considering 'barriers' and 'facilitators' for implementation may be too simplistic. Implementers could instead iteratively re-evaluate how potential facilitators and barriers are being experienced by adopters throughout the implementation process, to help adopters to retain constructive evaluations of the solution. Implementers need to pay

  2. Synthesis of fluorescent metal nanoparticles in aqueous solution by photochemical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshirsagar, Prakash; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Sangaru, Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    A facile green chemistry approach for the synthesis of sub-5 nm silver and gold nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis was achieved by a photochemical method using tyrosine as the photoreducing agent. The size of the gold and silver nanoparticles was about 3 and 4 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Both silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized by this method exhibited fluorescence properties and their use for cell imaging applications has been demonstrated. (paper)

  3. Synthesis of fluorescent metal nanoparticles in aqueous solution by photochemical reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Kshirsagar, Prakash

    2014-01-06

    A facile green chemistry approach for the synthesis of sub-5 nm silver and gold nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis was achieved by a photochemical method using tyrosine as the photoreducing agent. The size of the gold and silver nanoparticles was about 3 and 4 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Both silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized by this method exhibited fluorescence properties and their use for cell imaging applications has been demonstrated. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Obtaining ZnO nanocrystalline through methods of combustion and precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.P.; Guaglianoni, W.C.; Cunha, M.A.; Basegio, T.M.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide is important technological applications in rubber and industrial paints. The chemical properties and microstructure of ZnO powder depends on the synthesis method employed. In this work, it was obtained nanosized ZnO using different synthesis processes, such as solution combustion and precipitation, varying the concentrations of reactants and the working temperature. The obtained powders were characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, crystallite size determination and thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). It was possible to obtain nanosized ZnO with the methods used. (author)

  5. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  6. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent; Obtencion de un compuesto de bario por combustion quimica y su evaluacion como adsorbente de Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas G, N [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  7. Ignition and wave processes in combustion of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M; Alymov, Michail I

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the application of classical combustion theory to ignition and flame propagation in solid-solid and gas-solid systems. It presents experimental investigations in the areas of local ignition, filtration combustion, self-propagating high temperature synthesis and nanopowders protection. The authors highlight analytical formulas used in different areas of combustion in solids and propose an approach based on classical combustion theory. The book attempts to analyze the basic approaches to understanding of solid-solid and solid - gas combustion presented in contemporary literature in a unified approach based on classical combustion theory. .

  8. Controlled synthesis of multi-shelled transition metal oxide hollow structures through one-pot solution route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Wang; Yi-Jun Yang; Ying Ma; Jian-Nian Yao

    2013-01-01

    As one type of promising candidates fot environmental and energy-related systems,multi-shelled transition metal oxide hollow structures (MS-TMOHSs) have drawn great scientific and technical interest in the past few years.This article highlights recent advances in one-pot solution synthesis of MS-TMOHSs.We begin it with an overview of synthetic strategies that have been exploited to achieve these peculiar structures.We then focus on one-pot solution approaches in the following four sections:i) soft templates directed growth; ii) Ostwald ripening; iii) controlled etching; and iv) gas bubble assisted growth.After giving a brief discussion on the unique properties and applications of these multi-shelled hollow structures,we conclude this review with the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting area of research.

  9. In situ ETEM synthesis of NiGa alloy nanoparticles from nitrate salt solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek

    2014-01-01

    Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized in situ in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Atomic level characterization of the formed alloy NPs is carried out at synthesis conditions by use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron...

  10. Synthesis of CaCO3 nanoparticles by carbonation of lime solutions in reverse micellar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.J.; Jain, R.; Mehra, A.; Dagaonkar, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Application of reverse micelles for the synthesis of nano-sized calcium carbonate particles in different solvents (cyclohexane, decane and heptane) has been investigated. The effect of the mole ratio of water-to-surfactant (R) and type of solvent has been studied on the size and nature of the

  11. New Star-Branched Poly(acrylonitrile) Architectures : ATRP Synthesis and Solution Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitto, Valentina; Voit, Brigitte I.; Loontjens, Ton J.A.; Benthem, Rolf A.T.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been chosen as ‘‘living’’/controlled free radical polymerization system to synthesize a number of novel poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) architectures. The reaction conditions for the synthesis of linear samples with control over molar mass and molar mass

  12. Automated Synthesis of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC: Methodological Aspects and Suitable Technical Solutions for a Cationic Purification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Cittanti, Corrado; Martini, Petra; Lodi, Luca; Zappaterra, Elisa; Romani, Simona; Zaccaria, Samanta; Cecconi, Davide; Rambaldi, Ilaria; Santi, Ivan; Panareo, Stefano; Giganti, Melchiore; Bartolomei, Mirco

    2018-05-08

    The PET Gallium-68 isotope has the advantage of being produced from a generator, so it is also available in nuclear medicine departments without a cyclotron. The preparation of Ga-68 DOTA-labelled compounds is actually performed by remotely controlled automated systems developed in order to assure production efficiency, reproducibility of the results, guarantee fast reaction time, to facilitate the synthesis and minimize the radiation exposure. Many automatic synthesis systems are available on the radiopharmaceutical market, and each of these requires the realization of some technical adaptations for routine use. We reported the Ga-68 DOTATOC production by automated cassette-based theranostic synthesizer system used in combination with a disposable GMP grade cassette system for cationic purification. The synthesizer is integrated with the 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and it allows to perform elution, eluate purification and radiolabeling in about 38 minutes. We have performed between January 2016 and January 2017 over 100 [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC preparation and of these only three have failed. The average synthesis yield of radiopharmaceutical production was 54.4 ± 2.3 % and the average radiochemical purity was 96.94 ± 0.74 %. The methodology and the technical solutions adopted have allowed to obtain a high quality radiopharmaceutical product as required by the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles using DNA-complex as template for solution-processable hybrid dielectric composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.C. [Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry, 153 Gilbert Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Mejia, I.; Murphy, J.; Quevedo, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Garcia, P.; Martinez, C.A. [Engineering and Technology Institute, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We developed a synthesis method to produce TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using a DNA complex. • The nanoparticles were anatase phase (~6 nm diameter), and stable in alcohols. • Composites showed a k of 13.4, 4.6 times larger than the k of polycarbonate. • Maximum processing temperature was 90 °C. • Low temperature enables their use in low-voltage, low-cost, flexible electronics. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of a DNA complex for solution processable dielectric composites. The nanoparticles were incorporated as fillers in polycarbonate at low concentrations (1.5, 5 and 7 wt%) to produce hybrid dielectric films with dielectric constant higher than thermally grown silicon oxide. It was found that the DNA complex plays an important role as capping agent in the formation and suspension stability of nanocrystalline anatase phase TiO{sub 2} at room temperature with uniform size (∼6 nm) and narrow distribution. The effective dielectric constant of spin-cast polycarbonate thin-films increased from 2.84 to 13.43 with the incorporation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles into the polymer host. These composites can be solution processed with a maximum temperature of 90 °C and could be potential candidates for its application in low-cost macro-electronics.

  14. An improved synthesis of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines in acetic acid aqueous solution under ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhi-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrazoline derivatives have been found to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among various pyrazoline derivatives, 2-pyrazolines seem to be the most frequently studied. A variety of methods have been reported for the preparation of this class of compound. However, in spite of their potential utility, some of the reported methods suffer from drawbacks such as long reaction times, cumbersome product isolation procedures and environmental concerns. Organic reactions in aqueous media have attracted increasing interest recently because of environmental issues and the understanding of biochemical processes. Ultrasound has increasingly been used in organic synthesis in the last three decades. A large number of organic reactions can be carried out in higher yields, shorter reaction time or milder conditions under ultrasound irradiation. Results Preparation of a series of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines through the reaction of chalcones and phenylhydrazine hydrochloride was carried out in 83–96% yield within 1.5–2 h in sodium acetate-acetic acid aqueous solution under ultrasound irradiation. Conclusion We have described a practical and convenient procedure for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines in sodium acetate-acetic acid aqueous solution at room temperature under ultrasound irradiation.

  15. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) synthesis from borax solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye [Yildiz Technical University, Chem. Eng. Dept., Davutpasa Campus, 34210, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β−BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7⋅}10H{sub 2}O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI{sub 2⋅}2H{sub 2}O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  16. Dual Stimuli-Responsive P(NIPAAm-co-SPA Copolymers: Synthesis and Response in Solution and in Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Grimm

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the synthesis and solution properties of dual stimuli-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-spiropyran acrylate (P(NIPAAm-co-SPA copolymers of varying composition prepared via nitroxide-mediated copolymerization. The resulting copolymers feature molar masses from 40,000 to 100,000 g/mol according to static light scattering and an SPA content of up to 5.3%. The latter was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy. These materials exhibit reversible response upon irradiation in polymeric films for a minimum of three cycles; their response in solution to both light and temperature was also investigated in an aqueous TRIS buffer (pH 8. Irradiation was carried out using LED setups with wavelengths of 365 and 590 nm. In aqueous solution, a custom-made setup using a fiber-coupled 200 W Hg(Xe lamp with 340 and 540 nm filters was used and additional heating of the copolymer solutions during irradiation allowed to study influence of the presence of either the spiropyran or merocyanine form on the cloud point temperature. Hereby, it was found that increasing the SPA content leads to a more pronounced difference between both states and decreasing cloud points in general.

  17. Solid state synthesis, crystal growth and optical properties of urea and p-chloronitrobenzene solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, R.N., E-mail: rn_rai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kant, Shiva; Reddi, R.S.B. [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Gupta, P.K. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Urea is an attractive material for frequency conversion of high power lasers to UV (for wavelength down to 190 nm), but its usage is hindered due to its hygroscopic nature, though there is no alternative organic NLO crystal which could be transparent up to 190 nm. The hygroscopic character of urea has been modified by making the solid solution (UCNB) of urea (U) and p-chloronitrobenzene (CNB). The formation of the solid solution of CNB in U is explained on the basis of phase diagram, powder XRD, FTIR, elemental analysis and single crystal XRD studies. The solubility of U, CNB and UCNB in ethanol solution is evaluated at different temperatures. Transparent single crystals of UCNB are grown from its saturated solution in ethanol. Optical properties e.g., second harmonic generation (SHG), refractive index and the band gap for UCNB crystal were measured and their values were compared with the parent compounds. Besides modification in hygroscopic nature, UCNB has also shown the higher SHG signal and mechanical hardness in comparison to urea crystal. - Highlights: • The hygroscopic character of urea was modified by making the solid solution • Solid solution formation is support by elemental, powder- and single crystal XRD • Crystal of solid solution has higher SHG signal and mechanical stability. • Refractive index and band gap of solid solution crystal have determined.

  18. Rapid synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in aqueous solution at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared in aqueous solu- tion at room temperature. We investigated the ... NCs dispersed in buffer solution (pH = 4⋅0). FTIR spectra were recorded on a ... the theory of acid-base equilibrium, the initial pH value of original solution determines the ...

  19. Ce O2-Zr O2 powder synthesis by alcohol dehydration of aqueous salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Nono, M.C. de

    1993-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of Ce O 2 -Zr O 2 powder is reported. It involves the powder synthesis by precipitation from an aqueous of Y and Zr sulphates in ethanol and isopropanol followed by calcination. The powder characteristics and their relations with the green compaction and densification by sintering are shown and discussed. It is observed that the ethanol gives powders with the best compaction and sintering behavior. (author)

  20. Synthesis, structural and ferromagnetic properties of La1–x Kx ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Synthesis, structural and ferromagnetic properties of La1–KMnO3 (0.0≤ 0.25) phases by solution combustion method ... Structural parameters were determined by the Rietveld refinement method using powder XRD data. Parent ... The ratio of the Mn3+/Mn4+ was determined by the iodometric titration.

  1. Synthesis and thermal expansion study of (Th1-xGdx)O2-y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskar, Meera; Sali, S.K.; Dahale, N.D.; Krishnan, K.; Kannan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal expansion of (Th 1-x Gd x )O 2-y (x = 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.86 and 1) was studied using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) technique. Synthesis of the solid solutions was carried out by gel combustion method using citric acid as fuel

  2. 内燃机附壁油膜蒸发的一维解析%An analytical solution for wall-film evaporation in internal combustion engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 闫燕安; 尹洪超; 贾明; 解茂昭

    2016-01-01

    The uncombusted film of fuel on the piston chamber walls of an internal combustion engine is a primaty source of pollutant discharge. In order to solve this problem, an equation for predicting the evaporation rate of the wall film was proposed. In addition, a one⁃dimensional unstable⁃state mathematical model was established to evalu⁃ate the heating and evaporation characteristics of the wall film. The conduction between the film and the wall, the convection between the film and the ambient air as well as the quantity of heat transferred by heat convection and e⁃vaporation of the wall film were considered in this new method. The transient behavior of an n⁃dodecane fuel at high ambient temperature and pressure was predicted by the new model, which provides an analytical solution for the temperature distribution within the fuel film. The results show that the process of wall⁃film heating and evaporation can be divided into three distinct stages, including an initial rapid heating stage, a stable heating and evaporation stage, and a final stage. The investigations show that the evaporation rate is higher for conditions of a thinner initial wall⁃film thickness, higher ambient temperature and convection rate, and lower ambient pressure.%内燃机中附壁油膜是产生污染物排放的重要原因,针对该问题,本文提出了一个用于预测附壁油膜蒸发率的方程,并建立了一维非稳态数学模型来分析附壁油膜的加热和蒸发特性。该模型考虑了油膜与壁面的热传导,与空气的对流换热以及自身蒸发所释放的热量。应用所建立的模型预测了正十二烷在高温高压环境中的瞬态加热蒸发过程,考虑了油膜物性随温度的变化,得到了不同时刻不同位置附壁油膜温度分布的解析解。结果表明:附壁油膜的加热蒸发过程大致可以分为3个阶段,即初始表面快速加热阶段,稳定加热蒸发阶段和末尾阶段;在较薄

  3. Nanocrystals-based Macroporous Materials Synthesized by Freeze-drying Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ruiqiang; Chen, Yu; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel freeze-drying combustion method for synthesis of macroporous powders with nano-network, using Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 (SDC) as an example. The metal nitrate salt solution mixed with glycine is frozen to form homogeneous nitrate/glycine mixture and then freeze-dried through sublimation of ice crystals. Upon combustion of the freeze-dried mixture, SDC powders with macroporous microstructure consisting of 10–20 nm nanocrystals, high surface area and excellent sinterability are achieved. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicates that nanodomains due to aggregation/segregation of dopants in the SDC powders obtained from freeze-drying combustion are much smaller than those in the SDC powders synthesized by the conventional nitrate solution combustion approach, demonstrating better elemental homogeneity and improved conductivity. Using low cost precursors and simple processing conditions, freeze-drying combustion can be a versatile method to synthesize nanocrystalline powders with excellent composition homogeneity for broad applications.

  4. Solution-phase parallel synthesis of aryloxyimino amides via a novel multicomponent reaction among aromatic (Z)-chlorooximes, isocyanides, and electron-deficient phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercalli, Valentina; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Del Grosso, Erika; Varese, Monica; Cassese, Hilde; Massarotti, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2014-11-10

    A library of 41 aryloxyimino amides was prepared via solution phase parallel synthesis by extending the multicomponent reaction of (Z)-chlorooximes and isocyanides to the use of electron-deficient phenols. The resulting aryloxyiminoamide derivatives can be used as intermediates for the synthesis of benzo[d]isoxazole-3-carboxamides, dramatically reducing the number of synthetic steps required by other methods reported in literature.

  5. Synthesis method based on solution regions for planar four bar straight line linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Rong, Yin; Cong, Mao; Jian you, Han; Tong, Yang; Juan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method for synthesizing and selecting desired four-bar straight line mechanisms based on solution regions is presented. Given two fixed pivots, the point position and direction of the target straight line, an infinite number of mechanism solutions can be produced by employing this method, both in the general case and all three special cases. Unifying the straight line direction and the displacement from the given point to the instant center into the same form with different angles as parameters, infinite mechanism solutions can be expressed with different solution region charts. The mechanism property graphs have been computed to enable the designers to find out the involved mechanism information more intuitively and avoid aimlessness in selecting optimal mechanisms

  6. Synthesis of (U,Zr)C solid solutions under exothermic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.L.; Moore, H.G.; Gladson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The reactions of forming (U,Zr)C solid solutions from their elemental components or similarly less stable reactants such as UC 2 are strongly exothermic due to the high stability of these solid solutions. A simple approach of utilizing this heat of formation energy to assist the solid solution reaction process is to intimately mix the less stable reactant powders and then pressed them into a compact. The compact is then heated to the ignition temperature of the reaction. The feasibility of this reaction method to synthesize (U,Zr)C solid solutions has been demonstrated in this study. The preliminary results also show that both the initial composition and the heating rate have a significant effect on the nature of the reaction process. As expected the degree of powder mixing was also found to affect the completeness of the reaction

  7. Synthesis, characterization and thermal expansion studies on thorium-praseodymium mixed oxide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panneerselvam, G.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thorium-praseodymium mixed oxide solid solutions containing 15, 25, 40 and 55 mole percent of praseodymia were synthesized by mixing the solutions of thorium nitrate in water and praseodymium oxide (Pr 6 O 11 ) in conc. HNO 3 . Subsequently, their hydroxides were co-precipitated by the addition of aqueous ammonia. Further the precipitate was dried at 50 deg C, calcined at 600 deg C for 4 hours and sintered at 1200 deg C for 6 h in air. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed for phase identification and lattice parameter derivation. Single-phase fluorite structure was observed for all the compositions. Bulk and theoretical densities of solid solutions were also determined by immersion and X-ray techniques. Thermal expansion coefficients and percentage linear thermal expansion of the solid solutions were determined using high temperature X-ray diffraction technique in the temperature range 300 to 1700 K for the first time. The room temperature lattice constants estimated for above compositions are 0.5578, 0.5565, 0.5545 and 0.5526 nm, respectively. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficients for the solid solutions are 15.48 x 10 -6 K -1 , 18.35 x 10 -6 K -1 , 22.65 x 10 -6 K -1 and 26.95 x 10 -6 K -1 , respectively. The percentage linear thermal expansions in this temperature range are 1.68, 1.89, 2.21 and 2.51 respectively. It is seen that the solid solutions are stable up to 1700 K. It is also seen that the effect and nature of the dopant are the important parameters influencing the thermal expansion of the ThO 2 . The lattice parameter of the solid solutions exhibited a decreasing trend with respect to praseodymia addition. The percentage linear thermal expansion of the solid solutions increases steadily with increasing temperature

  8. A novel solution-phase route for the synthesis of crystalline silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Chu Ying; Yang Likun; Han Dongxue; Lue Zhongxian

    2005-01-01

    A unique solution-phase route was devised to synthesize crystal Ag nanowires with high aspect-ratio (8-10 nm in diameter and length up to 10 μm) by the reduction of AgNO 3 with Vitamin C in SDS/ethanol solution. The resultant nanoproducts were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (ED). A soft template mechanism was put forward to interpret the formation of metal Ag nanowires

  9. Synthesis of side-chain polystyrenes for all organic solution processed OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente Sánchez, Alejandro Jose (Dr.)

    2017-01-01

    In the present work side-chain polystyrenes were synthesized and characterized, in order to be applied in multilayer OLEDs fabricated by solution process techniques. Manufacture of optoelectronic devices by solution process techniques is meant to decrease significantly fabrication cost and allow large scale production of such devices. This dissertation focusses in three series, enveloped in two material classes. The two classes differ to each other in the type of charge transport exhibited...

  10. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  11. Photochemical synthesis of shape-selective palladium nanocubes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Subrata; Wang Ke; Lau, Sean; Liang Hong

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a seedless, citrateless one-step synthetic process for the formation of shape controlled monodisperse Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in 4 h of UV-photoirradiation. The synthesis was done in cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant media in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The size and shape of the particles can be tuned easily by varying the molar ratio of the CTAB with the Pd salt and by controlling the UV-photoirradiation time. The preferential binding of CTAB to the (100) facets of Pd leads to the formation of Pd nanorods and nanocubes. The approach developed here would reduce the use of seed particles and tri-sodium citrate for the fast synthesis of faceted Pd NPs. The synthesized particles were found to be stable for at least 3 months under ambient conditions at room temperature. This newly developed process might find potential applications in the formation of other materials like Au, Ag, and CdS NPs and applicable in surface enhanced Raman scattering, and different catalysis reactions.Graphical AbstractWe have developed a seedless, citrateless one-step synthetic process for the formation of shape controlled monodisperse Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in 4 h of UV-photoirradiation. The synthesis was done in cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant media in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The size and shape of the particles can be tuned easily by varying the molar ratio of the CTAB with the Pd salt and by controlling the UV-photoirradiation time. The preferential binding of CTAB to the (100) facets of Pd leads to the formation of Pd nanorods and nanocubes. The approach developed here would reduce the use of seed particles and tri-sodium citrate for the fast synthesis of faceted Pd NPs. The synthesized particles were found to be stable for at least 3 months under ambient conditions at room temperature. This newly developed process might find potential applications in the formation of other materials like

  12. Photochemical synthesis of shape-selective palladium nanocubes in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Subrata, E-mail: skundu@tamu.edu; Wang Ke; Lau, Sean; Liang Hong, E-mail: hliang@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University, Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We have developed a seedless, citrateless one-step synthetic process for the formation of shape controlled monodisperse Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in 4 h of UV-photoirradiation. The synthesis was done in cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant media in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The size and shape of the particles can be tuned easily by varying the molar ratio of the CTAB with the Pd salt and by controlling the UV-photoirradiation time. The preferential binding of CTAB to the (100) facets of Pd leads to the formation of Pd nanorods and nanocubes. The approach developed here would reduce the use of seed particles and tri-sodium citrate for the fast synthesis of faceted Pd NPs. The synthesized particles were found to be stable for at least 3 months under ambient conditions at room temperature. This newly developed process might find potential applications in the formation of other materials like Au, Ag, and CdS NPs and applicable in surface enhanced Raman scattering, and different catalysis reactions.Graphical AbstractWe have developed a seedless, citrateless one-step synthetic process for the formation of shape controlled monodisperse Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in 4 h of UV-photoirradiation. The synthesis was done in cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant media in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The size and shape of the particles can be tuned easily by varying the molar ratio of the CTAB with the Pd salt and by controlling the UV-photoirradiation time. The preferential binding of CTAB to the (100) facets of Pd leads to the formation of Pd nanorods and nanocubes. The approach developed here would reduce the use of seed particles and tri-sodium citrate for the fast synthesis of faceted Pd NPs. The synthesized particles were found to be stable for at least 3 months under ambient conditions at room temperature. This newly developed process might find potential applications in the formation of other materials like

  13. Direct large-scale synthesis of perovskite barium strontium titanate nano-particles from solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianquan; Wang Yu; Wan Pingchen; Long Tuli; Chan, Helen Lai Wah

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a wet chemical synthesis technique for large-scale fabrication of perovskite barium strontium titanate nano-particles near room temperature and under ambient pressure. The process employs titanium alkoxide and alkali earth hydroxides as starting materials and involves very simple operation steps. Particle size and crystallinity of the particles are controllable by changing the processing parameters. Observations by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy TEM indicate that the particles are well-crystallized, chemically stoichiometric and ∼50nm in diameter. The nanoparticles can be sintered into ceramics at 1150 deg. C and show typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops

  14. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  15. Magnetite synthesis from ferrous iron solution at pH 6.8 in a continuous stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Yvonne M; Zorzano, Karin Bertens; Buisman, Cees J N; Weijma, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Partial oxidation of defined Fe 2+ solutions is a well-known method for magnetite synthesis in batch systems. The partial oxidation method could serve as basis for an iron removal process in drinking water production, yielding magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as a compact and valuable product. As a first step toward such a process, a series of experiments was carried out, in which magnetite was synthesized from an Fe 2+ solution in a 2 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at atmospheric pressure and 32 °C. In four experiments, elevating the pH from an initial value of 5.5 or 6.0 to a final value of 6.8, 7.0 or 7.5 caused green rust to form, eventually leading to magnetite. Formation of NH 4 + in the reactor indicated that NO 3 - and subsequently NO 2 - served as the oxidant. However, mass flow analysis revealed an influx of O 2 to the reactor. In a subsequent experiment, magnetite formation was achieved in the absence of added nitrate. In another experiment, seeding with magnetite particles led to additional magnetite precipitation without the need for a pH elevation step. Our results show, for the first time, that continuous magnetite formation from an Fe 2+ solution is possible under mild conditions, without the need for extensive addition of chemicals.

  16. The role of various fuels on microwave-enhanced combustion synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 nanocatalyst used in hydrogen production via methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajamein, Hossein; Haghighi, Mohammad; Alaei, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts were synthesized by the fast and simple microwave enhanced combustion method. Considering that the fuel type is one of the effective parameters on quality of the prepared nanocatalysts, different fuels such as sorbitol, propylene glycol, glycerol, diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol were used. XRD, FESEM, FTIR, EDX, and BET analyses were applied to determine the physicochemical properties of fabricated nanocatalysts. The catalytic experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range of 160–300 °C. The characteristic and reactivity properties of fabricated nanocatalysts proved that ethylene glycol is the suitable fuel for preparation of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts via microwave enhanced combustion method. - Highlights: • Microwave combustion synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts by different fuels. • Enhancement of methanol conversion at low temperatures by selecting proper fuel. • Providing a large number of combustion pores by application of ethylene glycol as fuel. • Increase of CO selectivity in steam methanol reforming by Zn(0 0 2) crystallite facet. - Abstract: A series of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalysts were synthesized by the microwave enhanced combustion method to evaluate the influence of fuel type. Sorbitol, propylene glycol, glycerol, diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol were used as fuel. XRD results revealed that application of ethylene glycol led to highly dispersed CuO and ZnO crystals. It was more highlighted about Cu(1 1 1) crystallite facet which known as the main active site of methanol steam reforming. Moreover, using ethylene glycol resulted homogeneous morphology and narrow particles size distribution (average surface particle size is about 265 nm). Due to the significant physicochemical properties, the catalytic experiments showed that the sample prepared by ethylene glycol achieved total conversion of methanol at 260 °C. Its carbon monoxide

  17. Photochemical synthesis of shape-selective palladium nanocubes in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Wang, Ke; Lau, Sean; Liang, Hong

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a seedless, citrateless one-step synthetic process for the formation of shape controlled monodisperse Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in 4 h of UV-photoirradiation. The synthesis was done in cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant media in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The size and shape of the particles can be tuned easily by varying the molar ratio of the CTAB with the Pd salt and by controlling the UV-photoirradiation time. The preferential binding of CTAB to the (100) facets of Pd leads to the formation of Pd nanorods and nanocubes. The approach developed here would reduce the use of seed particles and tri-sodium citrate for the fast synthesis of faceted Pd NPs. The synthesized particles were found to be stable for at least 3 months under ambient conditions at room temperature. This newly developed process might find potential applications in the formation of other materials like Au, Ag, and CdS NPs and applicable in surface enhanced Raman scattering, and different catalysis reactions.

  18. Direct synthesis of La9.33Si6O26 ultrafine powder via sol-gel self-combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Changan; Liu Junliang; Cai Jun; Zeng Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    Single phase La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 ultrafine powder, as a kind of highly activated precursor to prepare medium-to-low temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), has been successfully synthesized via a non-aqueous sol-gel and self-combustion approach from the starting materials: lanthanum nitrate (La(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O), citric acid, ethylene glycol (EG), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ammonium nitrate. The details of gel's self-combustion were investigated by DTA-TG and the structural characterization of as-synthesized powder from self-combustion was performed by XRD and SEM. The results show that La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 single phase of apatite-type crystal structure can be directly synthesized by sol-gel self-combustion method without further calcinations on the condition that the molar ratio (R) of NO 3 - to citric acid and ethylene glycol being 6:1. Such powders composed of well-dispersed particles with an average size of 200 nm and a specific surface area of 5.54 m 2 /g. It can be sintered to 90% of its theoretical density at 1500 deg. C for 10 h, about 200 deg. C lower than the sintering temperature for the powder derived from traditional solid reactions. The sintered material has a thermal expansion coefficient of 9.2 x 10 -6 K -1 between room temperature and 800 deg. C

  19. Controllable synthesis of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures by a simple low-temperature aqueous solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongxia; Zhao Yunlong; Yu Xiujun; Chen Deliang; Zhang Liwei; Xu Hongliang; Yang Daoyuan; Wang Hailong; Zhang Rui

    2011-01-01

    Spindle-like ZnO nanostructures were successfully synthesized through direct precipitation of zinc acetate aqueous solution at 60 deg. C. Phase structure, morphology and microstructure of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA, FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Result showed that hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanostructures with about 100 nm in diameter and 100-200 nm in length were obtained. HMTA acted as a soft template in the process and played an important role in the formation of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures. Meanwhile, different morphologies were also obtained by altering synthetic temperature, additional agents and the ratios of Zn 2+ /OH - . Possible mechanism for the variations of morphology with synthesis parameters was also discussed in this paper.

  20. Solution plasma applications for the synthesis/modification of inorganic nanostructured materials and the treatment of natural polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Saito, Nagahiro

    2018-01-01

    Reducing the use of toxic chemicals, production steps, and time consumption are important concerns for researchers and process engineers to contribute in the quest for an efficient process in any production. If an equipment setup is simple, the process additionally becomes more profitable. Combination of the mentioned requirements has opened up various applications of the solution plasma process (SPP) — a physical means of generating plasma through an electrical discharge in a liquid medium at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. This review shows the progress of scientific research on the applications of the SPP for the synthesis/modification of inorganic nanostructured materials and the treatment of natural polymers. Development achieved in each application is demonstrated.

  1. In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles using arc-discharge in solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Debasis; Kuiry, Suresh C.; McCutchen, Matthew; Seal, Sudipta; Heinrich, Helge; Slane, Grady C.

    2004-01-01

    A unique, simple, inexpensive, and one-step synthesis route to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with palladium nanoparticles using a simplified dc arc-discharge in solution is reported. Zero-loss energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy confirm the presence of 3 nm palladium nanoparticles. Such palladium nanoparticles form during the reduction of palladium tetra-chloro-square-planar complex. The deconvoluted x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy envelope shows the presence of palladium on the decorated CNTs. The energy dispersive spectroscopy suggests no functionalization of atomic chlorine to the sidewall of the CNTs. The presence of dislodged graphene sheets with wavy morphology supports the formation of CNTs through the 'scroll mechanism'

  2. Review and synthesis of stress intensity factor solutions applicable to cracks in bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The available literature for stress intensity factor solutions for cracks in round bars, both threaded and unthreaded, subjected to either tension or bending, is reviewed. The results are synthesized into a form that is appropriate for the analysis of bolts and studs. (author)

  3. Branched polyacrylamides : Synthesis and effect of molecular architecture on solution rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Linear, star and comb-like polyacrylamides (PAM) have been prepared by atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in aqueous media at room temperature. The influence of the molecular architecture of PAM on the rheological properties in aqueous solution has been investigated. The well-known theory

  4. Systematic network synthesis and design: Problem formulation, superstructure generation, data management and solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Gargalo, Carina L.; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat

    2015-01-01

    when large problems are considered. In an earlier work, we proposed a computer-aided framework for synthesis and design of process networks. In this contribution, we expand the framework by including methods and tools developed to structure, automate and simplify the mathematical formulation......The developments obtained in recent years in the field of mathematical programming considerably reduced the computational time and resources needed to solve large and complex Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problems. Nevertheless, the application of these methods in industrial practice...... is still limited by the complexity associated with the mathematical formulation of some problems. In particular, the tasks of design space definition and representation as superstructure, as well as the data collection, validation and handling may become too complex and cumbersome to execute, especially...

  5. Technical difficulties and solutions of direct transesterification process of microbial oil for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu; Khan, Maksudur Rahman; Islam, M Amirul; Wahid, Zularisam Ab; Pirozzi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oils are considered as alternative to vegetable oils or animal fats as biodiesel feedstock. Microalgae and oleaginous yeast are the main candidates of microbial oil producers' community. However, biodiesel synthesis from these sources is associated with high cost and process complexity. The traditional transesterification method includes several steps such as biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction and solvent recovery. Therefore, direct transesterification or in situ transesterification, which combines all the steps in a single reactor, has been suggested to make the process cost effective. Nevertheless, the process is not applicable for large-scale biodiesel production having some difficulties such as high water content of biomass that makes the reaction rate slower and hurdles of cell disruption makes the efficiency of oil extraction lower. Additionally, it requires high heating energy in the solvent extraction and recovery stage. To resolve these difficulties, this review suggests the application of antimicrobial peptides and high electric fields to foster the microbial cell wall disruption.

  6. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua, E-mail: liangxaut@gmail.com; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic copper (FDC) was synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl. • FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. • Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained by using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. • The potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} and α-Al phase and the replacement reaction in multiphase solution are key factors. - Abstract: Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. Compared to Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60} and Cu{sub 45}Al{sub 55} alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanocubes with Sharp Corners and Edges in an Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Li, Jianhua; Gilroy, Kyle D; Tao, Jing; Zhu, Chunlei; Yang, Xuan; Sun, Xiaojun; Xia, Younan

    2016-11-22

    It remains a challenge to synthesize Ag nanocubes in an aqueous system, although the polyol process was successfully adopted more than one decade ago. Here, we report an aqueous method for the synthesis of Ag nanocubes with an average edge length of 35-95 nm. It involves the formation of AgCl octahedra by mixing CF 3 COOAg with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, followed by the nucleation and growth of Ag nanocrystals in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and FeCl 3 . The Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ redox pair is responsible for the removal of multiply twinned seeds through oxidative etching. The Cl - ions play two critical roles in the nucleation and growth of Ag nanocubes with a single-crystal structure. First, the Cl - ions react with Ag + ions to generate nanometer-sized AgCl octahedra in the initial stage of a synthesis. In the presence of room light and a proper reducing agent such as AA, the AgCl can be reduced to generate Ag n nuclei followed by their evolution into single-crystal seeds and then Ag nanocrystals. Second, the Cl - ions can act as a specific capping agent toward the Ag(100) surface, enabling the formation of Ag nanocubes with sharp corners and edges. Based on the results from a set of time-lapse studies and control experiments, we formulate a plausible mechanism to account for the formation of Ag nanocubes that resembles the formation and development of latent image centers in silver halide grains in the photographic process.

  8. Thermal expansion studies on uranium-neodymium mixed oxide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panneerselvam, G.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Antony, M.P.; Nagarajan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium-Neodymium mixed oxides solid solutions (U 1-y Nd y ) O 2 (y=0.2-0.95) were prepared by combustion synthesis using citric acid as fuel. Structural characterization and computation of lattice parameter was carried out from room temperature X-ray diffraction measurements. Single-phase fluorite structure was observed up to y=0.80. For solid solutions with y>0.80 additional Nd 2 O 3 lines were visible

  9. Effect of propellant on the combustion synthesis of La07Sr0.3Co0.5Fe0.5O3 (LSCF) nanopowders for application as cathode in IT-SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amada M.; Silva, Camila R.B.; Conceicao, Leandro da; Souza, Mariana M.V.M.; Ribeiro, Nielson F.P.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion synthesis has emerged as a simple and economically viable technique for the preparation of La 0,7 Sr 0,3 Co 0 ,5Fe 0,5 O 3 (LSCF) nanopowders. This material has attracted a substantial interest for application as cathode in the solid oxide fuel cells of intermediate temperature (IT-SOFC). The objective of this work is to study the effect of different propellants (urea, glycine, citric acid and sucrose) in the preparation of LSCF nanopowders by combustion method. The nitrates and the propellant were mixed on a hot plate (150 °C) and then introduced in a furnace (300°C), where the flame temperature is measured by thermocouple. The powder was finally calcined at different temperatures. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results obtained by XRD showed the presence of pure perovskite LSFC and a small formation of carbonate phases, but when urea and sucrose were used as propellant these secondary phases were almost nonexistent. (author)

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-structured Ceramic Powders Synthesized by Emulsion Combustion Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatori, Kazumasa; Tani, Takao; Watanabe, Naoyoshi; Kamiya, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    The emulsion combustion method (ECM), a novel powder production process, was originally developed to synthesize nano-structured metal-oxide powders. Metal ions in the aqueous droplets were rapidly oxidized by the combustion of the surrounding flammable liquid. The ECM achieved a small reaction field and a short reaction period to fabricate the submicron-sized hollow ceramic particles with extremely thin wall and chemically homogeneous ceramic powder. Alumina, zirconia, zirconia-ceria solid solutions and barium titanate were synthesized by the ECM process. Alumina and zirconia powders were characterized to be metastable in crystalline phase and hollow structure. The wall thickness of alumina was about 10 nm. The zirconia-ceria powders were found to be single-phase solid solutions for a wide composition range. These powders were characterized as equiaxed-shape, submicron-sized chemically homogeneous materials. The powder formation mechanism was investigated through the synthesis of barium titanate powder with different metal sources

  11. Synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube in malonic acid solution by anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2008-10-01

    We synthesized TiO2 nanotube array by anodizing in a solution of malonic acid (HOOCCH2COOH) and NH4F, and analyzed the morphology of the nanotube using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of TiO2 nanotube was largely affected by anodizing time, anodizing voltage, and malonic acid concentration. With increasing the anodizing voltage from 5 V to 20 V, the diameter of TiO2 nanotube was increased from about 20 nm to 110 nm and its length from about 10 nm to 700 nm. In addition, the length of TiO2 nanotube was increased with increasing anodizing time up to 6 h at 20 V. We obtained the longest and the most highly ordered nanotube structure when anodizing Ti in a solution of 0.5 wt% NH4F and 1 M malonic acid at 20 V for 6 h.

  12. Solution equilibrium behind the room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Daniel, Geoffrey; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2013-03-01

    Formation of nanocrystalline and monodisperse TiO2 from a water soluble and stable precursor, ammonium oxo-lactato-titanate, (NH4)8Ti4O4(Lactate)8.4H2O, often referred to as TiBALDH or TALH, is demonstrated to be due to a coordination equilibrium. This compound, individual in the solid state, exists in solution in equilibrium with ammonium tris-lactato-titanate, (NH4)2Ti(Lactate)3 and uniform crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (anatase) stabilized by surface-capping with lactate ligands. This equilibrium can be shifted towards nano-TiO2via application of a less polar solvent like methanol or ethanol, dilution of the solution, introduction of salts or raising the temperature, and reverted on addition of polar and strongly solvating media such as dimethyl sulfoxide, according to NMR. Aggregation and precipitation of the particles were followed by DLS and could be achieved by a decrease in their surface charge by adsorption of strongly hydrogen-bonding cations, e.g. in solutions of ammonia, ethanolamine or amino acid arginine or by addition of ethanol. The observed equilibrium may be involved in formation of nano-titania on the surface of plant roots exerting chelating organic carboxylate ligands and thus potentially influencing plant interactions.Formation of nanocrystalline and monodisperse TiO2 from a water soluble and stable precursor, ammonium oxo-lactato-titanate, (NH4)8Ti4O4(Lactate)8.4H2O, often referred to as TiBALDH or TALH, is demonstrated to be due to a coordination equilibrium. This compound, individual in the solid state, exists in solution in equilibrium with ammonium tris-lactato-titanate, (NH4)2Ti(Lactate)3 and uniform crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (anatase) stabilized by surface-capping with lactate ligands. This equilibrium can be shifted towards nano-TiO2via application of a less polar solvent like methanol or ethanol, dilution of the solution, introduction of salts or raising the temperature, and reverted on addition of polar and strongly solvating

  13. Green synthesis of highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions of large starch-stabilised silver nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Betts, Jonathan W; Kelly, Stephen M; Hector, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to prepare a range of aqueous silver colloidal solutions, using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, water-soluble starch as a combined crystallising, stabilising and solubilising agent, and water as the solvent. The diameter of silver nanoplatelets increases with higher concentrations of AgNO3 and starch. The silver nanoparticles are also more uniform in shape the greater the diameter of the nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions with a very high concentration of large, flat, hexagonal silver nanoplatelets (~230 nm in breadth) have been used to deposit and fix an antibacterial coating of these large starch-stabilised silver nanoplates on commercial cotton fibres, using a simple dip-coating process using water as the solvent, in order to study the dependence of the antibacterial properties of these nanoplatelets on their size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and Rheological Properties of an Associative Star Polymer in Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sami; Mononen, Pekka; Strandman, Satu

    2007-01-01

    synthesised by atom transfer radical. polymerization (ATRP) was found to fonn hydrogels at room temperature at polymer concentrations. Cp, over 22 gIL due to the interpolymer drophobic association of the PS blocks. Increasing Cp leads to stronger elastic networks at room temperature that show a gel......Rheological properties of aqueous solutions and hydrogels fonned by an amphiphiIic star block copolymer poly(acrylic acid)-blockpolystyrene (PAAS4-b-PS6)4. were investigated as a function of the polymer concentration (Cp), temperature, and added saIt concentration. The water-soluble polymer......-to-solution transition with increasing temperature. Increase of ionic strength decreases the moduli compared with the pure hydrogel but did not affect the gel-sol transition temperature significantly. Small-angle X-ray experiments showed two distinct scattering correlation peaks for samples above the gelling Cp, which...

  15. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  16. Development of viable solutions for the synthesis of sulfur bearing single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductivity in FeAs and FeSe based compounds has once again focused the condensed matter community on the need to systematically explore compounds containing chalcogens and pnictogens. Whereas some solution growth techniques have been developed to handle P and As, and Sb and Bi are versatile solvents in their own right, S has remained a problematic element to incorporate into conventional solution growth. To a large extent its low boiling point, combined with its polymeric nature in a molten state have made S an uninviting solvent. In this paper we present our development of a range of binary sulfur bearing solutions (some even sulfur rich) and demonstrate how we have been able to use these as useful starting points for the growth of a wide range of transition metal-sulfur-X ternary compounds. We present growth details and basic characterization data for Ni3Bi2S2, Co3Sn2S2, Fe2GeS4, CoSSb, and CePd3S4. In addition we present a remarkably simple method for the growth of single crystalline Co with crystallization taking place below the Curie temperature.

  17. Synthesis of xenotime(YPO4) by precipitation from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikichi, Yasuo; Hukuo, Ken-iti; Shiokawa, Jiro.

    1978-01-01

    Xenotime (tetragonal YPO 4 ) was synthesized by the precipitation from a mixed solution of yttrium chloride and orthophosphoric acid or orthophosphate above 50 0 C. At 50 0 C, the initial precipitate from the solutions in the pH range from 0.8 to 2.9 was crystalline weinschenkite (monoclinic YPO 4 .2H 2 O) and amorphous phosphate was formed at pH above 3, while precipitation did not take place at pH 0.5. Weinschenkite was stable at 50 0 C, but amorphous phosphate gradually crystallized by aging and became crystalline xenotime at pH 3.7 after 5 days and at pH 5.0 after 28 days. At 90 0 C, xenotime was detected in the precipitate from the solution of pH 0.5, and was also obtained by aging weinschenkite at pH between 0.8 and 2.9 or amorphous phosphate at pH above 3. The unit cell parameters of the synthesized xenotime were as follows: a=b=6.893A, c=6.026A. (auth.)

  18. Synthesis and properties of γ-Ga2O3-Al2O3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonasenko, T. N.; Leont'eva, N. N.; Talzi, V. P.; Smirnova, N. S.; Savel'eva, G. G.; Shilova, A. V.; Tsyrul'nikov, P. G.

    2017-10-01

    The textural and structural properties of mixed oxides Ga2O3-Al2O3, obtained via impregnating γ-Al2O3 with a solution of Ga(NO3)3 and subsequent heat treatment, are studied. According to the results from X-ray powder diffraction, gallium ions are incorporated into the structure of aluminum oxide to form a solid solution of spinel-type γ-Ga2O3-Al2O3 up to a Ga2O3 content of 50 wt % of the total weight of the sample, accompanied by a reduction in the specific surface area, volume, and average pore diameter. It is concluded that when the Ga2O3 content exceeds 50 wt %, the β-Ga2O3 phase is observed along with γ-Ga2O3-Al2O3 solid solution. 71Ga and 27Al NMR spectroscopy shows that gallium replaces aluminum atoms from the tetrahedral position to the octahedral coordination in the structure of γ-Ga2O3-Al2O3.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Fe colloid catalysts in inverse micelle solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, A.; Stoker, M.; Hicks, M. [Sandia National Lab., Alburquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Surfactant molecules, possessing a hydrophilic head group and a hydrophobic tail group, aggregate in various solvents to form structured solutions. In two component mixtures of surfactant and organic solvents (e.g., toluene and alkanes), surfactants aggregate to form inverse micelles. Here, the hydrophilic head groups shield themselves by forming a polar core, and the hydrophobic tails groups are free to move about in the surrounding oleic phase. The formation of Fe clusters in inverse miscelles was studied.Iron salts are solubilized within the polar interior of inverse micelles, and the addition of the reducing agent LiBH{sub 4} initiates a chemical reduction to produce monodisperse, nanometer sized Fe based particles. The reaction sequence is sustained by material exchange between inverse micelles. The surfactant interface provides a spatial constraint on the reaction volume, and reactions carried out in these micro-heterogeneous solutions produce colloidal sized particles (10-100{Angstrom}) stabilized in solution against flocculation of surfactant. The clusters were stabilized with respect to size with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and with respect to chemical composition with Mossbauer spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, these iron based clusters were tested for catalytic activity in a model hydrogenolysis reaction. The hydrogenolysis of naphthyl bibenzyl methane was used as a model for coal pyrolysis.

  20. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl2 + HCl solution. Compared to Cu40Al60 and Cu45Al55 alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu17Al83 alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is , and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu2O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu17Al83 alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl2 intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  1. Synthesis and characteristics of Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites by arc-discharge solution plasma processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Lee, Sang-Yul

    2012-10-05

    Arc discharge in solution, generated by applying a high voltage of unipolar pulsed dc to electrodes of Ag and Pt, was used as a method to form Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites via electrode erosion by the effects of the electric arc at the cathode (Ag rod) and the sputtering at the anode (Pt rod). Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites were formed as colloidal particles dispersed in solution via the reduction of hydrogen radicals generated during discharge without the addition of chemical precursor or reducing agent. At a discharge time of 30 s, the fine bimetallic nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 5 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing discharge time, the bimetallic nanoparticle size tended to increase by forming an agglomeration. The presence of the relatively small amount of Pt dispersed in the Ag matrix could be observed by the analytical mapping mode of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution TEM. This demonstrated that the synthesized particle was in the form of a nanocomposite. No contamination of other chemical substances was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hence, solution plasma could be a clean and simple process to effectively synthesize Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites and it is expected to be widely applicable in the preparation of several types of nanoparticle.

  2. Synthesis and Surface Activity of Cationic Amino Acid-Based Surfactants in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Katarzyna E

    2017-01-01

    I studied the possibility of using amino acid-based surfactants as emulsifiers at the same time as preservatives. Fourteen lipopeptides were synthesized employing a solid phase peptide synthesis procedure. All compounds were designed to be positively charged from +1 to +4 and acylated with fatty acid chain-palmitic and miristic. The surface activity of the obtained lipopeptides was tested using a semi-automatic tensiometer to calculate parameters describing the behavior of lipopeptides in the air/water interface. Such parameters as CMC, surface tension at the CMC point ( σ CMC ), effectiveness ( π CMC ), and efficiency (pC20) were measured. Emulsifying properties of all lipopeptides were also examined. The studies reveal that the surface active properties of synthesized compounds strongly depend on the length of alkyl chains as well as on the composition of amino acid polar heads. The critical micelle concentration decreases with increasing alkyl chain length of lipopeptides with the same polar head. The effectiveness and efficiency decrease when the number of amino acids in the polar head increases. All lipopeptides established a very weak emulsification power and created unstable water/Miglyol 812 and water/paraffin oil emulsions. Results suggest that lipopeptides cannot be used as emulsifiers; nonetheless, it is possible to use them as auxiliary surfactants with disinfectant properties in combination with more potent emulsifiers.

  3. Local A-site layering in rare-earth orthochromite perovskites by solution synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Luke M.; Walton, Richard I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kashtiban, Reza J.; Sloan, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, SciTech Daresbury Campus, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-19

    Cation size effects were examined in the mixed A-site perovskites La{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CrO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}CrO{sub 3} prepared through both hydrothermal and solid-state methods. Atomically resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope shows that while the La and Sm cations are randomly distributed, increased cation-radius variance in La{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}CrO{sub 3} results in regions of localised La and Tb layers, an atomic arrangement exclusive to the hydrothermally prepared material. Solid-state preparation gives lower homogeneity resulting in separate nanoscale regions rich in La{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}. The A-site layering in hydrothermal La{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}CrO{sub 3} is randomised upon annealing at high temperature, resulting in magnetic behaviour that is dependent on synthesis route. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  4. Synthesis of potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate encapsulated polymeric beads for extraction of Cs from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagare, Anant B.; Singh, Krishan Kant; Kumar, Manmohan; Shinde, Vaishali S.

    2016-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the major radionuclides formed during the fission of 235 U in nuclear reactors. It is a main source of radiation in High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) generated after the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Separation of Cs from HLLW, decreases radiation exposure throughout the vitrification process and avoids thermal deformation of conditioned waste matrix during storage. Therefore, there is a necessity for selective separation of Cs from HLLW and other such acidic waste streams. The liquid-liquid extraction is widely used as a technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes. Such technologies play an important role in all the bulk separation processes, but they have noticeable limitations, such as difficulty in handling, losses of extractant in aqueous phase, secondary waste generation, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. Due to these limitations it is necessary to explore the advance, more capable and exactly feasible alternatives. In this respect it is assumed that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may resolve some of these limitations. The metal hexacyanoferrates (HCFs) are preferred as Cs extractant over the other materials due to their selectivity and high capacity to remove cesium from aqueous radioactive wastes. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel potasium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoHCF) encapsulated polyether sulphone beads, and its use as a cesium sorbent material

  5. Solution Synthesis Approach to Colloidal Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets with Monolayer-Level Thickness Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report a colloidal synthesis approach to CsPbBr3 nanoplatelets (NPLs). The nucleation and growth of the platelets, which takes place at room temperature, is triggered by the injection of acetone in a mixture of precursors that would remain unreactive otherwise. The low growth temperature enables the control of the plate thickness, which can be precisely tuned from 3 to 5 monolayers. The strong two-dimensional confinement of the carriers at such small vertical sizes is responsible for a narrow PL, strong excitonic absorption, and a blue shift of the optical band gap by more than 0.47 eV compared to that of bulk CsPbBr3. We also show that the composition of the NPLs can be varied all the way to CsPbBr3 or CsPbI3 by anion exchange, with preservation of the size and shape of the starting particles. The blue fluorescent CsPbCl3 NPLs represent a new member of the scarcely populated group of blue-emitting colloidal nanocrystals. The exciton dynamics were found to be independent of the extent of 2D confinement in these platelets, and this was supported by band structure calculations. PMID:26726764

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of silico-manganese nanohybrid for Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiufeng, E-mail: zhuqiufeng@th.btbu.edu.cn; Wang, Liting; An, Zehuan; Ye, Hong; Feng, Xudong

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A novel silico-manganese nanohybrid adsorbent (SMNA) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • The adsorption capacities of the SMNA for Cu(II) are lower pH dependency. • As-adsorbents are very efficient at low metal concentration and substantial amounts of Cu(II) can be removed from aqueous solution. - Abstract: A novel silico-manganese nanohybrid adsorbent (SMNA) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential measurement. The adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution on the SMNA was investigated with variations in contact time, pH and initial Cu(II) concentration. The results showed that hydrothermal method would generate nanowire/nanorod incomplete crystallite (δ-MnO{sub 2}) adsorbent. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto SMNA increased sharply within 25 min and reached equilibrium gradually. The maximum adsorption capacities of SMNA for Cu(II) were ∼40–88 mg g{sup −1}, which was lower than δ-MnO{sub 2} (92.42 mg g{sup −1}) but had a lower pH dependency. As compared with δ-MnO{sub 2}, higher adsorption capacities of SMNA (7.5–15 wt% of silica doping amount) for Cu(II) could be observed when pH of the aqueous solution was low (<4). The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto SMNA, suggesting that the removal of Cu(II) by the as-prepared adsorbents was dominated by migration of Cu(II). The possibility of Cu(II) recovery was also investigated and it revealed that SMNA was a promising recyclable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions in water and wastewater treatment.

  7. Synthesis NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} catalyst by the combustion reaction to their use in the shift reaction (WGSR); Sintese do catalisador de NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} por reacao de combustao visando sua utilizacao na reacao de shift (WGSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Neiva, L.S.; Gama, L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Argolo, F.; Andrade, H.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This work aims at the synthesis of catalyst NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} by combustion reaction using urea as fuel, to evaluate its performance in the production of hydrogen by the reaction of displacement of water vapor (WGSR). The initial composition of the solution was based on valencia total oxidizing and reducing reagents based on the concepts of the chemistry of propellants, using container as a crucible of glassy silica. The resulting powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms (BET), scanning electronic microscope and catalytic tests. The DRX results reveal the presents majoritary phase NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} spinel, the catalyst presents surface area 28 m{sup 2}/g and isotherms type III. Higher conversion CO/CO{sub 2} of 75% CO conversion observed at 500 deg C and catalytic activity of 43 mmolg{sup -1}.h{sup -1} at 450 deg C. (author)

  8. Study of photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of BaAl2O4 (Eu2+, Dy3+) phosphor synthesized by solution combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pushpraj; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2016-10-01

    Eu and Dy co-doped barium aluminate phosphor was successfully synthesized by combustion method using urea as a fuel. Phase formation was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis. The calculated average crystallite size was found to be ~34.62 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images acquired at different (low and high) magnifications reveal that the crystallites have no uniform shape and size. This was due to the non-uniform distribution of temperature and mass flow in the combustion technique. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectrum was recorded to confirm the phase formation and also to identify any impurity if present in the prepared phosphor. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement was carried out to investigate the incorporation of dopant into the host lattice. Thermoluminescence (TL) behaviour of synthesized phosphor was studied after the irradiation with Cobalt-60 gamma rays (Eavg=1.25 MeV) as well as 6 and 16 MV (Mega Voltage) X-ray photons, at various dose levels. The glow curves of irradiated samples exhibit only one peak at 115 °C at each dose level. With the increases of radiation dose an increase in total intensity has been observed. No appreciable shift in peak positions has been observed. Trapping parameters were evaluated to understand the characteristics of prepared phosphor. A simple glow peak with relatively high intensity is one of the important factors, which make this phosphor useful for monitoring the ionizing radiations in nuclear industries, gamma irradiators, high energy accelerators, nuclear reactors etc. where medium and high level of exposure is involved. It could also be applicable for accidental and retrospective dose assessment.

  9. Synthesis of an amphiphilic rhodamine derivative and characterization of its solution and thin film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviv, Hagit; Harazi, Sivan; Schiff, Dillon; Ramon, Yoni; Tischler, Yaakov R.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present characterization of solution and thin film properties of Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl didodecyl amine (LRSD), an amphiphilic derivative of rhodamine. LRSD was synthesized by functionalizing Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl chloride (LRSC) with didodecylamine via a straightforward sulfonylation reaction. LRSD's long alkane chains make it highly soluble in chloroform, with a marked increase in brightness compared to the starting material. LRSD is shown to form well-defined robust micelles in water, without the addition of a co-surfactant and stable monolayers at the air–water interface. The greater lipophilicity of LRSD also enables doping into non-polar polymeric host matrices such as polystyrene with less aggregation and hence higher fluorescence quantum yield than LRSC or even rhodamine B. The monolayers of LRSD were prepared via Langmuir–Blodgett deposition and showed shifts in the photoluminescence peak from 575 nm to 595 nm, as the surface pressure is varied from 3 mN/m to 11 mN/m. - Highlights: • Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl didodecyl amine (LRSD) is soluble in chloroform. • LRSD shows robust quantum yield in solution and as a dopant in thin film. • LRSD is an amphiphilic rhodamine dye that forms compact fluorescent micelles. • LRSD forms a stable isotherm when spread at the air–water interface

  10. Methanol Synthesis: Optimal Solution for a Better Efficiency of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Leonzio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an ANOVA analysis and a response surface methodology are applied to analyze the equilibrium of methanol reaction from pure carbon dioxide and hydrogen. In the ANOVA analysis, carbon monoxide composition in the feed, reaction temperature, recycle and water removal through a zeolite membrane are the analyzed factors. Carbon conversion, methanol yield, methanol productivity and methanol selectivity are the analyzed responses. Results show that main factors have the same effect on responses and a common significant interaction is not present. Carbon monoxide composition and water removal have a positive effect, while temperature and recycle have a negative effect on the system. From central composite design, an optimal solution is found in order to overcome thermodynamic limit: the reactor works with a membrane at lower temperature with carbon monoxide composition in the feed equal to 10 mol % and without recycle. In these conditions, carbon conversion, methanol yield, methanol selectivity, and methanol production are, respectively, higher than 60%, higher than 60%, between 90% and 95% and higher than 0.15 mol/h when considering a feed flow rate of 1 mol/h. A comparison with a traditional reactor is also developed: the membrane reactor ensures to have a carbon conversion higher of the 29% and a methanol yield higher of the 34%. Future researches should evaluate an economic analysis about the optimal solution.

  11. Composite templates synthesis of mesoporous titania from industrial titanyl sulfate solution under external outfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Congxue

    2008-01-01

    The precursors of mesoporous titania were synthesized via supra-molecular self-assembly route induced by composite templates (CTAB/P-123) from industrial titanyl sulfate solution under ultrasonic irradiation, microwave and hydrothermal condition. The hydrolysis and polycondensation rates of TiOSO 4 solution were controlled by adjusting the pH value at about 1.0. Mesoporous titania with anatase phase was obtained after templates removal by calcinations. The as-prepared powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 isothermal adsorption-desorption, HRTEM and SAD. External outfields with enhancing polar action and soft hydrothermal condition were beneficial to prepare better mesoporous TiO 2 . Ultrasonic vibration promoted the formation of mesoporous structure. Under microwave irradiation, mesoporous TiO 2 was synthesized with BET specific surface area of 190.6 m 2 g -1 , average pore diameter of 2.57 nm and crystal size of 13.65 nm. And ultrasonic irradiation, microwave and hydrothermal conditions were making for forming and stabilizing the mesoporous structure

  12. Synthesis of 1,3-Dimethylimidazolium Chloride and Volumetric Property Investigations of Its Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Zheng, D. X.; Wei, Z.; Wu, X. H.

    2009-10-01

    By investigating the vapor pressure of the solvent and the affinity between ionic liquids (ILs) and the solvent, it is proposed that 1,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride ([Mmim]Cl) has the potential to be used as a novel absorbent species with the absorption cycle working fluid. Adopting a high-pressure reaction kettle, the method of gas-liquid phase reaction was used to synthesize [Mmim]Cl under the conditions of 348.15 K and 0.7 MPa. The densities of [Mmim]Cl aqueous solutions were measured for mass fractions in the range from 20% to 90% at 293.15 K, 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K with a digital vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess volume, the apparent molar volume, the partial molar volume, and the apparent molar expansibility of this system were investigated, and the influences of variations of the cation and anion on the density of several IL aqueous solutions are discussed.

  13. Synthesis of Magnesium Ferrites for the Adsorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution Using Batch Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdawati, E.; Darsef, D.

    2018-04-01

    A sol gel method with citric acid as an anionic surfactant was used to fabricate nano magnesium ferrites (MgFe2O4) under different calcination temperatures for 2h, respectively. The microstructure and surface morphology of magnesium ferrite powder were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and BET. The results of this study are useful for adsorption Congo red. The results showed that increasing solution pH and extending contact time are favorable for improving adsorption efficiency. with initial Congo red concentration of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm models with a maximum adsorption capacity (qm) and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant (K) of 65.1 mg/g and 0.090 L/mg, respectively. The adsorption kinetic agrees well with pseudo second order model with the pseudo second rate constants (K2) of 0.0468 and0.00189 g/mg/min for solutions with initial congo red of 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively

  14. Synthesis of a magnetic composite resin and its cobalt removal characteristics in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun Jai

    2001-01-01

    A series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenolsulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. The ion exchange and sorption characteristics of the composite resin prepared by the above method at various conditions were experimentally disclosed. The composite resin prepared shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II) species in aqueous solution in a wide range of solution pH. The overall isotherm is qualitatively explained by the generalized adsorption isotherm concept proposed by McKinley. The standard enthalpy change derived from van't Hoff equation conforms to the typical range for chemisorption or ion exchange. The selectivity of the PSF-F (phenolsulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin to Co(II) species and other competing chemicals (i.e. Na 2 EDTA, Ca(II) and Na) was compared. It is anticipated that the composite resin can also be used for column-operation with process-control by applying external magnetic field, since the rigid bead-type composite resin shows magnetic-susceptibility due to its paramagnetic inorganic constituent (i.e. iron ferrite). (author)

  15. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, by the modified combustion method; Sintesis del metatitanato de litio, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, por el metodo modificado de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pfeiffer, H. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: sb@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    A modified combustion method to obtain Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and urea (CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. The particle size and the morphology found in the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO{sub 2} used as precursor. (Author)

  16. Synthesis of some Ferromagnetic Composite Resins and their Metal Removal Characteristics in Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheha, R.R.; EI-Zahhar, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a procedure for synthesis of new organic-inorganic magnetic composite resins was established. The procedure was based upon immobilization of magnetite as a ferromagnetic material within the polymeric (poly(acrylic acid acrylonitrile) and IRC-120) ion exchange resins. The produced magnetic resins were evaluated as sorbents for CI(VI). The factors influencing the sorption of Cr(Vl), e.g., ph, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied. The sorption process was very fast initially and maximum sorption was achieved within 3 h at ph 5.1. Thc kinetics of the system have been evaluated with pseudo first order model, second order model, Elovich equation, intra-particle diffusion model and liquid film diffusion model. Chromium interaction with composite particles followed second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient extremely high and closer to unity and rate constant (k s ) has the values 1.68 x 10 -4 and 1.9 x 10 -4 g/mg min for IRC-120-P AN-magnetite and P(AA-AN)-magnetite composites, respectively. The values of equilibrium sorption capacity (q e ) are consistent with the modeled data and attain the range 893 - 951 mg/g. Kinetically, both pore diffusion and film diffusion are participating in ruling the diffusion of CI(VI) ions. The sorption data gave good fits with Temkin and Flory-Huggins isotherm models. The isotherm parameters related to the heat of sorption are in the range 8-16 kJ mol -1 which is the range of bonding energy for ion exchange interactions and so suggest an ion exchange mechanism for removal of CI(VI) by the composite sorbents. The adsorption process was exothermic with δH in the range of -73 to -97 kJ/mol. The negative values of Gibbs free energy confirm the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of removal of CI(VI) with these novel composites

  17. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  18. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  19. Synthesis and utilization of a novel carbon nanotubes supported nanocables for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xinyu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing, E-mail: xqchen@csu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Resource-conserving & Environment-friendly Society and Ecological Civilization (China)

    2015-09-15

    Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) as mechanical support and glucose as carbon resource, a hydrothermal carbonization route was designed for the synthesis of MWCNTs@carbon nanocables with tunable diameter and length. MWCNTs are firstly used as templates for the formation of carbon-rich composite nanocables, and the diameter of the nanocables could be tailored through adjusting the hydrothermal time or the ratio of MWCNTs and glucose. Owing to abundant superficial oxygen-containing functional groups, porous surface and remarkable reactivity, the as-synthesized nanocables are capable of efficiently adsorbing cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). Furthermore, the optimum adsorption conditions, kinetics, adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics of dyes were studied systematically. Additionally, the maximum adsorption capacities calculated from data analysis (298.5 mg/g for MB and 228.3 mg/g for CV) are significant higher than those of raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents reported previously, which provides strong evidence for using MWCNTs@carbon nanocables as adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solutions. - Graphical abstract: MWCNTs@carbon nanocables has been successfully fabricated by a hydrothermal carbonization method. The as-synthesized novel samples were used as adsorbents and exhibited high adsorption capacity on MB and CV. - Highlights: • A simple, cost-effective and “green” method for the synthesis of the material. • The diameter and length of the material are relatively easy to control. • The surface has large oxygen-containing groups and preferable chemical reactivity. • Compared with raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents, the adsorption capacity is much high.

  20. Investigation of electrochemical synthesis of ferrate, Part I: Electrochemical behavior of iron and its several alloys in concentrated alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to various applications of Fe(VI due to its unique properties such as oxidizing power, selective reactivity, stability of the salt, and non-toxic decomposition by-products of ferric ion. In environmental remediation processes, Fe(VI has been proposed as green oxidant, coagulant, disinfectant, and antifoulant. Therefore, it is considered as a promising multi-purpose water treatment chemical. Fe(VI has also potential applications in electrochemical energy source, as 'green cathode'. The effectiveness of ferrate as a powerful oxidant in the entire pH range, and its use in environmental applications for the removal of wide range of contaminants has been well documented by several researchers. There is scientific evidence that ferrate can effectively remove arsenic, algae, viruses, pharmaceutical waste, and other toxic heavy metals. Although Fe(VI was first discovered in early eighteen century, detailed studies on physical and chemical properties of Fe(VI had to wait until efficient synthetic and analytical methods of Fe(VI were developed by Schreyer et al. in the 1950s. Actually, there have been developed three ways for the preparation of Fe(VI compounds : the wet oxidation of Fe(II and Fe(III compounds, the dry oxidation of the same, and the electrochemistry method, mainly based on the trans passive oxidation of iron. High purity ferrates Fe(VI can be generated when electrode of the pure iron metal or its alloys are anodized in concentrated alkaline solution. It is known that the efficiency of electrochemical process of Fe(VI production depends on many factors such as current density, composition of anode material, types of electrolyte etc. In this paper, the electrochemical synthesis of ferrate(VI solution by the anodic dissolution of iron and its alloys in concentrated water solution of NaOH and KOH is investigated. The process of transpassive dissolution of iron to ferrate(VI was studied by

  1. Solution-phase synthesis of chromium-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.

    2015-03-01

    The solution phase reactions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Cr(CO)6 and benzene-Cr(CO)3 can lead to the formation of small chromium clusters. The cluster size can be varied from less than 1 nm to about 4 nm by increasing the reaction time. TEM images suggest that the clusters are deposited predominantly on the exterior walls of the nanotubes. TGA analysis was used to obtain the Cr content and carbon to chromium ratio in the Cr-complexed SWNTs. It is suggested that the carbon nanotube benzenoid structure templates the condensation of chromium atoms and facilitates the loss of carbon monoxide leading to well defined metal clusters.

  2. Synthesis, solid and solution studies of paraquat dichloride calixarene complexes. Molecular modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, I.; Ramirez, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the herbicide paraquat dichloride (P Q, substrate) with p-tert-butylcalix arenas (L, receptor) was investigated in both the solution and solid states. The isolated paraquat calixarene complexes were characterised by UV-visible, 1 H NMR, ESI-Ms, Luminescence and IR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stoichiometry of complexes 1 and 2 was 1:1 (1 herbicide: 1 calixarene) and both revealed a biexponential luminescence decay with lifetimes depending on the size and the conformational particularity of the calixarenes. Molecular modelling suggested that both calixarenes interact with the herbicide through cation-π interaction. P Q in included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity, a situation favoured by its pinched conformation in polar solvent while it is partially included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity because of its in-out cone conformation. The theoretical results, in particular using Mopac procedures, were in agreement with the experimental findings. (Author)

  3. Synthesis, solid and solution studies of paraquat dichloride calixarene complexes. Molecular modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, I.; Ramirez, F. M., E-mail: flor.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of the herbicide paraquat dichloride (P Q, substrate) with p-tert-butylcalix arenas (L, receptor) was investigated in both the solution and solid states. The isolated paraquat calixarene complexes were characterised by UV-visible, {sup 1}H NMR, ESI-Ms, Luminescence and IR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stoichiometry of complexes 1 and 2 was 1:1 (1 herbicide: 1 calixarene) and both revealed a biexponential luminescence decay with lifetimes depending on the size and the conformational particularity of the calixarenes. Molecular modelling suggested that both calixarenes interact with the herbicide through cation-{pi} interaction. P Q in included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity, a situation favoured by its pinched conformation in polar solvent while it is partially included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity because of its in-out cone conformation. The theoretical results, in particular using Mopac procedures, were in agreement with the experimental findings. (Author)

  4. Solution-Phase Synthesis of SnSe Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Franzman, Matthew A.

    2010-03-31

    Nanocrystals of phase-pure tin(II) selenide (SnSe) were synthesized via a solution-phase route employing stoichiometric amounts of di-tert-butyl dlselenlde as a novel and facile selenium source. The direct band gap of the resulting nanocrystals (E8 = 1.71 eV) is significantly blue-shifted relative to the bulk value (E8 = 1.30 eV), a likely consequence of quantum confinement resulting from the relatively small average diameter of the nanocrystals (μD < 20 nm). Preliminary solar cell devices incorporating SnSe nanocrystals into a poly[2-methoxy5-(3\\',7\\'-d1methyloctyloxy)-1,4- phenylenev1nylene] matrix demonstrate a significant enhancement In quantum efficiency and short-circuit current density, suggesting that this earth-abundant material could be a valuable component In future photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Synthesis and spectral properties of preorganized BODIPYs in solutions and Langmuir-Schaefer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfin, Yuriy S.; Usoltsev, Sergey D.; Kazak, Alexandr V.; Smirnova, Antonina I.; Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V.; Molchanov, Evgeniy E.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.; Chumakov, Alexey S.; Glukhovskoy, Evgeny G.

    2017-12-01

    In order to investigate the influence of molecular structure peculiarities of boron-dipyrrine dyes (BODIPYs) on their properties in solutions and supramolecular organization in Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) films, four new BODIPY dyes with various aliphatic, aromatic or mixed nature meso-subtituents were synthesized and investigated. Spectral characteristics (electronic absorption and fluorescence) of the synthesized compounds in organic solvents and LS-films were studied. Floating monolayers of the BODIPYs were formed from chloroform solutions placed onto water subphase in Langmuir-Blodgett through. Thin films were prepared using the Langmuir-Schaefer technique by the transfer of floating monolayers onto standard polished glass, ITO covered glass or pure silicon substrate. The variation of the dye structure we consider as a preorganization aiming to influence the structure of LS-films. The morphology and structure of the LS-films was examined by fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the introduced substituents have no substantial influence on the position of the absorption and fluorescence bands in dilute solutions. In contrast, the fluorescent characteristics of the LS-films significantly depend on the substituent nature. Therefore, this strategy could be used for the direct tuning of compounds fluorescent properties in LS-films. Concerning the LS-film surface characteristics it was proved that the films are homogeneous, without disruptions and only some widely-spaced microcrystals could be observed. With respect to the LS-film structure, the change of the substituents introduced to the BODIPY molecule did not influence the average given periodicity of layers (d = 0.3-0.4 nm). This value corresponds to a single-layer arrangement of BODIPY molecules located parallel to the substrate surface. Nevertheless, the diffraction peak intensities depended on the molecular

  6. Solution-phase synthesis of chromium-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas Fadel; Bekyarova, Elena; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Xixiang; Al-Zahrani, Ali; Al-Agel, Faisal Abdulaziz M; Al-Marzouki, Fahad M.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The solution phase reactions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Cr(CO)6 and benzene-Cr(CO)3 can lead to the formation of small chromium clusters. The cluster size can be varied from less than 1 nm to about 4 nm by increasing the reaction time. TEM images suggest that the clusters are deposited predominantly on the exterior walls of the nanotubes. TGA analysis was used to obtain the Cr content and carbon to chromium ratio in the Cr-complexed SWNTs. It is suggested that the carbon nanotube benzenoid structure templates the condensation of chromium atoms and facilitates the loss of carbon monoxide leading to well defined metal clusters.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and hydrogen uptake studies of magnesium nanoparticles by solution reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather, Sami ullah

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of magnesium nanoparticles synthesized by solution reduction method with and without TOPO. - Highlights: • Simple and convenient method of preparing Mg nanoparticles. • Characterized by XRD, SEM, FESEM and TEM. • Trioctylphosphine oxide offers a greater control over the size of the particles. • Hydrogen uptake of samples at different temperatures and pressure of 4.5 MPa. - Abstract: Facile and simple, surfactant-mediated solution reduction method was used to synthesize monodisperse magnesium nanoparticles. Little amount of magnesium oxide nanoparticles were also formed due to the presence of TOPO and easy oxidation of magnesium, eventhough, all precautions were taken to avoid oxidation of the sample. Precise size control of particles was achieved by carefully varying the concentration ratio of two different types of surfactants, – trioctylphosphine oxide and hexadecylamine. Recrystallized magnesium nanoparticle samples with and without TOPO were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The peak diameters of particles were estimated from size distribution analysis of the morphological data. The particles synthesized in the presence and absence of TOPO found to have diameters 46.5 and 34.8 nm, respectively. This observed dependence of particle size on the presence of TOPO offers a convenient method to control the particle size by simply using appropriate surfactant concentrations. Exceptional enhancement in hydrogen uptake and kinetics in synthesized magnesium nanoparticles as compared to commercial magnesium sample was due to the smaller particle size and improved morphology. Overall hydrogen uptake not affected by the little variation in particle size with and without TOPO

  8. Synthesis of the Markov model of the thermochemical degradation of a polymer in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of mathematical modeling of thermochemical destruction process. The apparatus of Markov's chains is used to synthesize a mathematical model. The authors of the study suggest to consider the destruction process as a random one, where the system state changes, which is characterized by the proportion of macromolecules in each fraction of the molecular- and weight distribution. The intensities of transitions from one state to another characterize the corresponding rates of destruction processes for each fraction of the molecular- and weight distribution. The processes of crosslinking and polymerization in this work were neglected, and it was accepted that there is a probability of transition from any state with a lower order index (corresponding to fractions with higher molecular weights to any state with a higher index (corresponding to fractions with lower molecular weights. Markov's chain with discrete states and continuous time was taken as the mathematical model basis. Interactive graphical simulation environment MathWorksSimulink was used as a simulation environment. Experimental studies of polybutadiene destruction in solution were carried out to evaluate the mathematical model parameters. The GPC (gel-penetration chromatography data of the polybutadiene solution were used as the initial (starting data for estimating the polymer WMD (molecular weight distribution. Mean-square deviation of the calculated data from the experimental data for each fraction and at specified times was minimized for the numerical search of parameter values. The results of comparison of experimental and calculated on mathematical model data showed an error of calculations on the average about 5%, which indicates an acceptable error in estimating of polymer fractions proportions change during the process of destruction for the process under consideration and conditions.

  9. Luminescence of Eu:Y3Al5O12, Eu:Lu3Al5O12, and Eu:GdAlO3 Nanocrystals Synthesized by Solution Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilejshikova, E. V.; Khort, A. A.; Podbolotov, K. B.; Loiko, P. A.; Shimanski, V. I.; Shashkov, S. N.; Yumashev, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    Nanocrystals of rare-earth garnets Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12 and perovskite GdAlO3 highly doped (10-20 at%) with Eu3+ are synthesized by the solution combustion technique and subsequent annealing in air at 800 and 1300oC. Their structure, morphology, and phase composition are studied. These materials exhibit intense red luminescence under UV excitation. Eu:GdAlO3 luminescence has CIE 1931 color coordinates (0.632, 0.368); dominant wavelength, 599.6 nm; and color purity, >99%. Judd-Ofelt parameters, luminescence branching ratios, and lifetimes of the Eu3+ 5D0 state are determined. The luminescence quantum yield for Eu:GdAlO3 (10 at%) reaches 74% with a lifetime of 1.4 ms for the 5D0 state. The synthesized materials are promising for red ceramic phosphors.

  10. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  11. Synthesis of argentojarosite with simulated bioleaching solutions produced by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States))" >Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Jones, F. Sandy; Bigham, Jerry M.; th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States))" >Tuovinen, Olli H.

    2016-01-01

    Argentojarosite (AgFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ) is formed as a secondary phase in Ag-catalyzed bioleaching of chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ), but to date very little is known about the paragenesis or characteristics of this silver-containing compound. The purpose of this study was to synthesize argentojarosite via biological oxidation of 120 mM ferrous sulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Because of its toxicity to A. ferrooxidans, Ag + (as AgNO 3 ) was added to spent culture media (pH 2) after complete oxidation of ferrous sulfate. Schwertmannite (ideally Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 6 (SO 4 )) was precipitated during the iron oxidation phase, and subsequent Ag + addition resulted in the formation of argentojarosite. Contact time (8 h, 5 d, and 14 d) and Ag + concentration (0, 5, 20, and 40 mM) were used as variables in these experiments. Synthesis of argentojarosite, schwertmannite and other mineral phases was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. Additional analyses of solid-phase oxidation products included elemental composition, color and specific surface area. The sample synthesized in the presence of 40 mM Ag + and with 14 d contact time yielded an X-ray diffraction pattern of well crystallized argentojarosite, and its elemental composition closely matched the calculated Ag, Fe, and S contents of ideal argentojarosite. The color and surface area of the remaining samples were influenced by the presence of residual schwertmannite. This phase remained stable over the time course of 14 d when no Ag + was present in the system. When equilibrations were extended to 42 d, partial conversion of reference schwertmannite to goethite was noted in the absence of Ag. In the presence of 20 mM or 40 mM Ag over the same time course, some formation of argentojarosite was also noted. In this case, schwertmannite was the only source of Fe and SO 4 for argentojarosite formation. - Highlights: • Iron-oxidizing bacteria were used to oxidize Fe 2+ in the absence of K + and NH 4 + .

  12. Synthesis of argentojarosite with simulated bioleaching solutions produced by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Chiranjit [Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, 484 West 12" t" h Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Jones, F. Sandy; Bigham, Jerry M. [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tuovinen, Olli H., E-mail: tuovinen.1@osu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, 484 West 12" t" h Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Argentojarosite (AgFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) is formed as a secondary phase in Ag-catalyzed bioleaching of chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), but to date very little is known about the paragenesis or characteristics of this silver-containing compound. The purpose of this study was to synthesize argentojarosite via biological oxidation of 120 mM ferrous sulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Because of its toxicity to A. ferrooxidans, Ag{sup +} (as AgNO{sub 3}) was added to spent culture media (pH 2) after complete oxidation of ferrous sulfate. Schwertmannite (ideally Fe{sub 8}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 6}(SO{sub 4})) was precipitated during the iron oxidation phase, and subsequent Ag{sup +} addition resulted in the formation of argentojarosite. Contact time (8 h, 5 d, and 14 d) and Ag{sup +} concentration (0, 5, 20, and 40 mM) were used as variables in these experiments. Synthesis of argentojarosite, schwertmannite and other mineral phases was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. Additional analyses of solid-phase oxidation products included elemental composition, color and specific surface area. The sample synthesized in the presence of 40 mM Ag{sup +} and with 14 d contact time yielded an X-ray diffraction pattern of well crystallized argentojarosite, and its elemental composition closely matched the calculated Ag, Fe, and S contents of ideal argentojarosite. The color and surface area of the remaining samples were influenced by the presence of residual schwertmannite. This phase remained stable over the time course of 14 d when no Ag{sup +} was present in the system. When equilibrations were extended to 42 d, partial conversion of reference schwertmannite to goethite was noted in the absence of Ag. In the presence of 20 mM or 40 mM Ag over the same time course, some formation of argentojarosite was also noted. In this case, schwertmannite was the only source of Fe and SO{sub 4} for argentojarosite formation. - Highlights: • Iron-oxidizing bacteria

  13. Synthesis and self-organization of zinc β-(dialkoxyphosphoryl)porphyrins in the solid state and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V; Enakieva, Yulia Y; Nefedov, Sergey E; Birin, Kirill P; Tsivadze, Aslan Y; Gorbunova, Yulia G; Bessmertnykh Lemeune, Alla G; Stern, Christine; Guilard, Roger

    2012-11-19

    The first synthesis and self-organization of zinc β-phosphorylporphyrins in the solid state and in solution are reported. β-Dialkoxyphosphoryl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrins and their Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized in good yields by using Pd- and Cu-mediated carbon-phosphorous bond-forming reactions. The Cu-mediated reaction allowed to prepare the mono-β-(dialkoxyphosphoryl)porphyrins 1 Zn-3 Zn starting from the β-bromo-substituted zinc porphyrinate ZnTPPBr (TPP = tetraphenylporphyrin) and dialkyl phosphites HP(O)(OR)(2) (R = Et, iPr, nBu). The derivatives 1 Zn-3 Zn were obtained in good yields by using one to three equivalents of CuI. When the reaction was carried out in the presence of catalytic amounts of palladium complexes in toluene, the desired zinc derivative 1 Zn was obtained in up to 72% yield. The use of a Pd-catalyzed C-P bond-forming reaction was further extended to the synthesis of β-poly(dialkoxyphosphoryl)porphyrins. An unprecedented one-pot sequence involving consecutive reduction and phosphorylation of H(2)TPPBr(4) led to the formation of a mixture of the 2,12- and 2,13-bis(dialkoxy)phosphorylporphyrins 5 H(2) and 6 H(2) in 81% total yield. According to the X-ray diffraction studies, 1 Zn and 3 Zn are partially overlapped cofacial dimers formed through the coordination of two Zn centers by two phosphoryl groups belonging to the adjacent molecules. The equilibrium between the monomeric and the dimeric species exists in solutions of 1 Zn and 3 Zn in weakly polar solvents according to spectroscopic data (UV/Vis absorption and NMR spectroscopy). The ratio of each form is dependent on the concentration, temperature, and traces of water or methanol. These features demonstrated that zinc β-phosphorylporphyrins can be regarded as new model compounds for the weakly coupled chlorophyll pair in the photosynthesis process. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bifurcation, pattern formation and chaos in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, A.; Matkowsky, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper problems in gaseous combustion and in gasless condensed phase combustion are studied both analytically and numerically. In gaseous combustion we consider the problem of a flame stabilized on a line source of fuel. The authors find both stationary and pulsating axisymmetric solutions as well as stationary and pulsating cellular solutions. The pulsating cellular solutions take the form of either traveling waves or standing waves. Transitions between these patterns occur as parameters related to the curvature of the flame front and the Lewis number are varied. In gasless condensed phase combustion both planar and nonplanar problems are studied. For planar condensed phase combustion we consider two models: accounts for melting and does not. Both models are shown to exhibit a transition from uniformly to pulsating propagating combustion when a parameter related to the activation energy is increased. Upon further increasing this parameter both models undergo a transition to chaos: by intermittency and by a period doubling sequence. In nonplanar condensed phase combustion the nonlinear development of a branch of standing wave solutions is studied and is shown to lead to relaxation oscillations and subsequently to a transition to quasi-periodicity

  15. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  16. Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS architectures in ternary solution and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xinjuan, E-mail: wangxj@hnu.edu.cn [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang Qinglin [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zou Bingsuo, E-mail: zoubs@bit.edu.cn [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Micro-nano Technology Center and School of MSE, BIT, Beijing 100081 (China); Lei Aihua; Ren Pinyun [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures were fabricated by a one-pot solvothermal route in a ternary solution made of ethylenediamine, ethanolamine and distilled water. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). It was demonstrated that the as-prepared sea urchin-like architectures with diameter of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m were composed of nanorods, possessing a wurtzite structures. The preferred growth orientation of nanorods was found to be the [0 0 2] direction. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures show a strong orange emission at 587 nm, indicating the successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions into ZnS host. Ethanolamine played the role of oriented-assembly agent in the formation of sea urchin-like architectures. A possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of sea urchin-like architectures.

  17. Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS architectures in ternary solution and their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinjuan; Zhang Qinglin; Zou Bingsuo; Lei Aihua; Ren Pinyun

    2011-01-01

    Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures were fabricated by a one-pot solvothermal route in a ternary solution made of ethylenediamine, ethanolamine and distilled water. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). It was demonstrated that the as-prepared sea urchin-like architectures with diameter of 0.5-1.5 μm were composed of nanorods, possessing a wurtzite structures. The preferred growth orientation of nanorods was found to be the [0 0 2] direction. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures show a strong orange emission at 587 nm, indicating the successful doping of Mn 2+ ions into ZnS host. Ethanolamine played the role of oriented-assembly agent in the formation of sea urchin-like architectures. A possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of sea urchin-like architectures.

  18. MCM-41 impregnated with A zeolite precursor: Synthesis, characterization and tetracycline antibiotics removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-An; Yu, Shuili; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the MCM-41 has been modified by impregnation with zeolite A to prepare a kind of new adsorbent. The adsorption of TC from aqueous solutions onto modified MCM-41 has been studied. It was discovered that the adsorption capability of zeolite A modified MCM-41 (A-MCM-41) increased dramatically after modification. The modified MCM-41 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, and 29 Si and 27 Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. The modified MCM-41 structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A but the surface area and pore diameter decreased due to pore blockage. The adsorption of TC on modified MCM-41 was discussed regarding various parameters such as pH, initial TC concentration, and the reaction time. The pH effects on TC adsorption indicated that the adsorbents had better adsorption performances in acidic and neutral conditions. The adsorption isotherms were fitted well by the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was well described by both pseudo-second order equation and the intra-particle diffusion model. The adsorption behavior in a fixed-bed column system followed Thomas model. The adsorption behavior of TC was the chemical adsorption with an ion exchange process and electrostatic adsorption.

  19. Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by green synthesis zero valent silver nanoparticles with Benjamina leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia M. Al-Qahtani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (II is an important element used in various industries, however, it is a poisonous element that affects the health of plants, animals and humans alike. It’s very important to remove this element from contaminated waters. This study aims at synthesizing zero valent silver nanoparticles by environmentally ecofriendly method without using hazardous compounds (via green approach. In this work, silver nanoparticles were prepared using hot water for the Ficus tree (Ficus Benjamina leaf extract (FBLE. The size of crystalline for AgNPs was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy and flourier transform infrared (FTIR. The properties of nano-silver particles (AgNPs have been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The capability of nanoparticles to remove Cd2+ from contaminated solution was then studied. Parameter like adsorbent dose, heavy metal concentration, pH, agitation speed and contact time were studied. Cadmium removal increased when the dosage of biosorbent increases, pH increased from 1 to 6, contact time from 5 to 40 and initial concentration of Cd decrease. Isotherm adsorption was also described by the Freundleich model with a constant correlation (R2 higher than 0.973.

  20. Continuous synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles by electrochemical discharge in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Yu-Chun; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an electrochemical discharge (ECD) method that consists of a combination of chemical methods and electric arc discharges. In the method, 140 V is applied to an Ag electrode from a DC power supply. The arc-discharge between the electrodes produces metallic silver nanoparticles and silver ions in the aqueous solution. Compared with the original arc discharge, this ECD method creates smaller nanoparticles, prevents clumping of the nanoparticles, and shortens the production time. The citrate ions also reduce the silver ions to silver nanoparticles. In addition, the citrate ions cap the surface of the produced silver nanoparticles and the zeta potential increases. In this article, the weight loss of the electrodes and the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as a function of citrate concentration and electric conductivity of the medium are discussed. Furthermore, the properties of the colloidal silver prepared with ECD are analyzed by UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, electrophoresis light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a continuous production apparatus is presented for the continuous production of colloidal silver.

  1. Combustion synthesis of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with citric acid and the effect of post-heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Y.S. [Korea Advanced Istitute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea); Son, J.T. [Dong-A Electric Equipment Co. LTD., Seoul (Korea); Kim, H.G. [Korea Advanced Istitute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea); Jung, H.T. [Dongshin University, Chonnam (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Combustion process with citrate was used to produce the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder. Precursors are pre-ignited in open air followed by post-heating in the range from 600 deg. C to 800 deg. C for 4 h. With varying the molar ration (R) of ethylene glycol (EG) to citric acid (CA) from 0 to 4, the effect of EG content on powder characteristics is evaluated. Vacuum drying promote the auto-ignition at room temperature. With small addition of EG metal ion was selectively segregated with organic substances and undesired lithium evaporation occurred during post-heating. LiMn {sub 2}O{sub 4} phase which is produced by combustion reaction was decomposed back to Mn {sub 3}O{sub 4} because the reaction temperature was higher than 950 deg. C. With increasing EG content, the homogeneity of LiMn {sub 2}O{sub 4} powder increased and specific surface area increased. And lithium evaporation during vacuum drying and/or ignition also increased. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  2. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Solis Maldonado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al2O3 phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al2O3 lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.

  3. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Carolina Solis; De la Rosa, Javier Rivera; Lucio-Ortiz, Carlos J; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Barraza, Felipe F Castillón; Valente, Jaime S

    2014-03-12

    The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al₂O₃ phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE) combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al₂O 3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al₂O₃ lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.

  4. Microwave-induced combustion synthesis and electrical conductivity of Ce1-xGd xO2-1/2x ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.-P.; Chang, Y.-S.; Wen, S.-B.

    2006-01-01

    Ce 1-x Gd x O 2-1/2x nanopowder were successfully synthesized by microwave-induced combustion process. For the preparation, cerium nitrate, gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate, and urea were used for the microwave-induced combustion process. The process took only 30 min to obtain Ce 1-x Gd x O 2-1/2x powders. The exo-endo temperature, phase identification, and morphology of resultant powders were investigated by TG/DTA, XRD, and SEM. The as-received Ce 1-x Gd x O 2-1/2x powders showed that the average particle size ranged from 18 to 50 nm, crystallite dimension varied from 11 to 20 nm, and the specific surface area was distribution from 16 to 46 m 2 /g. As for Ce 1-x Gd x O 2-1/2x ceramics sintered at 1450 deg. C for 3 h, the bulk density of Ce 1-x Gd x O 2-1/2x ceramics were over 91% of the theoretical density, the maximum electrical conductivity, σ 700deg.C = 0.017 S/cm with minimum activation energy, E a = 0.869 eV was found at Ce 0.80 Gd 0.20 O 1.90 ceramic

  5. Urea and sucrose assisted combustion synthesis of LiFePO4/C nano-powder for lithium-ion battery cathode application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erabhoina Hari Mohan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are reporting a combustion method to prepare carbon coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles using urea as fuel and sucrose as carbon source. The process involves exothermic decomposition of a viscous liquid, containing fuel to oxidizer molar ratio of 1:1 at 300 ℃, followed by heat treatment at 600 ℃ for 6 h, under Ar (95% and H2 (5% mixed gas atmosphere. The resultant products are characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DSC, Field emission-scanning Electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Moss-Bauer spectroscopy. The investigation reveals that the prepared sample has ordered olivine structure|with average crystallite size in the range of 30-40 nm. The SEM and TEM images show porous network type morphology with the size of the individual particles in range of 30-40 nm with spherical and oval shape morphology. The cathode obtained by combustion method exhibits a high discharge capacity (~156 mAhg-1 with a good cyclic performance and rate capability.

  6. Thomas Aquinas on the Soul: Old problems, New Solutions. Guiding Premises for a Thomistic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Shilov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two main approaches to the doctrine of the soul: that of Plato and that of Aristotle. Each of these approaches had its own development and its own interpretations. Plato and his school was more important during the Middle Ages. Through the neo-platonic philosophers it reached Saint Augustine and became a part of the western cultural and religious heritage until finally it was taken up by member of the Franciscan order - Roger Bacon and Bonaventure. But this paradigm could not solve a host of problems connected with the soul and many of them remained unresolved. The end of the twelfth century brought the growth of the universities and the teaching of Aristotle - a new paradigm - transmitted by the Arabic philosophers which was rediscovered by the West. Two commentators on Aristotle - Averroes and Avicenna -were the most important for the West, especially since Avicenna exerted a great influence on Albert the Great. But both Plato and Aristotle, when taken separately, proved to be quite useless in resolving certain problems. But Thomas Aquinas was able to splice the Gordian knot concealing a solution to the problem of the soul. By combining the psychology of Plato with the metaphysics of Aristotle, Thomas succeeded in creating a new concept of the human person. The author of this article has tried to explain the difficulties which faced Thomas and the way in which Thomas was able to resolve a problem which had troubled philosophy through the ages - the problem of reconciling Plato with Aristotle and finding a way to make their conflicting philosophies agree with each other

  7. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of fluoride ions from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yaxi; Ruan, Jifu; Cui, Guijia; Iqbal, Kanwal; Iqbal, Anam; Ye, Herui; Yang, Zhangzhong; Yan, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    A novel composite material, hydroxyapatite (HA)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared using a simple in-situ sol-gel method, and was used for the first time to remove fluoride from water. The novel HA-MWCNTs were characterized using TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD analysis. The TEM and SAED results revealed that the MWCNTs were uniformly encapsulated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The synthesized HA-MWCNTs had a high specific surface area (180.504 m2 g-1), with an average pore width (14.607 nm) and pore volume (0.774 cm3 g-1), which produced a defluoridation capacity (DC) of 30.22 mgF- g-1. This value was greater than unmodified hydroxyapatite (HA), which exhibited a larger specific surface area (172.233 m2 g-1) and an excellent DC of 17.80 mgF- g-1. A number of pertinent parameters that could affect the defluoridation performance of the HA/MWCNTs including weight ratios of the two key materials, solution pH and competing anions were carefully and comprehensively examined. It was found that the adsorption results followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption kinetics of the F- appeared to exhibit a pseudo second order. Moreover, the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic and appeared to exhibit a higher initial adsorption rate. This reaction appeared to occur result from both anion exchange and electrostatic interactions. When the HA-MWCNTs (MH6) were at an adsorbent dose of 2.0 g L-1, they were able to decrease the fluoride concentration of actual nuclear industry wastewater from 8.79 mg L-1 to about 0.25 mg L-1 (97.15% removal efficiency). The experimental results of this study showed that the HA-MWCNTs composites have application potential for the removal of fluoride ions from wastewater.

  8. Green synthesis of graphene from recycled PET bottle wastes for use in the adsorption of dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Ali, Safa M; Farag, Hassan A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Hamad, Hesham A

    2017-11-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is an important component of post-consumer plastic waste. This study focuses on the potential of utilizing "waste-treats-waste" by synthesis of graphene using PET bottle waste as a source material. The synthesized graphene is characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, Raman, TGA, and FT-IR. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 25 (AB25) by graphene is studied and parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage were optimized. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to investigate the effect of three variables (dye concentration, time and temperature) and their interaction on the removal efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm are followed a pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that adsorption of dye is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The plastic waste can be used after transformation into valuable carbon-based nanomaterials for use in the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. One pot synthesis of chitosan grafted quaternized resin for the removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, H Thagira; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis of chitosan quaternized resin for efficient removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution. The resin was characterized with FTIR, SEM with EDX and XRD. Batch method was carried out to optimize various parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of nitrate and phosphate, dosage, pH, co-anions and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The adsorption process illustrated that the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order are the best fitted models for the sorption of both anions. The respective negative values of ΔH° and ΔG° revealed that the adsorption of both the anions were exothermic and spontaneous. The removal efficiency of nitrate and phosphate on chitosan quaternized resin were 78% and 90% respectively with 0.1g of adsorbent and the initial concentration as 100mg/L. Nitrate and phosphate anions adsorbed effectively on chitosan quaternized resin by replacing Cl - ions from quaternary site through electrostatic attraction as well as ion-exchange mechanism. Hydrogen bonding also played important role in adsorption process. Even after 7th regeneration cycle the adsorbent retained its adsorption capacity as 23.7mg/g and 30.4mg/g for both nitrate and phosphate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The facile synthesis of a chitosan Cu(II) complex by solution plasma process and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengming; Li, Pu; Zhang, Baiqing; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis of chitosan-Cu(II) complex by solution plasma process (SPP) irradiation was investigated. The effects of the distance between the electrodes, initial Cu(II) concentration, and initial pH on the Cu(II) adsorption capacity were evaluated. The results showed that narrower distance between the electrodes, higher initial Cu(II) concentration and higher initial pH (at pHchitosan-Cu(II) complex by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that the main structure of chitosan was not changed after irradiation. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis indicated that Cu(II) ions were well incorporated into the chitosan. The antioxidant activity of the chitosan-Cu(II) complex was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, and reducing power assays. The chitosan-Cu(II) complex exhibited greater antioxidant activity than the original chitosan. Thus, SPP could be used for preparation of chitosan-Cu(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of α-, β-, and γ-Ga2o3 prepared from aqueous solutions by controlled precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liandi; Wei, Wei; Behrens, Malte

    2012-07-01

    α, β and γ-Ga2O3 have been successfully obtained in an easily scalable synthesis using aqueous solution of gallium nitrate and sodium carbonate as starting materials without any surfactant and additive. α and β-Ga2O3 were obtained by calcination at 350 and 700 °С, respectively, of α-GaOOH, prepared by controlled precipitation at constant pH 6 and T = 55 °С, with 24 h of aging. Aging was necessary to fully convert the initially preciptated gel into a well-crystalline and phase-pure material. γ-Ga2O3 was obtained after calcination at 500 °С of gallia gel, synthesized at constant pH 4 and T = 25 °С, without aging. These three polymorphs have a for gallia relatively high surface area: 55 m2/g (α-Ga2O3), 23 m2/g (β-Ga2O3) and 116 m2/g (γ-Ga2O3). The combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), nitrogen physisorption and thermogravimetry (TG) was employed to characterize the samples and their formation.

  12. Solution synthesis of lead seeded germanium nanowires and branched nanowire networks and their application as Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Grace; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Sheehan, Martin; Kennedy, Tadhg; Ryan, Kevin M.

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we report the high density growth of lead seeded germanium nanowires (NWs) and their development into branched nanowire networks suitable for application as lithium ion battery anodes. The synthesis of the NWs from lead seeds occurs simultaneously in both the liquid zone (solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth) and solvent rich vapor zone (vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth) of a high boiling point solvent growth system. The reaction is sufficiently versatile to allow for the growth of NWs directly from either an evaporated catalyst layer or from pre-defined nanoparticle seeds and can be extended to allowing extensive branched nanowire formation in a secondary reaction where these seeds are coated onto existing wires. The NWs are characterized using TEM, SEM, XRD and DF-STEM. Electrochemical analysis was carried out on both the single crystal Pb-Ge NWs and the branched Pb-Ge NWs to assess their suitability for use as anodes in a Li-ion battery. Differential capacity plots show both the germanium wires and the lead seeds cycle lithium and contribute to the specific capacity that is approximately 900 mAh g-1 for the single crystal wires, rising to approximately 1100 mAh g-1 for the branched nanowire networks.

  13. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  14. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  15. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of fluoride ions from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yaxi; Ruan, Jifu; Cui, Guijia; Iqbal, Kanwal; Iqbal, Anam; Ye, Herui; Yang, Zhangzhong; Yan, Shiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grown on Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-MWCNTs) showed enhanced fluoride removal performance. - Highlights: • Noval HA nanoparticles and HA-MWCNTs composites were successfully synthesized for the first time. • The synthesized HA-MWCNTs composites exhibited a higher defluoridation capacity of 39.22 mg g"−"1. • It could reduced the fluoride concentration of the real waste water from 8.79 mg L"−"1 to approximately 0.25 mg L"−"1. - Abstract: A novel composite material, hydroxyapatite (HA)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared using a simple in-situ sol-gel method, and was used for the first time to remove fluoride from water. The novel HA-MWCNTs were characterized using TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD analysis. The TEM and SAED results revealed that the MWCNTs were uniformly encapsulated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The synthesized HA-MWCNTs had a high specific surface area (180.504 m"2 g"−"1), with an average pore width (14.607 nm) and pore volume (0.774 cm"3 g"−"1), which produced a defluoridation capacity (DC) of 30.22 mgF"− g"−"1. This value was greater than unmodified hydroxyapatite (HA), which exhibited a larger specific surface area (172.233 m"2 g"−"1) and an excellent DC of 17.80 mgF"− g"−"1. A number of pertinent parameters that could affect the defluoridation performance of the HA/MWCNTs including weight ratios of the two key materials, solution pH and competing anions were carefully and comprehensively examined. It was found that the adsorption results followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption kinetics of the F"− appeared to exhibit a pseudo second order. Moreover, the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic and appeared to exhibit a higher initial adsorption rate. This reaction appeared to occur result from both anion exchange and electrostatic interactions. When the HA-MWCNTs (MH6) were at an adsorbent dose of 2.0 g L"−"1

  16. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of fluoride ions from solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yaxi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ruan, Jifu [Chemistry Teaching and Research Group, No.1 Middle School of Queshan, Henan 463200 (China); Cui, Guijia; Iqbal, Kanwal; Iqbal, Anam [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ye, Herui; Yang, Zhangzhong [Northwest Regional Office of Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan, Shiqiang, E-mail: yansq@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grown on Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-MWCNTs) showed enhanced fluoride removal performance. - Highlights: • Noval HA nanoparticles and HA-MWCNTs composites were successfully synthesized for the first time. • The synthesized HA-MWCNTs composites exhibited a higher defluoridation capacity of 39.22 mg g{sup −1}. • It could reduced the fluoride concentration of the real waste water from 8.79 mg L{sup −1} to approximately 0.25 mg L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A novel composite material, hydroxyapatite (HA)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared using a simple in-situ sol-gel method, and was used for the first time to remove fluoride from water. The novel HA-MWCNTs were characterized using TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD analysis. The TEM and SAED results revealed that the MWCNTs were uniformly encapsulated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The synthesized HA-MWCNTs had a high specific surface area (180.504 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), with an average pore width (14.607 nm) and pore volume (0.774 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}), which produced a defluoridation capacity (DC) of 30.22 mgF{sup −} g{sup −1}. This value was greater than unmodified hydroxyapatite (HA), which exhibited a larger specific surface area (172.233 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and an excellent DC of 17.80 mgF{sup −} g{sup −1}. A number of pertinent parameters that could affect the defluoridation performance of the HA/MWCNTs including weight ratios of the two key materials, solution pH and competing anions were carefully and comprehensively examined. It was found that the adsorption results followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption kinetics of the F{sup −} appeared to exhibit a pseudo second order. Moreover, the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic and appeared to exhibit a higher initial adsorption rate. This reaction appeared to occur result from both anion exchange and electrostatic interactions. When the

  17. Dinitrosyl iron complexes with natural thiol-containing ligands in aqueous solutions: Synthesis and some physico-chemical characteristics (A methodological review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Borodulin, Rostislav R; Mikoyan, Vasak D

    2017-06-01

    Two approaches to the synthesis of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with glutathione and l-cysteine in aqueous solutions based on the use of gaseous NO and appropriate S-nitrosothiols, viz., S-nitrosoglutathione (GS-NO) or S-nitrosocysteine (Cys-NO), respectively, are considered. A schematic representation of a vacuum unit for generation and accumulation of gaseous NO purified from the NO 2 admixture and its application for obtaining aqueous solutions of DNIC in a Thunberg apparatus is given. To achieve this, a solution of bivalent iron in distilled water is loaded into the upper chamber of the Thunberg apparatus, while the thiol solution in an appropriate buffer (рН 7.4) is loaded into its lower chamber. Further steps, which include degassing, addition of gaseous NO, shaking of both solutions and formation of the Fe 2+ -thiol mixture, culminate in the synthesis of DNIC. The second approach consists in a stepwise addition of Fe 2+ salts and nitrite to aqueous solutions of glutathione or cysteine. In the presence of Fe 2+ and after the increase in рН to the physiological level, GS-NO or Cys-NO generated at acid media (pH nitrosonium ions (NO + ) and the peculiar characteristics of the EPR signal of their mononuclear form (M-DNIC). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Combustion Synthesis of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-x and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-x Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhong, zhimin

    2005-01-01

    Nanopowders of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO(3-x) (SSC) and La0.6Sr0.4CoO(3-x) (LSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, were synthesized by a solution-combustion method using metal nitrates and glycine as fuel. Development of crystalline phases in the as-synthesized powders after heat treatments at various temperatures was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Perovskite phase in LSC formed more readily than in SSC. Single phase perovskites were obtained after heat treatment of the combustion synthesized LSC and SSC powders at 1000 and 1200 C, respectively. The as-synthesized powders had an average particle size of 12 nm as determined from x-ray line broadening analysis using the Scherrer equation. Average grain size of the powders increased with increase in calcination temperature. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of spinel Li(Li{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 1.90})O{sub 4} by a flameless combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jiabin; Bai, Hongli; Liu, Jintao; Yang, Fangli; Li, Qiling; Su, Changwei [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Clean Conversion in Ethnic Regions, Education Department of Yunnan, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500 (China); Engineering Research Center of Biopolymer Functional Materials of Yunnan, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500 (China); Guo, Junming, E-mail: guojunming@tsinghua.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Clean Conversion in Ethnic Regions, Education Department of Yunnan, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500 (China); Engineering Research Center of Biopolymer Functional Materials of Yunnan, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500 (China)

    2016-05-25

    A (Li, Cu)-co-doped cathode material Li(Li{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 1.90})O{sub 4} was prepared by a flameless combustion synthesis at 500 °C for 3 h and then two-stage calcination at 700 °C for 6 h. Physical and electrochemical performances were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling test, cyclic voltammogram (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate the influence of Li and Cu substitution on the lithium ion batteries. Li(Li{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 1.90})O{sub 4} not only exhibited the initial discharge capacity of 106.9 mAh g{sup −1} with a high retention of 89.2% after 500 cycles at 1.0 C but also retained 63.5% capacity after 1500 cycles at 5.0 C. Besides, a good rate capability at different current densities from 0.5 C to 5.0 C can be acquired. The (Li, Cu)-co-doped sample had excellent cycling stability in comparison with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode. - Highlights: • A (Li, Cu)-co-doped Li(Li{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 1.90})O{sub 4} was synthesized by a flameless combustion method. • The (Li, Cu)-co-doped Li(Li{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 1.90})O{sub 4} has higher crystallinity. • Low level of Li and Cu doping exhibits better rate capability and cycling performance.

  20. Synthesis of fast response crosslinked PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by very low radiation dose in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, Marziyeh; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Akbar Entezami, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Nanohydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (PVA-g-NIPAAm) are synthesized by PVA and NIPAAm dilute aqueous solution using much less radiation dose of 1–20 Gy via intramolecular crosslinking at ambient temperature. The radiation synthesis of nanohydrogels is performed in the presence of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) due to its rapid oxygen scavenging abilities and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as a source of hydroxyl radicals. The effect of radiation dose, feed composition ratio of PVA and H 2 O 2 is investigated on swelling properties such as temperature and pH dependence of equilibrium swelling ratio as well as deswelling kinetics. Experimental data exhibit high equilibrium swelling ratio and fast response time for the synthesized nanohydrogels. The average molecular weight between crosslinks (M c ) and crosslinking density (ρ x ) of the obtained nanohydrogels are calculated from swelling data as a function of radiation dose, H 2 O 2 and PVA amount. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis of nitrogen content and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to confirm the grafting reaction. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is measured around 33 °C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data demonstrate that the increase of radiation dose leads to the decreasing in dimension of nanohydrogels. Also, rheological studies are confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanohydrogels with increasing the radiation dose. A cytotoxicity study exhibits a good biocompatibility for the obtained nanohydrogels. The prepared nanohydrogels show fast swelling/deswelling behavior, high swelling ratio, dual sensitivity and good cytocompatibility, which may find potential applications as biomaterial. - Highlights: ► A new radiation polymerization method is offered in dilute aqueous solution.► This method provides PVA

  1. Tapioca starch: An efficient fuel in gel-combustion synthesis of photocatalytically and anti-microbially active ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasami, Alamelu K. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura (T) (India); Raja Naika, H. [Dept. of Biotechnology, University College of Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur (India); Nagabhushana, H. [CNR Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur (India); Ramakrishnappa, T.; Balakrishna, Geetha R. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura (T) (India); Nagaraju, G., E-mail: nagarajugn@rediffmail.com [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jakkasandra, Kanakapura (T) (India); Dept. of Chemistry, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur (India)

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by gel-combustion method using novel bio-fuel tapioca starch pearls, derived from the tubers of Manihotesculenta. The product is characterized using various techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern correspond to a hexagonal zincite structure. Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed main absorption peaks at 394 and 508 cm{sup −} {sup 1} due to stretching vibration of Zn–O. Ultravoilet–visible spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles showed absorption maximum at 373 nm whereas the maximum of the bulk zinc oxide was 377 nm. The morphology of the product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic images showed that the products are agglomerated and porous in nature. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed spherical particles of 40–50 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was examined using zinc oxide nanoparticles and found more efficient in sunlight than ultra-violet light due to reduced band gap. The antibacterial properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated against four bacterial strains Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus exhibited significant antibacterial activity in agar well diffusion method when compared to positive control. - Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared from a new bio-fuel, tapioca starch by gel combustion method. • XRD pattern revealed hexagonal zincite crystal structure with crystallite size 33 nm. • ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a band gap of 2.70 eV. • The ZnO nanoparticles exhibited superior degradation in sunlight in comparison with UV light. • The product showed a good anti-bacterial activity against two bacterial strains.

  2. Synthesis of C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-20} in aqueous alkaline solution under O{sub 2}-atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gustavo Catao; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando; Righi, Ariete; Krambrock, Klaus; Pinheiro, Mauricio Veloso B. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Calado, Hallen Daniel; Gil, Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: gustavo.catao@terra.com.br

    2006-09-15

    In this work we report on an alternative synthesis of water-soluble fullerenes known as fullerols, aiming for biomedical applications. The synthesis is based on a process in which polyethylene glycol (PEG400) is used as phase-transfer catalyst between fullerene/benzene and aqueous NaOH solutions. The polyhydroxylation of the fullerenes occurs in the NaOH solution under a continuous flow of O{sub 2} to enhance the reaction yield. The resulting compound was characterized with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermo-gravimetric analysis and optical absorption. The formation of C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-20} in high yields was confirmed. (author)

  3. Infrared emissions in MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Er{sup 3+} phosphor co-doped with Yb{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} obtained by solution combustion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijay, E-mail: vijayjiin2006@yahoo.com [Physical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Chemistry and Center of Interface Science, University of Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Kumar Rai, Vineet [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826 004 (India); Venkatramu, V. [Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516 003 (India); Chakradhar, R.P.S. [CSIR-National Aerospace, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Hwan Kim, Sang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    An intense infrared emitting MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Er{sup 3+} phosphor co-doped with Yb{sup 3+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions have been prepared by a solution combustion method. Phase purity of the derived compounds was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The vibrational properties of MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17} phosphor was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The broad and strong infrared emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at around 1.53 {mu}m was observed upon excitation at 980 nm. Effect of co-doping with the Yb{sup 3+}{sub ,} Ba{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions on the infrared luminescence intensity of Er{sup 3+} ions and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the infrared intensity have been discussed. The results indicate that these materials may be suitable for the optical telecommunication window and wavelength division multiplexing applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hexagonal phase of MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17} could be obtained by the low temperature combustion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The broad and strong infrared emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at around 1.53 {mu}m was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of co-doping with the Yb{sup 3+}{sub ,} Ba{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions on the infrared luminescence intensity of Er{sup 3+} were reported.

  4. Corrigendum to "Synthesis of hydroxyapatite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of fluoride ions from solution" [Appl. Surf. Sci. 412 (2017) 578-590

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yaxi; Ruan, Jifu; Cui, Guijia; Iqbal, Kanwal; Iqbal, Anam; Ye, Herui; Yang, Zhangzhong; Yan, Shiqiang

    2018-04-01

    In our recent paper [1], we reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-MWCNTs) and studied their performance for the removal of fluoride ions from solution. However, we have made some writing mistakes, especially in the section on adsorption kinetics analysis. Our mistakes were spotted by Prof. Yuandong Huang, who graciously noticed these errors. We are grateful to him, and have decided to write a "Corrigendum".

  5. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  6. Verification of Conditions for use of Combustion Products‘ Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kažimírová Viera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented contribution deals with the verification of conditions for use of combustion products‘ heat, generated by combustion of wood in a fireplace used in a household. It is necessary to know the temperature behaviour of the fireplace to determine the adequacy of the technical solution for using combustion products‘ heat. The combustion products‘ temperature at the upper part of the chimney is 80-120 °C. The dew point value was established to be below 51 °C. The average observed value of combustion product velocity is 1.6 m s-1. The volume flow rate of combustion products is 12 m3 h-1. Measured values allow for effective solution of the use of combustion products‘ heat.

  7. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  8. Study of the catalytic activity of ceramic nano fibers in the methane combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reolon, R.P.; Berutti, F.A.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this work titanium oxide fibers, doped with cerium and copper, were synthesized using the electro spinning process. Titanium propoxide was used as a precursor in the electro spinning synthesis. The obtained fibers were heat treated after receive a spray with an alcoholic solution of cerium acetate and copper nitrate. The non-tissue material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase and crystallite size, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), BET method to determine the surface and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. The catalytic activity was evaluated by methane and air combustion under different temperatures. The amount of combustion gases such as NO x , C x H y , CO e CO 2 , were analyzed. (author)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of reactions by nanoferrites Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} combustion; Sintese por reacao de combustao e caracterizacao de nanoparticulas de Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Dantas, B.B.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Araujo, P.M.A.G., E-mail: polyanaquimica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In this work CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} of magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion reaction and the structural and morphological characteristics of the synthesized samples as well as the parameters of synthesis temperature and reaction time were investigated in order to assess the reproducibility of the synthesis. The maximum temperature and time of the combustion flame were obtained with pyrometer coupled to a computer with online measurement and a stopwatch. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maximum temperature achieved during synthesis for all reactions ranged from 623 deg C and 755 deg C. The combustion flame time varied between 18 and 23 seconds. The XRD showed the formation of only CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} inverse spinel phase, with crystallite size 28 nm and crystallinity 78%, with typical morphology of the formation of agglomerates of uniform size, brittle and comprising nanoparticles together by weak forces. (author)

  10. Combustion synthesis and characterization of blue long lasting phosphor CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ and its novel application in latent fingerprint and lip mark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Das, Amrita; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinay; Verma, Kartikey; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the structural, optical and photometric characterization of a Eu2+/Dy3+ doped calcium aluminates phosphor (CaAl2O4: Eu2+/Dy3+) for finger and lip print detections. Synthesis of CaAl2O4: Eu2+/Dy3+ (CAED) phosphors were carried out via a combustion synthesis method with urea as a fuel. Eu2+/Dy3+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphors have been studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Selected Area Diffraction (SAED) and High resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern shows that the synthesized Eu2+/Dy3+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphor have a single monoclinic structure and show that the addition of the dopant/co-dopants didn't change the crystal structure. The formation of monoclinic phase was confirmed by the selected area diffraction pattern. The TEM micrograph displays the morphology of the synthesized Eu2+/Dy3+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphors as spherical particles with an average particle size of 33 nm. The optical band gap was calculated using the diffuse reflectance for the synthesized nanophosphor powders. The photoluminescence emission spectra was recorded for the synthesized powder, with an excitation wavelength of 326 nm and the major bands was recorded at 447 nm corresponding to the blue color and two minor bands were recorded at 577 nm and 616 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to show the use of CaAl2O4: Eu2+/Dy3+ nanophosphor in developing latent fingerprint and lip print effectively.

  11. Synthesis of (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) solid solution powders by thermal processing precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Anrui [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Liu, Ying [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Material & Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Ma, Shiqing; Qiu, Yuchong; Rong, Pengcheng; Ye, Jinwen [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2017-06-01

    The single-phase (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) solid solution powders were fabricated via carbothermal reduction-nitridation (CRN) processing technique. The effects of heat treatment temperature, nitrogen pressure and carbon proportion were experimentally studied in detail by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and thermal analysis. The chemical transformations of vanadium and chromium compounds were as follows: precursors → V{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} → Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) → (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N). When the heat-treated temperature was below 1200 °C, chromium oxides didn’t completely react. However, higher temperature ∼1300 °C could not only lead to the segregation of some nitrides and carbon black, but also to the occurrence of fiber-bridged particles. The system nitrogen pressure over 0.03 MPa would cause a subtle transformation of (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) to VCrN{sub 2}. When the carbon proportion was below 15 wt%, the oxides could not be completely reduced, while when the carbon proportion was above 15.5 wt%, some undesired carbides, like Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, would form. Ultimately, the homogeneously distributed pure-phase (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) spherical particles with the average size of ∼1.5 μm were obtained at the optimal conditions of the treatment of precursors at 1200 °C for 1 h with the nitrogen pressure of 0.03 MPa and carbon content of 15.5 wt%. The chemical composition of the solid solution with the optimal process could be drawn as (Cr{sub 0.85}V{sub 0.15}){sub 2}(C{sub 0.57}N{sub 0.43}). Thermal processing precursors method shows the advantages of lower synthesis temperature, shorter period and finer particles when comparing with the conventional preparations. - Highlights: • Single phase of (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) powders were synthesized for the first time. • Precursors were used to prepared the powders by carbothermal

  12. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600 0 C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables

  13. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles via microwave-assisted combustion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sertkol, M. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 Buyukcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Koeseoglu, Y., E-mail: yukselk@fatih.edu.t [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 Buyukcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 Buyukcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 Buyukcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Division of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-16440 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    We report on the synthesis of Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles via microwave assisted combustion route by using urea as fuel. XRD and FT-IR analyses confirm the composition and structure as spinel ferrite. The crystallite size estimated from XRD (16.4 nm) and the magnetic core size (15.04 nm) estimated from VSM agree well, while a slightly smaller magnetic diameter reflects a very thin magnetically dead layer on the surface of the nanoparticles. Morphological investigation of the products was done by TEM which revealed the existence of irregular shapes such spherical, spherodial and polygon. Magnetization measurements performed on Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles showed that saturation was not attained at even in the high magnetic field. The sample shows superparamagnetic behavior at around the room temperature and ferromagnetic behavior below the blocking temperature which is measured as 284 K.

  14. NIR emission and Ce{sup 3+}–Nd{sup 3+} energy transfer in LaCaAl{sub 3}O{sub 7} phosphor prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, A.A. [National Power Training Institute, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440022 (India); Talewar, R.A., E-mail: talewarrupesh@gmail.com [Physics Department, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Katol Road, Nagpur 440013 (India); Joshi, C.P. [Physics Department, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Katol Road, Nagpur 440013 (India); Moharil, S.V. [Department of Physics, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur 440010 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Near infrared (NIR) emitting phosphor, LaCaAl{sub 3}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Nd{sup 3+} was synthesized by one step combustion synthesis and characterized with scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence emission, photoluminescence excitation spectra and fluorescence decay measurements. When excited with UV, the phosphor gives broadband emission at 410 nm, which corresponds to the allowed 5d→4f transition of Ce{sup 3+} ions and an intense NIR emissions in the range 800–1400 nm, which are assigned to the characteristic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 9/2,11/2,13/2} states of Nd{sup 3+} ions. The dependences of visible and NIR emissions, decay lifetime and the energy transfer efficiency (η{sub ETE}) on dopant concentrations were investigated in detail. The luminescence spectra, both in visible (VIS) and NIR regions, and decay curves of Ce{sup 3+} have been measured to prove energy transfer (ET) from Ce{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}. These results demonstrate the possibility for enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cell by modifying the absorption and utilizing the UV part of the solar spectrum where the efficiency of c-Si solar cell is low.

  15. Influence of pH and fuels on the combustion synthesis, structural, morphological, electrical and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugavani, A. [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Selvan, R.Kalai, E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Layek, Samar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Vasylechko, Leonid [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera Street, Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630 004 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Nanocrystalline spinel cobalt ferrite particles are synthesized by simple combustion method using aspartic acid and glycine as fuels. The single phase cubic structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is revealed through X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Further the Rietveld refinement confirms the formation of inverse spinel structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The characteristic functional groups of Co–O and Fe–O are identified from Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis. Uniform distribution of of nearly spherical particles with the size range of 40–80 nm is identified through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images. The calculated DC conductivity is 1.469 × 10{sup −7} and 2.214 × 10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized using aspartic acid and glycine, respectively. The dielectric behavior obeys the Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization. The ferromagnetic behavior of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is identified using VSM analysis and the calculated coercivity is 27 Oe and saturation magnetization is 68 emu/g.

  16. Enhanced photoluminescence of Sm{sup 3+}/Bi{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phosphors by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangsheng; Zhang Ying [Institute of Micro-system Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Yin Jiang [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, W.F. [Institute of Micro-system Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: wfzhang@henu.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+},Bi{sup 3+} powders were prepared by a combustion method. Their structures were determined using X-ray diffraction. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra were investigated for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+},Bi{sup 3+} at different annealing temperatures and different doping concentrations. The emission spectra of all samples presented the characteristic emission narrow lines arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=5/2, 7/2, and 9/2) of Sm{sup 3+} ions upon excitation with UV irradiation. The emission intensity of Sm{sup 3+} ions was largely enhanced with introducing Bi{sup 3+} ions into Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} and the maximum occurred at a Bi{sup 3+} concentration of 0.5 mol%. The relevant mechanisms were discussed with the sensitization theory by Dexter and the aggregation behavior of Bi{sup 3+} ions.

  17. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  18. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  19. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  20. One-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowires in HF/AgNO3/H2O2 solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Fan; Li, Meicheng; Song, Dandan; Yu, Hang; Jiang, Bing; Li, Yingfeng

    2012-01-01

    One-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowire arrays was achieved by etching the silicon wafer in HF/AgNO 3 /H 2 O 2 solution at room temperature. The lightly doped porous silicon nanowires (pNWs) have circular nanopores on the sidewall, which can emit strong green fluorescence. The surface morphologies of these nanowires could be controlled by simply adjusting the concentration of H 2 O 2 , which influences the distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) along the nanowire axis. A mechanism based on Ag NPs-induced lateral etching of nanowires was proposed to explain the formation of pNWs. The controllable and widely applicable synthesis of pNWs will open their potential application to nanoscale photoluminescence devices. - Graphical abstract: The one-step synthesis of porous silicon nanowire arrays is achieved by chemical etching of the lightly doped p-type Si (100) wafer at room temperature. These nanowires exhibit strong green photoluminescence. SEM, TEM, HRTEM and photoluminescence images of pNWs. The scale bars of SEM, TEM HRTEM and photoluminescence are 10 μm, 20 nm, 10 nm, and 1 μm, respectively. Highlights: ► Simple one-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowire arrays is achieved at RT. ► Etching process and mechanism are illustrated with etching model from a novel standpoint. ► As-prepared porous silicon nanowire emits strong green fluorescence, proving unique property.