Large time behaviour of oscillatory nonlinear solute transport in porous media
Duijn, van C.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.
2018-01-01
Oscillations in flow occur under many different situations in natural porous media, due to tidal, daily or seasonal patterns. In this paper, we investigate how such oscillations in flow affect the transport of an initially sharp solute front, if the solute undergoes nonlinear sorption and,
Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.
2013-01-01
Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with
Social Behaviour in Public Transportation
Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine
2011-01-01
Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through ...
Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Aghogho
2010-12-27
Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.
Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy
Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.
2015-01-01
The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel
Behaviour of potassium hexabromoruthenate (4) in solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudnitskaya, O.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pichkov, V.N.
1989-01-01
Behaviour of potassium hexabromoruthenate in HBr, H 2 O-acetone, dimethylformamide, dimetnylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions is investigated by means of absorption and ESR specroscopy. Complex is shown to be labile, interacts easily with solvents forming ruthenium complexes in more low oxidation degrees. Hexabromoruthenate-ion is formed in concentrated HBr, while in DMSO the formation of ruthenium (3) and (2) bromide-dimethylsulfoxide complexes occurs gradually, final product is trans-[Ru(DMSO) 4 Br 2
Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir
2007-01-01
We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huet, B.
2005-10-01
The phenomenon of steel reinforcements corrosion in a carbonaceous concrete is a many-sided process, little understood and of a great economical importance. The aim of this work is to identify, in condition of concrete carbonation, the corrosion mechanisms of reinforcements in order to anticipate the long term damage of the buildings. An analytical and experimental study has been carried out and has revealed two hypotheses. These ones consist to characterize the control of the corrosion velocity, either by the anodic reaction or by addition of an oxidant. The corrosion experiments in solution which represents the interstitial solution of a carbonaceous cement paste show that the evolution of the metal/medium interface is very sensitive to the species introduced in the medium during the carbonation process. The change of the ionic strength and of the sulfate and alkali metals concentrations are the main factors influencing the localization of the reactional areas, the nature of the phases formed at the interface as well as the corrosion velocities and their change with time. The evolution of the water saturation degree of the coating is the preponderant factor on the corrosion velocity. The analytical calculations and the experimental results show that for fixed hydrous conditions, the corrosion velocity in stationary conditions is negligible. The taking into account of transient conditions of transport as well as humidification and drying cycles is required for the long term anticipation of the damage of reinforced concrete buildings. (O.M.)
Zirconium behaviour in purex process solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shu, J.
1982-01-01
The extraction behaviour of zirconium, as fission product, in TBP/diluent- HNO 3 -H 2 O systems, simulating Purex solutions, is studied. The main purpose is to attain an increasing in the zirconium decontamination factor by adjusting the extraction parameters. Equilibrium diagram, TBP concentration, aqueous:organic ratio, salting-out effects and, uranium loading in the organic phase were the main factors studied. All these experiments had been made with zirconium in the 10 - 2 - 10 - 3 concentration range. The extractant degradation products influence uppon the zirconium behaviour was also verified. With the obtained data it was possible to introduce some modification in the standard Purex flow-sheet in order to obtain the uranium product with higher zirconium decontamination. (Author) [pt
Public transport optimisation emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour.
Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
2015-01-01
Passengers in public transport complaining about their travel experiences are not uncommon. This might seem counterintuitive since several operators worldwide are presenting better key performance indicators year by year. The present PhD study focuses on developing optimisation algorithms to enhance the operations of public transport while explicitly emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour and preferences. Similar to economic theory, interactions between supply and demand are omnipresent in ...
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...
Peritoneal solute transport and inflammation.
Davies, Simon J
2014-12-01
The speed with which small solutes cross the peritoneal membrane, termed peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR), is a key measure of individual membrane performance. PSTR can be quantified easily by using the 4-hour dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio, which, although only an approximation to the diffusive characteristics of the membrane, has been well validated clinically in terms of its relationship to patient survival and changes in longitudinal membrane function. This has led to changes in peritoneal dialysis modality use and dialysis prescription. An important determinant of PSTR is intraperitoneal inflammation, as exemplified by local interleukin 6 production, which is largely independent of systemic inflammation and its relationship to comorbid conditions and increased mortality. There is no strong evidence to support the contention that the peritoneal membrane in some individuals with high PSTR is qualitatively different at the start of treatment; rather, it represents a spectrum that is determined in part by genetic factors. Both clinical and experimental evidence support the view that persistent intraperitoneal inflammation, detected as a continuously high or increasing PSTR, may predispose the membrane to progressive fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Control and optimization of solute transport in a thin porous tube
Griffiths, I. M.; Howell, P. D.; Shipley, R. J.
2013-01-01
differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a
Public transport optimisation emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jens Parbo
to the case where the two problems are solved sequentially without taking into account interdependencies. Figure 1 - Planning public transport The PhD study develops a metaheuristic algorithm to adapt the line plan configuration in order better to match passengers’ travel demand in terms of transfers as well......Passengers in public transport complaining about their travel experiences are not uncommon. This might seem counterintuitive since several operators worldwide are presenting better key performance indicators year by year. The present PhD study focuses on developing optimisation algorithms...... to enhance the operations of public transport while explicitly emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour and preferences. Similar to economic theory, interactions between supply and demand are omnipresent in the context of public transport operations. In public transport, the demand is represented...
Mass transport in polyelectrolyte solutions
Schipper, F. J. M.; Leyte, J. C.
1999-02-01
The self-diffusion coefficients of the three components of a salt-free heavy-water solution of polymethacrylic acid, completely neutralized with tetra-methylammonium hydroxide, were measured over a broad concentration range. Three concentration regions were observed for the self-diffusion of both the polyions and the counterions. At polyion concentrations below 0.01 mol monomer kg-1, the dilute concentration regime for the polymer, the polyion self-diffusion coefficient approaches the self-diffusion coefficient of a freely diffusing rod upon dilution. At polyelectrolyte concentrations above 0.1 mol monomer kg-1, the self-diffusion coefficients of the solvent, the counterions and the polymer decreased with concentration, suggesting that this decrease is due to a topological constraint on the motions of the components. In the intermediate-concentration region, the self-diffusion coefficients of the polyions and the counterions are independent of the concentration. The polyion dynamic behaviour is, in the intermediate- and high-concentration regions, reasonably well described by that of a hard sphere, with a radius of 3.7 nm. A correct prediction for the solvent dynamics is given by the obstruction effect of this hard sphere on the solvent. The relative counterion self-diffusion coefficient is predicted almost quantitatively over the entire concentration range with the Poisson-Boltzmann-Smoluchowski model for the spherical cell, provided that the sphere radius and the number of charges are chosen appropriately (approximately the number of charges in a persistence length). Using this model, the dependence of the counterion self-diffusion coefficient on the ionic strength, polyion concentration and counterion radius is calculated quantitatively over a large concentration range.
Urban Transportation: Issue and Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haryati Shafii
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Generally, quality of life of urban population is heavily dependent on social facilities provided within the environment. One of the most important facilities is transportations. Study on transportation mode in an urban area is especially very important because for almost every individual living in a large and densely populated area, mobility is one of the most crucial issues in everyday life. Enhance mobility, faster journey to work and less pollution from petrol-propelled vehicles can increase the quality of life, which in turn lead to a sustainable urban living. The study present transportation mode usage issues faced by community related to quality of life in an urban area. This study identifies several issues of transportation mode in urban areas and its impact on the quality of life. The study areas are Putrajaya, Kuala Lumpur and Bandar Kajang, Selangor. The methodology used in this research is secondary and primary data. The questionnaires for the survey were distributed from May 2008 to Jun 2008. These researches were conducted on 144 respondents for to evaluate their perception of transportation mode correlated to the quality of life. The collected data were then analyzed using “Statistical Packages for the Social Science” (SPSS. The respondents comprise of 61 males and 84 females from the age group of 18 to 57 years. This study identifies the percentage of public transportation mode usage in urban area, such as buses (16.7%, train (ERL, monorail and commuter-6.4%; which is very low compared to owning personal car (45.8% and motorcycle (25.4%.The result shows owning personal car is the highest (45.8% in three study areas and monorail and taxi are the lowest (1.4%. The Chi Square Test shows that among the mode transportation with traffic jam is quite difference in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Kajang. Analysis of the Chi Square Test shows the result is 0.000 (two sides to respondent answering “yes” and analysis of Spearman
The solute carrier 6 family of transporters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bröer, Stefan; Gether, Ulrik
2012-01-01
of these transporters is associated with a variety of diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of the neurotransmitter transporters in this family is an important strategy in the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological properties......The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of the human genome comprises transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. Members of this family play critical roles in neurotransmission, cellular and whole body homeostasis. Malfunction or altered expression...... of the SLC6 family transporters....
Oscillatory behaviour of solutions of linear neutral differential ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper considers the contribution of space-time noise to the oscillatory behaviour of solutions of a linear neutral stochastic delay differential equation. It was established that under certain conditions on the time lags and their speed of adjustments, the presence of noise generates oscillation in the solution of the equation ...
Electrolyte solution transport in electropolar nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jianbing; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen Xi; Qiao Yu; Zhou Qulan; Li Yibing; Tak, Moonho; Park, Taehyo
2010-01-01
Electrolyte transport in nanochannels plays an important role in a number of emerging areas. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations, the fundamental transport behavior of an electrolyte/water solution in a confined model nanoenvironment is systematically investigated by varying the nanochannel dimension, solid phase, electrolyte phase, ion concentration and transport rate. It is found that the shear resistance encountered by the nanofluid strongly depends on these material/system parameters; furthermore, several effects are coupled. The mechanisms of the nanofluidic transport characteristics are explained by considering the unique molecular/ion structure formed inside the nanochannel. The lower shear resistance observed in some of the systems studies could be beneficial for nanoconductors, while the higher shear resistance (or higher effective viscosity) observed in other systems might enhance the performance of energy dissipation devices.
Reexamining ultrafiltration and solute transport in groundwater
Neuzil, C. E.; Person, Mark
2017-06-01
Geologic ultrafiltration—slowing of solutes with respect to flowing groundwater—poses a conundrum: it is consistently observed experimentally in clay-rich lithologies, but has been difficult to identify in subsurface data. Resolving this could be important for clarifying clay and shale transport properties at large scales as well as interpreting solute and isotope patterns for applications ranging from nuclear waste repository siting to understanding fluid transport in tectonically active environments. Simulations of one-dimensional NaCl transport across ultrafiltering clay membrane strata constrained by emerging data on geologic membrane properties showed different ultrafiltration effects than have often been envisioned. In relatively high-permeability advection-dominated regimes, salinity increases occurred mostly within membrane units while their effluent salinity initially fell and then rose to match solute delivery. In relatively low-permeability diffusion-dominated regimes, salinity peaked at the membrane upstream boundary and effluent salinity remained low. In both scenarios, however, only modest salinity changes (up to ˜3 g L-1) occurred because of self-limiting tendencies; membrane efficiency declines as salinity rises, and although sediment compaction increases efficiency, it is also decreases permeability and allows diffusive transport to dominate. It appears difficult for ultrafiltration to generate brines as speculated, but widespread and less extreme ultrafiltration effects in the subsurface could be unrecognized. Conditions needed for ultrafiltration are present in settings that include topographically-driven flow systems, confined aquifer systems subjected to injection or withdrawal, compacting basins, and accretionary complexes.
Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport
Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.
2017-06-01
Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.
Exact solution of the neutron transport equation in spherical geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anli, Fikret; Akkurt, Abdullah; Yildirim, Hueseyin; Ates, Kemal [Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Sciences and Letters
2017-03-15
Solution of the neutron transport equation in one dimensional slab geometry construct a basis for the solution of neutron transport equation in a curvilinear geometry. Therefore, in this work, we attempt to derive an exact analytical benchmark solution for both neutron transport equations in slab and spherical medium by using P{sub N} approximation which is widely used in neutron transport theory.
Reactive solute transport in acidic streams
Broshears, R.E.
1996-01-01
Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.
Examination of Transport Performance and Authenticity on Behavioural Intention
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bintang Handayani
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to scrutinise the transport performance and authenticity as one of the elements in tourism attributes in relation with behavioural intention. Utilising quantitative approach; data collected from survey of 384 overseas tourists were used to clarify the research proposition. The study suggests that transport performance may emerge as one of organic image elements for destination brand identity formation, influences cognitive image of overseas tourist but insignificant on tourist’s behavioural intention. In addition, future spectrum of the transport development in relation with authenticity indicates its importance for not damaging the destination’s overall profile.
Numerical solution of the radionuclide transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadermann, J.; Roesel, F.
1983-11-01
A numerical solution of the one-dimensional geospheric radionuclide chain transport equation based on the pseudospectral method is developed. The advantages of this approach are flexibility in incorporating space and time dependent migration parameters, arbitrary boundary conditions and solute rock interactions as well as efficiency and reliability. As an application the authors investigate the impact of non-linear sorption isotherms on migration in crystalline rock. It is shown that non-linear sorption, in the present case a Freundlich isotherm, may reduce concentration at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude provided the migration time is comparable or larger than the half-life of the nuclide in question. The importance of fixing dispersivity within the continuum approach is stressed. (Auth.)
Coupled geochemical and solute transport code development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrey, J.R.; Hostetler, C.J.
1985-01-01
A number of coupled geochemical hydrologic codes have been reported in the literature. Some of these codes have directly coupled the source-sink term to the solute transport equation. The current consensus seems to be that directly coupling hydrologic transport and chemical models through a series of interdependent differential equations is not feasible for multicomponent problems with complex geochemical processes (e.g., precipitation/dissolution reactions). A two-step process appears to be the required method of coupling codes for problems where a large suite of chemical reactions must be monitored. Two-step structure requires that the source-sink term in the transport equation is supplied by a geochemical code rather than by an analytical expression. We have developed a one-dimensional two-step coupled model designed to calculate relatively complex geochemical equilibria (CTM1D). Our geochemical module implements a Newton-Raphson algorithm to solve heterogeneous geochemical equilibria, involving up to 40 chemical components and 400 aqueous species. The geochemical module was designed to be efficient and compact. A revised version of the MINTEQ Code is used as a parent geochemical code
Transport of reactive and nonreactive solutes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garabedian, S.P.; Leblanc, D.R.
1990-01-01
A natural-gradient tracer test was conducted on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to examine the transport and dispersion of solutes in a sand and gravel aquifer. A nonreactive tracer, bromide, and two reactive tracers, lithium and molybdate, were injected as a pulse in July 1985 and monitored in three dimensions for 3 years as they moved 280 meters downgradient through an array of multilevel samplers. The tracer transport was quantified using spatial moments. The calculated total mass of bromide for each sampling date varied from 86 to 105 percent of the injected mass, and the center of mass moved at a nearly constant horizontal velocity of 0.42 meters per day. The bromide cloud also moved downward about 4 meters, probably because of density-induced sinking and accretion of areal recharge from precipitation. After 200 meters of transport, the bromide cloud was more than 80 meters long but only 14 meters wide and 6 meters thick. The change in longitudinal dispersivity had reached a constant value (0.96 meters). The transverse horizontal and transverse vertical dispersivities were much smaller (1.8 centimeters and 1.5 millimeters, respectively) than the longitudinal value. The lithium and molybdate clouds followed the same path as the bromide cloud, but a significant amount of their mass was adsorbed onto the aquifer sediments, and their rates of movement were retarded about 50 percent relative to the bromide movement. (Author) (5 figs., 23 refs.)
Corrosion behaviour of nickel during anodic polarization in chloride solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, S.A.; Isani, A.A.; Memon, A.N.
1998-01-01
This research presents the effect of oxygen and nitrogen on the corrosion behaviour of nickel in the chloride solution, at the steady state polarized and unpolarized potentials. The additives were selected from those, which are used for bright nickel plating. It was observed that the agitation of electrolyte in a particular pH-(Cl)' range increase the potentials in comparison of the potentials to the un-agitated electrolytes. (author)
Molecular transport behaviour of organic solvents through halloysite ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Micro and Nano Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technical ... The transport behaviour of three organic solvents (benzene, toluene and xylene) through halloysite nan- ... ena play important roles in different areas of engineering and ... their blends by an equilibrium swelling method has been.
One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Initially porous domain is considered solute free and the input source condition is ... parameters for description of solute transport in porous media. ... flow assuming uniform initial concentration with first and third type boundary conditions. Aral.
Arnott, Bronia; Rehackova, Lucia; Errington, Linda; Sniehotta, Falko F; Roberts, Jennifer; Araujo-Soares, Vera
2014-11-28
Reducing reliance on motorised transport and increasing use of more physically active modes of travel may offer an opportunity to address physical inactivity. This review evaluates the evidence for the effects of behavioural interventions to reduce car use for journeys made by adults and codes intervention development and content. The review follows the procedure stated in the registration protocol published in the PROSPERO database (registration number CRD42011001797). Controlled studies evaluating behavioural interventions to reduce car use compared with no interventions or alternative interventions on outcome measures of transport behaviours taken in adult participants are included in this review. Searches were conducted on all records in Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycInfo, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Transportation Research Information Service (TRIS), Transportation Research International Documentation (TRID), and Web of Science databases. Peer reviewed publications in English language meeting the inclusion criteria are eligible. Methodological quality is assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Interventions are categorised in terms of behavioural frameworks, theories and techniques. 15 full text articles are included, representing 13 unique studies, with 4895 participants and 27 intervention arms. Risk of bias across the review is appraised as considerable due to the unclear methodological quality of individual studies. Heterogeneity of included studies is considerable. Meta-analyses reveal no significant effect on reduction of frequency of car use or on increasing the proportion of journeys by alternative, more active modes of transport. There is insufficient data relating to alternative outcomes such as distance and duration which may have important health implications. Interventions were top-down but could not be described as theory-based. Intervention efficacy was associated with the use
A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.
2009-01-01
We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.
Kulasiri, Don
2002-01-01
Most of the natural and biological phenomena such as solute transport in porous media exhibit variability which can not be modeled by using deterministic approaches. There is evidence in natural phenomena to suggest that some of the observations can not be explained by using the models which give deterministic solutions. Stochastic processes have a rich repository of objects which can be used to express the randomness inherent in the system and the evolution of the system over time. The attractiveness of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) come from the fact that we can integrate the variability of the system along with the scientific knowledge pertaining to the system. One of the aims of this book is to explaim some useufl concepts in stochastic dynamics so that the scientists and engineers with a background in undergraduate differential calculus could appreciate the applicability and appropriateness of these developments in mathematics. The ideas ...
Chemical behaviour of plutonium in aqueous chloride solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bueppelmann, K.; Kim, J.I.
1988-06-01
The chemical behaviour of Plutonium has been investigated in concentrated NaCl solutions in the neutral pH range. The α-radiation induced radiolysis reactions oxidize the Cl - -ion to Cl 2 , HClO, ClO - and other species, which produce a strongly oxidizing medium. Under these conditions the Pu ions of lower oxidation states are readily oxidized to Pu(VI), which then undergo depending on the pH of the solution, various chemical reactions to produce PuO 2 Cl n , PuO 2 (ClO) m or PuO 2 (OH) x species. In addition to primary radiolysis reactions taking place in NaCl solutions, the reactions leading to the PuO 2 (Cl) n and PuO 2 (ClO) m species have been characterized and quantified systematically by spectroscopic and thermodynamic evaluation. The redox and complexation reactions of Pu ions under varying NaCl concentration, specific α-activity and pH are discussed. (orig.) [de
Transport of Liquid Phase Organic Solutes in Liquid Crystalline Membranes
Han, Sangil
2010-01-01
Porous cellulose nitrate membranes were impregnated with 8CB and PCH5 LCs (liquid crystals) and separations of solutes dissolved in aqueous phases were performed while monitoring solute concentration via UV-VIS spectrometry. The diffusing organic solutes, which consist of one aromatic ring and various functional groups, were selected to exclude molecular size effects on the diffusion and sorption. We studied the effects on solute transport of solute intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and so...
Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.
1998-01-01
The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)
Modelling multicomponent solute transport in structured soils
Beinum, van G.W.
2007-01-01
The mobility of contaminants in soil is an important factor in determining their ability to spread into the wider environment. For non-volatile substances, transport within the soil is generally dominated by transport of dissolved fractions in the soil water phase, via either diffusion or
Electrochemical behaviour of silver in borate buffer solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaky, Ayman M.; Assaf, Fawzi H.; Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Mohamed, Basheer
2004-01-01
The electrochemical behaviour of Ag in aqueous 0.15 M borax and 0.15 M boric acid buffer solution was studied under various conditions using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic techniques. It was found that the anodic polarization curve of Ag in borate buffer solution was characterized by the appearance of two potential regions, active and passive, prior to the oxygen evolution reaction. The active potential region was characterized by the appearance of three anodic peaks, the first two peaks A 1 and A 2 correspond to the oxidation of Ag and formation of [Ag(OH) 2 ] - soluble compound and a passive film of Ag 2 O on the electrode surface. The third anodic peak corresponds to the conversion of both [Ag(OH) 2 ] - and Ag 2 O to Ag 2 O 2 . X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the existence of Ag 2 O and Ag 2 O 2 passive layers on the electrode surface potentiodynamically polarized up to 800 mV. Potentiostatic current transient measurements showed that the formation of Ag 2 O and Ag 2 O 2 involves a nucleation and growth mechanism under diffusion control
NMR studies of phase behaviour in polyacrylonitrile solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golightly, J.A.
1998-10-01
The aim of the thesis was to study the phase behaviour of aqueous polyacrylonitrile/NaSCN solutions using a variety of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the basis of the acrylic fibre industry, as such fibres contain at least 85% PAN. Despite this industrial importance, the available literature describing the phase behaviour of PAN in solution is far from comprehensive. Bulk 1 H NMR relaxation measurements were carried out over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures to probe the molecular dynamics of the PAN and water molecules. The relaxation data was found to be biexponential decay for all samples, the relative amplitudes of which were shown to be equal to the ratio of PAN protons to water protons. Both species were found to be in the regime of rapid molecular motion. Bulk 1 H NMR self diffusion measurements, using the PFGSTE technique, exhibited a bi-exponential decay of the echo amplitudes. By careful selection of the observation time, Δ, it was possible to independently probe the water and PAN translational diffusion. A background gradient, resulting from inhomogeneities of the magnetic field, complicated the analysis of the data and a novel polynomial least squares fitting procedure was devised to overcome this effect. The measured attenuation of the water diffusion coefficients (D∼10 -6 -10 -5 cm 2 s -1 ) with increasing PAN volume fraction was modelled according to various theories, including free volume and scaling laws. The study of the PAN diffusion coefficient (D∼10 -7 -10 -6 cm 2 s -1 ) was limited by the experimental constraints of the NMR spectrometer. A 1 H NMR one-dimensional imaging technique was used to study the non-solvent induced phase separation (coagulation) of a PAN solution. The time dependence of the measured profiles allowed observation of the coagulation process. A diffusion model was developed to fit the experimental data using a semi-infinite diffusion framework. The fitting parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Erik Hviid; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2000-01-01
those of tight junction and interspace basement membrane by convection-diffusion. With solute permeability of paracellular pathway large relative to paracellular water flow, the paracellular flux ratio of the solute (influx/outflux) is small (2-4) in agreement with experiments. The virtual solute......A mathematical model of an absorbing leaky epithelium is developed for analysis of solute coupled water transport. The non-charged driving solute diffuses into cells and is pumped from cells into the lateral intercellular space (lis). All membranes contain water channels with the solute passing...... increases with hydraulic conductance of the pathway carrying water from mucosal solution into lis. Uphill water transport is accomplished, but with high hydraulic conductance of cell membranes strength of transport is obscured by water flow through cells. Anomalous solvent drag occurs when back flux...
Aging and response conflict solution: behavioural and functional connectivity changes.
Langner, Robert; Cieslik, Edna C; Behrwind, Simone D; Roski, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B
2015-01-01
Healthy aging has been found associated with less efficient response conflict solution, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms have remained elusive. In a two-experiment study, we first examined the behavioural consequences of this putative age-related decline for conflicts induced by spatial stimulus-response incompatibility. We then used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large, independent sample of adults (n = 399; 18-85 years) to investigate age differences in functional connectivity between the nodes of a network previously found associated with incompatibility-induced response conflicts in the very same paradigm. As expected, overcoming interference from conflicting response tendencies took longer in older adults, even after accounting for potential mediator variables (general response speed and accuracy, motor speed, visuomotor coordination ability, and cognitive flexibility). Experiment 2 revealed selective age-related decreases in functional connectivity between bilateral anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Importantly, these age effects persisted after controlling for regional grey-matter atrophy assessed by voxel-based morphometry. Meta-analytic functional profiling using the BrainMap database showed these age-sensitive nodes to be more strongly linked to highly abstract cognition, as compared with the remaining network nodes, which were more strongly linked to action-related processing. These findings indicate changes in interregional coupling with age among task-relevant network nodes that are not specifically associated with conflict resolution per se. Rather, our behavioural and neural data jointly suggest that healthy aging is associated with difficulties in properly activating non-dominant but relevant task schemata necessary to exert efficient cognitive control over action.
Transport of Organic Solutes in Clay Formations
The research is a pilot investigation for the SERDP (Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, DoD) founded project, Impact of Clay-DNAPL Interactions on Transport and Storage of Chlorinated Solvents in Low Permeability Zones, from 2010-2012. The report tries to s...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chung Kyun; Lee, Jaek Wang; Baik, Min Hoon; Jeong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-02-15
Migration tests were performed with conservative tracers in a fractured zone that had a single fracture of about 2.5 m distance at the KURT. To interpret the migration of the tracers in the fractured rock, a solute transport model was developed. A two dimensional variable aperture channel model was adopted to describe the fractured path and hydrology, and a particle tracking method was used for solute transport. The simulation tried not only to develop a migration model of solutes for open flow environments but also to produce ideas for a better understanding of solute behaviours in indefinable fracture zones by comparing them to experimental results. The results of our simulations and experiments are described as elution and breakthrough curves, and are quantified by momentum analysis. The main retardation mechanism of nonsorbing tracers, including matrixdiffusion, was investigated.
A variational solution of transport equation based on spherical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Hui; Zhang Ben'ai
2002-01-01
A variational method with differential forms gives better precision for numerical solution of transport critical problem based on spherical geometry, and its computation seems simple than other approximate methods
Mathematical modeling of fluid and solute transport in peritoneal dialysis
Waniewski, Jacek
2001-01-01
Optimization of peritoneal dialysis schedule and dialysis fluid composition needs, among others, methods for quantitative assessment of fluid and solute transport. Furthermore, an integrative quantitative description of physiological processes within the tissue, which contribute to the net transfer of fluid and solutes, is necessary for interpretation of the data and for predictions of the outcome of possible intervention into the peritoneal transport system. The current pro...
Mathematical modeling of solute transport in the subsurface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naymik, T.G.
1987-01-01
A review of key works on solute transport models indicates that solute transport processes with the exception of advection are still poorly understood. Solute transport models generally do a good job when they are used to test scientific concepts and hypotheses, investigate natural processes, systematically store and manage data, and simulate mass balance of solutes under certain natural conditions. Solute transport models generally are not good for predicting future conditions with a high degree of certainty, or for determining concentrations precisely. The mathematical treatment of solute transport far surpasses their understanding of the process. Investigations of the extent of groundwater contamination and methods to remedy existing problems show the along-term nature of the hazard. Industrial organic compounds may be immiscible in water, highly volatile, or complexed with inorganic as well as other organic compounds; many remain stable in nature almost indefinitely. In the worst case, future disposal of hazardous waste may be restricted to deep burial, as is proposed for radioactive wastes. For investigations pertinent to transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository, the process cannot be fully understood without adequate thermodynamic and kinetic data bases
Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.
Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M
2013-07-15
Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
dispersion equation parameters of solute transport in agricultural
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2011-08-31
Aug 31, 2011 ... fields for predicting soil quality property. Key words: ... The classical approach of modeling solute transport in porous media uses the deterministic ... concentration of the solution in the liquid phase, u0 is the mean velocity and ...
Temporal moment analysis of solute transport in a coupled fracture ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
by considering an inlet boundary condition of constant continuous source in a single fracture. The effect of various fracture-skin parameters like porosity, thickness and ... Study on fluid flow and transport of solute through fractures has been an .... of solutes is happening normal to the direction of flow due to the free molecular.
Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan H. Havenga
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.
Determination of chemical solute transport parameters effecting radiostrontium interbed sediments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemming, C.; Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.
1993-01-01
The extent to which radionuclides migrate in an aquifer system is a function of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. A measure of this migration rate is of primary concern when locating suitable storage sites for such species. Parameters including water-rock interactions, infiltration rates, chemical phase modification, and biochemical reactions all affect solute transport. While these different types of chemical reactions can influence solute transport in subsurface waters, distribution coefficients (Kd) can be send to effectively summarize the net chemical factors which dictate transport efficiency. This coefficient describes the partitioning of the solute between the solution and solid phase. Methodology used in determining and interpreting the distribution coefficient for radiostrontium in well characterized sediments will be presented
Ideal solution behaviour of glassy Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf alloys and properties of amorphous copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ristić, R.; Cooper, J.R.; Zadro, K.; Pajić, D.; Ivkov, J.; Babić, E.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Ideal solution behaviour (ISB) is established in all Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf glassy alloys. • ISB enables reliable estimates for various properties of amorphous Cu. • ISB also impacts glass forming ability in these and probably other similar alloys. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of selected properties of amorphous (a) Cu–TE alloys (TE = Ti, Zr and Hf) has been performed. Data for average atomic volumes of a-Cu–Hf, Ti alloys combined with literature data show that ideal solution behaviour (Vegard’s law) extends over the whole glass forming range (GFR) in all a-Cu–TE alloys. This enables one to obtain an insight into some properties and probable atomic arrangements for both, a-TEs (Ristić et al., 2010) and a-Cu by extrapolation of the data for alloys. Indeed the atomic volumes and other properties studied for all a-Cu–TE alloys extrapolate to the same values for a-Cu. Depending on the property, these values are either close to those of crystalline (c) Cu, or are close to those for liquid (L) Cu. In particular, the electronic transport properties of a-Cu seem close to those of L-Cu, whereas the static properties, such as the density of states, and Young’s modulus, converge to those of c-Cu. The possible impact of these results on our understanding of a-Cu–TE alloys, including glass forming ability, is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George J. Moridis
2001-01-01
In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive solute tracers through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the non-flowing matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion, (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first-order chemical reactions. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of 3 H, 237 Np and 239 Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity
End-Member Formulation of Solid Solutions and Reactive Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lichtner, Peter C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
A model for incorporating solid solutions into reactive transport equations is presented based on an end-member representation. Reactive transport equations are solved directly for the composition and bulk concentration of the solid solution. Reactions of a solid solution with an aqueous solution are formulated in terms of an overall stoichiometric reaction corresponding to a time-varying composition and exchange reactions, equivalent to reaction end-members. Reaction rates are treated kinetically using a transition state rate law for the overall reaction and a pseudo-kinetic rate law for exchange reactions. The composition of the solid solution at the onset of precipitation is assumed to correspond to the least soluble composition, equivalent to the composition at equilibrium. The stoichiometric saturation determines if the solid solution is super-saturated with respect to the aqueous solution. The method is implemented for a simple prototype batch reactor using Mathematica for a binary solid solution. Finally, the sensitivity of the results on the kinetic rate constant for a binary solid solution is investigated for reaction of an initially stoichiometric solid phase with an undersaturated aqueous solution.
Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samper, J.; Ajora, C.
1993-01-01
During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs
Coester, Annemieke M.; Smit, Watske; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.
2009-01-01
Ultrafiltration in peritoneal dialysis occurs through endothelial water channels (free water transport) and together with solutes across small pores: solute coupled water transport. A review is given of cross-sectional studies and on the results of longitudinal follow-up
Analytical solution to the hybrid diffusion-transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanneh, M.M.; Williams, M.M.R.
1986-01-01
A special integral equation was derived in previous work using a hybrid diffusion-transport theory method for calculating the flux distribution in slab lattices. In this paper an analytical solution of this equation has been carried out on a finite reactor lattice. The analytical results of disadvantage factors are shown to be accurate in comparison with the numerical results and accurate transport theory calculations. (author)
Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yangmin X. Kim
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.
Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update.
Kim, Yangmin X; Ranathunge, Kosala; Lee, Seulbi; Lee, Yejin; Lee, Deogbae; Sung, Jwakyung
2018-01-01
The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM). It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots - apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs), which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic). Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle). The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.
Nonrelativistic grey Sn-transport radiative-shock solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferguson, J. M.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R. B.
2017-01-01
We present semi-analytic radiative-shock solutions in which grey Sn-transport is used to model the radiation, and we include both constant cross sections and cross sections that depend on temperature and density. These new solutions solve for a variable Eddington factor (VEF) across the shock domain, which allows for interesting physics not seen before in radiative-shock solutions. Comparisons are made with the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions of Lowrie and Edwards [1], which assumed that the Eddington factor is constant across the shock domain. It is our experience that the local Mach number is monotonic when producing nonequilibrium-diffusion solutions, but that this monotonicity may disappear while integrating the precursor region to produce Sn-transport solutions. For temperature- and density-dependent cross sections we show evidence of a spike in the VEF in the far upstream portion of the radiative-shock precursor. We show evidence of an adaptation zone in the precursor region, adjacent to the embedded hydrodynamic shock, as conjectured by Drake [2, 3], and also confirm his expectation that the precursor temperatures adjacent to the Zel’dovich spike take values that are greater than the downstream post-shock equilibrium temperature. We also show evidence that the radiation energy density can be nonmonotonic under the Zel’dovich spike, which is indicative of anti-diffusive radiation flow as predicted by McClarren and Drake [4]. We compare the angle dependence of the radiation flow for the Sn-transport and nonequilibriumdiffusion radiation solutions, and show that there are considerable differences in the radiation flow between these models across the shock structure. Lastly, we analyze the radiation flow to understand the cause of the adaptation zone, as well as the structure of the Sn-transport radiation-intensity solutions across the shock structure.
New numerical method for solving the solute transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, B.; Koplik, C.M.
1978-01-01
The solute transport equation can be solved numerically by approximating the water flow field by a network of stream tubes and using a Green's function solution within each stream tube. Compared to previous methods, this approach permits greater computational efficiency and easier representation of small discontinuities, and the results are easier to interpret physically. The method has been used to study hypothetical sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste
Efficient solution of a multi objective fuzzy transportation problem
Vidhya, V.; Ganesan, K.
2018-04-01
In this paper we present a methodology for the solution of multi-objective fuzzy transportation problem when all the cost and time coefficients are trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and the supply and demand are crisp numbers. Using a new fuzzy arithmetic on parametric form of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and a new ranking method all efficient solutions are obtained. The proposed method is illustrated with an example.
Stable solutions of nonlocal electron heat transport equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.
1991-01-01
Electron heat transport equations with a nonlocal heat flux are in general ill-posed and intrinsically unstable, as proved by the present authors [Phys. Fluids B 1, 2430 (1989)]. A straightforward numerical solution of these equations will therefore lead to absurd results. It is shown here that by imposing a minimal set of constraints on the problem it is possible to arrive at a globally stable, consistent, and energy conserving numerical solution
Peritoneal fluid transport in CAPD patients with different transport rates of small solutes.
Sobiecka, Danuta; Waniewski, Jacek; Weryński, Andrzej; Lindholm, Bengt
2004-01-01
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate often have inadequate peritoneal fluid transport. It is not known whether this inadequate fluid transport is due solely to a too rapid fall of osmotic pressure, or if the decreased effectiveness of fluid transport is also a contributing factor. To analyze fluid transport parameters and the effectiveness of dialysis fluid osmotic pressure in the induction of fluid flow in CAPD patients with different small solute transport rates. 44 CAPD patients were placed in low (n = 6), low-average (n = 13), high-average (n = 19), and high (n = 6) transport groups according to a modified peritoneal equilibration test (PET). The study involved a 6-hour peritoneal dialysis dwell with 2 L 3.86% glucose dialysis fluid for each patient. Radioisotopically labeled serum albumin was added as a volume marker.The fluid transport parameters (osmotic conductance and fluid absorption rate) were estimated using three mathematical models of fluid transport: (1) Pyle model (model P), which describes ultrafiltration rate as an exponential function of time; (2) model OS, which is based on the linear relationship of ultrafiltration rate and overall osmolality gradient between dialysis fluid and blood; and (3) model G, which is based on the linear relationship between ultrafiltration rate and glucose concentration gradient between dialysis fluid and blood. Diffusive mass transport coefficients (K(BD)) for glucose, urea, creatinine, potassium, and sodium were estimated using the modified Babb-Randerson-Farrell model. The high transport group had significantly lower dialysate volume and glucose and osmolality gradients between dialysate and blood, but significantly higher K(BD) for small solutes compared with the other transport groups. Osmotic conductance, fluid absorption rate, and initial ultrafiltration rate did not differ among the transport groups for model OS and model P. Model G yielded
Green transportation logistics: the quest for win-win solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
measures and speed and route optimization; Sulphur emissions; Lifecycle emissions; Green rail transportation; Green air transportation; Green inland navigation and possible areas for further research. Throughout, the book pursues the goal of “win-win” solutions and analyzes the phenomenon of “push......This book examines the state of the art in green transportation logistics from the perspective of balancing environmental performance in the transportation supply chain while also satisfying traditional economic performance criteria. Part of the book is drawn from the recently completed European...... Union project Super Green, a three-year project intended to promote the development of European freight corridors in an environmentally friendly manner. Additional chapters cover both the methodological base and the application context of green transportation logistics. Individual chapters look...
Solute transport in aggregated and layered porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, S.
1993-01-01
This work is a contribution to research in soil physics dealing with solute transport in porous media. The influence of structural inhomogeneities on solute transport is investigated. Detailed experiments at the laboratory scale are used to enlighten distinct processes which cannot be studied separately at field scale. Two main aspects are followed up: (i) to show the influence of aggregation of a porous medium on breakthrough time and spreading of an inert tracer and consequences on the estimation of parameter values of models describing solute transport in aggregated systems, (ii) to investigate the influences on the dispersion process when stratification is perpendicular to the direction of flow. Several concepts of modelling solute transport in soil are discussed. Models based on the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) are emphasized because they are used here to model solute transport experiments conducted with aggregated porous media. Stochastic concepts are introduced to show the limitations of the deterministic CDE approaches. Experiments are done in columns containing two kinds of solid phases and were saturated with water. The solid phases are porous and solid glass beads exhibiting a distinctly unimodal or bimodal pore size distribution. Experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) are modelled with the CDE, a bicontinuum model with a phenomenological mass transfer rate and a bicontinuum spherical diffusion model. Experiments are also done in columns that are unsaturated containing porous materials that are layered. Flow is made at a steady rate. It is shown that layer boundaries have a severe influence on lateral mixing. They may force streamlines to converge or cause a lateral redistribution of solutes. (author) figs., tabs., 122 refs
The future of public transport in light of solutions for sustainable transport development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazimierz LEJDA
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The paper highlights possible directions in the development of sustainable public transport solutions. When appropriately identified and implemented, such solutions can contribute to improved quality of urban life by reducing the adverse effects of transport on human health and the natural environment. The paper also raises questions about implementing pedestrian traffic zones, expanding the level of cycling, and introducing a workable parking policy, congestion charges, electromobility and intelligent systems for road traffic management in conurbations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong, Rong; Spanier, Jerome
2013-01-01
In this paper we develop novel extensions of collision and track length estimators for the complete space-angle solutions of radiative transport problems. We derive the relevant equations, prove that our new estimators are unbiased, and compare their performance with that of more conventional estimators. Such comparisons based on numerical solutions of simple one dimensional slab problems indicate the the potential superiority of the new estimators for a wide variety of more general transport problems
Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in streams
R. González-Pinzón; R. Haggerty; M. Dentz
2013-01-01
We investigated scaling of conservative solute transport using temporal moment analysis of 98 tracer experiments (384 breakthrough curves) conducted in 44 streams located on five continents. The experiments span 7 orders of magnitude in discharge (10-3 to 103 m3/s), span 5 orders of magnitude in...
GRRR. The EXPECT groundwater model for transport of solutes
Meijers R; Sauter FJ; Veling EJM; van Grinsven JJM; Leijnse A; Uffink GJM; MTV; CWM; LBG
1994-01-01
In this report the design and first test results are presented of the EXPECT groundwater module for transport of solutes GRRR (GRoundwater source Receptor Relationships). This model is one of the abiotic compartment modules of the EXPECT model. The EXPECT model is a tool for scenario development
Solute transport modelling with the variable temporally dependent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pintu Das
2018-02-07
Feb 7, 2018 ... in a finite domain with time-dependent sources and dis- tance-dependent dispersivities. Also, existing ... solute transport in multi-layered porous media using gen- eralized integral transform technique with .... methods for solving the fractional reaction-–sub-diffusion equation. To solve numerically the Eqs.
Three-dimensional transport theory: An analytical solution of an internal beam searchlight problem-I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
2009-01-01
We describe a number of methods for obtaining analytical solutions and numerical results for three-dimensional one-speed neutron transport problems in a half-space containing a variety of source shapes which emit neutrons mono-directionally. For example, we consider an off-centre point source, a ring source and a disk source, or any combination of these, and calculate the surface scalar flux as a function of the radial and angular co-ordinates. Fourier transforms in the transverse directions are used and a Laplace transform in the axial direction. This enables the Wiener-Hopf method to be employed, followed by an inverse Fourier-Hankel transform. Some additional transformations are introduced which enable the inverse Hankel transforms involving Bessel functions to be evaluated numerically more efficiently. A hybrid diffusion theory method is also described which is shown to be a useful guide to the general behaviour of the solutions of the transport equation.
Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litman, T.
2001-01-01
Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig
Dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-12-13
Dec 13, 2016 ... different types of solitons such as loops, humps and cusps. Meanwhile, Morrison ... solutions to the. mGVE using the auxiliary equation method [10] and a. 1 ... it is very important to do the qualitative analysis of the solutions. Here we ...... This research is supported by National Natural Sci- ence Foundation of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.
2013-01-01
Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive
Control and optimization of solute transport in a thin porous tube
Griffiths, I. M.
2013-03-01
Predicting the distribution of solutes or particles in flows within porous-walled tubes is essential to inform the design of devices that rely on cross-flow filtration, such as those used in water purification, irrigation devices, field-flow fractionation, and hollow-fibre bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. Motivated by these applications, a radially averaged model for fluid and solute transport in a tube with thin porous walls is derived by developing the classical ideas of Taylor dispersion. The model includes solute diffusion and advection via both radial and axial flow components, and the advection, diffusion, and uptake coefficients in the averaged equation are explicitly derived. The effect of wall permeability, slip, and pressure differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a given solute distribution is derived. The theory is applied to the specific example of a hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor, where a uniform delivery of nutrient across the membrane walls to the extra-capillary space is required to promote spatially uniform cell growth. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savovic, S.; Djordjevich, A.; Ristic, G.
2012-01-01
A theoretical evaluation of the properties and processes affecting the radon transport from subsurface soil into buildings is presented in this work. The solution of the relevant transport equation is obtained using the explicit finite difference method (EFDM). Results are compared with analytical steady-state solution reported in the literature. Good agreement is found. It is shown that EFDM is effective and accurate for solving the equation that describes radon diffusion, advection and decay during its transport from subsurface to buildings, which is especially important when arbitrary initial and boundary conditions are required. (authors)
Transport of organic solutes through amorphous teflon AF films.
Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Nianqiang; Zhang, Xu; Crowley, Katie; Weber, Stephen G
2005-11-02
Fluorous media have great potential for selective extraction (e.g., as applied to organic synthesis). Fluorous polymer films would have significant advantages in fluorous separations. Stable films of Teflon AF 2400 were cast from solution. Films appear defect-free (SEM; AFM). Rigid aromatic solutes are transported (from chloroform solution to chloroform receiving phase) in a size-dependent manner (log permeability is proportional to -0.0067 times critical volume). Benzene's permeability is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in comparable gas-phase experiments. The films show selectivity for fluorinated solutes in comparison to the hydrogen-containing control. Transport rates are dependent on the solvent making up the source and receiving phases. The effect of solvent is, interestingly, not due to changes in partition ratio, but rather it is due to changes in the solute diffusion coefficient in the film. Solvents plasticize the films. A less volatile compound, -COOH-terminated poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide) (4), plasticizes the films (T(g) = -40 degrees C). Permeabilities are decreased in comparison to 4-free films apparently because of decreased diffusivity of solutes. The slope of dependence of log permeability on critical volume is not changed, however.
Solute transport model for radioisotopes in layered soil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essel, P.
2010-01-01
The study considered the transport of a radioactive solute in solution from the surface of the earth down through the soil to the ground water when there is an accidental or intentional spillage of a radioactive material on the surface. The finite difference method was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of moisture content in a soil column using the θ-based Richard's equation leading to solution of the convective-dispersive equation for non-adsorbing solutes numerically. A matlab code has been generated to predict the transport of the radioactive contaminant, spilled on the surface of a vertically heterogeneous soil made up of two layers to determine the residence time of the solute in the unsaturated zone, the time it takes the contaminant to reach the groundwater and the amount of the solute entering the groundwater in various times and the levels of pollution in those times. The model predicted that, then there is a spillage of 7.2g of tritium, on the surface of the ground at the study area, it will take two years for the radionuclide to enter the groundwater and fifteen years to totally leave the unsaturated zone. There is therefore the need to try as much as possible to avoid intentional or accidental spillage of the radionuclide since it has long term effect. (au)
Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours: Exploring modality styles in the Danish population
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Carstensen, Trine Agervig
2016-01-01
and small towns. Thus, the way in which travel modes relate to the urban environment and variations in modality styles must serve as the starting point for policies aiming to fulfil the potential of multimodal transport behaviour and promote cycling. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... explores how cycling forms part of multimodal transport behaviour based on survey data on transport modes and travel purposes and the weekly frequency of out-of-home activities and travel mode use in a representative sample of adult Danes (n = 1957). The following five distinct multimodal travel segments...... or 'modality styles' are identified: 'education transport'; 'public-based transport'; 'limited transport'; 'bicycle-based transport'; and 'car-based transport'. Travel behaviour is predominantly multimodal with few unimodal car-drivers being identified. Substantial cycling takes place in all modality styles...
Simulation of transportation of low enriched uranium solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hope, E.P.; Ades, M.J.
1996-01-01
A simulation of the transportation by truck of low enriched uranium solutions has been completed for NEPA purposes at the Savannah River Site. The analysis involves three distinct source terms, and establishes the radiological risks of shipment to three possible destinations. Additionally, loading accidents were analyzed to determine the radiological consequences of mishaps during handling and delivery. Source terms were developed from laboratory measurements of chemical samples from low enriched uranium feed materials being stored at SRS facilities, and from manufacturer data on transport containers. The transportation simulations were accomplished over the INTERNET using the DOE TRANSNET system at Sandia National Laboratory. The HIGHWAY 3.3 code was used to analyze routing scenarios, and the RADTRAN 4 code was used to analyze incident free and accident risks of transporting radiological materials. Loading accidents were assessed using the Savannah River Site AXAIR89Q and RELEASE 2 codes
Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport: size scaling and chaotic behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L; Brunner, S; Casati, A; Aghdam, S Khosh; Lapillonne, X; McMillan, B F; Bottino, A; Dannert, T; Goerler, T; Hatzky, R; Jenko, F; Merz, F; Chowdhury, J; Ganesh, R; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Sarazin, Y; Idomura, Y; Jolliet, S
2010-01-01
Important steps towards the understanding of turbulent transport have been made with the development of the gyrokinetic framework for describing turbulence and with the emergence of numerical codes able to solve the set of gyrokinetic equations. This paper presents some of the main recent advances in gyrokinetic theory and computing of turbulence. Solving 5D gyrokinetic equations for each species requires state-of-the-art high performance computing techniques involving massively parallel computers and parallel scalable algorithms. The various numerical schemes that have been explored until now, Lagrangian, Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian, each have their advantages and drawbacks. A past controversy regarding the finite size effect (finite ρ * ) in ITG turbulence has now been resolved. It has triggered an intensive benchmarking effort and careful examination of the convergence properties of the different numerical approaches. Now, both Eulerian and Lagrangian global codes are shown to agree and to converge to the flux-tube result in the ρ * → 0 limit. It is found, however, that an appropriate treatment of geometrical terms is necessary: inconsistent approximations that are sometimes used can lead to important discrepancies. Turbulent processes are characterized by a chaotic behaviour, often accompanied by bursts and avalanches. Performing ensemble averages of statistically independent simulations, starting from different initial conditions, is presented as a way to assess the intrinsic variability of turbulent fluxes and obtain reliable estimates of the standard deviation. Further developments concerning non-adiabatic electron dynamics around mode-rational surfaces and electromagnetic effects are discussed.
A multi scale approximation solution for the time dependent Boltzmann-transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merk, B.
2004-03-01
The basis of all transient simulations for nuclear reactor cores is the reliable calculation of the power production. The local power distribution is generally calculated by solving the space, time, energy and angle dependent neutron transport equation known as Boltzmann equation. The computation of exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation is very time consuming. For practical numerical simulations approximated solutions are usually unavoidable. The objective of this work is development of an effective multi scale approximation solution for the Boltzmann equation. Most of the existing methods are based on separation of space and time. The new suggested method is performed without space-time separation. This effective approximation solution is developed on the basis of an expansion for the time derivative of different approximations to the Boltzmann equation. The method of multiple scale expansion is used for the expansion of the time derivative, because the problem of the stiff time behaviour can't be expressed by standard expansion methods. This multiple scale expansion is used in this work to develop approximation solutions for different approximations of the Boltzmann equation, starting from the expansion of the point kinetics equations. The resulting analytic functions are used for testing the applicability and accuracy of the multiple scale expansion method for an approximation solution with 2 delayed neutron groups. The results are tested versus the exact analytical results for the point kinetics equations. Very good agreement between both solutions is obtained. The validity of the solution with 2 delayed neutron groups to approximate the behaviour of the system with 6 delayed neutron groups is demonstrated in an additional analysis. A strategy for a solution with 4 delayed neutron groups is described. A multiple scale expansion is performed for the space-time dependent diffusion equation for one homogenized cell with 2 delayed neutron groups. The result is
The secret to successful solute-transport modeling
Konikow, Leonard F.
2011-01-01
Modeling subsurface solute transport is difﬁcult—more so than modeling heads and ﬂows. The classical governing equation does not always adequately represent what we see at the ﬁeld scale. In such cases, commonly used numerical models are solving the wrong equation. Also, the transport equation is hyperbolic where advection is dominant, and parabolic where hydrodynamic dispersion is dominant. No single numerical method works well for all conditions, and for any given complex ﬁeld problem, where seepage velocity is highly variable, no one method will be optimal everywhere. Although we normally expect a numerically accurate solution to the governing groundwater-ﬂow equation, errors in concentrations from numerical dispersion and/or oscillations may be large in some cases. The accuracy and efﬁciency of the numerical solution to the solute-transport equation are more sensitive to the numerical method chosen than for typical groundwater-ﬂow problems. However, numerical errors can be kept within acceptable limits if sufﬁcient computational effort is expended. But impractically long
Water and solute transport across the peritoneal membrane.
Morelle, Johann; Devuyst, Olivier
2015-09-01
We review the molecular mechanisms of peritoneal transport and discuss how a better understanding of these mechanisms is relevant for dialysis therapy. Peritoneal dialysis involves diffusion and osmosis through the highly vascularized peritoneal membrane. Computer simulations, expression studies and functional analyses in Aqp1 knockout mice demonstrated the critical role of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in water removal during peritoneal dialysis. Pharmacologic regulation of AQP1, either through increased expression or gating, is associated with increased water transport in rodent models of peritoneal dialysis. Water transport is impaired during acute peritonitis, despite unchanged expression of AQP1, resulting from the increased microvascular area that dissipates the osmotic gradient across the membrane. In long-term peritoneal dialysis patients, the fibrotic interstitium also impairs water transport, resulting in ultrafiltration failure. Recent data suggest that stroke and drug intoxications might benefit from peritoneal dialysis and could represent novel applications of peritoneal transport in the future. A better understanding of the regulation of osmotic water transport across the peritoneum offers novel insights into the role of water channels in microvascular endothelia, the functional importance of structural changes in the peritoneal interstitium and the transport of water and solutes across biological membranes in general.
Stochastic analysis of transport of conservative solutes in caisson experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dagan, G.
1995-01-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted in the past a series of experiments of transport of conservative and reactive solutes. The experimental setup and the experimental results are presented in a series of reports. The main aim of the experiments was to validate models of transport of solutes in unsaturated flow at the caisson intermediate scale, which is much larger than the one pertaining to laboratory columns. First attempts to analyze the experimental results were by one-dimensional convective-dispersion models. These models could not explain the observed solute breakthrough curves and particularly the large solute dispersion in the caisson effluent Since there were some question marks about the uniformity of water distribution at the caisson top, the transport experiments were repeated under conditions of saturated flow. In these experiments constant heads were applied at the top and the bottom of the caisson and the number of concentration monitoring stations was quadrupled. The analysis of the measurements by the same one-dimensional model indicated clearly that the fitted dispersivity is much larger than the pore-sole dispersivity and that it grows with the distance in an approximately linear fashion. This led to the conclusion, raised before, that transport in the caisson is dominated by heterogeneity effects, i.e. by spatial variability of the material Such effects cannot be captured by traditional one-dimensional models. In order to account for the effect of heterogeneity, the saturated flow experiments have been analyzed by using stochastic transport modeling. The apparent linear growth of dispersivity with distance suggested that the system behaves like a stratified one. Consequently, the model of Dagan and Bresier has been adopted in order to interpret concentration measurements. In this simple model the caisson is viewed as a bundle of columns of different permeabilities, which are characterized by a p.d.f. (probability denasity function)
How to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours in horses: a review.
York, Amanda; Matusiewicz, Judith; Padalino, Barbara
2017-01-01
This review aims to provide practical outcomes on how to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours (TRPBs) in horses. TRPBs are unwanted behaviours occurring during different phases of transport, most commonly, a reluctance to load and scrambling during travelling. TRPBs can result in injuries to horses and horse handlers, horse trailer accidents, disruption of time schedules, inability to attend competitions, and poor performance following travel. Therefore, TRPBs are recognised as both a horse-related risk to humans and a human-related risk to horses. From the literature, it is apparent that TRPBs are common throughout the entire equine industry, and a YouTube keyword search of 'horse trailer loading' produced over 67,000 results, demonstrating considerable interest in this topic and the variety of solutions suggested. Drawing upon articles published over the last 35 years, this review summarises current knowledge on TRPBs and provides recommendations on their identification, management, and prevention. It appears that a positive human-horse relationship, in-hand pre-training, systematic training for loading and travelling, appropriate horse handling, and the vehicle driving skills of the transporters are crucial to minimise the incidence of TRPBs. In-hand pre-training based on correct application of the principles of learning for horses and horse handlers, habituation to loading and travelling, and self-loading appear to minimise the risk of TRPBs and are therefore strongly recommended to safeguard horse and horse-handler health and welfare. This review indicates that further research and education with respect to transport management are essential to substantially decrease the incidence of TRPBs in horses.
Solution of the transport equation with account for inelastic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikov, N.P.; Remizovich, V.S.; Ryazanov, M.I.
1980-01-01
The theory of charged particle scattering in a matter with account for inelastic collisions is considered. In ''directly-forward'' approximation the transport equation at the absence of elastic collisions is obtained. The solution of the transport equation is made without and with account for fluctuation of energy losses. Formulas for path-energy relation are given. Energy spectrum and distribution of fast charged particles with respect to paths are studied. The problem of quantum mechanical approach to the theory of multiple scattering of fast charged particles in a matter is discussed briefly
Bodin, Jacques
2015-03-01
In this study, new multi-dimensional time-domain random walk (TDRW) algorithms are derived from approximate one-dimensional (1-D), two-dimensional (2-D), and three-dimensional (3-D) analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and from exact 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D analytical solutions of the pure-diffusion equation. These algorithms enable the calculation of both the time required for a particle to travel a specified distance in a homogeneous medium and the mass recovery at the observation point, which may be incomplete due to 2-D or 3-D transverse dispersion or diffusion. The method is extended to heterogeneous media, represented as a piecewise collection of homogeneous media. The particle motion is then decomposed along a series of intermediate checkpoints located on the medium interface boundaries. The accuracy of the multi-dimensional TDRW method is verified against (i) exact analytical solutions of solute transport in homogeneous media and (ii) finite-difference simulations in a synthetic 2-D heterogeneous medium of simple geometry. The results demonstrate that the method is ideally suited to purely diffusive transport and to advection-dispersion transport problems dominated by advection. Conversely, the method is not recommended for highly dispersive transport problems because the accuracy of the advection-dispersion TDRW algorithms degrades rapidly for a low Péclet number, consistent with the accuracy limit of the approximate analytical solutions. The proposed approach provides a unified methodology for deriving multi-dimensional time-domain particle equations and may be applicable to other mathematical transport models, provided that appropriate analytical solutions are available.
Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.
Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang
2018-01-01
Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.
Beerlage, M.A.M.; Beerlage, M.A.M.; Heijnen, M.L.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.
1996-01-01
The retention behaviour of polyimide ultrafiltration membranes was investigated using dilute solutions of polystyrene in ethyl acetate as test solutions. It is shown that flow-induced deformation of the polystyrene chains highly affects the membrane retention. This coil-stretch transition is not
Sn approach applied to the solution of transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes, J.P.
1973-09-01
In this work the origin of the Transport Theory is considered and the Transport Equation for the movement of the neutron in a system is established in its more general form, using the laws of nuclear physics. This equation is used as the starting point for development, under adequate assumptions, of simpler models that render the problem suitable for numerical solution. Representation of this model in different geometries is presented. The different processes of nuclear physics are introduced briefly and discussed. In addition, the boundary conditions for the different cases and a general procedure for the application of the Conservation Law are stated. The last chapter deals specifically with the S n method, its development, definitions and generalities. Computational schemes for obtaining the S n solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry, and convergence acceleration methods are also developed. (author)
Geological entropy and solute transport in heterogeneous porous media
Bianchi, Marco; Pedretti, Daniele
2017-06-01
We propose a novel approach to link solute transport behavior to the physical heterogeneity of the aquifer, which we fully characterize with two measurable parameters: the variance of the log K values (σY2), and a new indicator (HR) that integrates multiple properties of the K field into a global measure of spatial disorder or geological entropy. From the results of a detailed numerical experiment considering solute transport in K fields representing realistic distributions of hydrofacies in alluvial aquifers, we identify empirical relationship between the two parameters and the first three central moments of the distributions of arrival times of solute particles at a selected control plane. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mean and the variance of the solutes arrival times tend to increase with spatial disorder (i.e., HR increasing), while highly skewed distributions are observed in more orderly structures (i.e., HR decreasing) or at higher σY2. We found that simple closed-form empirical expressions of the bivariate dependency of skewness on HR and σY2 can be used to predict the emergence of non-Fickian transport in K fields considering a range of structures and heterogeneity levels, some of which based on documented real aquifers. The accuracy of these predictions and in general the results from this study indicate that a description of the global variability and structure of the K field in terms of variance and geological entropy offers a valid and broadly applicable approach for the interpretation and prediction of transport in heterogeneous porous media.
Predictability of solute transport in diffusion-controlled hydrogeologic regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillham, R.W.; Cherry, J.A.
1983-01-01
Hydrogeologic regimes that are favourable for the subsurface management of low-level radioactive wastes must have transport properties that will limit the migration velocity of contaminants to some acceptably low value. Of equal importance, for the purpose of impact assessment and licensing, is the need to be able to predict, with a reasonable degree of certainty and over long time periods, what the migration velocity of the various contaminants of interest will be. This paper presents arguments to show that in addition to having favourable velocity characteristics, transport in saturated, diffusion-controlled hydrogeologic regimes is considerably more predictable than in the most common alternatives. The classical transport models for unsaturated, saturated-advection-controlled and saturated-diffusion-controlled environments are compared, with particular consideration being given to the difficulties associated with the characterization of the respective transport parameters. Results are presented which show that the diffusion of non-reactive solutes and solutes that react according to a constant partitioning ratio (K/sub d/) are highly predictable under laboratory conditions and that the diffusion coefficients for the reactive solutes can be determined with a reasonable degree of accuracy from independent measurements of bulk density, porosity, distribution coefficient and tortuosity. Field evidence is presented which shows that the distribution of environmental isotopes and chloride in thick clayey deposits is consistent with a diffusion-type transport process in these media. These results are particularly important in that they not only demonstrate the occurrence of diffusion-controlled hydrogeologic regimes, but they also demonstrate the predictability of the migration characteristics over very long time periods
Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of ...
Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a degenerate quasilinear hyperbolic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, D.C.
1988-10-01
The decay as t->∞ of the solutions of equation u''(t)|A 1/2 u(t)| 2 Au(t)+Au'(t)=0 where A is a self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert space H with norm |.| is studied. A decay of algebraic rate for the energy associated to the studied equation is obtained. (author) [pt
A three-dimensional neutron transport benchmark solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.; Kornreich, D.E.
1993-01-01
For one-group neutron transport theory in one dimension, several powerful analytical techniques have been developed to solve the neutron transport equation, including Caseology, Wiener-Hopf factorization, and Fourier and Laplace transform methods. In addition, after a Fourier transform in the transverse plane and formulation of a pseudo problem, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) problems can be solved using the techniques specifically developed for the one-dimensional (1-D) case. Numerical evaluation of the resulting expressions requiring an inversion in the transverse plane have been successful for 2-D problems but becomes exceedingly difficult in the 3-D case. In this paper, we show that by using the symmetry along the beam direction, a 2-D problem can be transformed into a 3-D problem in an infinite medium. The numerical solution to the 3-D problem is then demonstrated. Thus, a true 3-D transport benchmark solution can be obtained from a well-established numerical solution to a 2-D problem
A stochastic solution of the advective transport equation with uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
1991-01-01
A model has been developed for calculating the transport of water-borne radionuclides through layers of porous materials, such as rock or clay. The model is based upon a purely advective transport equation, in which the fluid velocity is a random variable, thereby simulating dispersion in a more realistic manner than the ad hoc introduction of a dispersivity. In addition to a random velocity field, which is an observable physical phenomenon, allowance is made for uncertainty in our knowledge of the parameters which enter the equation, e.g. the retardation coefficient. This too, is assumed to be a random variable and contributes to the stochasticity of the resulting partial differential equation of transport. The stochastic differential equation can be solved analytically and then ensemble averages taken over the associated probability distribution of velocity and retardation coefficient. A method based upon a novel form of the central limit theorem of statistics is employed to obtain tractable solutions of a system consisting of many serial legs of varying properties. One interesting conclusion is that the total flux out of a medium is significantly underestimated by using the deterministic solution with an average transit time compared with that from the stochastically averaged solution. The theory is illustrated numerically for a number of physically relevant cases. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs., 7 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradin, J.
1958-12-03
This report presents a system aimed at sampling active solution from a specific transport container (SCRGR model) while transferring this solution with a maximum safety. The sampling principle is described (a flexible tube connected to the receiving container, with a needle at the other end which goes through a rubber membrane and enters a plunger tube). Its benefits are outlined (operator protection, reduction of contamination risk; only the rubber membrane is removed and replaced). Some manufacturing details are described concerning the membrane and the cover.
Electrochemical behaviour of platinum in hydrogen peroxide solution (1963)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prost, G.H.
1963-06-01
The relative stability of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution at 25 deg. C, allows its amperometric determination from the theory, using either its cathodic reduction or its anodic oxidation. The cathodic reduction yields a wave on a platinum electrode only when some oxygen is present in the solution. It cannot, therefore, be used for electrochemical determination. On the other hand, the anodic oxidation on platinum produces a wave which might be used. However, a passivation of platinum occurs at the same time. This passivation process is studied by means of potentio-kinetic, potentio-static, intensio-static curves and of pH measurements in the vicinity of the anode. A mechanism for passivation is presented, which takes into account the role of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. This passivation rules out any analytical application of the oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide. (author) [fr
Gelatin behaviour in dilute aqueous solution : designing a nanoparticulate formulation
Farrugia, Claude; Groves, Michael J.
1999-01-01
Although it has been claimed that nanoparticles can be produced from gelatin, a naturally occurring polypeptide, the commercial conversion of animal collagen to gelatin results in a heterogeneous product with a wide molecular-weight range. This is probably responsible for the widely observed variation in the experimental conditions required for nanoparticle formation. In this study, 0.2% w/v aqueous B225 gelatin solutions were incubated under various conditions of time, temperature, pH an...
Hydrophilic solute transport across the rat blood-brain barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucchesi, K.J.
1987-01-01
Brain capillary permeability-surface area products (PS) of hydrophilic solutes ranging in size from 180 to 5,500 Daltons were measured in rats according to the method of Ohno, Pettigrew and Rapoport. The distribution volume of 70 KD dextran at 10 minutes after i.v. injection was also measured to determine the residual volume of blood in brain tissue at the time of sacrifice. Small test solutes were injected in pairs in order to elucidate whether their transfer into the brain proceeds by diffusion through water- or lipid-filled channels or by vesicular transport. This issue was examined in rats whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) was presumed to be intact (untreated) and in rats that received intracarotid infusions to open the BBB (isosmotic salt (ISS) and hyperosmolar arabinose). Ohno PS values of 3 H-inulin and 14 C-L-glucose in untreated rats were found to decrease as the labelling time was lengthened. This was evidence that a rapidly equilibrating compartment exists between blood and brain that renders the Ohno two-compartment model inadequate for computing true transfer rate constants. When the data were reanalyzed using a multi-compartment graphical analysis, solutes with different molecular radii were found to enter the brain at approximately equal rates. Furthermore, unidirectional transport is likely to be initiated by solute adsorption to a glycocalyx coat on the luminal surface of brain capillary endothelium. Apparently, more inulin than L-glucose was adsorbed, which may account for its slightly faster transfer across the BBB. After rats were treated with intracarotid infusions of ISS or hyperosmolar arabinose, solute PS values were significantly increased, but the ratio of PS for each of the solute pairs approached that of their free-diffusion coefficients
Assessment of applications of transport models on regional scale solute transport
Guo, Z.; Fogg, G. E.; Henri, C.; Pauloo, R.
2017-12-01
Regional scale transport models are needed to support the long-term evaluation of groundwater quality and to develop management strategies aiming to prevent serious groundwater degradation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capacity of previously-developed upscaling approaches to accurately describe main solute transport processes including the capture of late-time tails under changing boundary conditions. Advective-dispersive contaminant transport in a 3D heterogeneous domain was simulated and used as a reference solution. Equivalent transport under homogeneous flow conditions were then evaluated applying the Multi-Rate Mass Transfer (MRMT) model. The random walk particle tracking method was used for both heterogeneous and homogeneous-MRMT scenarios under steady state and transient conditions. The results indicate that the MRMT model can capture the tails satisfactorily for plume transported with ambient steady-state flow field. However, when boundary conditions change, the mass transfer model calibrated for transport under steady-state conditions cannot accurately reproduce the tailing effect observed for the heterogeneous scenario. The deteriorating impact of transient boundary conditions on the upscaled model is more significant for regions where flow fields are dramatically affected, highlighting the poor applicability of the MRMT approach for complex field settings. Accurately simulating mass in both mobile and immobile zones is critical to represent the transport process under transient flow conditions and will be the future focus of our study.
SuDS and human behaviour: Co-developing solutions to encourage sustainable behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Everett Glyn
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are today widely considered to be a more progressive and environmentally sensitive approach to Flood Risk Management (FRM. However, this paper argues that the sustainability of SuDS should not be so simply presumed. Devices will depend upon correct behaviour from those local to them in order to function properly over time, and for Green Infrastructure SuDS to flourish and deliver their promised multiple benefits. This paper looks to the potential value in using Social Practice Theory as a lens for understanding current behaviours around SuDS devices, and for assessing possible strategies for encouraging positive behaviour amongst affected communities. It concludes in arguing that involving local people as much as possible in the co-design of systems and then working to maintain involvement and awareness will be the most cost-effective means by which SuDS might be made to live up to the sustainability they are celebrated for.
Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.
2012-01-01
The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.
Monte Carlo methods for flux expansion solutions of transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spanier, J.
1999-01-01
Adaptive Monte Carlo methods, based on the use of either correlated sampling or importance sampling, to obtain global solutions to certain transport problems have recently been described. The resulting learning algorithms are capable of achieving geometric convergence when applied to the estimation of a finite number of coefficients in a flux expansion representation of the global solution. However, because of the nonphysical nature of the random walk simulations needed to perform importance sampling, conventional transport estimators and source sampling techniques require modification to be used successfully in conjunction with such flux expansion methods. It is shown how these problems can be overcome. First, the traditional path length estimators in wide use in particle transport simulations are generalized to include rather general detector functions (which, in this application, are the individual basis functions chosen for the flus expansion). Second, it is shown how to sample from the signed probabilities that arise as source density functions in these applications, without destroying the zero variance property needed to ensure geometric convergence to zero error
Intelligent transport systems (UTS) and driving behaviour: setting the agenda
Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Wieinga, P.; Pantic, M.; Ludema, M.
2004-01-01
The application of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), in particular advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), is expected to improve the performance of road transportation significantly. Public policy makers, among others, are therefore increasingly interested in the implementation
Polarographic behaviour of uranium (VI) in tributyl phosphate organic solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degueldre, C.A.; Meklati, M.
1984-01-01
U(VI) determination by D.C. and differential pulse polarography was studied in the organic solutions derived from tributyl phosphate - diluent extracts (after separation from nitric acid media) along with a selected aprotic solvent (i.e.: propylene carbonate and N,N-dimethylacetamide). Miscibility of the TBP-diluent (e.g. cyclohexane, n-hexane, kerosene, n-dodecane) phase with nitric acid as supporting electrolyte, either by addition or already present in the extract was larger in DMA than in PC. In the DMA organic mixture, U(VI) exhibited a DPP peak due to a one electron step, with Esub(p)=-0.4 V (position connected with H 2 O and HNO 3 concentrations). This peak which was proportionnel to the U(VI) concentration from 5x10 -6 to 10 -3 M can be used to determinate directly hexavalent uranium in the industrial organic extraction phases TBP-diluent. (orig.)
Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.
2010-01-01
An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.
Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions
Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.
2010-03-01
An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.
Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tyagi, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)
2010-03-24
An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.
A Finite-Difference Solution of Solute Transport through a Membrane Bioreactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Godongwana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The current paper presents a theoretical analysis of the transport of solutes through a fixed-film membrane bioreactor (MBR, immobilised with an active biocatalyst. The dimensionless convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients was solved analytically and numerically for concentration profiles of the solutes through the MBR. The analytical solution makes use of regular perturbation and accounts for radial convective flow as well as axial diffusion of the substrate species. The Michaelis-Menten (or Monod rate equation was assumed for the sink term, and the perturbation was extended up to second-order. In the analytical solution only the first-order limit of the Michaelis-Menten equation was considered; hence the linearized equation was solved. In the numerical solution, however, this restriction was lifted. The solution of the nonlinear, elliptic, partial differential equation was based on an implicit finite-difference method (FDM. An upwind scheme was employed for numerical stability. The resulting algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using the multivariate Newton-Raphson iteration method. The solution allows for the evaluation of the effect on the concentration profiles of (i the radial and axial convective velocity, (ii the convective mass transfer rates, (iii the reaction rates, (iv the fraction retentate, and (v the aspect ratio.
Engineering solutions of traffic safety problems of road transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bogdevičius
2004-02-01
Full Text Available The authors of this paper focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle movement (taking into consideration motor vehicle dynamics, motor vehicle hydraulic brake system influence on motor vehicle movement, interaction between its wheels with road pavements, road guardrail characteristics, interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail on a certain road section and propose their specific solution of this problem. The presented results, illustrating the motor vehicle movement trajectories (motor vehicle braking and interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail at various initial conditions and at various certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and work of a motor vehicle hydraulic brake system. Taking into consideration the presented general mathematical model and computer aided test results it is possible to investigate various road transport traffic situations as well as to investigate various transport traffic safety problems.
Electrocnecical behaviour of zirconium during its anodic polarization in nitrate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabrovskij, A.I.; Karasev, A.F.
1983-01-01
Electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during its anodic polarization in nitrate solutions is investigated in detail to find the method of its complete dissolution. A study has been made of the influence of varioUs factors: current density electric potential, composition and temperature of the solution, anodic polarization duration on the Zr anodic polarization in nitric acid, on the maximum permissible current density and on the zirconium yield to the solution. The zirconium polarization decreases with an acid concentration and temperature increase and increases with the current density. Iron nitrate additions to nitric acid decrease, while ammonium fluoride additions increase zirconium yield into the solution
Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neretnieks, I.
1990-12-01
Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)
Large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of non-linear Sobolev-type equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaikina, Elena I; Naumkin, Pavel I; Shishmarev, Il'ya A
2009-01-01
The large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the Cauchy problem is investigated for a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with dissipation. For small initial data the approach taken is based on a detailed analysis of the Green's function of the linear problem and the use of the contraction mapping method. The case of large initial data is also closely considered. In the supercritical case the asymptotic formulae are quasi-linear. The asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with a critical non-linearity of the non-convective kind differs by a logarithmic correction term from the behaviour of solutions of the corresponding linear equation. For a critical convective non-linearity, as well as for a subcritical non-convective non-linearity it is proved that the leading term of the asymptotic expression for large times is a self-similar solution. For Sobolev equations with convective non-linearity the asymptotic behaviour of solutions in the subcritical case is the product of a rarefaction wave and a shock wave. Bibliography: 84 titles.
Modeling of the geochemical behaviour and of the radionuclide transport in the presence of colloids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Lee, Jan
1997-01-01
Over the past ten years, colloids have been introduced in the already complex subject of waste storage safety analysis. They are indeed often considered as rapid carriers for otherwise insoluble radioactive elements, and therefore potentially decrease the effective barrier function of the geological rock surrounding the waste. The problem is therefore to understand colloid behaviour and quantify their stability and reactivity with respect to the radionuclides. The subject reveals three different levels of phenomena: the geochemical mechanisms, the micro-physical and electrostatic behaviour of colloids and the transport mechanisms. The topics of this thesis therefore cover a wide range of disciplines, such as geochemistry, radiochemistry, physics, hydrogeology, mathematics and computer science. Given the complexity of the subject, only strongly simplified models are used for safety assessment including the impact of colloids. Henceforth, the objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive theoretical basis for modelling the impact of colloids according to a deterministic approach, in the hope to pave the road towards predictive modelling of a waste repository performance. This thesis is the result of work carried out in different European Community projects in the framework of the fourth R and D program on 'Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste'. part A, task 4, 'Disposal of Radioactive Waste'. Grateful use has been made of many chemical and hydrogeological experiments carried out by many different laboratories all over Europe. The main results can be classified according to three principal topics: - geochemistry and the chemical behaviour of actinides, lanthanides and fission products; - retention mechanisms of colloidal particles; - transport mechanism in geological medium. The first topic is fundamental: geochemistry forms the basis of e.g. the retention model for aqueous and colloidal species. The principal result of this topic is
Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koestel, J K; Minh, Luong Nhat; Nørgaard, Trine
An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness...... of the relevance of preferential flow was broadly re-established in the community by the early 1990s. However, since then, the notion remains widespread among soil scientists that the occurrence and strength of preferential flow cannot be predicted from measurable proxy variables such as soil properties or land...
Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms
Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang
2018-01-01
Jing Xie,1,2 Xiao Yan Zhu,1,2 Lu Ming Liu,1,2 Zhi Qiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues o...
On the Solution of the Neutron Transport Equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Depken, S
1962-12-15
The neutron transport equation has occupied the attention of many authors since Placzek, Wick and others made their first attempts to solve it, Even in the simple case of energy independent cross-sections, and disregarding the motion of the scattering nucleons, it is difficult to find a solution in an analytical form which is easily surveyable and fitted for numerical calculations. In Part I of this paper some new viewpoints will be introduced which enable the solution to be presented in its simplest possible form. Part II is devoted to an investigation of some functions introduced in Part I. In Part III the results are applied to the case of large energy lethargy, and the validity of derived formulas is discussed.
Applications of stochastic models to solute transport in fractured rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelhar, L.W.
1987-01-01
A stochastic theory for flow and solute transport in a single variable aperture fracture bounded by sorbing porous matrix into which solutes may diffuse, is developed using a perturbation approximation and spectral solution techniques which assume local statistical homogeneity. The theory predicts that the effective aperture of the fracture for mean solute displacement will be larger than the aperture required to calculate the large-scale flow resistance of the fracture. This ratio of apertures is a function of the variance of the logarithm of the apertures. The theory also predicts the macrodispersion coefficient for large-scale transport in the fracture. The resulting macrodispersivity is proportional to the variance of the logaperture and to its correlation scale. When variable surface sorption is included, it is found that the macrodispersivity is increased significantly, in some cases more than an order of magnitude. It is also shown that the effective retardation coefficient for the sorptively heterogeneous fracture is found by simply taking the arithmetic mean of the local surface sorption coefficient. Matrix diffusion is also shown to increase the fracture macrodispesivity at very large times. A reexamination of the results of four different field tracer tests in crystalline rock in Sweden and Canada shows aperture ratios and dispersivities that are consistent with the stochastic theory. The variance of the natural logarithm of the aperture is found to be in the range of 3 to 6 and the correlation scales for logaperture ranges from .2 to 1.2 meters. Detailed recommendations for additional field investigations at scales ranging from a few meters up to a kilometer are presented. (orig.)
Characterization of electrochemical and passive behaviour of Alloy 59 in acid solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Hong; Gao, Shujun; Dong, Chaofang; Li, Xiaogang
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A considerably thinner n-type passive film is observed on the Alloy-59. • The passive film formed in air was thicker than that formed in acid solution. • Primary constituents of passive film in air and acid solution are (Cr, Ni)-oxides and (Cr, Ni) hydroxides, respectively. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour and passive film properties of the Alloy 59 in sulfuric acid solution was evaluated by the potentiodynamic electrochemical measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky approach, and ex situ surface analytical technique as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electronic Spectrometer (AES). The results confirmed that the Alloy 59 exhibits well passive behaviour. A considerably thinner n-type passive film is observed on this type alloy. Based on the evaluations of surface composition analysis, the primary constituents of passive film formed in the air and acid solution are different, with the (Cr, Ni)-oxides and (Cr, Ni) hydroxides, respectively
On the behaviour of solutions of parabolic equations for large values of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V N
2005-01-01
This paper is a survey of classical and new results on stabilization of solutions of the Cauchy problem and mixed problems for second-order linear parabolic equations. Proofs are given for some new results about exact sufficient conditions on the behaviour of lower-order coefficients of the parabolic equation; these conditions ensure stabilization of a solution of the Cauchy problem for the parabolic equation in the class of bounded or increasing initial functions
TRANSPORT OF SOLUTES IN THE FIELD AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Comegna
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This study documents and compares the transport of a conservative solute in near saturated soil profiles under flood and sprinkler irrigation. The experiments were carried out on a clay Vertic-Usthortens soil located near Potenza (Italy. Two 2x2 m2 plots were clipped of their native grass vegetation. After spraying on the surface a Cl- pulse as KCl salt; water was applied in five increments over two months as flood irrigation on the first plot and as sprinkler irrigation on the second one. Chloride resident concentration Cr, was sampled by soil coring at four different days after chemical application. Cr(z,t profiles were analyzed by spatial moment method. The recovered mass of Cl- and location of center of mass were comparable for the two types of irrigation. The spread around the center of mass, however, was higher for the flood-irrigated plot. In the flood-irrigated plot, more mass leached below the depth of 90 cm. The velocity of the center of mass was consistently 10-20% larger than the piston displacement velocity. To evaluate the nature of transport, the Cr(z,t distributions were modelled using quasi-steady solution of convection-dispersion equation(CDE. At the scale of our experiments the profiles of Cl- resident concentration are well-simulated.
Analysis of solute transport in plants using positron emission tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partelova, D.
2016-01-01
In the first part of the work, geometrically and radiochemically characterized standards (phantoms) imitating the plant tissues and allowing the exact quantification of visualised radioindicator in plant tissues were designed and prepared within the study of visual and analytical characteristics of used positron emission tomograph (microPET system) commercially developed for animal objects at visualization of thin objects. Individual experiments carried out by exposure of excised leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) or radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in solutions of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with positron emitter 18 F (2-[ 18 F]FDG) containing 10-, 100-, or 1000-times higher concentrations of D-glucose (c glu ) in comparison with the original 2-[ 18 F]FDG solution showed that the significant changes in visualisation of 2-[ 18 F]FDG distribution as well as in chemical portion of 2-[ 18 F]FDG within the leaf blade were observed as result of increased c glu . In the experiments with the whole plants of tobacco or radish exposed in 2-[ 18 F]FDG solution through the root system, only minimal translocation of 18 F radioactivity into the above-ground parts of plants, also in the case of increased c glu , was observed, which suggest the role of root system as a selective barrier of 2-[ 18 F]FDG transport from roots to the above-ground parts. On the basis of mentioned knowledge and analytical approaches (application of prepared phantoms), the dynamic study of 2-[ 18 F]FDG uptake and transport within the excised leaf of tobacco or whole radish plant was carried out. The description of these processes was realized through the 3D PET images and through the quantification of 2-[ 18 F]FDG distribution within the chosen regions of interest from the point of view of accumulated 18 F radioactivity (in Bq) or amount of D-glucose (in μg) as well. Application of methods of multivariate analysis allows to found the similarities between studied objects mainly from the point
Fernie, Lynne; Cubeddu, Daniela
2016-01-01
A Working on What Works (WOWW) approach was utilised over six sessions in a mainstream Scottish primary class to enhance classroom relationships and behaviours. The aim of the intervention was to manage everyday classroom problems within a natural classroom environment. WOWW incorporates positive psychology and implements a solution-focused…
Transport Visualization for Studying Mass Transfer and Solute Transport in Permeable Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy Haggerty
2004-01-01
Understanding and predicting mass transfer coupled with solute transport in permeable media is central to several energy-related programs at the US Department of Energy (e.g., CO 2 sequestration, nuclear waste disposal, hydrocarbon extraction, and groundwater remediation). Mass transfer is the set of processes that control movement of a chemical between mobile (advection-dominated) domains and immobile (diffusion- or sorption-dominated) domains within a permeable medium. Consequences of mass transfer on solute transport are numerous and may include (1) increased sequestration time within geologic formations; (2) reduction in average solute transport velocity by as much as several orders of magnitude; (3) long ''tails'' in concentration histories during removal of a solute from a permeable medium; (4) poor predictions of solute behavior over long time scales; and (5) changes in reaction rates due to mass transfer influences on pore-scale mixing of solutes. Our work produced four principle contributions: (1) the first comprehensive visualization of solute transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media; (2) the beginnings of a theoretical framework that encompasses both macrodispersion and mass transfer within a single set of equations; (3) experimental and analytical tools necessary for understanding mixing and aqueous reaction in heterogeneous, granular porous media; (4) a clear experimental demonstration that reactive transport is often not accurately described by a simple coupling of the convection-dispersion equation with chemical reaction equations. The work shows that solute transport in heterogeneous media can be divided into 3 regimes--macrodispersion, advective mass transfer, and diffusive mass transfer--and that these regimes can be predicted quantitatively in binary media. We successfully predicted mass transfer in each of these regimes and verified the prediction by completing quantitative visualization experiments in each of the regimes, the
Booklet on behavioural causes and remedies associated with transportation accidents
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Krige, PD
2003-08-01
Full Text Available ........................................................................... 19 9.2 People development and training techniques associated with confidence, attitudes and leadership ................................................................................................................................... 21 9... and behaviours are emerging. Her research, for her DBL, shows that there are differences in the way that South African leaders of different races and genders perceive the importance of leadership practices and beliefs. These beliefs and practices are based...
Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Electrochemical studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olmedo, A.M.; Villegas, M.; Alvarez, M.G.
1996-01-01
The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of Alloy 800 in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were studied by electrochemical techniques in the temperature range from 60 C to 280 C. The pitting resistance and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride plus sulphate and chloride plus bicarbonate mixtures, at 60 C and 280 C, were also examined. Increasing bicarbonate or sulphate additions to chloride solutions shift the characteristic pitting potential of Alloy 800 to higher values, both at low and high temperatures. Changes in pitting morphology were observed in sulphate containing solutions while the morphology of the attack found in bicarbonate containing solutions was similar to that in pure chloride solutions. Finally, no localized or substantial generalized corrosion was detected in pure sulphate or bicarbonate solutions at any temperature. (orig.)
Mihaela, Istrate; Alexandru, Boroiu; Viorel, Nicolae; Ionel, Vieru
2017-10-01
One of the major problems facing the Pitesti city is the road congestion that occurs in the central area of the city during the peak hours. With all the measures taken in recent years - the widening of road arteries, increasing the number of parking spaces, the creation of overground road passages - it is obvious that the problem can only be solved by a new philosophy regarding urban mobility: it is no longer possible to continue through solutions to increase the accessibility of the central area of the city, but it is necessary, on the contrary, to promote a policy of discouraging the penetration of vehicles in the city center, coupled with a policy of improving the connection between urban public transport and county public transport. This new approach is also proposed in the new Urban Mobility Plan of Pitesti city, under development. The most convincing argument for the necessity of this new orientation in the Pitesti city mobility plan is based on the analysis of the current situation of passenger transport on the territory of Pitesti city: the analysis of “public transport versus private transport” reveals a very low occupancy rate for cars and the fact that the road surface required for a passenger (the dynamic area) is much higher in the case of private transport than in the case of public transport. Measurements of passenger flows and vehicle flows on the 6 penetration ways in the city have been made and the calculations clearly demonstrate the benefits of an urban public transport system connected by “transshipment buses” to be made at the edge of the city, to the county public transport system. In terms of inter-county transport, it will continue to be connected to the urban public transport system by existing bus Station, within the city: South Bus Station and North Bus Station. The usefulness of the paper is that it identifies the solutions for sustainable mobility in Pitesti city and proposes concrete solutions for the development of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, A.
1991-01-01
The polarographic behaviour of simple solutions of selenite and tellurite in 1 M ammonium salts of formate, acetate, tartrate, oxalate, and benzoate solutions in absence and in presence of Triton X-100 as a maximum suppressor and a temperature of 25 O C has been investigated. Schemes for the mechanism of reductions occuring at the DME have been deduced. A method for analytical determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions as well as in a binary mixture in the presence of 4-14 . 10 -3 % Triton X-100 is reported. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard.
1980-11-01
This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr
Influence of stress on passive behaviour of steel bars in concrete pore solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Xingguo; Tang Yuming; Zuo Yu
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The influence of load on passivity of steel in concrete pore solution is studied. → The passivity of steel in pore solution decreased as the load amplitude increased. → A micro-crack model is presented to explain passive behaviour of steel under loads. - Abstract: The influence of stress on passive behaviour of steel bars in concrete pore solution was studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The passive ability of steel decreased as the applied load increased and higher load had much greater influence on passivation than repeated loading of small magnitude. A micro-crack model was presented to explain the damage of passive layer by loads. Lower load caused micro-cracks in the passive film which might be completely recovered after unloading. Under higher load more micro-cracks were produced in the passive film and some may penetrate the film, leading to irreversible damages.
Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smart Dumba
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored. Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework. Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics. Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram. Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.
Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G.
2005-01-01
The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k eff results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation
Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)
2005-07-01
The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k{sub eff} results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation.
The quasi-diffusive approximation in transport theory: Local solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celaschi, M.; Montagnini, B.
1995-01-01
The one velocity, plane geometry integral neutron transport equation is transformed into a system of two equations, one of them being the equation of continuity and the other a generalized Fick's law, in which the usual diffusion coefficient is replaced by a self-adjoint integral operator. As the kernel of this operator is very close to the Green function of a diffusion equation, an approximate inversion by means of a second order differential operator allows to transform these equations into a purely differential system which is shown to be equivalent, in the simplest case, to a diffusion-like equation. The method, the principles of which have been exposed in a previous paper, is here extended and applied to a variety of problems. If the inversion is properly performed, the quasi-diffusive solutions turn out to be quite accurate, even in the vicinity of the interface between different material regions, where elementary diffusion theory usually fails. 16 refs., 3 tabs
Approximate solution to neutron transport equation with linear anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppa, G.; Ravetto, P.; Sumini, M.
1983-01-01
A method to obtain an approximate solution to the transport equation, when both sources and collisions show a linearly anisotropic behavior, is outlined and the possible implications for numerical calculations in applied neutronics as well as shielding evaluations are investigated. The form of the differential system of equations taken by the method is quite handy and looks simpler and more manageable than any other today available technique. To go deeper into the efficiency of the method, some typical calculations concerning critical dimension of multiplying systems are then performed and the results are compared with the ones coming from the classical Ssub(N) approximations. The outcome of such calculations leads us to think of interesting developments of the method which could be quite useful in alternative to other today widespread approximate procedures, for any geometry, but especially for curved ones. (author)
Engineering charge transport by heterostructuring solution-processed semiconductors
Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Ip, Alexander H.; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H.
2017-06-01
Solution-processed semiconductor devices are increasingly exploiting heterostructuring — an approach in which two or more materials with different energy landscapes are integrated into a composite system. Heterostructured materials offer an additional degree of freedom to control charge transport and recombination for more efficient optoelectronic devices. By exploiting energetic asymmetry, rationally engineered heterostructured materials can overcome weaknesses, augment strengths and introduce emergent physical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to single-material systems. These systems see benefit and application in two distinct branches of charge-carrier manipulation. First, they influence the balance between excitons and free charges to enhance electron extraction in solar cells and photodetectors. Second, they promote radiative recombination by spatially confining electrons and holes, which increases the quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes. In this Review, we discuss advances in the design and composition of heterostructured materials, consider their implementation in semiconductor devices and examine unexplored paths for future advancement in the field.
Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems
Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.
1990-01-01
As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.
Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel
2013-04-01
simulations differ in lateral scale reaching from 0.2 m to 1.5 m, while the height of the domain is kept constant to 1.5m. Strong material heterogeneity is realized through vertical layers of coarse and fine sand. Both materials remain permanently under liquid-flow-dominated ('stage1') evaporation conditions. Spatial moments as well as the dilution index (Kitanidis, 1994) are used for quantification of transport behaviour. Results show that, while all simulations led to anomalous transport, infiltration-evaporation cycles lead to faster solute leaching rates than solely infiltration at the same net-infiltration rate in both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. Flow and transport-paths significantly differed between infiltration and evaporation, resulting in lateral water fluxes and hence lateral solute transport. Variation of the width of the model domain shows faster leaching rates for domains with small horizontal extent.
The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.
Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini
2013-09-01
People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M.; Kekaelaeinen, P.; Hautojaervi, A.
2012-02-01
The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier
Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.
2012-02-15
The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier
Fluid and solute transport in a network of channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.
1991-09-01
A three-dimensional channel network model is presented. The fluid flow and solute transport are assumed to take place through a network of connected channels. The channels are generated assuming that the conductances are lognormally distributed. The flow is calculated resolving the pressure distribution and the sole transport is calculated by using a particle tracking technique. The model includes diffusion into the rock matrix and sorption within the matrix in addition to advection along the channel network. Different approaches are used to describe the channel volume and its relation to the conductivity. To quantify the diffusion into the rock matrix the size of the flow wetted surface (contact surface between the channel and the rock) is needed in addition to the diffusion properties and the sorption capacity of the rock. Two different geometries were simulated: regional parallel flow and convergent flow toward a tunnel. In the generation of the channel network, it is found that its connectivity is reduced when the standard deviation in conductances is increased. For large standard deviations, the water conducting channels are found to be few. Standard deviations for the distribution of the effluent channel flowrates were calculated. Comparisons were made with experimental data from drifts and tunnels as well as boreholes as a means to validate the model. (au) (31 refs.)
Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zerr, R. Joseph, E-mail: rjz116@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Azmy, Yousry Y., E-mail: yyazmy@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Burlington Engineering Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)
2011-07-01
Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)
Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zerr, R. Joseph; Azmy, Yousry Y.
2011-01-01
Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)
Ductile fracture behaviour of primary heat transport piping material ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. Design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) has to ensure implementation of leak-before-break con- cepts. In order to be able to do so, the ductile fracture characteristics of PHT piping material have to be quantified. In this paper, the fracture resistance of SA333, Grade.
Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lafont, C.J.; Alvarez, M.G.
1993-01-01
The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO 3 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO 3 and 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs
Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.
2017-01-10
A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.
Comparing solutions to the expectancy-value muddle in the theory of planned behaviour.
O' Sullivan, B; McGee, H; Keegan, O
2008-11-01
The authors of the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behaviour (TPB) recommended a method for statistically analysing the relationship between the indirect belief-based measures and the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). However, there is a growing awareness that this yields statistically uninterpretable results. This study's objective was to compare two solutions to what has been called the 'expectancy-value muddle'. These solutions were (i) optimal scoring of modal beliefs and (ii) individual beliefs without multiplicative composites. Cross-sectional data were collected by telephone interview. Participants were 110 first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), who were offered CRC screening in the study hospital (83% response rate). Participants were asked to rate the TPB constructs in relation to attending for CRC screening. There was no significant difference in the correlation between behavioural beliefs and attitude for rescaled modal and individual beliefs. This was also the case for control beliefs and PBC. By contrast, there was a large correlation between rescaled modal normative beliefs and subjective norm, whereas individual normative beliefs did not correlate with subjective norm. Using individual beliefs without multiplicative composites allows for a fairly unproblematic interpretation of the relationship between the indirect and direct TPB constructs (French & Hankins, 2003). Therefore, it is recommended that future studies consider using individual measures of behavioural and control beliefs without multiplicative composites and examine a different way of measuring individual normative beliefs without multiplicative composites to that used in this study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.S.; Yates, S.R.
1989-01-01
In dealing with problems related to land-based nuclear waste management, a number of analytical and approximate solutions were developed to quantify radionuclide transport through fractures contained in the porous formation. It has been reported that by treating the radioactive decay constant as the appropriate first-order rate constant, these solutions can also be used to study injection problems of a similar nature subject to first-order chemical or biological reactions. The fracture is idealized by a pair of parallel, smooth plates separated by an aperture of constant thickness. Groundwater was assumed to be immobile in the underlying and overlying porous formations due to their low permeabilities. However, the injected radionuclides were able to move from the fracture into the porous matrix by molecular diffusion (the matrix diffusion) due to possible concentration gradients across the interface between the fracture and the porous matrix. Calculation of the transient solutions is not straightforward, and the paper documents a contained Fortran program, which computes the Stehfest inversion, the Airy functions, and gives the concentration distributions in the fracture as well as in the porous matrix for both transient and steady-state cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the
Investigation of behaviour of iron (3) microimpurity in ammonium tungstate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, M.A.; Taushkanov, V.P.; Rumyantsev, V.K.; Andronov, E.A.
1978-01-01
To determine the purification optimum conditions of ammonium tungstate concentrated solutions from iron(3) microimpurities the behaviour of iron(3) with 10 -5 -10 -4 mol/l concentration in these solutions is studied. Concentration of hydrolyzed iron forms has been determined by spectrophotometric and radiometric methods. It is stated, that the processes of hydrolysis and aggregation of dispersed-colloid iron particles in tungstate solutions is generally over during the first 50 hours. It is shown, that a part of iron hydroxide particles of dimension less than 200 A increases with ammonium tungstate concentration increasing. Residual iron concentration also increases under the same conditions. The increasing of efficiency of solution purification is due to decreasing of carbon dispersion, applied for this purpose, and also modification of their surface by hydroxides of multivalent metas as zirconium for example
Large-N behaviour of string solutions in the Heisenberg model
Fujita, T; Takahashi, H
2003-01-01
We investigate the large-N behaviour of the complex solutions for the two-magnon system in the S = 1/2 Heisenberg XXZ model. The Bethe ansatz equations are numerically solved for the string solutions with a new iteration method. Clear evidence of the violation of the string configurations is found at N = 22, 62, 121, 200, 299, 417, but the broken states are still Bethe states. The number of Bethe states is consistent with the exact diagonalization, except for one singular state.
Corrosion behaviour of the UO2 pellet in corrosive solutions using electrochemical Technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taftanzani, A.; Sucipto; Lahagu, F.; Irianto, B.
1996-01-01
The UO 2 electrodes has been made from the local product of UO 2 pellets. The corrosion behaviour of the UO 2 pellets is affected by solution, by pH value and by concentration of salt solution. Investigation into corrosion behaviour of UO 2 electrodes have been carried out in saturated salt solutions using electrochemical technique. The saturated solutions have been made from salts NaCl, Na 2 CO 3 , Na 2 SO 4 and Na 3 PO 4 . The pH value have been done over range 1 pH 10 and the salt concentration (C) over range 0,001 mol/l C 1,0 mol/l, Na 2 CO 3 solution produced the lowest corrosion rates of UO 2 pellets. Those rates were relative constant in the range of pH = 4 - 8. The results indicate an influence of the Na 2 CO 3 concentrations on the corrosions on the corrosion rate, and the lowest rates occur in 0,10 mol/l Na 2 CO 3 . The lowest corrosion rate was 0.3388 mil/year in 0.10 mol/l Na 2 CO 3 by pH = 4. (author)
Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Transportation Solutions
Caruso, Pamela W.
2009-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Marshall's effort to sustain space transportation solutions through product lines that include: 1) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 2) Life Support Systems; and 3) and Earth and Space Science Spacecraft Systems, and Operations.
Hu, Hanlin
2015-06-17
The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.
Hu, Hanlin; Zhao, Kui; Fernandes, Nikhil J.; Boufflet, Pierre; Bannock, James Henry; Yu, Liyang; de Mello, John C; Stingelin, Natalie; Heeney, Martin; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Amassian, Aram
2015-01-01
The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.
Finite element based composite solution for neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirza, A.N.; Mirza, N.M.
1995-01-01
A finite element treatment for solving neutron transport problems is presented. The employs region-wise discontinuous finite elements for the spatial representation of the neutron angular flux, while spherical harmonics are used for directional dependence. Composite solutions has been obtained by using different orders of angular approximations in different parts of a system. The method has been successfully implemented for one dimensional slab and two dimensional rectangular geometry problems. An overall reduction in the number of nodal coefficients (more than 60% in some cases as compared to conventional schemes) has been achieved without loss of accuracy with better utilization of computational resources. The method also provides an efficient way of handling physically difficult situations such as treatment of voids in duct problems and sharply changing angular flux. It is observed that a great wealth of information about the spatial and directional dependence of the angular flux is obtained much more quickly as compared to Monte Carlo method, where most of the information in restricted to the locality of immediate interest. (author)
New constructive solutions for building of transport construction facilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babayev Vladimir
2017-01-01
Full Text Available New structural systems for civil and transport engineering were examined. The basis for the formation of the proposed reinforced concrete structures is the ideology of reducing its dead weight, with a given bearing capacity, the realization of which is accomplished by burial during concreting large-sized liners of a given shape and manufactured from lightweight, inexpensive composite materials. The process of erecting these systems is presented in two forms: for flat structures - using self-tightening concrete, and for curvilinear ones - by using shotcrete technologies. The second direction is presented by steel-reinforced concrete structures. These structural systems were created on the basis of innovative component and methods of rationalization of parameters. The basis of the above methods is a compiler which includes the finite element method, adaptive evolution method and special iterative procedures. Experimental verification of structural solutions and formation procedures for suggested systems was performed. Comparison between theoretical and experimental data is given. Suggested systems were implemented in a number of building companies.
Technology in rural transportation. Simple solution #6, traveler information on the internet
1997-01-01
This application was identified as a promising rural Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) solution under a project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the ENTERPRISE program. This summary describes the solution as well as o...
Solute transport with periodic input point source in one-dimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
JOY
groundwater flow velocity is considered proportional to multiple of temporal function and ζ th ... One-dimensional solute transport through porous media with or without .... solute free. ... the periodic concentration at source of the boundary i.e.,. 0.
Semianalytical solutions of radioactive or reactive tracer transport in layered fractured media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moridis, G.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2001-01-01
In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive tracers (solutes or colloids) through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for straining and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of 3 H, 237 Np and 239 Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity. 239 Pu colloid transport problems in multilayered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly sorbing solute species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, C.C.
1978-10-01
This report reviews selected literature related to the mathematical description of the transport of reactive solutes through soil. The primary areas of the literature reviewed are (1) mathematical models in current use for description of the adsorption-desorption interaction between the soil solution and the soil matrix and (2) analytic solutions of the differential equations describing the convective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes through soil
Electrochemical behaviour of a vanadium anode in phosphoric acid and phosphate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonzo, V.; Darchen, A.; Fur, E. Le; Pivan, J.Y.
2006-01-01
Anodic polarisation of a vanadium electrode has been studied in H 3 PO 4 solutions and some phosphate solutions: LiH 2 PO 4 , NaH 2 PO 4 , KH 2 PO 4 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . The anodic behaviour of a vanadium electrode showed similarities in weak concentrated H 3 PO 4 , in LiH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 solutions: the polarisation curve exhibited a current peak followed by current oscillations and then a current plateau. Concentrated H 3 PO 4 , 1 M KH 2 PO 4 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 solutions involved vanadium passivation with a very slight current density plateau. Yellow compound identified to VOPO 4 .2H 2 O was obtained after controlled potential oxidation of vanadium in 5-10 M H 3 PO 4 . Green products were obtained in 1 M phosphate solutions and in 1-3 M H 3 PO 4 on vanadium anode after controlled potential electrolysis. All these vanadophosphate compounds contained the monovalent cation which was present in the solution
Could sustainable transport policies lead to behavioural change? - A user's point of view
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polain, Celine; Lannoy, Pierre [Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium)
2005-07-01
Implementing sustainable transport policies can among others be achieved by encouraging shifts from car to public transport. Several cities have therefore carried out free public transport experiences, especially in Belgium. The federal research on which we will base our account is intended to assess the (expected) results of a free transit policy on a focus group: students from higher institutions located in Brussels. Dutch speaking students can indeed benefit from free season tickets within Brussels whereas French speaking students do not have this opportunity. Through this natural laboratory situation, we wish to analyse from a sociological perspective, by means of qualitative and comprehensive methods, the cognitive logics guiding mobility behaviours of students and particularly, the reasons why free public transport could or not change their behaviours. Our account is divided into four parts, which will analyse: The context, the objectives and techniques of the survey, The role of environmental concerns in users' talks, The role of price concerns in students' arguments, Users' global assessment of a 'free transit policy' and their behavioural (expected) changes. Sociological types emerging from the different lines of arguments used will be described. Transport experts generally consider the second and third topics analysed as essential components of any efficient free public transport policy. We will however show that few students regard these as crucial when reasoning about mobility behaviours. More practical factors are referred to. The last point will present a 'mixed' assessment of this kind of policy, mentioning some unexpected arguments.
Hydrogeochemistry and simulated solute transport, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado
Robson, S.G.; Saulnier, G.J.
1981-01-01
Oil-shale mining activities in Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado could adversely affect the ground- and surface-water quality in the basin. This study of the hydrology and geochemistry of the area used ground-water solute-transport-modeling techniques to investigate the possible impact of the mines on water quality. Maps of the extent and structure of the aquifer were prepared and show that a saturated thickness of 2,000 feet occurs in the northeast part of the basin. Ground-water recharge in the upland areas in the east, south, and west parts of the basin moves down into deeper zones in the aquifer and laterally to the discharge areas along Piceance and Yellow Creeks. The saline zone and the unsaturated zone provide the majority of the dissolved solids found in the ground water. Precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions are also occuring in the aquifer. Model simulations of ground-water pumpage in tracts C-a and C-b indicate that the altered direction of ground-water movement near the pumped mines will cause an improvement in ground-water quality near the mines and a degradation of water quality downgradient from the tracts. Model simulations of mine leaching in tract C-a and C-b indicate that equal rates of mine leaching in the tracts will produce much different effects on the water quality in the basin. Tract C-a, by virtue of its remote location from perennial streams, will primarily degrade the ground-water quality over a large area to the northeast of the tract. Tract C-b, by contrast, will primarily degrade the surface-water quality in Piceance Creek, with only localized effects on the ground-water quality. (USGS)
The transport and behaviour of isoproturon in unsaturated chalk cores
Besien, T. J.; Williams, R. J.; Johnson, A. C.
2000-04-01
A batch sorption study, a microcosm degradation study, and two separate column leaching studies were used to investigate the transport and fate of isoproturon in unsaturated chalk. The column leaching studies used undisturbed core material obtained from the field by dry percussion drilling. Each column leaching study used 25 cm long, 10 cm wide unsaturated chalk cores through which a pulse of isoproturon and bromide was eluted. The cores were set-up to simulate conditions in the unsaturated zone of the UK Chalk aquifer by applying a suction of 1 kPa (0.1 m H 2O) to the base of each column, and eluting at a rate corresponding to an average recharge rate through the unsaturated Chalk. A dye tracer indicated that the flow was through the matrix under these conditions. The results from the first column study showed high recovery rates for both isoproturon (73-92%) and bromide (93-96%), and that isoproturon was retarded by a factor of about 1.23 relative to bromide. In the second column study, two of the four columns were eluted with non-sterile groundwater in place of the sterile groundwater used on all other columns, and this study showed high recovery rates for bromide (85-92%) and lower recovery rates for isoproturon (66-79% — sterile groundwater, 48-61% — non-sterile groundwater). The enhanced degradation in the columns eluted with non-sterile groundwater indicated that groundwater microorganisms had increased the degradation rate within these columns. Overall, the reduced isoproturon recovery in the second column study was attributed to increased microbial degradation as a result of the longer study duration (162 vs. 105 days). The breakthrough curves (BTCs) for bromide had a characteristic convection-dispersion shape and were accurately simulated with the minimum of calibration using a simple convection-dispersion model (LEACHP). However, the isoproturon BTCs had an unusual shape and could not be accurately simulated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacek Waniewski
2016-01-01
Full Text Available During peritoneal dialysis (PD, the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21–87 years; median time on PD 19 (3–100 months underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS, fraction of ultrasmall pores (αu, osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG, and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters. Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters—rather than solute transport parameters—are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane.
Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia
2016-01-01
During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21–87) years; median time on PD 19 (3–100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS), fraction of ultrasmall pores (α u), osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG), and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters). Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters—rather than solute transport parameters—are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane. PMID:26989432
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galle, C.
2011-07-01
Deep geological formation disposal is the reference solution in France for the management of medium and high activities radioactive waste. In this context, to demonstrate the feasibility of such a disposal, it is necessary to evaluate the long-term performances and the behaviour of the materials engaged in the elaboration of engineered barrier systems (EBS) and waste package elements. The studies mentioned and synthesized in this HDR thesis focused mainly on the convective transport of gas (under pressure gradient) in cementitious matrices, by coupling microstructure aspect (porosity/pores sizes distribution) and hydric environment (water saturation). Works on physico-chemical durability allowed the description of the chemical degradation of cement-based materials in extreme conditions using ammonium nitrate, to increase the materials damaging processes in order to identify functional margins. In relationship with the interim storage management phase, studies related to the behaviour and characterization of concrete submitted to high temperatures (up to 400 C) were also described. Finally, results concerning the gas (H 2 ) overpressure resistance of engineered barriers made of compacted clays were summarized. (author)
Corrosion behaviour of 8090 alloy in saline solution with moderate aggressiveness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conde, A.; Damborenea, J.J.
1998-01-01
Corrosion studies of Al-Li alloys are not so extensive and concentrate almost exclusively on atmospheric exposure tests and accelerated laboratory tests due to the fact they provide a reasonable approximation to the real behaviour of the alloy in service conditions. This paper attempts to establish a correlation between the evolution of the impedance diagrams and the process of the attack undergone by a commercial 8090 T8171 alloy, with the aim of establishing the kinetics of the corrosion process. After 100 h of immersion, samples showed only a slight intergranular attack. As a results of the low aggressiveness of the solution no major deviations from the ideal behaviour described by the Randles circuit are expected in the impedance plots. After 50 hours of testing, the impedance diagram evolves towards two semicircles which seem to be related with the charge transfer and ionic migration through the oxide layer and the adsorption of electrolyte anions. (Author) 7 refs
Transportation behaviours of older adults: an investigation into car dependency in urban Australia.
Buys, Laurie; Snow, Stephen; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne
2012-09-01
Increased car dependency among Australia's ageing population may result in increased social isolation and other health impacts associated with the cessation of driving. While public transport represents an alternative to car usage, patronage remains low among older cohorts. This study investigates the facilitators and barriers to public transport patronage and the nature of car dependence among older Australians. Data were gathered from a sample of 24 adults (mean age = 70 years) through a combination of quantitative (remote behavioural observation) and qualitative (interviews) investigation. Findings suggest that relative convenience, affordability and health/mobility may dictate transport mode choices. The car is considered more convenient for the majority of suburban trips irrespective of the availability of public transport. Policy attention should focus on providing better education and information regarding driving cessation and addressing older age specific social aspects of public transport including health and mobility issues. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.
Behavioural Models for Route Choice of Passengers in Multimodal Public Transport Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anderson, Marie Karen
in the estimation of route choice models of public transport users based upon observed choices. Public transport route choice models have not benefitted from the same technological enhancements as car models because of the necessity (i) to collect additional information concerning lines and transfers, and (ii...... modes, public transport modes, lines, transfers, egress modes) is large. This thesis proposes a doubly stochastic approach for generating alternative routes that are relevant to travellers, since the method allows accounting for both perceived costs of the network elements and heterogeneity......The subject of this thesis is behavioural models for route choice of passengers in multimodal public transport networks. While research in sustainable transport has dedicated much attention toward the determinants of choice between car and sustainable travel options, it has devoted less attention...
Warsta, L.; Karvonen, T.
2017-12-01
There are currently 25 shooting and training areas in Finland managed by The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF), where military activities can cause contamination of open waters and groundwater reservoirs. In the YMPYRÄ project, a computer software framework is being developed that combines existing open environmental data and proprietary information collected by FDF with computational models to investigate current and prevent future environmental problems. A data centric philosophy is followed in the development of the system, i.e. the models are updated and extended to handle available data from different areas. The results generated by the models are summarized as easily understandable flow and risk maps that can be opened in GIS programs and used in environmental assessments by experts. Substances investigated with the system include explosives and metals such as lead, and both surface and groundwater dominated areas can be simulated. The YMPYRÄ framework is composed of a three dimensional soil and groundwater flow model, several solute transport models and an uncertainty assessment system. Solute transport models in the framework include particle based, stream tube and finite volume based approaches. The models can be used to simulate solute dissolution from source area, transport in the unsaturated layers to groundwater and finally migration in groundwater to water extraction wells and springs. The models can be used to simulate advection, dispersion, equilibrium adsorption on soil particles, solubility and dissolution from solute phase and dendritic solute decay chains. Correct numerical solutions were confirmed by comparing results to analytical 1D and 2D solutions and by comparing the numerical solutions to each other. The particle based and stream tube type solute transport models were useful as they could complement the traditional finite volume based approach which in certain circumstances produced numerical dispersion due to piecewise solution of the
Demonstrations in Solute Transport Using Dyes: Part II. Modeling.
Butters, Greg; Bandaranayake, Wije
1993-01-01
A solution of the convection-dispersion equation is used to describe the solute breakthrough curves generated in the demonstrations in the companion paper. Estimation of the best fit model parameters (solute velocity, dispersion, and retardation) is illustrated using the method of moments for an example data set. (Author/MDH)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouerfelli, N.
2014-01-01
Ionic self-diffusion coefficients (D) for trivalent radiotracers, lanthanide and actinide ions have been determined in concentrated aqueous solutions of supporting electrolytes of Gd(NO 3 ) 3 -HNO 3 or Nd(ClO 3 ) 4 -HClO 4 up to 1.5 mol L -1 at 298.15 K and pH 2.50 by the open-end capillary method. The data obtained in large range of concentrations, allow to derive the limiting value D deg, the validity of the Onsager limiting law and a more extended law. This study contributes to demonstrate similarities in transport and structure properties between 4f and 5f trivalent ions explained by a similar electronic configuration, ionic radius and hydration number. An empirical equation is suggested for predicting ionic hydration number with a good precision. (author)
A single continuum approximation of the solute transport in fractured porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, J.T.; Lee, K.J.
1992-01-01
Solute transport in fractured porous media is described by the single continuum model, i.e., equivalent porous medium model. In this model, one-dimensional solute transport in the fracture and two-dimensional solute transport in the porous rock matrix is considered. The network of fractures embedded in the porous rock matrix is idealized as two orthogonally intersecting families of equally spaced, parallel fractures directed at 45 o to the regional groundwater flow direction. Governing equations are solved by the finite element method, and an upstream weighting technique is used in order to prevent the oscillation of the solution in the case of highly advection dominated transport. Breakthrough curves, similar to those of the one-dimensional solute transport problem in ordinary porous media, are obtained as a function of time according to volume or flux averaging of the concentration profile across the width of the flow region. The equivalent parameters, i.e., porosity and overall coefficient of longitudinal dispersivity, are obtained by a trial-and-error method. Analyses for the non-sorbing solute transport case show that within the range of considered parameters, and except for the region very close to the source, application of the single continuum model in the idealized fracture system is sufficient for modeling solute transport in fractured porous media. This numerical scheme is shown to be applicable to a sorbing solute and radionuclide transport. (author)
New methods For Modeling Transport Of Water And Solutes In Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møldrup, Per
Recent models for water and solute transport in unsaturated soils have been mechanistically based but numerically very involved. This dissertation concerns the development of mechanistically-based but numerically simple models for calculating and analyzing transport of water and solutes in soil...
Schot, P.P.
1991-01-01
This thesis deals with solute transport by groundwater flow and the way in which solute transport is affected by human activities. This in relation to wetland ecosystems. Wetlands in the eastern part of the Vecht river plain in The Netherlands are historically renown for their great variety of
Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangel, C.M.; Leitao, R.A.; Fonseca, I.T.
1986-01-01
The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jahshan, S.N.; Wemple, C.A.; Ganapol, B.D.
1993-01-01
A comparison of the numerical solutions of the transport equation describing the steady neutron slowing down in an infinite medium with constant cross sections is made with stochastic solutions obtained from tracking successive neutron histories in the same medium. The transport equation solution is obtained using a numerical Laplace transform inversion algorithm. The basis for the algorithm is an evaluation of the Bromwich integral without analytical continuation. Neither the transport nor the stochastic solution is limited in the number of scattering species allowed. The medium may contain an absorption component as well. (orig.)
Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie
2016-12-01
The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of turbulent hyporheic mixing on reach-scale solute transport
Roche, K. R.; Li, A.; Packman, A. I.
2017-12-01
Turbulence rapidly mixes solutes and fine particles into coarse-grained streambeds. Both hyporheic exchange rates and spatial variability of hyporheic mixing are known to be controlled by turbulence, but it is unclear how turbulent mixing influences mass transport at the scale of stream reaches. We used a process-based particle-tracking model to simulate local- and reach-scale solute transport for a coarse-bed stream. Two vertical mixing profiles, one with a smooth transition from in-stream to hyporheic transport conditions and a second with enhanced turbulent transport at the sediment-water interface, were fit to steady-state subsurface concentration profiles observed in laboratory experiments. The mixing profile with enhanced interfacial transport better matched the observed concentration profiles and overall mass retention in the streambed. The best-fit mixing profiles were then used to simulate upscaled solute transport in a stream. Enhanced mixing coupled in-stream and hyporheic solute transport, causing solutes exchanged into the shallow subsurface to have travel times similar to the water column. This extended the exponential region of the in-stream solute breakthrough curve, and delayed the onset of the heavy power-law tailing induced by deeper and slower hyporheic porewater velocities. Slopes of observed power-law tails were greater than those predicted from stochastic transport theory, and also changed in time. In addition, rapid hyporheic transport velocities truncated the hyporheic residence time distribution by causing mass to exit the stream reach via subsurface advection, yielding strong exponential tempering in the in-stream breakthrough curves at the timescale of advective hyporheic transport through the reach. These results show that strong turbulent mixing across the sediment-water interface violates the conventional separation of surface and subsurface flows used in current models for solute transport in rivers. Instead, the full distribution of
Muna, Joseph T.; Prescott, Kevin
2011-08-01
Traditionally, freight transport and telematics solutions that exploit the GPS capabilities of in- vehicle devices to provide innovative Location Based Services (LBS) including track and trace transport systems have been the preserve of a select cluster of transport operators and organisations with the financial resources to develop the requisite custom software and hardware on which they are deployed. The average cost of outfitting a typical transport vehicle or truck with the latest Intelligent Transport System (ITS) increases the cost of the vehicle by anything from a couple to several thousand Euros, depending on the complexity and completeness of the solution. Though this does not generally deter large fleet transport owners since they typically get Return on Investment (ROI) based on economies of scale, it presents a barrier for the smaller independent entities that constitute the majority of freight transport operators [1].The North Sea Freight Intelligent Transport Solution (NS FRITS), a project co-funded by the European Commission Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme, aims to make acquisition of such transport solutions easier for those organisations that cannot afford the expensive, bespoke systems used by their larger competitors.The project addresses transport security threats by developing a system capable of informing major actors along the freight logistics supply chain, of changing circumstances within the region's major transport corridors and between transport modes. The project also addresses issues of freight volumes, inter-modality, congestion and eco-mobility [2].
Fluid flow and convective transport of solutes within the intervertebral disc
Ferguson, S.J.; Ito, K.; Nolte, L.P.
2004-01-01
Previous experimental and analytical studies of solute transport in the intervertebral disc have demonstrated that for small molecules diffusive transport alone fulfils the nutritional needs of disc cells. It has been often suggested that fluid flow into and within the disc may enhance the transport
Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats
Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd
2015-04-01
be very similar and likely functionally related. Our experimental field data were used for modelling water flow and solute transport in floating fens, using HYDRUS 2D. Fluctuations of surface water and root mat, as well as geometry and unsaturated zone parameters can have a major influence on groundwater fluctuations and the exchange between rain and surface water and the water in the root mats. In combination with the duration of salt pulses in surface water, and sensitivity of fen plants to salinity (Stofberg et al. 2014, submitted), risks for rare plants can be anticipated.
The corrosion behaviour of rare-earth containing magnesium alloys in borate buffer solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinto, R. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, M.G.S. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTSetubal, DEM (Portugal); Montemor, M.F., E-mail: mfmontemor@ist.utl.p [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal)
2011-01-01
In this work, the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys ZK31, EZ33 and WE54 was studied in sodium borate buffer solution at pH 9.2. The electrochemical processes were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composition and morphology of the alloys and corrosion products formed were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental findings highlighted the differences in the corrosion mechanisms of the different alloys tested. The results showed that the presence of rare-earth elements (RE) only increases the corrosion resistance when present in solid solution, as is the case of the WE54 alloy. At pH 9.2, an amorphous yttrium oxide/hydroxide thick film was formed, which possesses greater stability when compared to magnesium oxide/hydroxide. The role of RE in the corrosion mechanism was discussed.
Cadmium fixation by synthetic hydroxyapatite in aqueous solution-Thermal behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchat, David; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Champion, Eric
2007-01-01
This study deals with the mechanism of the cadmium uptake by synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA: Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ) in aqueous solution. The rate of cadmium fixation by hydroxyapatite was investigated at 10 and 50 deg. C using batch experiments. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy were used to characterize the starting HA and the samples. The thermal behaviour of the powders was determined with the help of three thermoanalytical techniques (TGA, DTA, and MS) and temperature programmed X-ray diffraction. Cadmium immobilization kinetics can be divided into two steps: substitution of Ca 2+ ions by Cd 2+ in the HA lattice at the particle's surface, followed by their incorporation into the hydroxyapatite bulk. This results in the formation of an apatite solid solution, which is very important because in this way decontamination and storage can be performed with the same material
On the corrosion behaviour of phosphoric irons in simulated concrete pore solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, Gadadhar; Balasubramaniam, R.
2008-01-01
The corrosion behaviour of three phosphoric irons P 1 (Fe-0.11P-0.028C), P 2 (Fe-0.32P-0.026C) and P 3 (Fe-0.49P-0.022C) has been studied in simulated concrete pore solution (saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution) containing different chloride concentration. This has been compared with that of two commercial concrete reinforcement steels, a low carbon steel TN (Fe-0.148C-0.542Mn-0.128Si) and a microalloyed corrosion resistant steel CS (Fe-0.151C-0.088P-0.197Si-0.149Cr-0.417Cu). The beneficial aspect of phosphoric irons was revealed from potentiodynamic polarization experiments. The pitting potentials and pitting nucleation resistances for phosphoric irons and CS were higher than that for TN. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies revealed thickening and growth of passive film as a function of time in case of phosphoric irons and CS in saturated Ca(OH) 2 pore solutions without chloride and in the same solution with 0.05% Cl - and 0.1% Cl - . In case of TN, breakdown of passive film resulted in active corrosion in simulated pore solution containing 0.1% Cl - . Linear polarization resistance measurements complemented EIS results. Visual observations indicated that phosphoric iron P 3 was immune to corrosion even after 125 days of immersion in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution containing 5% NaCl. The good corrosion resistance of phosphoric irons in simulated concrete pore solution containing chloride ions has been related to the formation of phosphate, based on ultraviolet spectrophotometric analysis and Pourbaix diagram of phosphorus-water system
New diffusion-like solutions of one-speed transport equations in spherical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahni, D.C.
1988-01-01
Stationary, one-speed, spherically symmetric transport equations are considered in a conservative medium. Closed-form expressions are obtained for the angular flux ψ(r, μ) that yield a total flux varying as 1/r by using Sonine transforms. Properties of this solution are studied and it is shown that the solution can not be identified as a diffusion mode solution of the transport equation. Limitations of the Sonine transform technique are noted. (author)
Li, Ni; Huai, Wenqing; Wang, Shaodan
2017-08-01
C2 (command and control) has been understood to be a critical military component to meet an increasing demand for rapid information gathering and real-time decision-making in a dynamically changing battlefield environment. In this article, to improve a C2 behaviour model's reusability and interoperability, a behaviour modelling framework was proposed to specify a C2 model's internal modules and a set of interoperability interfaces based on the C-BML (coalition battle management language). WTA (weapon target assignment) is a typical C2 autonomous decision-making behaviour modelling problem. Different from most WTA problem descriptions, here sensors were considered to be available resources of detection and the relationship constraints between weapons and sensors were also taken into account, which brought it much closer to actual application. A modified differential evolution (MDE) algorithm was developed to solve this high-dimension optimisation problem and obtained an optimal assignment plan with high efficiency. In case study, we built a simulation system to validate the proposed C2 modelling framework and interoperability interface specification. Also, a new optimisation solution was used to solve the WTA problem efficiently and successfully.
A biomechanical triphasic approach to the transport of nondilute solutions in articular cartilage.
Abazari, Alireza; Elliott, Janet A W; Law, Garson K; McGann, Locksley E; Jomha, Nadr M
2009-12-16
Biomechanical models for biological tissues such as articular cartilage generally contain an ideal, dilute solution assumption. In this article, a biomechanical triphasic model of cartilage is described that includes nondilute treatment of concentrated solutions such as those applied in vitrification of biological tissues. The chemical potential equations of the triphasic model are modified and the transport equations are adjusted for the volume fraction and frictional coefficients of the solutes that are not negligible in such solutions. Four transport parameters, i.e., water permeability, solute permeability, diffusion coefficient of solute in solvent within the cartilage, and the cartilage stiffness modulus, are defined as four degrees of freedom for the model. Water and solute transport in cartilage were simulated using the model and predictions of average concentration increase and cartilage weight were fit to experimental data to obtain the values of the four transport parameters. As far as we know, this is the first study to formulate the solvent and solute transport equations of nondilute solutions in the cartilage matrix. It is shown that the values obtained for the transport parameters are within the ranges reported in the available literature, which confirms the proposed model approach.
A descriptive study on public transport user behaviour from Live Bus Arrivals
Dell’Amico, M.; Hadjidimitriou, S.; Kaparias, I.
2014-01-01
In order to offer public transport that meet citizens’ needs for transport and further increase the use of bus services, Public Authorities need to analyse and understand travellers behaviour. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data provide information on the observed time of arrival and departure of a bus at each stop. These data are fed into an algorithm to provide information to users on the expected time of arrival at the bus stop by an on-line service. In the city of London this service is...
One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Space dependent retardation factor is also taken. The nature of porous media and solute pollutant are considered chemically non-reactive. Initially porous domain is considered solute free and the input source condition is considered uniformly continuous. A new transformation is introduced to solve the advection dispersion ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faure, M.H.
1994-03-01
Understanding the mechanisms which control the transient transport of particles and radionuclides in natural and artificial porous media is a key problem for the assessment of safety of radioactive waste disposals. An experimental study has been performed to characterize the clayey particle mobility in porous media: a laboratory- made column, packed with an unconsolidated sand bentonite (5% weight) sample, is flushed with a salt solution. An original method of salinity gradient allowed us to show and to quantify some typical behaviours of this system: threshold effects in the peptization of particles, creation of preferential pathways, formation of immobile water zones induce solute-transfer limitation. The mathematical modelling accounts for a phenomenological law, where the distribution of particles between the stagnant water zone and the porous medium is a function of sodium chloride concentration. This distribution function is associated with a radionuclide adsorption model, and is included in a convective dispersive transport model with stagnant water zones. It allowed us to simulate the particle and solute transport when the salt environment is modified. The complete model has been validated with experiments involving cesium, calcium and neptunium in a sodium chloride gradient. (author). refs., figs., tabs
UrbanTransport Solution An Experience From Prague
African Journals Online (AJOL)
unique firstlady
Based on the result of the research ... associated with road transport like its impact on environment ..... Prague is utilizing a variety of marketing strategies used for many years in ... at strategic metro stations providing customers with maps , time ...
Single-photon emission tomography imaging of monoamine transporters in impulsive violent behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiihonen, J.; Hallikainen, T.; Hakola, P.; Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Yang, J.; Karhu, J.; Viinamaeki, H.; Lehtonen, J.
1997-01-01
Several studies have shown that impulsive violent and suicidal behaviour is associated with a central serotonin deficit, but until now it has not been possible to use laboratory tests with high sensitivity and specificity to study this kind of deficit or to localize the sites of serotonergic abnormalities in the living human brain. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that monoamine transporter density in brain is decreased in subjects with impulsive violent behaviour. We studied serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) transporter specific binding in 52 subjects (21 impulsive violent offenders, 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and ten non-violent alcoholic controls) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using iodine-123-labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT) as the tracer. The blind quantitative analysis revealed that the 5-HT specific binding of [ 123 I]β-CIT in the midbrain of violent offenders was lower than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.005; t test) or the non-violent alcoholics (P<0.05). The results imply that habitual impulsive aggressive behaviour in man is associated with a decrease in the 5-HT transporter density. (orig.)
Single-photon emission tomography imaging of monoamine transporters in impulsive violent behaviour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiihonen, J.; Hallikainen, T.; Hakola, P. [Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, FIN-70240 Kuopio (Finland); Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Yang, J. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Karhu, J. [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Viinamaeki, H.; Lehtonen, J. [Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland)
1997-10-01
Several studies have shown that impulsive violent and suicidal behaviour is associated with a central serotonin deficit, but until now it has not been possible to use laboratory tests with high sensitivity and specificity to study this kind of deficit or to localize the sites of serotonergic abnormalities in the living human brain. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that monoamine transporter density in brain is decreased in subjects with impulsive violent behaviour. We studied serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) transporter specific binding in 52 subjects (21 impulsive violent offenders, 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and ten non-violent alcoholic controls) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using iodine-123-labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) as the tracer. The blind quantitative analysis revealed that the 5-HT specific binding of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT in the midbrain of violent offenders was lower than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.005; t test) or the non-violent alcoholics (P<0.05). The results imply that habitual impulsive aggressive behaviour in man is associated with a decrease in the 5-HT transporter density. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 55 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedemann, K.H.
1977-05-01
The application of solutions to the decontamination of materials in nuclear installations is based on the condition that their corrosion behaviour is clearly understood. Since electrochemical corrosion is due to cathodic and anodic partial reactions which are influenced in different ways by the pH of the solution and the oxygen content it is suggested that the results of electrochemical experiments with buffer solutions be used as a model for predicting the corrosion behaviour of materials in other solutions. In the tests described here potentio-kinetic current-potential-curves have been traced and galvanic corrosion tests have been made. The results obtained in ascorbic acid, potassium hydrogen phthalate, ammonium citrate and acetate, sodium and potassium tartrate, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, sodium carbonate, hexamethylene tetramin, ethylene diamine enable - on the basis of summarized current-potential-curves - the metals studied to be classified in four groups characterized by clear differences concerning the influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour. (Auth.)
Study of precipitation behaviour of Mo and Zr in nitric acid solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Cansheng; Wang Xiaoying; Zhang Chonghai
1992-01-01
The precipitation behaviour of Mo and Zr which depends on the concentrations of Mo, Zr, nitric acid and temperature is studied. Precipitation, post-precipitation and ultracentrifugation experiments are made at 100 deg C, 80 deg C, 60 deg C, 40 deg C and room temperatures in the range of 0.6-6.0 mol/1 nitric acid. The experimental feeds are made up of molybdenum labelled with 99 Mo, zirconium labelled with 95 Zr and nitric acid solution. The feed is allowed to stand at constant temperature for some time for the observation of precipitation behaviour. The filtered precipitate and ultracentrifuged liquid is to be measured with HP (Ge)-multichannel analyser in order to determine the content of Mo, Zr and their mole ration in the precipitate and to find out whether there is colloid in the liquid. The results show that the mixed solution of Mo and Zr can produce precipitate and post-precipitate in nitric acid. If the filtrated liquid is allowed to stand for some time, precipitate can be produced again, until the concentration of Mo and Zr in the feed is too low to form precipitate, such as 2.5 x 10 -3 mol/1. If the concentration of nitric acid is less than 4.0 mol/1, the precipitation is produced easily and more precipitate is formed. Precipitation is slower in solutions which are more than 4.0 mol/1 in HNO 3 . The mole-ratio of Mo to Zr in the precipitate is 2 to 1 and it is not dependent on that ratio in the system
Light-driven solute transport in Halobacterium halobium
Lanyi, J. K.
1979-01-01
The cell membrane of Halobacterium halobium exhibits differential regions which contain crystalline arrays of a single kind of protein, termed bacteriorhodopsin. This bacterial retinal-protein complex resembles the visual pigment and, after the absorption of protons, translocates H(+) across the cell membrane, leading to an electrochemical gradient for protons between the inside and the outside of the cell. Thus, light is an alternate source of energy in these bacteria, in addition to terminal oxidation. The paper deals with work on light-driven transport in H. halobium with cell envelope vesicles. The discussion covers light-driven movements of H(+), Na(+), and K(+); light-driven amino acid transport; and apparent allosteric control of amino acid transport. The scheme of energy coupling in H. halobium vesicles appears simple, its quantitative details are quite complex and reveal regulatory phenomena. More knowledge is required of the way the coupling components are regulated by the ion gradients present.
Recasting the Understanding of Habits for Behaviour-Oriented Policies in Transportation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Marechal
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The role of habits in influencing transportation behaviour is acknowledged in many studies. However, most of these analyses draw on a narrow perspective of habits. In this paper, we adopt a reversed perspective regarding the interplay between habits and rationality. The insightfulness of this perspective is illustrated with the findings of two empirical studies on urban transportation. This paper shows that the underlying structure (i.e., the “genotype” behind the phenotypic manifestation of a habit is essential to grasp for getting a better understanding of the role played by habits in explaining car use. The framework of habitual practices is then put forward in discussing the results. Its rationale is to provide a characterisation of the interconnected elements that make and shape the transportation practices, together with important aspects regarding how they are formed and sustained over time. Adequately picturing both constituent elements as well as dynamic aspects is crucial for explaining the strength of habitual practices and thus car dependence. In doing so, the framework of habitual practices could thus well be of help for policy-makers in reflecting on the design of efficient and innovative interventions for the transition towards more sustainable transportation behaviours.
Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faichney, G.J.; Griffiths, D.A.
1978-01-01
Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([ 51 Cr]EDTA) and particle ([ 103 Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [ 51 Cr]EDTA and [ 103 Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [ 103 Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [ 51 Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [ 103 Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)
The crevice corrosion behaviour of stainless steel in sodium chloride solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Qian; Zhang Guoan; Qiu Yubin; Guo Xingpeng
2011-01-01
Highlights: → There are three stages in crevice corrosion of 13Cr stainless steel in NaCl solution. → The decrease of crevice thickness shortens the incubation period of crevice corrosion. → The incubation period of crevice corrosion prolongs as the increase of the area ratio. → Corrosion develops preferentially at crevice bottom and hydrogen reduction occurs inside the crevice. → Crevice corrosion of 13Cr stainless steel in NaCl solution follows the passive dissolution mechanism. - Abstract: The crevice corrosion behaviour of 13Cr stainless steel in NaCl solution was investigated mainly by electrochemical noise measurements, considering the influences of the crevice opening dimension (a) and the area ratio of the electrode outside the crevice to the one inside the crevice (r). Results show that the increase of r value prolongs the incubation period of crevice corrosion, but crevice corrosion develops rapidly once the crevice corrosion occurs. The crevice corrosion develops preferentially at the crevice bottom and then spreads to the whole electrode surface. Proton could reduce on the uncorroded area and hydrogen bubbles form inside the crevice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manakov, S V; Santini, P M
2008-01-01
We have recently solved the inverse scattering problem for one-parameter families of vector fields, and used this result to construct the formal solution of the Cauchy problem for a class of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in multidimensions, including the second heavenly equation of Plebanski and the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation. We showed, in particular, that the associated inverse problems can be expressed in terms of nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problems on the real axis. In this paper, we make use of the nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem of dKP (i) to construct the longtime behaviour of the solutions of its Cauchy problem; (ii) to characterize a class of implicit solutions; (iii) to elucidate the spectral mechanism causing the gradient catastrophe of localized solutions of dKP, at finite time as well as in the longtime regime, and the corresponding universal behaviours near breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manakov, S V [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Santini, P M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma 1, Piazz.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy)
2008-02-08
We have recently solved the inverse scattering problem for one-parameter families of vector fields, and used this result to construct the formal solution of the Cauchy problem for a class of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in multidimensions, including the second heavenly equation of Plebanski and the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation. We showed, in particular, that the associated inverse problems can be expressed in terms of nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problems on the real axis. In this paper, we make use of the nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem of dKP (i) to construct the longtime behaviour of the solutions of its Cauchy problem; (ii) to characterize a class of implicit solutions; (iii) to elucidate the spectral mechanism causing the gradient catastrophe of localized solutions of dKP, at finite time as well as in the longtime regime, and the corresponding universal behaviours near breaking.
Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions
C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting (Ruud)
1996-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume
UrbanTransport Solution An Experience From Prague | Jeremiah ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper examines the urban transport problems in Prague in Czech Republic. Based on the result of the research conducted, it was found that with the collapsed of Communism in Czech Republic, there was an upsurge in the use of private cars which was not possible during communism because the law does not ...
Solute transport through porous media using asymptotic dispersivity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ber of processes and porous media properties including convective transport .... existence of regions within the porous medium in which there is minimum advective flow. .... concentration at x = L. The initial and the exit boundary conditions can be .... rial was cleaned, washed and dried to ensure that the material free from ...
Magnetic and transport behaviour in Pr3X(X=In,Sn,Ga,Ge,Ni,Co,Ru,Ir) systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garde, C.S.; Ray, J.
1998-01-01
Magnetic and transport studies on Pr 3 X (X=In, Sn, Ga, Ge, Ni, Co, Ru, Ir) systems gave evidence for complex magnetic behaviour. All the systems, except X=Sn, exhibit ferromagnetic ordering. The X=Sn system exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering. For X=Ga and Sn, metamagnetic behaviour has been observed. Crystal field effects are found to play an important role in influencing magnetic behaviour. The strength of the crystal field term has also been estimated. (orig.)
Reactive solute transport in an asymmetrical fracture-rock matrix system
Zhou, Renjie; Zhan, Hongbin
2018-02-01
The understanding of reactive solute transport in a single fracture-rock matrix system is the foundation of studying transport behavior in the complex fractured porous media. When transport properties are asymmetrically distributed in the adjacent rock matrixes, reactive solute transport has to be considered as a coupled three-domain problem, which is more complex than the symmetric case with identical transport properties in the adjacent rock matrixes. This study deals with the transport problem in a single fracture-rock matrix system with asymmetrical distribution of transport properties in the rock matrixes. Mathematical models are developed for such a problem under the first-type and the third-type boundary conditions to analyze the spatio-temporal concentration and mass distribution in the fracture and rock matrix with the help of Laplace transform technique and de Hoog numerical inverse Laplace algorithm. The newly acquired solutions are then tested extensively against previous analytical and numerical solutions and are proven to be robust and accurate. Furthermore, a water flushing phase is imposed on the left boundary of system after a certain time. The diffusive mass exchange along the fracture/rock matrixes interfaces and the relative masses stored in each of three domains (fracture, upper rock matrix, and lower rock matrix) after the water flushing provide great insights of transport with asymmetric distribution of transport properties. This study has the following findings: 1) Asymmetric distribution of transport properties imposes greater controls on solute transport in the rock matrixes. However, transport in the fracture is mildly influenced. 2) The mass stored in the fracture responses quickly to water flushing, while the mass stored in the rock matrix is much less sensitive to the water flushing. 3) The diffusive mass exchange during the water flushing phase has similar patterns under symmetric and asymmetric cases. 4) The characteristic distance
Cho, Kyu-Hyang; Do, Jun-Young; Park, Jong-Won; Yoon, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Yong-Lim
2013-01-01
Several studies have reported benefits for human peritoneal mesothelial cell function of a neutral-pH dialysate low in glucose degradation products (GDPs). However, the effects of low-GDP solution on ultrafiltration (UF), transport of solutes, and control of body water remain elusive. We therefore investigated the effect of low-GDP solution on UF, solute transport, and control of body water. Among 79 new continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, 60 completed a 12-month protocol (28 in a lactate-based high-GDP solution group, 32 in a lactate-based low-GDP solution group). Clinical indices--including 24-hour UF volume (UFV), 24-hour urine volume (UV), residual renal function, and dialysis adequacy--were measured at months 1, 6, and 12. At months 1, 6, and 12, UFV, glucose absorption, 4-hour dialysate-to-plasma (D/P) creatinine, and 1-hour D/P Na(+) were assessed during a modified 4.25% peritoneal equilibration test (PET). Body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis was measured at months 1 and 12 in 26 CAPD patients. Daily UFV was lower in the low-GDP group. Despite similar solute transport and aquaporin function, the low-GDP group also showed lower UFV and higher glucose absorption during the PET. Factors associated with UFV during the PET were lactate-based high-GDP solution and 1-hour D/P Na(+). No differences in volume status and obesity at month 12 were observed, and improvements in hypervolemia were equal in both groups. Compared with the high-GDP group, the low-GDP group had a lower UFV during a PET and a lower daily UFV during the first year after peritoneal dialysis initiation. Although the low-GDP group had a lower daily UFV, no difficulties in controlling edema were encountered.
Modelling the Hydraulic Behaviour of Growing Media with the Explicit Finite Volume Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The increasing imperviousness of urban areas reduces the infiltration and evapotranspiration capacity of urban catchments and results in increased runoff. In the last few decades, several solutions and techniques have been proposed to prevent such impacts by restoring the hydrological cycle. A limiting factor in spreading the use of such systems is the lack of proper modelling tools for design, especially for the infiltration processes in a growing medium. In this research, a physically-based model, employing the explicit Finite Volume Method (FVM, is proposed for modelling infiltration into growing media. The model solves a modified version of the Richards equation using a formulation which takes into account the main characteristics of green infrastructure substrates. The proposed model was verified against the HYDRUS-1D software and the comparison of results confirmed the suitability of the proposed model for correctly describing the hydraulic behaviour of soil substrates.
Liberalisation and regulation in the financial crisis – is behavioural economics a solution?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liviu-George MAHA
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The causes of economic crisis are a subject of intense debate, most opinions of economists ranging from the liberalization of the market to its regulation. We believe that usually there is “sufficient state” and that a change in its level does not have the expected effects. Although on the long term the reduction of the state presence would be preferable, on the medium and short term this would have negative effects, such as the reduction of the number of employees. One solution would be abandoning the simplistic neoclassical economic models, and replacing them with models developed in behavioural economics that would allow state and companies to develop more effective strategies.
Corrosion behaviour of electropolished AISI 316L austenitic biomaterial in physiological solution
Zatkalíková, V.; Markovičová, L.; Škorvanová, M.
2017-11-01
Due to suitable mechanical properties, satisfactory corrosion resistance and relatively low cost, austenitic stainless steels are important biomaterials for manufacture of implants and various medical instruments and devices. Their corrosion properties and biocompatibility are significantly affected by protective passive surface film quality, which depends on used mechanical and chemical surface treatment. This article deals with corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel, which is the most widely used Cr-Ni-Mo austenitic biomaterial. Corrosion behaviour of five various surfaces (original, electropolished, three surfaces with combined treatment finished by electropolishing) is evaluated on the bases of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests performed in physiological solution at the temperature of 37± 0.5 °C.
2010-01-01
Based on the results from this research, MoDOT can confidently state that the diverging diamond was the right transportation solution for the Interstate 44 and Route 13 intersection. The overall results show: Most Springfield area residents were ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Cherniha
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear mathematical model for solute and fluid transport induced by the osmotic pressure of glucose and albumin with the dependence of several parameters on the hydrostatic pressure is described. In particular, the fractional space available for macromolecules (albumin was used as a typical example and fractional fluid void volume were assumed to be different functions of hydrostatic pressure. In order to find non-uniform steady-state solutions analytically, some mathematical restrictions on the model parameters were applied. Exact formulae (involving hypergeometric functions for the density of fluid flux from blood to tissue and the fluid flux across tissues were constructed. In order to justify the applicability of the analytical results obtained, a wide range of numerical simulations were performed. It was found that the analytical formulae can describe with good approximation the fluid and solute transport (especially the rate of ultrafiltration for a wide range of values of the model parameters.
Analysis of the Sodium Recirculation Theory of Solute Coupled Water Transport in Small Intestine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, E. H.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Sørensen, J. B.
2002-01-01
Our previous mathematical model of solute-coupled water transport through the intestinal epithelium is extended for dealing with electrolytes rather than electroneutral solutes. A 3Na+-2K+ pump in the lateral membranes provides the energy-requiring step for driving transjunctional and translateral......, computations predict that the concentration differences between lis and bathing solutions are small for all three ions. Nevertheless, the diffusion fluxes of the ions out of lis significantly exceed their mass transports. It is concluded that isotonic transport requires recirculation of all three ions....... The computed sodium recirculation flux that is required for isotonic transport corresponds to that estimated in experiments on toad small intestine. This result is shown to be robust and independent of whether the apical entrance mechanism for the sodium ion is a channel, a SGLT1 transporter driving inward...
Brain washing : Transport of cerebral extracellular fluids and solutes
Bedussi, B.
2017-01-01
Regulation of extracellular volume and fluid composition provides a robust microenvironment for brain cells. In peripheral tissue, fluid surplus and solutes are removed from the interstitium via drainage into lymphatic channels. Since the central nervous system lacks a proper lymphatic vasculature,
Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith
2000-01-01
This paper, the first of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], takes the compartmentalized approach for the geochemical evolution of redox zones presented by Abrams et al. [1998] and embeds it within a solute transport framework. In this paper the compartmentalized approach is generalized to facilitate the description of its incorporation into a solute transport simulator. An equivalent formulation is developed which removes any discontinuities that may occur when switching compartments. Rate‐limited redox reactions are modeled with a modified Monod relationship that allows either the organic substrate or the electron acceptor to be the rate‐limiting reactant. Thermodynamic constraints are used to inhibit lower‐energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium on the lower‐energy reactions. The procedure used allows any redox reaction to be simulated as being kinetically limited or thermodynamically limited, depending on local geochemical conditions. Empirical reaction inhibition methods are not needed. The sequential iteration approach (SIA), a technique which allows the number of solute transport equations to be reduced, is adopted to solve the coupled geochemical/solute transport problem. When the compartmentalized approach is embedded within the SIA, with the total analytical concentration of each component as the dependent variable in the transport equation, it is possible to reduce the number of transport equations even further than with the unmodified SIA. A one‐dimensional, coupled geochemical/solute transport simulation is presented in which redox zones evolve dynamically in time and space. The compartmentalized solute transport (COMPTRAN) model described in this paper enables the development of redox zones to be simulated under both kinetic and thermodynamic constraints. The modular design of COMPTRAN facilitates the use of many different, preexisting solute transport and
Fluid flow and convective transport of solutes within the intervertebral disc.
Ferguson, Stephen J; Ito, Keita; Nolte, Lutz P
2004-02-01
Previous experimental and analytical studies of solute transport in the intervertebral disc have demonstrated that for small molecules diffusive transport alone fulfils the nutritional needs of disc cells. It has been often suggested that fluid flow into and within the disc may enhance the transport of larger molecules. The goal of the study was to predict the influence of load-induced interstitial fluid flow on mass transport in the intervertebral disc. An iterative procedure was used to predict the convective transport of physiologically relevant molecules within the disc. An axisymmetric, poroelastic finite-element structural model of the disc was developed. The diurnal loading was divided into discrete time steps. At each time step, the fluid flow within the disc due to compression or swelling was calculated. A sequentially coupled diffusion/convection model was then employed to calculate solute transport, with a constant concentration of solute being provided at the vascularised endplates and outer annulus. Loading was simulated for a complete diurnal cycle, and the relative convective and diffusive transport was compared for solutes with molecular weights ranging from 400 Da to 40 kDa. Consistent with previous studies, fluid flow did not enhance the transport of low-weight solutes. During swelling, interstitial fluid flow increased the unidirectional penetration of large solutes by approximately 100%. Due to the bi-directional temporal nature of disc loading, however, the net effect of convective transport over a full diurnal cycle was more limited (30% increase). Further study is required to determine the significance of large solutes and the timing of their delivery for disc physiology.
TLC scheme for numerical solution of the transport equation on equilateral triangular meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walters, W.F.
1983-01-01
A new triangular linear characteristic TLC scheme for numerically solving the transport equation on equilateral triangular meshes has been developed. This scheme uses the analytic solution of the transport equation in the triangle as its basis. The data on edges of the triangle are assumed linear as is the source representation. A characteristic approach or nodal approach is used to obtain the analytic solution. Test problems indicate that the new TLC is superior to the widely used DITRI scheme for accuracy
Water flow and solute transport through fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolt, J.E.; Bourke, P.J.; Pascoe, D.M.; Watkins, V.M.B.; Kingdon, R.D.
1990-09-01
In densely fractured slate at the Nirex research site in Cornwall, the positions, orientations and hydraulic conductivities of the 380 fractures intersecting a drill hole between 9 and 50 m depth have been individually measured. These data have been used: to determine the dimensions of statistically representative volumes of the network of fractures and to predict, using discrete flow path modelling and the NAPSAC code, the total flows into the fractures when large numbers are simultaneously pressurised along various lengths of the hole. Corresponding measurements, which validated the NAPSAC code to factor of two accuracy for the Cornish site, are reported. Possibilities accounting for this factor are noted for experimental investigation, and continuing, more extensive, inter hole flow and transport measurements are outlined. The application of this experimental and theoretical approach for calculating radionuclide transport in less densely fractured rock suitable for waste disposal is discussed. (Author)
Water flow and solute transport through fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourke, P.J.; Kingdon, R.D.; Bolt, J.E.; Pascoe, D.M.; Watkins, V.M.B.
1991-01-01
In densely fractured slate at the Nirex research site in Cornwall, the positions, orientations and hydraulic conductivities of the 380 fractures intersecting a drill hole between 9 and 50 m depths have been individually measured. These data have been used: - to determine the dimensions of statistically representative volumes of the sheetwork of fractures; - to predict; using discrete flowpath modelling and the NAPSAC code; the total flows into the fractures when large numbers are simultaneously pressurised along various lengths of the hole; Corresponding measurements, which proved the modelling and validated the code to factor of two accuracy, are reported. Possibilities accounting for this factor are noted for experimental investigation, and continuing, more extensive inter-hole flow and transport measurements are outlined. The application of this experimental and theoretical approach for calculating radionuclide transport in less densely fractured rock suitable for waste disposal is discussed. 7 figs., 9 refs
A transportronic solution to the problem of interorbital transportation
Brown, William C.
1992-01-01
An all-electronic transportation system described by the term 'transportronics' is examined as a means of solving the current problem of the high cost of transporting material from low-Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary orbit (GEO). In this transportation system, low cost electric energy at the surface of the Earth is efficiently converted into microwave power which is then efficiently formed into a narrow beam which is kept incident upon the orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) by electronic tracking. The incident beam is efficiently captured and converted into DC power by a device which has a very high ratio of DC power output to its mass. Because the mass of the electric thruster is also low, the resulting acceleration is unprecedented for electric-propelled vehicles. However, the performance of the system in terms of transit times from LEO to GEO is penalized by the short time of contact between the beam and the vehicle in low-Earth orbits. This makes it necessary to place the Earth based transmitters and the vehicles in the equatorial plane thus introducing many geopolitical factors. Technically, however, such a system as described in the report may out-perform any other approach to transportation in the LEO to GEO regime. The report describes and analyzes all portions of the beamed microwave power transmission system in considerable detail. An economic analysis of the operating and capital costs is made with the aid of a reference system capable of placing about 130,000 kilograms of payload into GEO each year. More mature states of the system are then examined, to a level in which 60,000 metric tons per year could be placed into GEO.
Holdaway, Daniel; Kent, James
2015-01-01
The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5). All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM) is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace
2010-01-01
Flux limitation and preheat are important processes in electron transport occurring in laser produced plasmas. The proper calculation of both of these has been a subject receiving much attention over the entire lifetime of the laser fusion project. Where nonlocal transport (instead of simple single flux limit) has been modeled, it has always been with what we denote the equivalent diffusion solution, namely treating the transport as only a diffusion process. We introduce here a new approach called the nonlocal source solution and show it is numerically viable for laser produced plasmas. It turns out that the equivalent diffusion solution generally underestimates preheat. Furthermore, the advance of the temperature front, and especially the preheat, can be held up by artificial 'thermal barriers'. The nonlocal source method of solution, on the other hand more accurately describes preheat and can stably calculate the solution for the temperature even if the heat flux is up the gradient.
Hamamoto, S.; Arihara, M.; Kawamoto, K.; Nishimura, T.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.
2014-12-01
Subsurface warming driven by global warming, urban heat islands, and increasing use of shallow geothermal heating and cooling systems such as the ground source heat pump, potentially causes changes in subsurface mass transport. Therefore, understanding temperature dependency of the solute transport characteristics is essential to accurately assess environmental risks due to increased subsurface temperature. In this study, one-dimensional solute transport experiments were conducted in soil columns under temperature control to investigate effects of temperature on solute transport parameters, such as solute dispersion and diffusion coefficients, hydraulic conductivity, and retardation factor. Toyoura sand, Kaolin clay, and intact loamy soils were used in the experiments. Intact loamy soils were taken during a deep well boring at the Arakawa Lowland in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In the transport experiments, the core sample with 5-cm diameter and 4-cm height was first isotropically consolidated, whereafter 0.01M KCl solution was injected to the sample from the bottom. The concentrations of K+ and Cl- in the effluents were analyzed by an ion chromatograph to obtain solute breakthrough curves. The solute transport parameters were calculated from the breakthrough curves. The experiments were conducted under different temperature conditions (15, 25, and 40 oC). The retardation factor for the intact loamy soils decreased with increasing temperature, while water permeability increased due to reduced viscosity of water at higher temperature. Opposite, the effect of temperature on solute dispersivity for the intact loamy soils was insignificant. The effects of soil texture on the temperature dependency of the solute transport characteristics will be further investigated from comparison of results from differently-textured samples.
Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions
Lefebvre, M.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.
2012-08-01
The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1-4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5-7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two processes. The first is a
Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coutellier D.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1–4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5–7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sauter
2002-06-01
Full Text Available Shortchained alkylphenols (SCAP represent a main constituent of crude oil and coal liquefaction products. Due to their specific oil/water partitioning behaviour and high aqueous solubility they can be detected in oil exploitation waters and groundwaters affected by various spills near oil pipelines, oil exploitation sites and coal liquefaction plants. New efficient and powerful analytical techniques have been developed that allow the identification of all 34 individual compounds (C0-C3 without derivatisation and in complex matrices. Due to the different physico-chemical properties of the SCAP, differential transport behaviour in groundwater can be observed, changing the relative concentrations of SCAP downgradient in space and time. These characteristic ratios can be employed to derive information on migration direction and the ageing of the source of contamination. A case study is presented to illustrate the use of this new tool.
The Governor's Challenge: "Building a Stronger Virginia Today": Transportation Visions and Solutions
Baker, Susan
2008-01-01
Using STM(Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) education, this emerging workforce will have the chance to creatively solve one of Virginia's biggest challenges: TRANSPORTATION. - Students will be asked to develop alternative transportation systems for the state. This competition will enable teams to work with business mentors to design creative solutions for regional gridlocks and develop other transportation systems to more easily and expediently reach all parts of the Commonwealth.
Investigation of the passive behaviour of AZ31B alloy in alkaline solutions
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A. Fattah-alhosseini
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, the passivity of AZ31B alloy in NaOH solutions was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and Mott–Schottky analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that decreasing NaOH concentration leads to decrease the corrosion rate of this alloy. EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance (1/C of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness which increases with decreasing NaOH concentration. Therefore, it is clear that dilute NaOH solutions offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behaviour, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films. The Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials (over the cation vacancies preponderated. Also, Mott–Schottky results showed that the donor densities evaluated from Mott–Schottky plots are in the range of 1020 cm−3 and decreased with decreasing NaOH concentration.
New solution for transport and industrial noise protection through reflective noise barriers
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Kralov Ivan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new solution for protection of transportation and industrial noise through reflective noise barriers is proposed and investigated in this study. The new solution combines the advantages of the known barriers and has its own advantages in addition. The preliminary results show a very good level of noise reduction for this type of barriers.
Yang, Jianwen
2012-04-01
A general analytical solution is derived by using the Laplace transformation to describe transient reactive silica transport in a conceptualized 2-D system involving a set of parallel fractures embedded in an impermeable host rock matrix, taking into account of hydrodynamic dispersion and advection of silica transport along the fractures, molecular diffusion from each fracture to the intervening rock matrix, and dissolution of quartz. A special analytical solution is also developed by ignoring the longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion term but remaining other conditions the same. The general and special solutions are in the form of a double infinite integral and a single infinite integral, respectively, and can be evaluated using Gauss-Legendre quadrature technique. A simple criterion is developed to determine under what conditions the general analytical solution can be approximated by the special analytical solution. It is proved analytically that the general solution always lags behind the special solution, unless a dimensionless parameter is less than a critical value. Several illustrative calculations are undertaken to demonstrate the effect of fracture spacing, fracture aperture and fluid flow rate on silica transport. The analytical solutions developed here can serve as a benchmark to validate numerical models that simulate reactive mass transport in fractured porous media.
Effect of pH on the corrosion behaviour of SUS321 in the ammonia aqueous solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Sang Yoon; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, J. H.; Choi, B. K.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, D. J.
2003-02-01
The corrosion characteristics of SUS321 for pressure vessel of SMART in pure water, ammonia aqueous solutions of pH 8.5 ∼ 11.5 at 300 .deg. C were evaluated by using static autoclaves. SUS321 specimen in the high temperature ammonia aqueous solution has weight gain or loss by the 4 reactions. And it depends on the refreshing period of the aqueous solution. So additional experiments by recirculating loop system were required to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of SUS321 in the ammonia aqueous solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dawn A Skelton
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Objective: There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals’ context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals’ daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. Method: This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Results: Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness; psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt; interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone; knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink. Conclusion: This study provides important considerations from older adults’ perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.
Leask, Calum F; Sandlund, Marlene; Skelton, Dawn A; Tulle, Emmanuelle; Chastin, Sebastien Fm
2016-01-01
There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals' context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals' daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years) participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness); psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt); interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone); knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB) and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink). This study provides important considerations from older adults' perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.
Peeters, P.M.
2013-01-01
This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.
Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed
Jin, Guangqiu; Tang, Hongwu; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.
2015-04-01
A laboratory experiment and numerical modeling were used to examine effects of density gradients on hyporheic flow and solute transport under the condition of a solute pulse input to a river with regular bed forms. Relatively low-density gradients due to an initial salt pulse concentration of 1.55 kg m-3 applied in the experiment were found to modulate significantly the pore-water flow and solute transport in the riverbed. Such density gradients increased downward flow and solute transport in the riverbed by factors up to 1.6. This resulted in a 12.2% increase in the total salt transfer from the water column to the riverbed over the salt pulse period. As the solute pulse passed, the effect of the density gradients reversed, slowing down the release of the solute back to the river water by a factor of 3.7. Numerical modeling indicated that these density effects intensified as salt concentrations in the water column increased. Simulations further showed that the density gradients might even lead to unstable flow and result in solute fingers in the bed of large bed forms. The slow release of solute from the bed back to the river led to a long tail of solute concentration in the river water. These findings have implications for assessment of impact of pollution events on river systems, in particular, long-term effects on both the river water and riverbed due to the hyporheic exchange.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeAngelis, D.L.; Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.
1984-10-01
This report documents a model, FRACPORT, that simulates the transport of a solute through a fractured porous matrix. The model should be useful in analyzing the possible transport of radionuclides from shallow-land burial sites in humid environments. The use of the model is restricted to transport through saturated zones. The report first discusses the general modeling approach used, which is based on the Integrated Compartmental Method. The basic equations of solute transport are then presented. The model, which assumes a known water velocity field, solves these equations on two different time scales; one related to rapid transport of solute along fractures and the other related to slower transport through the porous matrix. FRACPORT is validated by application to a simple example of fractured porous medium transport that has previously been analyzed by other methods. Then its utility is demonstrated in analyzing more complex cases of pulses of solute into a fractured matrix. The report serves as a user's guide to FRACPORT. A detailed description of data input, along with a listing of input for a sample problem, is provided. 16 references, 18 figures, 3 tables.
Network Modelling of the Influence of Swelling on the Transport Behaviour of Bentonite
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Ignatios Athanasiadis
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Wetting of bentonite is a complex hydro-mechanical process that involves swelling and, if confined, significant structural changes in its void structure. A coupled structural transport network model is proposed to investigate the effect of wetting of bentonite on retention conductivity and swelling pressure response. The transport network of spheres and pipes, representing voids and throats, respectively, relies on Laplace–Young’s equation to model the wetting process. The structural network uses a simple elasto-plastic approach without hardening to model the rearrangement of the fabric. Swelling is introduced in the form of an eigenstrain in the structural elements, which are adjacent to water filled spheres. For a constrained cell, swelling is shown to produce plastic strains, which result in a reduction of pipe and sphere spaces and, therefore, influence the conductivity and retention behaviour.
Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David
2014-01-01
No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Garcia, D.M.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Igual-Munoz, A.
2008-01-01
The objective of this work is to study the influence of cavitation on the passive behaviour of EN 1.4462, its filler metal (EN 1.4462F), and the welded metal (EN 1.4462W) obtained by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding using electrochemical techniques. The hydrodynamic conditions of the medium were modified using an ultrasonic-induced cavitation facility. Potentiostatic experiments were used to study the effects of cavitation on the passive behaviour of the alloys. The experiments were carried out in 850 g/L LiBr solutions with and without an inhibitor (Lithium Chromate). The solution with Li 2 CrO 4 (commercial solution) contains LiOH as the pH regulator. The potentiodynamic cyclic curves of the stainless steels under the static condition were used to set the values of the imposed potentials. In this work, the electrochemical behaviour of the alloys described by the potentiodynamic curves has been related to their passive behaviour under potentiostatic conditions when the pulses of cavitation were applied. The results demonstrate that cavitation affects the passive behaviour of the alloys; the influence depends on the potential applied and on the presence or absence of chromates in the medium. Only under certain circumstances the hydrodynamic conditions can suppose a breakdown of passive film formed under static conditions
Mass transfer processes and field-scale transport of organic solutes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brusseau, M.L.
1990-01-01
The influence of mass transfer processes, such as sorption/desorption and mass transfer between immiscible liquids and water, on the transport of organic solutes is discussed. Rate-limited sorption of organic solutes caused by a diffusion-constrained mechanism is shown to be significant under laboratory conditions. The significance of the impact of nonequilibrium sorption on field-scale transport is scale dependent. The impact of organic liquids on mass transfer and transport of organic solutes depends upon the nature of the solute and the nature and form of the organic liquid. For example, while retardation of nonionic solutes is decreased in mixed-solvent systems, (i.e. systems comprised of water and a miscible organic liquid or an immiscible liquid present in concentrations below phase separation), the retardation of organic acids may, in some cases, increase with addition of a cosolvent. While the presence of an immiscible liquid existing as a mobile phase will reduce retention of organic solutes, the presence of residual saturation of an immiscible liquid can significantly increase retention. A model is presented that incorporates the effects of retention resulting from residual saturation, as well as nonequilibrium sorption, on the transport of organic solutes. (Author) (70 refs., 3 figs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.; Woods, B.L.
1989-01-01
Laboratory-scale lysimeter experiments were performed with simulated waste forms placed in candidate buffer materials which have been chosen for a low-level radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide releases into the effluent water and radionuclide capture by the buffer material were determined. The results could not be explained by traditional solution transport mechanisms, and transport by particles released from the waste form and/or transport by buffer particles were suspected as the dominant mechanism for radionuclide release from the lysimeters. To elucidate the relative contribution of particle and solution transport, the waste forms were replaced by a wafer of neutron-activated buffer soaked with selected soluble isotopes. Particle transport was determined by the movement of gamma-emitting neutron-activation products through the lysimeter. Solution transport was quantified by comparing the migration of soluble radionuclides relative to the transport of neutron activation products. The new approach for monitoring radionuclide migration in soil is presented. It facilitates the determination of most of the fundamental coefficients required to model the transport process
VS2DRTI: Simulating Heat and Reactive Solute Transport in Variably Saturated Porous Media.
Healy, Richard W; Haile, Sosina S; Parkhurst, David L; Charlton, Scott R
2018-01-29
Variably saturated groundwater flow, heat transport, and solute transport are important processes in environmental phenomena, such as the natural evolution of water chemistry of aquifers and streams, the storage of radioactive waste in a geologic repository, the contamination of water resources from acid-rock drainage, and the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Up to now, our ability to simulate these processes simultaneously with fully coupled reactive transport models has been limited to complex and often difficult-to-use models. To address the need for a simple and easy-to-use model, the VS2DRTI software package has been developed for simulating water flow, heat transport, and reactive solute transport through variably saturated porous media. The underlying numerical model, VS2DRT, was created by coupling the flow and transport capabilities of the VS2DT and VS2DH models with the equilibrium and kinetic reaction capabilities of PhreeqcRM. Flow capabilities include two-dimensional, constant-density, variably saturated flow; transport capabilities include both heat and multicomponent solute transport; and the reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of geochemical reactions of PHREEQC. The graphical user interface includes a preprocessor for building simulations and a postprocessor for visual display of simulation results. To demonstrate the simulation of multiple processes, the model is applied to a hypothetical example of injection of heated waste water to an aquifer with temperature-dependent cation exchange. VS2DRTI is freely available public domain software. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.
Optimal solution of full fuzzy transportation problems using total integral ranking
Sam’an, M.; Farikhin; Hariyanto, S.; Surarso, B.
2018-03-01
Full fuzzy transportation problem (FFTP) is a transportation problem where transport costs, demand, supply and decision variables are expressed in form of fuzzy numbers. To solve fuzzy transportation problem, fuzzy number parameter must be converted to a crisp number called defuzzyfication method. In this new total integral ranking method with fuzzy numbers from conversion of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to hexagonal fuzzy numbers obtained result of consistency defuzzyfication on symmetrical fuzzy hexagonal and non symmetrical type 2 numbers with fuzzy triangular numbers. To calculate of optimum solution FTP used fuzzy transportation algorithm with least cost method. From this optimum solution, it is found that use of fuzzy number form total integral ranking with index of optimism gives different optimum value. In addition, total integral ranking value using hexagonal fuzzy numbers has an optimal value better than the total integral ranking value using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.
Global stability and exact solution of an arbitrary-solute nonlinear cellular mass transport system.
Benson, James D
2014-12-01
The prediction of the cellular state as a function of extracellular concentrations and temperatures has been of interest to physiologists for nearly a century. One of the most widely used models in the field is one where mass flux is linearly proportional to the concentration difference across the membrane. These fluxes define a nonlinear differential equation system for the intracellular state, which when coupled with appropriate initial conditions, define the intracellular state as a function of the extracellular concentrations of both permeating and nonpermeating solutes. Here we take advantage of a reparametrization scheme to extend existing stability results to a more general setting and to a develop analytical solutions to this model for an arbitrary number of extracellular solutes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Approximate solution of the transport equation by methods of Galerkin type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitkaranta, J.
1977-01-01
Questions of the existence, uniqueness, and convergence of approximate solutions of transport equations by methods of the Galerkin type (where trial and weighting functions are the same) are discussed. The results presented do not exclude the infinite-dimensional case. Two strategies can be followed in the variational approximation of the transport operator: one proceeds from the original form of the transport equation, while the other is based on the partially symmetrized equation. Both principles are discussed in this paper. The transport equation is assumed in a discretized multigroup form
SOLUTIONS AND MEANS OF ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT IN THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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CATALIN POPESCU
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve an overview of innovative initiatives on alternative transport in recent years in the context of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context are presented the main problems caused by motorized traffic in the urban agglomerations. Also, there are mentioned measures that could be implemented in busy urban areas. On this occasion are mentioned both new technical solutions and new means of alternative transport type. Additional, specific projects and programs are highlighted using bicycle transportation. There are mentioned initiatives regarding urban transportation completed in European projects such as: CIVITAS, EFFECTS etc. The examples and figures are mainly focused on Romania.
Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.
2009-09-15
A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.
Molecular cell biology and physiology of solute transport
Caplan, Michael J.; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Zhang, Li
2010-01-01
Purpose of review An enormous body of research has been focused on exploring the mechanisms through which epithelial cells establish their characteristic polarity. It is clear that under normal circumstances cell–cell contacts mediated by the calcium-dependent adhesion proteins of the intercellular adhesion junctions are required to initiate complete polarization. Furthermore, formation of the tight, or occluding, junctions that limit paracellular permeability has long been thought to help to establish polarity by preventing the diffusion of membrane proteins between the two plasmalemmal domains. This review will discuss several selected kinases and protein complexes and highlight their relevance to transporting epithelial cell polarization. Recent findings Recent work has shed new light on the roles of junctional complexes in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. In addition, work from several laboratories, suggests that the formation of these junctions is tied to processes that regulate cellular energy metabolism. Summary Junctional complexes and energy sensing kinases constitute a novel class of machinery whose capacity to generate and modulate epithelial cell polarity is likely to have wide ranging and important physiological ramifications. PMID:18695392
ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS SOURCES AND SOLUTION PROPOSALS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Zennur GÜRBÜZ
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Organizational stress is a concept which can have negative effects for both the workers and the organizations. The purpose of this study is to determine and classify the organizational stress sources that public transportation are exposed to, and to provide suggestions for managing these stress factors. A comprehensive literature survey is made in organizational stress factors and the following classes are identified: work structure, organizational structure, organizational policy, within-company relations and physical conditions. A questionnaire is developed forAnkara EGO General Directorate; applied to 2.137 drivers in Ankara in 2016 with a meaningful return of 1.554 data sets, representing 72% of the population and results are statistically analysed. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and related validity and regional variance analyses are performed by SPSS (22.0 software. The study revealed that: drivers are exposed to mid-level stess; and most critical stress causes are “injustice and/or insufficiency of salaries”, “aggresive, violent behavior and verbal abuse of passengers towards drivers”, “fear of losing jobs or renewal of the contract”. A significant level of variation in stres levels are identified with respect to different regions of Ankara where drivers are assigned. Suggestions are made in relation to different stres causes to lower the stress levels exposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingwei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the uneven distribution of pollutions and blur edge of pollutant area, there will exist uncertainty of source term shape in advective-diffusion equation model of contaminant transport. How to generalize those irregular source terms and deal with those uncertainties is very critical but rarely studied in previous research. In this study, the fate and transport of contaminant from rectangular and elliptic source geometry were simulated based on a three-dimensional analytical solute transport model, and the source geometry generalization guideline was developed by comparing the migration of contaminant. The result indicated that the variation of source area size had no effect on pollution plume migration when the plume migrated as far as five times of source side length. The migration of pollution plume became slower with the increase of aquifer thickness. The contaminant concentration was decreasing with scale factor rising, and the differences among various scale factors became smaller with the distance to field increasing.
Parallel computing solution of Boltzmann neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansah-Narh, T.
2010-01-01
The focus of the research was on developing parallel computing algorithm for solving Eigen-values of the Boltzmam Neutron Transport Equation (BNTE) in a slab geometry using multi-grid approach. In response to the problem of slow execution of serial computing when solving large problems, such as BNTE, the study was focused on the design of parallel computing systems which was an evolution of serial computing that used multiple processing elements simultaneously to solve complex physical and mathematical problems. Finite element method (FEM) was used for the spatial discretization scheme, while angular discretization was accomplished by expanding the angular dependence in terms of Legendre polynomials. The eigenvalues representing the multiplication factors in the BNTE were determined by the power method. MATLAB Compiler Version 4.1 (R2009a) was used to compile the MATLAB codes of BNTE. The implemented parallel algorithms were enabled with matlabpool, a Parallel Computing Toolbox function. The option UseParallel was set to 'always' and the default value of the option was 'never'. When those conditions held, the solvers computed estimated gradients in parallel. The parallel computing system was used to handle all the bottlenecks in the matrix generated from the finite element scheme and each domain of the power method generated. The parallel algorithm was implemented on a Symmetric Multi Processor (SMP) cluster machine, which had Intel 32 bit quad-core x 86 processors. Convergence rates and timings for the algorithm on the SMP cluster machine were obtained. Numerical experiments indicated the designed parallel algorithm could reach perfect speedup and had good stability and scalability. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzen, A.
1996-01-01
In the public and scientific discussion about options concerning solutions to the environmental problem, the role played by environmental awareness is often an area of interest. Two essential questions are posed: - What influence do environment-related attitudes have on the everyday, environmentally relevant actions of individuals? - What influence does environmental awareness have on voting behaviour and on the acceptance of environment policy measures? In this book, both questions are empirically examined in detail using, as examples, the choice of means of transport and the acceptance of measures to control traffic [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Djordjevich Alexandar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients is solved by the explicit finitedifference method for the transport of solutes through a homogenous two-dimensional domain that is finite and porous. Retardation by adsorption, periodic seepage velocity, and a dispersion coefficient proportional to this velocity are permitted. The transport is from a pulse-type point source (that ceases after a period of activity. Included are the firstorder decay and zero-order production parameters proportional to the seepage velocity, and periodic boundary conditions at the origin and at the end of the domain. Results agree well with analytical solutions that were reported in the literature for special cases. It is shown that the solute concentration profile is influenced strongly by periodic velocity fluctuations. Solutions for a variety of combinations of unsteadiness of the coefficients in the advection-diffusion equation are obtainable as particular cases of the one demonstrated here. This further attests to the effectiveness of the explicit finite difference method for solving two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients in finite media, which is especially important when arbitrary initial and boundary conditions are required.
Groothuis, Dennis R; Vavra, Michael W; Schlageter, Kurt E; Kang, Eric W-Y; Itskovich, Andrea C; Hertzler, Shannon; Allen, Cathleen V; Lipton, Howard L
2007-01-01
We examined the roles of diffusion, convection and capillary transporters in solute removal from extracellular space (ECS) of the brain. Radiolabeled solutes (eight with passive distribution and four with capillary or cell transporters) were injected into the brains of rats (n=497) and multiple-time point experiments measured the amount remaining in brain as a function of time. For passively distributed compounds, there was a relationship between lipid:water solubility and total brain efflux:diffusional efflux, which dominated when k(p), the transcapillary efflux rate constant, was >10(0) h(-1); when 10(-1)transporters. The total efflux rate constant, k(eff), was the sum of a passive component (k(p)=0.0018 h(-1)), a convective component (k(csf)=0.2 h(-1)), and a variable, concentration-dependent component (k(x)=0 to 0.45 h(-1)). Compounds with cell membrane transporters had longer clearance half times as did an oligonucleotide, which interacted with cell surface receptors. Manipulation of physiologic state (n=35) did not affect efflux, but sucrose efflux half time was longer with pentobarbital anesthesia (24 h) than with no anesthesia or ketamine-xylazine anesthesia (2 to 3 h). These results show that solute clearance from normal brain ECS may involve multiple physiologic pathways, may be affected by anesthesia, and suggests that convection-mediated efflux may be manipulated to increase or decrease drug clearance from brain.
Koohbor, Behshad; Fahs, Marwan; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.; Younes, Anis
2018-05-01
Existing closed-form solutions of contaminant transport problems are limited by the mathematically convenient assumption of uniform flow. These solutions cannot be used to investigate contaminant transport in coastal aquifers where seawater intrusion induces a variable velocity field. An adaptation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is introduced to obtain semi-analytical solutions for contaminant transport in a confined coastal aquifer in which the saltwater wedge is in equilibrium with a freshwater discharge flow. Two scenarios dealing with contaminant leakage from the aquifer top surface and contaminant migration from a source at the landward boundary are considered. Robust implementation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is developed to efficiently solve the coupled flow, salt and contaminant transport equations. Various illustrative examples are generated and the semi-analytical solutions are compared against an in-house numerical code. The Fourier series are used to evaluate relevant metrics characterizing contaminant transport such as the discharge flux to the sea, amount of contaminant persisting in the groundwater and solute flux from the source. These metrics represent quantitative data for numerical code validation and are relevant to understand the effect of seawater intrusion on contaminant transport. It is observed that, for the surface contamination scenario, seawater intrusion limits the spread of the contaminant but intensifies the contaminant discharge to the sea. For the landward contamination scenario, moderate seawater intrusion affects only the spatial distribution of the contaminant plume while extreme seawater intrusion can increase the contaminant discharge to the sea. The developed semi-analytical solution presents an efficient tool for the verification of numerical models. It provides a clear interpretation of the contaminant transport processes in coastal aquifers subject to seawater intrusion. For practical usage in further studies, the full
Water flow and solute transport using environmental isotopes and modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.F.
2001-01-01
The deep unsaturated zone may be a useful hydrological archive in desert environments characterized by scant or sporadic rainfall and slow percolation of rainwater over decades or even centuries. This moisture archive provides a useful way to distinguish the net downward flow of recharge water, whereas the isotopic composition and concentration of the conservative solutes of the preserved moisture could be used to reconstruct the history of recharge under the prevailing deficient water balance. The major advantage of such coupled approach is to obtain independent estimates of groundwater recharge rates which are normally difficult to evaluate using the hydrological methods applied in the temperate zones. The study was conducted in the Shiekh-Zoweid/Raffa area in the northeastern coastal strip of Sinai Peninsula. Bore-holes were dry-drilled in a line perpendicular to the sea shoreline (using an 8-inch diameter hand-operated rotary rig) for the unsaturated sediment collection from successive 0.5m thick layers down to a depth of 20m. Samples were investigated for the moisture contents and the chemical and isotope composition of this moisture was determined. Physical parameters were also assessed including porosity and volumetric moisture content. Chloride mass-balance was used to calculate recharge rates through the unsaturated zone by predicting the position of the 1963-Tritium peak in the unsaturated column. Analysis of moisture, chloride and deuterium profiles showed three principle peaks (along with minor ones) in Karafin site indicating few major recharge events that have taken place during the last few decades. Adjustment of these episodes has also been attempted using two historical major rainfall events (known from nearby meteorological stations). Application of the methodology in water resources management in arid regions is discussed. (author)
Agarkova, Irina; Dunigan, David; Gurnon, James; Greiner, Timo; Barres, Julia; Thiel, Gerhard; Van Etten, James L
2008-12-01
Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, double-stranded DNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae from the genus Chlorovirus. PBCV-1 infection results in rapid host membrane depolarization and potassium ion release. One interesting feature of certain chloroviruses is that they code for functional potassium ion-selective channel proteins (Kcv) that are considered responsible for the host membrane depolarization and, as a consequence, the efflux of potassium ions. This report examines the relationship between cellular depolarization and solute uptake. Annotation of the virus host Chlorella strain NC64A genome revealed 482 putative transporter-encoding genes; 224 are secondary active transporters. Solute uptake experiments using seven radioactive compounds revealed that virus infection alters the transport of all the solutes. However, the degree of inhibition varied depending on the solute. Experiments with nystatin, a drug known to depolarize cell membranes, produced changes in solute uptake that are similar but not identical to those that occurred during virus infection. Therefore, these studies indicate that chlorovirus infection causes a rapid and sustained depolarization of the host plasma membrane and that this depolarization leads to the inhibition of secondary active transporters that changes solute uptake.
Continuous time random walk analysis of solute transport in fractured porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortis, Andrea; Cortis, Andrea; Birkholzer, Jens
2008-06-01
The objective of this work is to discuss solute transport phenomena in fractured porous media, where the macroscopic transport of contaminants in the highly permeable interconnected fractures can be strongly affected by solute exchange with the porous rock matrix. We are interested in a wide range of rock types, with matrix hydraulic conductivities varying from almost impermeable (e.g., granites) to somewhat permeable (e.g., porous sandstones). In the first case, molecular diffusion is the only transport process causing the transfer of contaminants between the fractures and the matrix blocks. In the second case, additional solute transfer occurs as a result of a combination of advective and dispersive transport mechanisms, with considerable impact on the macroscopic transport behavior. We start our study by conducting numerical tracer experiments employing a discrete (microscopic) representation of fractures and matrix. Using the discrete simulations as a surrogate for the 'correct' transport behavior, we then evaluate the accuracy of macroscopic (continuum) approaches in comparison with the discrete results. However, instead of using dual-continuum models, which are quite often used to account for this type of heterogeneity, we develop a macroscopic model based on the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) framework, which characterizes the interaction between the fractured and porous rock domains by using a probability distribution function of residence times. A parametric study of how CTRW parameters evolve is presented, describing transport as a function of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between fractured and porous domains.
Pore connectivity effects on solute transport in rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.
2001-01-01
Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.5 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuff; and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low
Pore Connectivity Effects on Solute Transport in Rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oinhong Hu
2001-01-01
Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.05 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuft and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low
Corrosion Resistance and Pitting Behaviour of Low-Carbon High-Mn Steels in Chloride Solution
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Grajcar A.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of the X4MnSiAlNbTi27-4-2 and X6MnSiAlNbTi26-3-3 type austenitic steels, after hot deformation as well as after cold rolling, were evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. A type of nonmetallic inclusions and their pitting corrosion behaviour were investigated. Additionally, the effect of cold deformation on the corrosion resistance of high-Mn steels was studied. The SEM micrographs revealed that corrosion damage formed in both investigated steels is characterized by various shapes and an irregular distribution at the metallic matrix, independently on the steel state (thermomechanically treated or cold worked. Corrosion pits are generated both in grain interiors, grain boundaries and along the deformation bands. Moreover, corrosion damage is stronger in cold deformed steels in comparison to the thermomechanically treated specimens. EDS analysis revealed that corrosion pits preferentially nucleated on MnS and AlN inclusions or complex oxysulphides. The morphology of corrosion damage in 3.5% NaCl supports the data registered in potentiodynamic tests.
Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of nonlinear delay difference equations in Banach spaces
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Anna Kisiolek
2005-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the second-order nonlinear difference equations of the form ÃŽÂ”(rnÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1ÃŽÂ”xnÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1+pnf(xnÃ¢ÂˆÂ’k=hn. We show that there exists a solution (xn, which possesses the asymptotic behaviour Ã¢Â€Â–xnÃ¢ÂˆÂ’aÃ¢ÂˆÂ‘j=0nÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1(1/rj+bÃ¢Â€Â–=o(1, a,bÃ¢ÂˆÂˆÃ¢Â„Â. In this paper, we extend the results of Agarwal (1992, Dawidowski et al. (2001, Drozdowicz and Popenda (1987, M. Migda (2001, and M. Migda and J. Migda (1988. We suppose that f has values in Banach space and satisfies some conditions with respect to the measure of noncompactness and measure of weak noncompactness.
Scavenging behaviour of meranti sawdust in the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, A.; Rafatullah, M.; Sulaiman, O.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Hashim, R.
2009-01-01
Meranti (Philippine mahogany) sawdust, an inexpensive material, showed strong scavenging behaviour through adsorption for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to evaluate and optimize the effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial dye concentrations and adsorbent dosage. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating thereby the mono layer adsorption of the dye. The monolayer sorption capacity of meranti sawdust for MB was found to be 120.48, 117.64, 149.25 and 158.73 mg/g at 30, 40, 50 and 60 deg. C, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the MB adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results indicated that the meranti sawdust could be an alternative material in place of more costly adsorbents used for dye removal.
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J. Kalas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The asymptotic behaviour for the solutions of a real two-dimensional system with a bounded nonconstant delay is studied under the assumption of instability. Our results improve and complement previous results by J. Kalas, where the sufficient conditions assuring the existence of bounded solutions or solutions tending to origin for $t$ approaching infinity are given. The method of investigation is based on the transformation of the considered real system to one equation with complex-valued coefficients. Asymptotic properties of this equation are studied by means of a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and by virtue of the Wazewski topological principle.
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Esther W de Bekker-Grob
Full Text Available To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens' protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens' protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce.A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19-64 years living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects' protective behaviour.The response was 44% (881/1,994. The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, 'escaping' was more preferred than 'seeking shelter', although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people.Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects' protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs to be targeted differently depending on
Shippers’ Choice Behaviour in Choosing Transport Mode: The Case of South East Asia (SEA Region
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Chia-Hsun Chang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Using South East Asia as a case study, shippers’ choice of transport modes taking into consideration their economic and environmental impacts was examined in this research. A triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods was deployed. First, a quantitative analysis using secondary data was conducted to establish the index score, which includes four quantitative factors (transport distance, cost, time, and CO2 emission, for each transport mode. In addition, in order to examine at what level of the importance weight shippers would change their decision on transport mode, a sensitivity analysis involving the four aforesaid factors was also conducted. Next, an in-depth interview with a major shipper in Singapore was also carried out to qualitatively validate the aforesaid four quantitative factors as well as two additional qualitative factors, namely, customer service and shipper-forwarder relationship in relation to shipper's choice. The results from this study indicate that shippers might change to the short-sea shipping (SSS mode when the importance weights of cost and CO2 emission increase, and to trucking mode when the weight of time decreases. It was also found that cost is the most important factor when shippers choose carriers/forwarders, whereas CO2 emission is not an important factor at the current stage. However, if the government imposes financial measures such as fine and/or tax for CO2 emission, shippers would choose eco-friendlier transport modes. This research is the first study considering the environmental issue as one of important factors that influence shippers’ choice behaviour. This research also facilitates managers’ understanding on how shippers may select LSPs taking into account important factors including the environmental consideration.
Analytical solutions of a fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Effenberger, Frederic
2014-01-01
Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we analytically solve a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.
Effects of sorption and temperature on solute transport in unsaturated steady flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.
1986-01-01
It is known that temperature affects physical and chemical processes and that these processes may alter the transport of solutes in the environment. Laboratory column studies were performed in unsaturated flow conditions with a composite pulse containing iodide, cobalt, cesium and strontium each at 10 -3 M. The experiments were performed with Bandelier Tuff and produced breakthrough curves that indicate significant changes in transport due to a temperature change from 25 0 C to 5 0 C for nonconservative solutes. Also, the interpretation of the temperature and sorption data suggest that the differences in transport between 5 0 C and 25 0 C for nonconservative solutes may be predicted in a qualitative manner from batch equilibrium and nonequilibrium sorption data and the theory of sorption used in deriving the modified Freundlich isotherm equation. These effects should be of concern in modeling and management of spills and waste disposal within this range of environmental temperatures
Numerical modelling of coupled fluid, heat, and solute transport in deformable fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, T.; Reid, J.A.K.
1987-01-01
This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element code, MOTIF (model of transport in fractured/porous media), developed to model the coupled processes of groundwater flow, heat transport, brine transport, and one-species radionuclide transport in geological media. Three types of elements are available: a 3D continuum element, a planar fracture element that can be oriented in any arbitrary direction in 3D space or pipe flow in 3D space, and a line element for simulating fracture flow in 2D space or pipe flow in 3D space. As a quality-assurance measure, the MOTIF code was verified by comparison of its results with analytical solutions and other published numerical solutions
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Bezrukov, Sergey M
2008-05-15
In this paper, we discuss the fluctuation theorem for channel-facilitated transport of solutes through a membrane separating two reservoirs. The transport is characterized by the probability, P(n)(t), that n solute particles have been transported from one reservoir to the other in time t. The fluctuation theorem establishes a relation between P(n)(t) and P-(n)(t): The ratio P(n)(t)/P-(n)(t) is independent of time and equal to exp(nbetaA), where betaA is the affinity measured in the thermal energy units. We show that the same fluctuation theorem is true for both single- and multichannel transport of noninteracting particles and particles which strongly repel each other.
Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa
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Joubert van Eeden
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.
Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lappala, E.G.
1980-01-01
This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rockhold, M.L.
1993-02-01
A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a ''blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration
Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia
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A. Tolli
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.
Jin, Byung-Ju; Smith, Alex J; Verkman, Alan S
2016-12-01
A "glymphatic system," which involves convective fluid transport from para-arterial to paravenous cerebrospinal fluid through brain extracellular space (ECS), has been proposed to account for solute clearance in brain, and aquaporin-4 water channels in astrocyte endfeet may have a role in this process. Here, we investigate the major predictions of the glymphatic mechanism by modeling diffusive and convective transport in brain ECS and by solving the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations, using realistic ECS geometry for short-range transport between para-arterial and paravenous spaces. Major model parameters include para-arterial and paravenous pressures, ECS volume fraction, solute diffusion coefficient, and astrocyte foot-process water permeability. The model predicts solute accumulation and clearance from the ECS after a step change in solute concentration in para-arterial fluid. The principal and robust conclusions of the model are as follows: (a) significant convective transport requires a sustained pressure difference of several mmHg between the para-arterial and paravenous fluid and is not affected by pulsatile pressure fluctuations; (b) astrocyte endfoot water permeability does not substantially alter the rate of convective transport in ECS as the resistance to flow across endfeet is far greater than in the gaps surrounding them; and (c) diffusion (without convection) in the ECS is adequate to account for experimental transport studies in brain parenchyma. Therefore, our modeling results do not support a physiologically important role for local parenchymal convective flow in solute transport through brain ECS. © 2016 Jin et al.
TRACKING AND TRACING SOLUTION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS CARRIED BY INTERMODAL TRANSPORT
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Marek Kvet
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of designing a complex tracking and tracing solution for dangerous goods transportation with the support of modern information technologies. This research activity presents a part of the “ChemLogTT” [2] project solved at the University of Žilina. The main goal of our contribution is to present basic conception of a complex developed software tool for monitoring and analyzing mentioned dangerous goods transportation.
Influence of pore structure on solute transport in degraded and undegraded fen peat soils
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C. Kleimeier
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In peat soils, decomposition and degradation reduce the proportion of large pores by breaking down plant debris into smaller fragments and infilling inter-particle pore spaces. This affects water flow and solute migration which, in turn, influence reactive transport processes and biogeochemical functions. In this study we conducted flow-through reactor experiments to investigate the interplay between pore structure and solute transport in samples of undegraded and degraded peat collected in Canada and Germany, respectively. The pore size distributions and transport parameters were characterised using the breakthrough curve and two-region non-equilibrium transport model analyses for a non-reactive solute. The results of transport characterisation showed a higher fraction of immobile pores in the degraded peat with higher diffusive exchanges of solutes between the mobile and immobile pores associated with the dual-porosity structure. The rates of steady-state potential nitrate reduction were compared with pore fractions and exchange coefficients to investigate the influence of pore structure on the rates of nitrate reduction. The results indicated that the degraded peat has potential to provide the necessary boundary conditions to support nitrate removal and serves as a favourable substrate for denitrification, due to the nature of its pore structure and its lower organic carbon content compared to undegraded peat.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Koyamada, Kohei; Maruyama, Shohei; Miyazaki, Kohei; Abe, Takeshi
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Ion transport in organic electrolyte solution in macro- and meso-pores was focused. • Anodic nanoporous alumina membrane was used as a porous material. • The specific ion conductivities drastically decreased in macro- and meso-pores. - Abstract: For the development of high energy density lithium-ion batteries with the high rate performance, the enhancement of the ion transport in the electrolyte solutions impregnated in the porous electrodes is a key. To study the ion transport in porous electrodes, anodic nanoporous alumina (APA) self-standing membranes with macro- or meso-pores were used as model porous materials. These membranes had nearly spherical pore channels of discrete 20–68 nm in diameters. By using the geometric shape of the pores, we attempted to evaluate the specific ion conductivities of the organic electrolyte solution dissolving lithium salt simply. AC impedance spectroscopy measurement of a four-electrode cell with membranes showed one depressed semi-circle in the Nyquist plots and this semi-circle can be assigned as the ion transport resistance in the pores. The specific ion conductivities evaluated from the ion transport resistances and the geometric parameters showed very small values, even in the macro-pores, as compared with that of the bulk electrolyte solution.
The simulation of solute transport: An approach free of numerical dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrera, J.; Melloni, G.
1987-01-01
The applicability of most algorithms for simulation of solute transport is limited either by instability or by numerical dispersion, as seen by a review of existing methods. A new approach is proposed that is free of these two problems. The method is based on the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation of the mass-transport problem, thus ensuring stability. Advection is simulated by a variation of reverse-particle tracking that avoids the accumulation of interpolation errors, thus preventing numerical dispersion. The algorithm has been implemented in a one-dimensional code. Excellent results are obtained, in comparison with an analytical solution. 36 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab
Verification of T2VOC using an analytical solution for VOC transport in vadose zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
T2VOC represents an adaption of the STMVOC to the TOUGH2 environment. In may contaminated sites, transport of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) is a serious problem which can be simulated by T2VOC. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the code, we chose a practical problem of VOC transport as the test case, conducted T2VOC simulations, and compared the results of T2VOC with those of an analytical solution. The agreements between T2VOC and the analytical solutions are excellent. In addition, the numerical results of T2VOC are less sensitive to grid size and time step to a certain extent.
Limit Theorems and Their Relation to Solute Transport in Simulated Fractured Media
Reeves, D. M.; Benson, D. A.; Meerschaert, M. M.
2003-12-01
Solute particles that travel through fracture networks are subject to wide velocity variations along a restricted set of directions. This may result in super-Fickian dispersion along a few primary scaling directions. The fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE), a modification of the original advection-dispersion equation in which a fractional derivative replaces the integer-order dispersion term, has the ability to model rapid, non-Gaussian solute transport. The FADE assumes that solute particle motions converge to either α -stable or operator stable densities, which are modeled by spatial fractional derivatives. In multiple dimensions, the multi-fractional dispersion derivative dictates the order and weight of differentiation in all directions, which correspond to the statistics of large particle motions in all directions. This study numerically investigates the presence of super- Fickian solute transport through simulated two-dimensional fracture networks. An ensemble of networks is gen
Joekar-Niasar, V.
2013-01-25
Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Joekar-Niasar, V.; Schotting, R.; Leijnse, A.
2013-01-01
Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orban, G.; Shelton, C.
2015-07-01
Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milošev, Ingrid
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The behaviour of CoCrMo alloy is investigated in four simulated physiological solutions. ► The effect of synovial fluid significantly differs from the effect of organic components hitherto studied. ► In the presence of organic components carbon and nitrogen containing species are formed. ► Composition, structure and thickness of surface layers were determined by XPS. - Abstract: CoCrMo orthopaedic alloy was oxidized potentiostatically in various simulated physiological solutions in order to reveal differences in the composition, thickness and structure of the surface layers formed as a function of solution composition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combined with angle-resolved measurements and depth profiling, was used for the purpose. The following simulated physiological solutions were used: (1) 0.9% NaCl, (2) simulated Hanks physiological solution containing various inorganic salts, (3) simulated Hanks physiological solution containing an aliquot of synovial fluid retrieved at a primary operation, and (4) minimum essential medium containing various inorganic salts, amino acids and vitamins. No significant differences between alloy treated in these solutions were observed after oxidation in the passive region; the oxide films are a few nanometres thick and, except in NaCl solution, contain a small amount of calcium phosphate. After oxidation at a potential in the transpassive range, however, the oxide thickness increases considerably due to incorporation of cobalt and molybdenum oxides. Further, the concentration of calcium phosphate increases. The layers formed in minimum essential medium and Hanks solution containing synovial fluid comprise nitrogen and carbon containing species. The addition of synovial fluid significantly affects the behaviour in Hanks solution.
Determination of membrane behaviour during transport of pollutants n clay barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musso, M.; Pejon, O.
2010-01-01
The study of the transport of contaminants in clay barriers had a extensive development in environmental geotechnics. The most studied transport processes are solutes by advection - dispersion and diffusion generated by hydraulic and chemical gradients respectively. Greater attention should be given to the chemical - osmotic flow and behavior membrane clay barriers, since in one case the water molecules move through the existence of a chemical gradient and on the other the means totally or partially inhibits the passage of solutes. The team developed to measure these processes was constructed based on items international literature and performance was verified using two types of materials KCl solution . One material is a bentonite geocomposite (Geosynthetic Clay Liner GCL ) similar to that used by other researchers. The other material is a soil barrier compacted clay (Compacted Clay Liner CCL) Fm. Corumbataí (Permian), belonging to the Paraná basin in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil . The results show the proper performance of the equipment built . Osmotic pressure generation and membrane performance was verified for both samples. Further corroborated influence of the type of clay mineral in the osmotic pressure generated value and membrane behavior
Swanson, Ryan D; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; France, Samantha; Osterman, Gordon; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Singha, Kamini
2015-01-01
The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe commonly observed non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models such as the dual-domain mass-transfer (DDMT) model. DDMT model parameters are commonly calibrated via curve fitting, providing little insight into the relation between effective parameters and physical properties of the medium. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can provide insight into the geometry and connectedness of pore spaces related to transport model parameters. Here, we consider proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), direct-current (DC) resistivity, and complex conductivity (CC) measurements for this purpose, and assess these methods using glass beads as a control and two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material that demonstrates non-Fickian transport due to intragranular porosity. We estimate DDMT parameters via calibration of a transport model to column-scale solute tracer tests, and compare NMR, DC resistivity, CC results, which reveal that grain size alone does not control transport properties and measured geophysical parameters; rather, volume and arrangement of the pore space play important roles. NMR cannot provide estimates of more-mobile and less-mobile pore volumes in the absence of tracer tests because these estimates depend critically on the selection of a material-dependent and flow-dependent cutoff time. Increased electrical connectedness from DC resistivity measurements are associated with greater mobile pore space determined from transport model calibration. CC was hypothesized to be related to length scales of mass transfer, but the CC response is unrelated to DDMT.
Transcellular movement of hydroxyurea is mediated by specific solute carrier transporters
Walker, Aisha L.; Franke, Ryan M.; Sparreboom, Alex; Ware, Russell E.
2015-01-01
Objective Hydroxyurea has proven laboratory and clinical therapeutic benefits for sickle cell anemia (SCA) and other diseases, yet many questions remain regarding its in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Previous reports suggest that hydroxyurea passively diffuses across cells, but its observed rapid absorption and distribution are more consistent with facilitated or active transport. We investigated the potential role of solute carrier (SLC) transporters in cellular uptake and accumulation of hydroxyurea. Materials and Methods Passive diffusion of hydroxyurea across cell membranes was determined using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. SLC transporter screens were conducted using in vitro intracellular drug accumulation and transcellular transport assays in cell lines and oocytes overexpressing SLC transporters. Gene expression of SLC transporters was measured by real-time PCR in human tissues and cell lines. Results Hydroxyurea had minimal diffusion across a lipid bilayer but was a substrate for 5 different SLC transporters belonging to the OCTN and OATP families of transporters and urea transporters A and B. Further characterization of hydroxyurea transport revealed that cellular uptake by OATP1B3 is time and temperature dependent and inhibited by known substrates of OATP1B3. Urea transporters A and B are expressed differentially in human tissues and erythroid cells, and transport hydroxyurea bidirectionally via facilitated diffusion. Conclusions These studies provide new insight into drug transport proteins that may be involved in the in vivo absorption, cellular distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea. Elucidation of hydroxyurea transcellular movement should improve our understanding of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and may help explain some of the inter-patient drug variability observed in patients with SCA. PMID:21256917
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma J Adams
Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean
Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David
2014-01-01
Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p
Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G
2010-01-01
'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum.
An Experimental Study on Solute Transport in One-Dimensional Clay Soil Columns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Zaheer
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Solute transport in low-permeability media such as clay has not been studied carefully up to present, and we are often unclear what the proper governing law is for describing the transport process in such media. In this study, we composed and analyzed the breakthrough curve (BTC data and the development of leaching in one-dimensional solute transport experiments in low-permeability homogeneous and saturated media at small scale, to identify key parameters controlling the transport process. Sodium chloride (NaCl was chosen to be the tracer. A number of tracer tests were conducted to inspect the transport process under different conditions. The observed velocity-time behavior for different columns indicated the decline of soil permeability when switching from tracer introducing to tracer flushing. The modeling approaches considered were the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE, Two-Region Model (TRM, Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW, and Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation (FADE. It was found that all the models can fit the transport process very well; however, ADE and TRM were somewhat unable to characterize the transport behavior in leaching. The CTRW and FADE models were better in capturing the full evaluation of tracer-breakthrough curve and late-time tailing in leaching.
Quantifying the relative contributions of different solute carriers to aggregate substrate transport
Taslimifar, Mehdi; Oparija, Lalita; Verrey, Francois; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Olgac, Ufuk; Makrides, Victoria
2017-01-01
Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human SLC6A14/ATB0,+ and SLC43A2/LAT4 was accurately calculated. This versatile systems biology approach is useful for analyses where the kinetics of each active protein species can be represented by the Hill equation. Furthermore, its applicable even in the absence of protein expression data. It could potentially be applied, for example, to quantify drug transporter activities in target cells to improve specificity. PMID:28091567
Smith, Alex J; Yao, Xiaoming; Dix, James A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Verkman, Alan S
2017-08-21
Transport of solutes through brain involves diffusion and convection. The importance of convective flow in the subarachnoid and paravascular spaces has long been recognized; a recently proposed 'glymphatic' clearance mechanism additionally suggests that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels facilitate convective transport through brain parenchyma. Here, the major experimental underpinnings of the glymphatic mechanism were re-examined by measurements of solute movement in mouse brain following intracisternal or intraparenchymal solute injection. We found that: (i) transport of fluorescent dextrans in brain parenchyma depended on dextran size in a manner consistent with diffusive rather than convective transport; (ii) transport of dextrans in the parenchymal extracellular space, measured by 2-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, was not affected just after cardiorespiratory arrest; and (iii) Aqp4 gene deletion did not impair transport of fluorescent solutes from sub-arachnoid space to brain in mice or rats. Our results do not support the proposed glymphatic mechanism of convective solute transport in brain parenchyma.
Modeling variably saturated subsurface solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and MT3DMS
Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Langevin, Christian D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Healy, Richard W.
2013-01-01
The MT3DMS groundwater solute transport model was modified to simulate solute transport in the unsaturated zone by incorporating the unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package developed for MODFLOW. The modified MT3DMS code uses a volume-averaged approach in which Lagrangian-based UZF1 fluid fluxes and storage changes are mapped onto a fixed grid. Referred to as UZF-MT3DMS, the linked model was tested against published benchmarks solved analytically as well as against other published codes, most frequently the U.S. Geological Survey's Variably-Saturated Two-Dimensional Flow and Transport Model. Results from a suite of test cases demonstrate that the modified code accurately simulates solute advection, dispersion, and reaction in the unsaturated zone. Two- and three-dimensional simulations also were investigated to ensure unsaturated-saturated zone interaction was simulated correctly. Because the UZF1 solution is analytical, large-scale flow and transport investigations can be performed free from the computational and data burdens required by numerical solutions to Richards' equation. Results demonstrate that significant simulation runtime savings can be achieved with UZF-MT3DMS, an important development when hundreds or thousands of model runs are required during parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and transport simulations revealed UZF-MT3DMS to have runtimes that are less than one tenth of the time required by models that rely on Richards' equation. Given its accuracy and efficiency, and the wide-spread use of both MODFLOW and MT3DMS, the added capability of unsaturated-zone transport in this familiar modeling framework stands to benefit a broad user-ship.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, John A
2009-01-01
A detailed exposition is given of recent transport and 'quantum oscillation' results from high temperature superconducting (HTSC) systems covering the full carrier range from overdoped to underdoped material. This now very extensive and high quality data set is here interpreted within the framework developed by the author of local pairs and boson-fermion resonance, arising in the context of negative- U behaviour within an inhomogeneous electronic environment. The strong inhomogeneity comes with the mixed-valence condition of these materials, which when underdoped lie in close proximity to the Mott-Anderson transition. The observed intense scattering is presented as resulting from pair formation and from electron-boson collisions in the resonant crossover circumstance. The high level of scattering carries the systems to incoherence in the pseudogapped state, p c (= 0.183). In a high magnetic field the striped partition of the inhomogeneous charge distribution becomes much strengthened and regularized. Magnetization and resistance oscillations, of period dictated by the favoured positioning of the fluxon array within the real space environment of the diagonal 2D charge striping array, are demonstrated to be responsible for the recently reported behaviour hitherto widely attributed to the quantum oscillation response of a much more standard Fermi liquid condition. A detailed analysis embracing all the experimental data serves to reveal that in the given conditions of very high field, low temperature, 2D-striped, underdoped, d-wave superconducting, HTSC material the flux quantum becomes doubled to h/e.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de
2009-01-01
An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method
Numerical Solution of the Electron Transport Equation in the Upper Atmosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woods, Mark Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holmes, Mark [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Sailor, William C [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-07-01
A new approach for solving the electron transport equation in the upper atmosphere is derived. The problem is a very stiff boundary value problem, and to obtain an accurate numerical solution, matrix factorizations are used to decouple the fast and slow modes. A stable finite difference method is applied to each mode. This solver is applied to a simplifieed problem for which an exact solution exists using various versions of the boundary conditions that might arise in a natural auroral display. The numerical and exact solutions are found to agree with each other to at least two significant digits.
Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- or depth-dependent retention in porous media
Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for...
Ground-water solute transport modeling using a three-dimensional scaled model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crider, S.S.
1987-01-01
Scaled models are used extensively in current hydraulic research on sediment transport and solute dispersion in free surface flows (rivers, estuaries), but are neglected in current ground-water model research. Thus, an investigation was conducted to test the efficacy of a three-dimensional scaled model of solute transport in ground water. No previous results from such a model have been reported. Experiments performed on uniform scaled models indicated that some historical problems (e.g., construction and scaling difficulties; disproportionate capillary rise in model) were partly overcome by using simple model materials (sand, cement and water), by restricting model application to selective classes of problems, and by physically controlling the effect of the model capillary zone. Results from these tests were compared with mathematical models. Model scaling laws were derived for ground-water solute transport and used to build a three-dimensional scaled model of a ground-water tritium plume in a prototype aquifer on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Model results compared favorably with field data and with a numerical model. Scaled models are recommended as a useful additional tool for prediction of ground-water solute transport
Semianalytical Solutions for Transport in Aquifer and Fractured Clay Matrix System
A three-dimensional mathematical model that describes transport of contaminant in a horizontal aquifer with simultaneous diffusion into a fractured clay formation is proposed. A group of analytical solutions is derived based on specific initial and boundary conditions as well as ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zabadal, J.; Vilhena, M.T.; Segatto, C.F.; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta.
2002-01-01
In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zabadal, J. E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br; Vilhena, M.T. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Segatto, C.F. E-mail: cynthia@mat.ufrgs.br; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta. E-mail: rpp@mat.pucrgs.br
2002-07-01
In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations.
Positive solution of a time and energy dependent neutron transport problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pao, C.V.
1975-01-01
A constructive method is given for the determination of a solution and an existence--uniqueness theorem for some nonlinear time and energy dependent neutron transport problems, including the linear transport system. The geometry of the medium under consideration is allowed to be either bounded or unbounded which includes the geometry of a finite or infinite cylinder, a half-space and the whole space R/subm/ (m=1,2,center-dotcenter-dotcenter-dot). Our approach to the problem is by successive approximation which leads to various recursion formulas for the approximations in terms of explicit integrations. It is shown under some Lipschitz conditions on the nonlinear functions, which describe the process of neutrons absorption, fission, and scattering, that the sequence of approximations converges to a unique positive solution. Since these conditions are satisfied by the linear transport equation, all the results for the nonlinear system are valid for the linear transport problem. In the general nonlinear problem, the existence of both local and global solutions are discussed, and an iterative process for the construction of the solution is given
Relationship between application scale and maximum time latency in intelligent transport solutions
Knoop, V.; Lint, J. van; Vries, J.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Passchier, I.
2013-01-01
Congestion is a major problem in large, urbanized areas. Intelligent transport solutions aim to reduce this problem. In general, traffic is monitored with the use of sensors, the resulting data are processed, a traffic state is estimated, and a control measure is computed and implemented. The
Direct interaction between linear electron transfer chains and solute transport systems in bacteria
Elferink, Marieke G.L.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Belkum, Marco J. van; Poolman, Bert; Konings, Wil N.
1984-01-01
In studies on alanine and lactose transport in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides we have demonstrated that the rate of solute uptake in this phototrophic bacterium is regulated by the rate of light-induced cyclic electron transfer. In the present paper the interaction between linear electron transfer
Application of finite element method in the solution of transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maiorino, J.R.; Vieira, W.J.
1985-01-01
It is presented the application of finite element method in the solution of second order transport equation (self-adjoint) for the even parity flux. The angular component is treated by expansion in Legendre polinomials uncoupled of the spatial component, which is approached by an expansion in base functions, interpolated in each spatial element. (M.C.K.) [pt
MaSTiS, microorganism and solute transport in streams, model documentation and user manual
In-stream fate and transport of solutes and microorganisms need to be understood to evaluate suitability of waters for agricultural, recreational, and household uses and eventually minimize surface water contamination. Concerns over safety of this water resulted in development of predictive models f...
Dam, van J.C.
2000-01-01
Water flow and solute transport in top soils are important elements in many environmental studies. The agro- and ecohydrological model SWAP (Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere) has been developed to simulate simultaneously water flow, solute transport, heat flow and crop growth at field scale
Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Information and data sets. Volume 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Springer, E.P.; Nyhan, J.W.
1986-05-01
The Environmental Science Group (HSE-12) is conducting a study to compare various approaches of modeling water and solute transport in porous media. Various groups representing different approaches will model a common set of transport data so that the state of the art in modeling and field experimentation can be discussed in a positive framework with an assessment of current capabilities and future needs in this area of research. This paper provides information and sets of data that will be useful to the modelers in meeting the objectives of the modeling study. The information and data sets include: (1) a description of the experimental design and methods used in obtaining solute transport data, (2) supporting data that may be useful in modeling the data set of interest, and (3) the data set to be modeled
Solution to the monoenergetic time-dependent neutron transport equation with a time-varying source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.
1986-01-01
Even though fundamental time-dependent neutron transport problems have existed since the inception of neutron transport theory, it has only been recently that a reliable numerical solution to one of the basic problems has been obtained. Experience in generating numerical solutions to time-dependent transport equations has indicated that the multiple collision formulation is the most versatile numerical technique for model problems. The formulation coupled with a moment reconstruction of each collided flux component has led to benchmark-quality (four- to five-digit accuracy) numerical evaluation of the neutron flux in plane infinite geometry for any degree of scattering anisotropy and for both pulsed isotropic and beam sources. As will be shown in this presentation, this solution can serve as a Green's function, thus extending the previous results to more complicated source situations. Here we will be concerned with a time-varying source at the center of an infinite medium. If accurate, such solutions have both pedagogical and practical uses as benchmarks against which other more approximate solutions designed for a wider class of problems can be compared
Joshi, Nitin; Ojha, C. S. P.; Sharma, P. K.
2012-10-01
In this study a conceptual model that accounts for the effects of nonequilibrium contaminant transport in a fractured porous media is developed. Present model accounts for both physical and sorption nonequilibrium. Analytical solution was developed using the Laplace transform technique, which was then numerically inverted to obtain solute concentration in the fracture matrix system. The semianalytical solution developed here can incorporate both semi-infinite and finite fracture matrix extent. In addition, the model can account for flexible boundary conditions and nonzero initial condition in the fracture matrix system. The present semianalytical solution was validated against the existing analytical solutions for the fracture matrix system. In order to differentiate between various sorption/transport mechanism different cases of sorption and mass transfer were analyzed by comparing the breakthrough curves and temporal moments. It was found that significant differences in the signature of sorption and mass transfer exists. Applicability of the developed model was evaluated by simulating the published experimental data of Calcium and Strontium transport in a single fracture. The present model simulated the experimental data reasonably well in comparison to the model based on equilibrium sorption assumption in fracture matrix system, and multi rate mass transfer model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teresa D'Aprile
2000-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the existence of concentrated solutions of the nonlinear field equation $$ -h^{2}Delta v+V(xv-h^{p}Delta_{p}v+ W'(v=0,, $$ where $v:{mathbb R}^{N}o{mathbb R}^{N+1}$, $Ngeq 3$, $p>N$, the potential $V$ is positive and radial, and $W$ is an appropriate singular function satisfying a suitable symmetric property. Provided that $h$ is sufficiently small, we are able to find solutions with a certain spherical symmetry which exhibit a concentration behaviour near a circle centered at zero as $ho 0^{+}$. Such solutions are obtained as critical points for the associated energy functional; the proofs of the results are variational and the arguments rely on topological tools. Furthermore a penalization-type method is developed for the identification of the desired solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca, C.; Vaz, F.; Barbosa, M.A.
2004-01-01
The r.f. sputtering technique was used to deposit titanium thin films on stainless steel substrates, aiming at the application of the coated samples as skin contact materials for 'dry' active electrodes. In this work the electrochemical behaviour of the coated samples was investigated in synthetic sweat solutions and their performance was compared with that of uncoated stainless steel and bulk titanium. The characterisation of the samples was carried out by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The coated samples displayed corrosion resistance values in synthetic sweat solutions much higher than stainless steel samples and of the same order of the values measured for bulk titanium in the same conditions
Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L
2011-04-15
We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society
A numerical solution of the coupled proton-H atom transport equations for the proton aurora
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, B.; Jasperse, J.R.; Grossbard, N.J.
1990-01-01
A numerical code has been developed to solve the coupled proton-H atom linear transport equations for the proton aurora. The transport equations have been simplified by using plane-parallel geometry and the forward-scattering approximations only. Otherwise, the equations and their numerical solutions are exact. Results are presented for the particle fluxes and the energy deposition rates, and they are compared with the previous analytical results that were obtained by using additional simplifying approximations. It is found that although the analytical solutions for the particle fluxes differ somewhat from the numerical solutions, the energy deposition rates calculated by the two methods agree to within a few percent. The accurate particle fluxes given by the numerical code are useful for accurate calculation of the characteristic quantities of the proton aurora, such as the ionization rates and the emission rates
A Review of Darcy's Law: Limitations and Alternatives for Predicting Solute Transport
Steenhuis, Tammo; Kung, K.-J. Sam; Jaynes, Dan; Helling, Charles S.; Gish, Tim; Kladivko, Eileen
2016-04-01
Darcy's Law that was derived originally empirically 160 years ago, has been used successfully in calculating the (Darcy) flux in porous media throughout the world. However, field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the Darcy flux employed in the convective disperse equation could only successfully predict solute transport under two conditions: (1) uniformly or densely packed porous media; and (2) field soils under relatively dry condition. Employing the Darcy flux for solute transport in porous media with preferential flow pathways was problematic. In this paper we examine the theoretical background behind these field and laboratory observations and then provide an alternative to predict solute movement. By examining the characteristics of the momentum conservation principles on which Darcy's law is based, we show under what conditions Darcy flux can predict solute transport in porous media of various complexity. We find that, based on several case studies with capillary pores, Darcy's Law inherently merges momentum and in that way erases information on pore-scale velocities. For that reason the Darcy flux cannot predict flow in media with preferential flow conduits where individual pore velocities are essential in predicting the shape of the breakthrough curve and especially "the early arrival" of solutes. To overcome the limitations of the assumption in Darcy's law, we use Jury's conceptualization and employ the measured chemical breakthrough curve as input to characterize the impact of individual preferential flow pathways on chemical transport. Specifically, we discuss how best to take advantage of Jury's conceptualization to extract the pore-scale flow velocity to accurately predict chemical transport through soils with preferential flow pathways.
Modeling water flow and solute transport in unsaturated zone inside NSRAWD project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantin, A.; Diaconu, D.; Bucur, C.; Genty, A.
2015-01-01
The NSRAWD project (2010-2013) - Numerical Simulations for Radioactive Waste Disposal was initiated under a collaboration agreement between the Institute for Nuclear Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The context of the project was favorable to combine the modeling activities with an experimental part in order to improve and validate the numerical models used so far to simulate water flow and solute transport at Saligny site, Romania. The numerical models developed in the project were refined and validated on new hydrological data gathered between 2010-2012 by a monitoring station existent on site which performs automatic determination of soil water content and matrix potential, as well as several climate parameters (wind, temperature and precipitations). Water flow and solute transport was modeled in transient conditions, by taking into consideration, as well as neglecting the evapotranspiration phenomenon, on the basis of a tracer test launched on site. The determination of dispersivities for solute transport was targeted from the solute plume. The paper presents the main results achieved in the NSRAWD project related to water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated area of the Saligny site. The results indicated satisfactory predictions for the simulation of water flow in the unsaturated area, in steady state and transient conditions. In the case of tracer transport modeling, dispersivity coefficients could not be finally well fitted for the data measured on site and in order to obtain a realistic preview over the values of these parameters, further investigations are recommended. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation
A complete NUHOMS {sup registered} solution for storage and transport of high burnup spent fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bondre, J. [Transnuclear, Inc. (AREVA Group), Fremont, CA (United States)
2004-07-01
The discharge burnups of spent fuel from nuclear power plants keep increasing with plants discharging or planning to discharge fuel with burnups in excess of 60,000 MWD/MTU. Due to limited capacity of spent fuel pools, transfer of older cooler spent fuel from fuel pool to dry storage, and very limited options for transport of spent fuel, there is a critical need for dry storage of high burnup, higher heat load spent fuel so that plants could maintain their full core offload reserve capability. A typical NUHOMS {sup registered} solution for dry spent fuel storage is shown in the Figure 1. Transnuclear, Inc. offers two advanced NUHOMS {sup registered} solutions for the storage and transportation of high burnup fuel. One includes the NUHOMS {sup registered} 24PTH system for plants with 90.7 Metric Ton (MT) crane capacity; the other offers the higher capacity NUHOMS {sup registered} 32PTH system for higher crane capacity. These systems include NUHOMS {sup registered} - 24PTH and -32PTH Transportable Canisters stored in a concrete storage overpack (HSM-H). These canisters are designed to meet all the requirements of both storage and transport regulations. They are designed to be transported off-site either directly from the spent fuel pool or from the storage overpack in a suitable transport cask.
R. Haggerty
2013-01-01
In this technical note, a steady-state analytical solution of concentrations of a parent solute reacting to a daughter solute, both of which are undergoing transport and multirate mass transfer, is presented. Although the governing equations are complicated, the resulting solution can be expressed in simple terms. A function of the ratio of concentrations, In (daughter...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aini, M.S.; Chan, S.C.; Syuhaily, O.
2013-01-01
Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables
Jong, de I.C.; Prelle, I.T.; Burgwal, van de J.A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.
2000-01-01
The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the
de Jong, I.C; Prelle, I.T.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J; Koolhaas, J.M.
The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the
In vitro corrosion behaviour of Ti-Nb-Sn shape memory alloys in Ringer's physiological solution.
Rosalbino, F; Macciò, D; Scavino, G; Saccone, A
2012-04-01
The nearly equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy (Nitinol) has been widely employed in the medical and dental fields owing to its shape memory or superelastic properties. The main concern about the use of this alloy derives form the fact that it contains a large amount of nickel (55% by mass), which is suspected responsible for allergic, toxic and carcinogenic reactions. In this work, the in vitro corrosion behavior of two Ti-Nb-Sn shape memory alloys, Ti-16Nb-5Sn and Ti-18Nb-4Sn (mass%) has been investigated and compared with that of Nitinol. The in vitro corrosion resistance was assessed in naturally aerated Ringer's physiological solution at 37°C by corrosion potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements as a function of exposure time, and potentiodynamic polarization curves. Corrosion potential values indicated that both Ni-Ti and Ti-Nb-Sn alloys undergo spontaneous passivation due to spontaneously formed oxide film passivating the metallic surface, in the aggressive environment. It also indicated that the tendency for the formation of a spontaneous oxide is greater for the Ti-18Nb-5Sn alloy. Significantly low anodic current density values were obtained from the polarization curves, indicating a typical passive behaviour for all investigated alloys, but Nitinol exhibited breakdown of passivity at potentials above approximately 450 mV(SCE), suggesting lower corrosion protection characteristics of its oxide film compared to the Ti-Nb-Sn alloys. EIS studies showed high impedance values for all samples, increasing with exposure time, indicating an improvement in corrosion resistance of the spontaneous oxide film. The obtained EIS spectra were analyzed using an equivalent electrical circuit representing a duplex structure oxide film, composed by an outer and porous layer (low resistance), and an inner barrier layer (high resistance) mainly responsible for the alloys corrosion resistance. The resistance of passive film present on the metals' surface
Non-cooperative and cooperative solutions of government subsidy on public transportation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Husniah Hennie
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with two models of government subsidy given to a public transport operator: (i the subsidy for buying bus from an appointed public transport manufacturer, and (ii the subsidy for reimbursing reduced ticket price for passengers. The models are developed to determine the maximum profit for both the public transport operator and the manufacturer. Since we consider two parties – the public transport operator and the manufacturer of the bus, then we use game theoretical approach by considering non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. Furthermore, since the bus is repairable we consider virtual age to model the preventive maintenance and we consider minimal repair to model the corrective maintenance. We analyse both type of subsidy models and give some numerical examples which show the effects of different subsidies to the profit of operator and manufacturer. The result of the numerical examples indicates that reducing ticket price would give a higher profit both to the operator and the manufacturer.
Modeling of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bresler, E.; Dagan, G.
1982-01-01
A comprehensive model which considers dispersive solute transport, nonsteady moisture flow regimes and complex boundary conditions is described. The main assumptions are: vertical flow; spatial variability which is associated with the saturated hydraulic conductivity K/sub s/ occurs in the horizontal plane, but is constant in the profile, and has a lognormal probability distribution function (PDF); deterministic recharge and solute concentration are applied during infiltration; the soil is at uniform water content and salt concentration prior to infiltration. The problem is to solve, for arbitrary K/sub s/, the Richards' equation of flow simultaneously with the diffusion-convection equation for salt transport, with the boundary and initial conditions appropriate to infiltration-redistribution. Once this is achieved, the expectation and variance of various quantities of interest (solute concentration, moisture content) are obtained by using the statistical averaging procedure and the given PDF of K/sub s/. Since the solution of Richards' equation for the infiltration-redistribution cycle is extremely difficult (for a given K/sub s/), an approxiate solution is derived by using the concept of piston flow type wetting fronts. Similarly, accurate numerical solutions are used as input for the same statistical averaging procedure. The stochastic model is applied to two spatially variable soils by using both accurate numerical solutions and the simplified water and salt transport models. A comparison between the results shows that the approximate simplified models lead to quite accurate values of the expectations and variances of the flow variables for the entire field. It is suggested that in spatially variable fields, stochastic modeling represents the actual flow phenomena realistically, and provides the main statistical moments by using simplified flow models which can be used with confidence in applications
Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa
2016-04-01
Flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface is strongly governed by atmospheric boundary conditions. Erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles lead to alternating upward and downward flow, as well as spatially and temporally varying water contents and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing materials. Thus presenting a highly complicated, dynamic system. Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to assess e.g. the entry of, potentially hazardous, solutes to the groundwater and nutrient uptake by plant roots and can be gained in many ways. Besides field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. With the aim to gain a better understanding and to quantify solute transport in the unsaturated shallow subsurface under natural precipitation conditions in heterogeneous media, we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell that is filled with two types of sand and apply cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases at the soil surface. Pressure at the bottom of the domain is kept constant. Following recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a), heterogeneity is introduced by a sharp vertical interface between coarse and fine sand. Fluorescent tracers are used to i) qualitatively visualize transport paths within the domain and ii) quantify solute leaching at the bottom of the domain. Temporal and spatial variations in water content during the experiment are derived from x-ray radiographic images. Monitored water contents between infiltration and evaporation considerably changed in the coarse sand while the fine sand remained saturated throughout the experiments. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both directions at different depths of the investigated soil columns were observed. This depended on the flow rate applied at the soil surface and
Ohlsson, Gabriel; Tabaei, Seyed R; Beech, Jason; Kvassman, Jan; Johanson, Urban; Kjellbom, Per; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Höök, Fredrik
2012-11-21
Screening assays designed to probe ligand and drug-candidate regulation of membrane proteins responsible for ion-translocation across the cell membrane are wide spread, while efficient means to screen membrane-protein facilitated transport of uncharged solutes are sparse. We report on a microfluidic-based system to monitor transport of uncharged solutes across the membrane of multiple (>100) individually resolved surface-immobilized liposomes. This was accomplished by rapidly switching (solution above dye-containing liposomes immobilized on the floor of a microfluidic channel. With liposomes encapsulating the pH-sensitive dye carboxyfluorescein (CF), internal changes in pH induced by transport of a weak acid (acetic acid) could be measured at time scales down to 25 ms. The applicability of the set up to study biological transport reactions was demonstrated by examining the osmotic water permeability of human aquaporin (AQP5) reconstituted in proteoliposomes. In this case, the rate of osmotic-induced volume changes of individual proteoliposomes was time resolved by imaging the self quenching of encapsulated calcein in response to an osmotic gradient. Single-liposome analysis of both pure and AQP5-containing liposomes revealed a relatively large heterogeneity in osmotic permeability. Still, in the case of AQP5-containing liposomes, the single liposome data suggest that the membrane-protein incorporation efficiency depends on liposome size, with higher incorporation efficiency for larger liposomes. The benefit of low sample consumption and automated liquid handling is discussed in terms of pharmaceutical screening applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, Glenio Aguiar
2003-01-01
In this work, we are reported analytical solutions for the transport equation for neutral particles in cylindrical and cartesian geometry. For the cylindrical geometry, it is applied the Hankel transform of order zero in the S N approximation of the one-dimensional cylindrical transport equation, assuming azimuthal symmetry and isotropic scattering. This procedure is coined HTSN method. The anisotropic problem is handled using the decomposition method, generating a recursive approach, which the HTSN solution is used as initial condition. For cartesian geometry, the one and two dimensional transport equation is derived in the angular variable as many time as the degree of the anisotropic scattering. This procedure leads to set of integro-differential plus one differential equation that can be really solved by the variable separation method. Following this procedure, it was possible to come out with the Case solution for the one-dimensional problem. Numerical simulations are reported for the cylindrical transport problem both isotropic and anisotropic case of quadratic degree. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yahaya Adeshina Adenkola
Full Text Available Experiments were carried out with the aim of investigating the modulatory role of ascorbic acid (AA on responses to 8-h road transportation, covering a distance of 260 km at a speed of 40 - 50 km/h, during the harmattan season. Twentynine adult local pigs aged 9 - 12 months served as subjects. Seventeen pigs administered with AA, prior to the transportation, at the dose of 250 mg/kg orally and individually served as experimental animals, and 12 others administered orally with sterile water were used as control animals. The behavioural activities of pigs which included resting (that is, either lying down or standing idle, defaecating, urinating, sniffing, threats of attack (fight, attempts to escape, mounting on one another, hurdling together and routing the floor were monitored with the aid of a video camera without the pigs knowing that they were being observed. Recordings were done based on the number of pigs found performing each activity within 30 min of direct observation, alternated by 30 min of rest and this continued for a period of 4 h. The tape was later watched, analysed and the number of pigs exhibiting each behavioural activity was recorded. Post-transportation, the behavioural activities of standing (94.1 ± 5.8 %, aggressiveness indicated by the percentage of pigs involved in fighting (23.5 ± 6.00 % and attempts to escape (66.67 ± 14.21 % were higher in experimental pigs (P< 0.05 post-transportation than control pigs with the corresponding values of 25.00 ± 3.00 %; 0.00 % and 35.29 ± 11.95 %, respectively. The results showed that road transportation induced considerable behavioural stress resulting in depression of the central nervous system. AA administration pre-transportation reduced the manifestation of stressful behavioural activities in experimental pigs following road transportation. In conclusion, long-term road transportation of pigs during the harmattan season induces behavioural stress, alleviated by AA
Benson, James D; Benson, Charles T; Critser, John K
2014-08-01
Optimization of cryopreservation protocols for cells and tissues requires accurate models of heat and mass transport. Model selection often depends on the configuration of the tissue. Here, a mathematical and conceptual model of water and solute transport for whole hamster pancreatic islets has been developed and experimentally validated incorporating fundamental biophysical data from previous studies on individual hamster islet cells while retaining whole-islet structural information. It describes coupled transport of water and solutes through the islet by three methods: intracellularly, intercellularly, and in combination. In particular we use domain decomposition techniques to couple a transmembrane flux model with an interstitial mass transfer model. The only significant undetermined variable is the cellular surface area which is in contact with the intercellularly transported solutes, Ais. The model was validated and Ais determined using a 3×3 factorial experimental design blocked for experimental day. Whole islet physical experiments were compared with model predictions at three temperatures, three perfusing solutions, and three islet size groups. A mean of 4.4 islets were compared at each of the 27 experimental conditions and found to correlate with a coefficient of determination of 0.87±0.06 (mean ± SD). Only the treatment variable of perfusing solution was found to be significant (p<0.05). We have devised a model that retains much of the intrinsic geometric configuration of the system, and thus fewer laboratory experiments are needed to determine model parameters and thus to develop new optimized cryopreservation protocols. Additionally, extensions to ovarian follicles and other concentric tissue structures may be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SÁVIO LEANDRO BERTOLI
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In the engineering courses the field of Transport Phenomena is of significant importance and it is in several disciplines relating to Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer. In these disciplines, problems involving these phenomena are mathematically formulated and analytical solutions are obtained whenever possible. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the possibility of extending aspects of the teaching-learning in this area by a method based on time scales and limit solutions. Thus, aspects relative to the phenomenology naturally arise during the definition of the scales and / or by determining the limit solutions. Aspects concerning the phenomenology of the limit problems are easily incorporated into the proposed development, which contributes significantly to the understanding of physics inherent in the mathematical modeling of each limiting case studied. Finally the study aims to disseminate the use of the limit solutions and of the time scales in the general fields of engineering.
Exact solutions of Fisher and Burgers equations with finite transport memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, Sandip; Banik, Suman Kumar; Ray, Deb Shankar
2003-01-01
The Fisher and Burgers equations with finite memory transport, describing reaction-diffusion and convection-diffusion processes, respectively have recently attracted a lot of attention in the context of chemical kinetics, mathematical biology and turbulence. We show here that they admit exact solutions. While the speed of the travelling wavefront is dependent on the relaxation time in the Fisher equation, memory effects significantly smoothen out the shock wave nature of the Burgers solution, without any influence on the corresponding wave speed. We numerically analyse the ansatz for the exact solution and show that for the reaction-diffusion system the strength of the reaction term must be moderate enough not to exceed a critical limit to allow a travelling wave solution to exist for appreciable finite memory effect
Exact solutions of Fisher and Burgers equations with finite transport memory
Kar, S; Ray, D S
2003-01-01
The Fisher and Burgers equations with finite memory transport, describing reaction-diffusion and convection-diffusion processes, respectively have recently attracted a lot of attention in the context of chemical kinetics, mathematical biology and turbulence. We show here that they admit exact solutions. While the speed of the travelling wavefront is dependent on the relaxation time in the Fisher equation, memory effects significantly smoothen out the shock wave nature of the Burgers solution, without any influence on the corresponding wave speed. We numerically analyse the ansatz for the exact solution and show that for the reaction-diffusion system the strength of the reaction term must be moderate enough not to exceed a critical limit to allow a travelling wave solution to exist for appreciable finite memory effect.
Lin, Fubiao; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Flood, Adrian E.
2018-06-01
The population balance equation (PBE) has received an unprecedented amount of attention in recent years from both academics and industrial practitioners because of its long history, widespread use in engineering, and applicability to a wide variety of particulate and discrete-phase processes. However it is typically impossible to obtain analytical solutions, although in almost every case a numerical solution of the PBEs can be obtained. In this article, the symmetries of PBEs with homogeneous coagulation kernels involving aggregation, breakage and growth processes and particle transport in one dimension are found by direct solving the determining equations. Using the optimal system of one and two-dimensional subalgebras, all invariant solutions and reduced equations are obtained. In particular, an explicit analytical physical solution is also presented.
Fuel Behaviour in Transport after Dry Storage: a Key Issue for the Management of used Nuclear Fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Issard, Herve
2014-01-01
Interim used fuel dry storage has been developed in many countries providing an intermediate solution while waiting for evaluation and decisions concerning future use (such as recycling) or disposal sites. There is an important industrial experience feedback and excellent safety records. It appears that the duration of interim storage may become longer than initially expected. At the start of storage operations 40 years was considered sufficiently long to make a decision on either recycling or direct disposal of used nuclear fuel. Now it is said that storage time may have to be extended. Whatever the choice for the management of used fuel, it will finally have to be transported from the storage facility to another location, for recycling or final disposal. Bearing in mind the important principle that radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that undue burdens will not be imposed on future generations, there is no guarantee that the fuel characteristics can be maintained in perpetuity. On the other hand, transport accident conditions from applicable regulation (IAEA SSR-6) are very severe for irradiated materials. Therefore, in compliance with transport regulations, the safety analysis of the fuel in transport after storage is mandatory. This paper will give an overview of the current situation related to the used fuel behaviour in transport after dry storage. On this matter there are some elements of information already available as well as some gaps of knowledge. Several national R and D programs and international teams are presently addressing these gaps. A lot of R and D work has already been done. An objective of these R and D projects is to aid decision makers. It is important to fix a limit and not to multiply intermediate operations because it means higher costs and more uncertainties. The identified gaps concern the following issues especially for high burn-up (HBU) fuels: thermal model for casks, degradation process of fuel material, cladding creep
Water and Solute Transport in Arid Vadose Zones: Innovations in Measurement and Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyler, S W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Gee, Glendon W.; Allison, G B.; Parlange, M. B.; Hopmans, J. W.
1999-01-01
Understanding the physics of flow and transport through the vadose zone has advanced significantly in the last three decades. These advances have been made primarily in humid regions or in irrigated agricultural settings. While some of the techniques are useful, many are not suited to arid regions. The fluxes of water and solutes typically found in arid regions are often orders of magnitude smaller than those found in agricultural settings, while the time scales for transport can be orders of magnitude larger. The depth over which transport must be characterized is also often much greater than in humid regions. Rather than relying on advances in applied tracers, arid-zone researchers have developed natural tracer techniques that are capable of quantifying transport over tens to thousands of years. Techniques have been developed to measure the hydraulic properties of sediments at all water contents, including the very dry range and at far greater depths. As arid and semiarid regions come under increased development pressures for such activities as hazardous- and radioactive-waste disposal, the development of techniques and the understanding of water and solute transport have become crucial components in defining the environmental impacts of activities at the landsurface
CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 User’s Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freedman, Vicky L.; Chen, Yousu; Gilca, Alex; Cole, Charles R.; Gupta, Sumant K.
2006-07-20
The CFEST (Coupled Flow, Energy, and Solute Transport) simulator described in this User’s Guide is a three-dimensional finite-element model used to evaluate groundwater flow and solute mass transport. Confined and unconfined aquifer systems, as well as constant and variable density fluid flows can be represented with CFEST. For unconfined aquifers, the model uses a moving boundary for the water table, deforming the numerical mesh so that the uppermost nodes are always at the water table. For solute transport, changes in concentra¬tion of a single dissolved chemical constituent are computed for advective and hydrodynamic transport, linear sorption represented by a retardation factor, and radioactive decay. Although several thermal parameters described in this User’s Guide are required inputs, thermal transport has not yet been fully implemented in the simulator. Once fully implemented, transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer can also be used to model aquifer thermal regimes. The CFEST simulator is written in the FORTRAN 77 language, following American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. Execution of the CFEST simulator is controlled through three required text input files. These input file use a structured format of associated groups of input data. Example input data lines are presented for each file type, as well as a description of the structured FORTRAN data format. Detailed descriptions of all input requirements, output options, and program structure and execution are provided in this User’s Guide. Required inputs for auxillary CFEST utilities that aide in post-processing data are also described. Global variables are defined for those with access to the source code. Although CFEST is a proprietary code (CFEST, Inc., Irvine, CA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory retains permission to maintain its own source, and to distribute executables to Hanford subcontractors.
Dou, Z.
2017-12-01
In this study, the influence of multi-scale roughness on transport behavior of the passive solute through the self-affine fracture was investigated. The single self-affine fracture was constructed by the successive random additions (SRA) and the fracture roughness was decomposed into two different scales (i.e. large-scale primary roughness and small-scale secondary roughness) by the Wavelet analysis technique. The fluid flow in fractures, which was characterized by the Forchheimer's law, showed the non-linear flow behaviors such as eddies and tortuous streamlines. The results indicated that the small-scale secondary roughness was primarily responsible for the non-linear flow behaviors. The direct simulations of asymptotic passive solute transport represented the Non-Fickian transport characteristics (i.e. early arrivals and long tails) in breakthrough curves (BTCs) and residence time distributions (RTDs) with and without consideration of the secondary roughness. Analysis of multiscale BTCs and RTDs showed that the small-scale secondary roughness played a significant role in enhancing the Non-Fickian transport characteristics. We found that removing small-scale secondary roughness led to the lengthening arrival and shortening tail. The peak concentration in BTCs decreased as the secondary roughness was removed, implying that the secondary could also enhance the solute dilution. The estimated BTCs by the Fickian advection-dispersion equation (ADE) yielded errors which decreased with the small-scale secondary roughness being removed. The mobile-immobile model (MIM) was alternatively implemented to characterize the Non-Fickian transport. We found that the MIM was more capable of estimating Non-Fickian BTCs. The small-scale secondary roughness resulted in the decreasing mobile domain fraction and the increasing mass exchange rate between immobile and mobile domains. The estimated parameters from the MIM could provide insight into the inherent mechanism of roughness
Implementation of Solute Transport in the Vadose Zone into the `HYDRUS Package for MODFLOW'
Simunek, J.; Beegum, S.; Szymkiewicz, A.; Sudheer, K. P.
2017-12-01
The 'HYDRUS package for MODFLOW' was developed by Seo et al. (2007) and Twarakavi et al. (2008) to simultaneously evaluate transient water flow in both unsaturated and saturated zones. The package, which is based on the HYDRUS-1D model (Šimůnek et al., 2016) simulating unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone, was incorporated into MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) simulating saturated groundwater flow. The HYDRUS package in the coupled model can be used to represent the effects of various unsaturated zone processes, including infiltration, evaporation, root water uptake, capillary rise, and recharge in homogeneous or layered soil profiles. The coupled model is effective in addressing spatially-variable saturated-unsaturated hydrological processes at the regional scale, allowing for complex layering in the unsaturated zone, spatially and temporarily variable water fluxes at the soil surface and in the root zone, and with alternating recharge and discharge fluxes (Twarakavi et al., 2008). One of the major limitations of the coupled model was that it could not be used to simulate at the same time solute transport. However, solute transport is highly dependent on water table fluctuations due to temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge. This is an important concern when the coupled model is used for analyzing groundwater contamination due to transport through the unsaturated zone. The objective of this study is to integrate the solute transport model (the solute transport part of HYDRUS-1D for the unsaturated zone and MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999; Zheng, 2009) for the saturated zone) into an existing coupled water flow model. The unsaturated zone component of the coupled model can consider solute transport involving many biogeochemical processes and reactions, including first-order degradation, volatilization, linear or nonlinear sorption, one-site kinetic sorption, two-site sorption, and two-kinetic sites sorption (Šimůnek and van Genuchten, 2008
The use of non-dimensional representation of the solute transport equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurens, J.-M.
1988-07-01
This report presents the results obtained in a pilot investigation into the use of non-dimensional representations of the solute transport equations, so as to improve the efficiency of the PRA codes used by the DoE and its contractors. A reduced set of parameters was obtained for a single layer transport model. As expected, the response was shown to be highly sensitive on the new parameters. A faster convergence of the system was observed when the sampling technique used was changed to take into account the properties of the new parameters, such that uniform coverage of the reduced parameter hyperspace was achieved. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard.
1980-11-01
This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented [fr
Modeling particle-facilitated solute transport using the C-Ride module of HYDRUS
Simunek, Jiri; Bradford, Scott A.
2017-04-01
Strongly sorbing chemicals (e.g., heavy metals, radionuclides, pharmaceuticals, and/or explosives) in soils are associated predominantly with the solid phase, which is commonly assumed to be stationary. However, recent field- and laboratory-scale observations have shown that, in the presence of mobile colloidal particles (e.g., microbes, humic substances, clays and metal oxides), the colloids could act as pollutant carriers and thus provide a rapid transport pathway for strongly sorbing contaminants. Such transport can be further accelerated since these colloidal particles may travel through interconnected larger pores where the water velocity is relatively high. Additionally, colloidal particles have a considerable adsorption capacity for other species present in water because of their large specific surface areas and their high concentrations in soil-water and groundwater. As a result, the transport of contaminants can be significantly, sometimes dramatically, enhanced when they are adsorbed to mobile colloids. To address this problem, we have developed the C-Ride module for HYDRUS-1D. This one-dimensional numerical module is based on the HYDRUS-1D software package and incorporates mechanisms associated with colloid and colloid-facilitated solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This numerical model accounts for both colloid and solute movement due to convection, diffusion, and dispersion in variably-saturated soils, as well as for solute movement facilitated by colloid transport. The colloids transport module additionally considers processes of attachment/detachment to/from the solid phase, straining, and/or size exclusion. Various blocking and depth dependent functions can be used to modify the attachment and straining coefficients. The module additionally considers the effects of changes in the water content on colloid/bacteria transport and attachment/detachment to/from solid-water and air-water interfaces. For example, when the air
Adam S. Ward; Michael N. Gooseff; Michael Fitzgerald; Thomas J. Voltz; Kamini Singha
2014-01-01
The transport of solutes along hyporheic flowpaths is recognized as central to numerous biogeochemical cycles, yet our understanding of how this transport changes with baseflow recession, particularly in a spatially distributed manner, is limited. We conducted four steady-state solute tracer injections and collected electrical resistivity data to characterize hyporheic...
Eutectic fusion used for the survey of transport of mass in metallic solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savane, Y.S.; Katty, S.; Balde, M.L.; Cisse, S.; Rogov, V.I.
1997-09-01
The phenomenon of eutectic fusion could be used for the survey of transport of mass in metallic solutions, which allows to determine the part of the ionic conductibility in the solutions. The survey done in the system In 2 Bi Bi-In at a temperature of 72 deg. C with a current of 4A allowed to find a ionic current of 2,6.10 -3 which constitutes about 0,07% of the total current. So the part of ionic conductibility in the eutectic fusion of the system In 2 Bi Bi-In is of 0,07%. (author)
Solution of charged particle transport equation by Monte-Carlo method in the BRANDZ code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artamonov, S.N.; Androsenko, P.A.; Androsenko, A.A.
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to the issues of Monte-Carlo employment for the solution of charged particle transport equation and its implementation in the BRANDZ code system under the conditions of real 3D geometry and all the data available on radiation-to-matter interaction in multicomponent and multilayer targets. For the solution of implantation problem the results of BRANDZ data comparison with the experiments and calculations by other codes in complexes systems are presented. The results of direct nuclear pumping process simulation for laser-active media by a proton beam are also included. 4 refs.; 7 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prost, G H [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-06-15
The relative stability of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution at 25 deg. C, allows its amperometric determination from the theory, using either its cathodic reduction or its anodic oxidation. The cathodic reduction yields a wave on a platinum electrode only when some oxygen is present in the solution. It cannot, therefore, be used for electrochemical determination. On the other hand, the anodic oxidation on platinum produces a wave which might be used. However, a passivation of platinum occurs at the same time. This passivation process is studied by means of potentio-kinetic, potentio-static, intensio-static curves and of pH measurements in the vicinity of the anode. A mechanism for passivation is presented, which takes into account the role of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. This passivation rules out any analytical application of the oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide. (author) [French] La stabilite relative de l'eau oxygenee en solution aqueuse a 25 deg. C permet d'envisager theoriquement son dosage par amperometrie, en utilisant soit sa reduction cathodique, soit son oxydation anodique. La reduction cathodique ne donne lieu a une vague sur electrode de platine qu'en presence d'oxygene dissous. Il n'est donc pas utilisable pour un dosage. L'oxydation anodique sur platine donne une vague theoriquement utilisable mais s'accompagne d'une passivation du platine. Le processus de la passivation est etudie au moyen des courbes potentiocinetiques, potentiostatiques, intensiostatiques et par une mesure des variations de pH au voisinage de l'anode. On propose un mecanisme de passivation en tenant compte du role activant de l'eau oxygenee. Cette passivation interdit toute application analytique de la reaction d'oxydation de l'eau oxygenee. (auteur)
Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.; Olson, A. J.
2013-01-01
We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)
Chain segmentation for the Monte Carlo solution of particle transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragheb, M.M.H.
1984-01-01
A Monte Carlo approach is proposed where the random walk chains generated in particle transport simulations are segmented. Forward and adjoint-mode estimators are then used in conjunction with the firstevent source density on the segmented chains to obtain multiple estimates of the individual terms of the Neumann series solution at each collision point. The solution is then constructed by summation of the series. The approach is compared to the exact analytical and to the Monte Carlo nonabsorption weighting method results for two representative slowing down and deep penetration problems. Application of the proposed approach leads to unbiased estimates for limited numbers of particle simulations and is useful in suppressing an effective bias problem observed in some cases of deep penetration particle transport problems
DRAGON solutions to the 3D transport benchmark over a range in parameter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Nicolas; Hebert, Alain; Marleau, Guy
2010-01-01
DRAGON solutions to the 'NEA suite of benchmarks for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space' are discussed in this paper. A description of the benchmark is first provided, followed by a detailed review of the different computational models used in the lattice code DRAGON. Two numerical methods were selected for generating the required quantities for the 729 configurations of this benchmark. First, S N calculations were performed using fully symmetric angular quadratures and high-order diamond differencing for spatial discretization. To compare S N results with those of another deterministic method, the method of characteristics (MoC) was also considered for this benchmark. Comparisons between reference solutions, S N and MoC results illustrate the advantages and drawbacks of each methods for this 3-D transport problem.
Compilation of field-scale caisson data on solute transport in the unsaturated zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.; Fuentes, H.R.; Nyhan, J.W.
1986-11-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted technical support studies to assess siting requirements mandated by Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 10 CFR Part 61. Field-scale transport studies were conducted under unsaturated moisture conditions and under steady and unsteady flow conditions in large caissons located and operated in a natural (field) environment. Moisture content, temperature, flow rate, base-line chemical, tracer influent, and tracer breakthrough data collected during tracer migration studies in the caisson are compiled in tables and graphs. Data suggest that the imposition of a period of drainage (influent solution flow was stopped) may cause an increase in tracer concentration in the soil solution at various sampling points in the caisson. Evaporation during drainage and diffusion of the tracers from immobile to mobile water are two phenomena that could explain the increase. Data also suggest that heterogeneity of sorption sites may increase the variability in transport of sorbing tracers compared with nonsorbing tracers
Presentation of some methods for the solution of the monoenergetic neutrons transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valle G, E. del.
1978-01-01
The neutrons transport theory problems whose solution has been reached were collected in order to show that the transport equation is so complicated that different techniques were developed so as to give approximative numerical solutions to problems concerning the practical application. Such a technique, which had not been investigated in the literature dealing with these problems, is described here. The results which were obtained through this technique in undimensional problems of criticity are satisfactory and speaking in a conceptual way this method is extremely simple because it times. There is no limitation to deal with problems related neutrons sources with an arbitrary distribution and in principle the application of this technique can be extended to unhomogeneous environments. (author)
Study of reactive solutes transport and PAH migration in unsaturated soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gujisaite, V.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gujisaite, V.; Morel, J.L.; Ouvrard, S.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gaudet, J.P.
2005-01-01
Experimental studies about solute transport in soil have most of the time been conducted under saturated conditions, whereas studies with unsaturated media are usually limited to hydrodynamic analysis. Those are mainly concerning the prediction of water flow, which is the main vector for the transport of contaminants in soil. Only a few studies have made the link between unsaturated flow and physical, chemical and biological interactions, which are controlling the availability of pollutants. However, the presence of a gaseous phase in soil can modify not only the movement of soil solution, but also chemical interactions and exchanges between soil aggregates and solution. Study of reactive solute transport in the vadose zone seems thus to be a necessary stage to predict contaminant fate in natural soils, for risk assessment as well as for the design of effective processes for the remediation of contaminated soils. This question is the main objective of the present work developed in the frame of our French Scientific Interest Group Industrial Wastelands called 'GISFI' (www.gisfi.prd.fr), based around a scientific and technological project dedicated to acquisition of knowledge for sustainable requalification of degraded sites polluted by past industrial activities. We will focus here on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), which are among the most widely discussed environmental contaminants because of their toxicity for human health and ecosystems. They are present in large quantities in soils polluted by former industrial activities, especially in relation to the coal extraction, exploitation and treatment. An experimental system has been specifically designed at the laboratory scale to carry out experiments under controlled conditions, with an unsaturated steady-state flow. The first experiments are performed on model soils, in order to investigate unsaturated steady-state flow in relation to interactions mechanisms. We have thus chosen to use a sandy
Hydro-dynamic Solute Transport under Two-Phase Flow Conditions.
Karadimitriou, Nikolaos K; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Brizuela, Omar Godinez
2017-07-26
There are abundant examples of natural, engineering and industrial applications, in which "solute transport" and "mixing" in porous media occur under multiphase flow conditions. Current state-of-the-art understanding and modelling of such processes are established based on flawed and non-representative models. Moreover, there is no direct experimental result to show the true hydrodynamics of transport and mixing under multiphase flow conditions while the saturation topology is being kept constant for a number of flow rates. With the use of a custom-made microscope, and under well-controlled flow boundary conditions, we visualized directly the transport of a tracer in a Reservoir-on-Chip (RoC) micromodel filled with two immiscible fluids. This study provides novel insights into the saturation-dependency of transport and mixing in porous media. To our knowledge, this is the first reported pore-scale experiment in which the saturation topology, relative permeability, and tortuosity were kept constant and transport was studied under different dynamic conditions in a wide range of saturation. The critical role of two-phase hydrodynamic properties on non-Fickian transport and saturation-dependency of dispersion are discussed, which highlight the major flaws in parametrization of existing models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxley, T.; Elshkaki, A.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Castillo, A.; Scarbrough, T.; ApSimon, H.
2012-01-01
With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO 2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.
Coupled Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Solute Transport, Metabolism and Nutrient Uptake in Streams
Kurz, M. J.; Schmidt, C.
2017-12-01
Slower flow velocities and longer residence times within stream transient storage (TS) zones facilitate interaction between solutes and microbial communities, potentially increasing local rates of metabolic activity. Multiple factors, including channel morphology and substrate, variable hydrology, and seasonal changes in biological and physical parameters, result in changes in the solute transport dynamics and reactivity of TS zones over time and space. These changes would be expected to, in turn, influence rates of whole-stream ecosystem functions such as metabolism and nutrient uptake. However, the linkages between solute transport and ecosystem functioning within TS zones, and the contribution of TS zones to whole-stream functioning, are not always so straight forward. This may be due, in part, to methodological challenges. In this study we investigated the influence of stream channel hydro-morphology and substrate type on reach (103 m) and sub-reach (102 m) scale TS and ecosystem functioning. Patterns in solute transport, metabolism and nitrate uptake were tracked from April through October in two contrasting upland streams using several methods. The two streams, located in the Harz Mountains, Germany, are characterized by differing size (0.02 vs. 0.3 m3/s), dominant stream channel substrate (bedrock vs. alluvium) and sub-reach morphology (predominance of pools, riffles and glides). Solute transport parameters and respiration rates at the reach and sub-reach scale were estimated monthly from coupled pulse injections of the reactive tracer resazurin (Raz) and conservative tracers uranine and salt. Raz, a weakly fluorescent dye, irreversibly transforms to resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, providing a proxy for aerobic respiration. Daily rates of primary productivity, respiration and nitrate retention at the reach scale were estimated using the diel cycles in dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations measured by in-situ sensors. Preliminary
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Daniel, C.L.; Rubio, A.M.; Sebastião, P.J.; Afonso, C.A.M.; Storch, Jan; Izák, Pavel; Portugal, C.A.M.; Crespo, J.G.
2016-01-01
Roč. 505, MAY 1 (2016), s. 36-43 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Grant - others:ERANET(PT) ERA-CHEM/0001/2008; EUI(ES) 2008- 03857; FCT-MCTES(PT) SFRH/BD/81552/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) * solute transport modulation * magnetic field Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016
Bounds and maximum principles for the solution of the linear transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, E.W.
1981-01-01
Pointwise bounds are derived for the solution of time-independent linear transport problems with surface sources in convex spatial domains. Under specified conditions, upper bounds are derived which, as a function of position, decrease with distance from the boundary. Also, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of maximum and minimum principles, and a counterexample is given which shows that such principles do not always exist
Sierra, M; Holguín, J A
1979-01-01
In the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the myocardium, celular organell which function is to regulate the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium in contraction and relaxation, we have studied the effect of hypertonic solutions of sucrose between 1 and 6.96 times the normal tonicity in order to observe the behavior of the internal linked or free calcium of this structure, as well as to prove the hypothesis that hypertonic solutions encourage the calcium exit of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with the resulting signs of contractures. The following results were obtained: 1. The ATP hydrolisis and calcium transport rate are 14% and 90% respectively of the maximum speeds of 10(-5) M in calcium, while for concentrations of 10(-7) M or ess of the said cation, the transport rates and the ATPase do not reach 5% of the maximum values. 2. Between 1 and 2.54 times of the normal tonicity the calcium uptake remains between 400 and 500 nmoles of calcium/mg protein/min, the transported amount of calcium varies between 14 and 16 nmoles/mg protein and the rate of the ATP hydrolysis increases a 37% to 0.4 M in sucrose. 3. Between 0.4 and 1.2 M in sucrose of 2.54 to 6.96 times the isotonicity, the calcium transport rate velocity as well as the ATP hydrolisis are strongly inhibited. The vesicles volume minimizes and the amount of linked calcium remains within the control values, proving that the capacity of linking this cathion is independent from sarcoplasmic reticulum volume. These results show that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is involved in the contractures induced by hypertonic solutions in intact cells, since the osmolarity increase produces changes of volume which results in a decrease of the calcium transportation velocity or in an increase of the exit of said cathion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geiger, S.; Cortis, A.; Birkholzer, J.T.
2010-04-01
Solute transport in fractured porous media is typically 'non-Fickian'; that is, it is characterized by early breakthrough and long tailing and by nonlinear growth of the Green function-centered second moment. This behavior is due to the effects of (1) multirate diffusion occurring between the highly permeable fracture network and the low-permeability rock matrix, (2) a wide range of advection rates in the fractures and, possibly, the matrix as well, and (3) a range of path lengths. As a consequence, prediction of solute transport processes at the macroscale represents a formidable challenge. Classical dual-porosity (or mobile-immobile) approaches in conjunction with an advection-dispersion equation and macroscopic dispersivity commonly fail to predict breakthrough of fractured porous media accurately. It was recently demonstrated that the continuous time random walk (CTRW) method can be used as a generalized upscaling approach. Here we extend this work and use results from high-resolution finite element-finite volume-based simulations of solute transport in an outcrop analogue of a naturally fractured reservoir to calibrate the CTRW method by extracting a distribution of retention times. This procedure allows us to predict breakthrough at other model locations accurately and to gain significant insight into the nature of the fracture-matrix interaction in naturally fractured porous reservoirs with geologically realistic fracture geometries.
An Overview of Problems and Solutions for Urban Freight Transport in Brazilian Cities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leise K. Oliveira
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Urban freight transport is a challenge for Brazilian cities due to the lack of adequate planning for freight flow movement. Public managers also show negligence and a lack of awareness when dealing with urban logistics. Decision-support data on urban freight transport are still scarce, despite being of fundamental value to economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents problems and solutions regarding urban freight transport in Brazilian cities. Data were obtained through a survey conducted in nine cities and analysed by means of descriptive statistics and the successive intervals method. Additionally, a cluster analysis was performed to identify patterns regarding the typical characteristics of each city in order to compare and generalise the perception of retailers regarding problems and solutions at the national level. The results indicate divergent opinions among retailers from different cities, even from cities with similar socioeconomic profiles and urban dynamics. The municipalities which demonstrated the most similarities were (i Betim and Niteroi, in the Southeast of Brazil; (ii Palmas and Quixada, in the North and Northeast, respectively; and (iii Palmas and Caruaru, also in the North and Northeast. The results reinforce the importance of studying the local context and involving stakeholders in the process of planning urban logistics solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yu; Gao Bin; Morales, Verónica L.; Tian Yuan; Wu Lei; Gao Jie; Bai Wei; Yang Liuyan
2012-01-01
Because of its wide applications, nanosized titanium dioxide may become a potential environmental risk to soil and groundwater system. It is therefore important to improve current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of titanium oxides nanoparticles (TONPs). In this work, the effect of solution chemistry (i.e., pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration) on the deposition and transport of TONPs in saturated porous media was examined in detail. Laboratory columns packed with acid-cleaned quartz sand were used in the experiment as porous media. Transport experiments were conducted with various chemistry combinations, including four ionic strengths, three pH levels, and two NOM concentrations. The results showed that TONP mobility increased with increasing solution pH, but decreased with increasing solution ionic strength. It is also found that the presence of NOM in the system enhanced the mobility of TONPs in the saturated porous media. The Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to justify the mobility trends observed in the experimental data. Predictions from the theory agreed excellently with the experimental data.
Regional flow and solute transport modeling for site suitability. Part I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowe, J.; Miller, I.
1979-12-01
The nature of regional flow systems in large sedimentary basins will largely determine the effectiveness of regional flow as a barrier to radionuclide escape from deep geologic repositories. The purpose of the work reported herein and the proposed future work is to develop a methodology for evaluating regional flow barriers by using numerical models. The Williston Basin was chosen as an archetype case for the regional modeling study. However, due to the simplified nature of the study, the results are not meant to represent the behavior of a repository actually placed within the Williston Basin. The major components of this Phase I study are: (1) assembly and reduction of available data; (2) formulation of a simplified geohydrologic model; (3) computer simulation of fluid flow; and (4) computer simulation of solute transport. As of this report, the first two items are essentially completed. Computer simulation of fluid flow will require some revision and further study, which will be done in the second phase of this study. Computer simulation of solute transport has been considered only on a very preliminary basis. Important conclusions of this Phase I study are as follows. Assembly and reduction of data require an extensive work effort. Generally, the parameters describing fluid flow are poorly known on a regional basis and those describing solute transport are unknown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Ngoc, T.D.
2008-07-01
This Ph.D thesis presents the development of the solute transport models in unsaturated double-porosity medium, by using the asymptotic homogenization method. The obtained macroscopic models concern diffusion, diffusion-convection and dispersion-convection, according to the transport regime which is characterized by the non-dimensional numbers. The models consist of two coupled equations that show the local non-equilibrium of concentrations. The double-porosity transport models were numerically implemented using the code COMSOL Multiphysics (finite elements method), and compared with the solution of the same problem at the fine scale. The implementation allows solving the coupled equations in the macro- and micro-porosity domains (two-scale computations). The calculations of the dispersion tensor as a solution of the local boundary value problems, were also conducted. It was shown that the dispersivity depends on the saturation, the physical properties of the macro-porosity domain and the internal structure of the double-porosity medium. Finally, two series of experiments were performed on a physical model of double-porosity that is composed of a periodic assemblage of sintered clay spheres in Hostun sand HN38. The first experiment was a drainage experiment, which was conducted in order to validate the unsaturated flow model. The second series was a dispersion experiment in permanent unsaturated water flow condition (water content measured by gamma ray attenuation technique). A good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental observations allows the validation of the developed models. (author)
Regional flow and solute transport modeling for site suitability. Part I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rowe, J.; Miller, I.
1979-12-01
The nature of regional flow systems in large sedimentary basins will largely determine the effectiveness of regional flow as a barrier to radionuclide escape from deep geologic repositories. The purpose of the work reported herein and the proposed future work is to develop a methodology for evaluating regional flow barriers by using numerical models. The Williston Basin was chosen as an archetype case for the regional modeling study. However, due to the simplified nature of the study, the results are not meant to represent the behavior of a repository actually placed within the Williston Basin. The major components of this Phase I study are: (1) assembly and reduction of available data; (2) formulation of a simplified geohydrologic model; (3) computer simulation of fluid flow; and (4) computer simulation of solute transport. As of this report, the first two items are essentially completed. Computer simulation of fluid flow will require some revision and further study, which will be done in the second phase of this study. Computer simulation of solute transport has been considered only on a very preliminary basis. Important conclusions of this Phase I study are as follows. Assembly and reduction of data require an extensive work effort. Generally, the parameters describing fluid flow are poorly known on a regional basis and those describing solute transport are unknown.
Passive and transpassive behaviour of CoCrMo in simulated biological solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodgson, A.W.E.; Kurz, S.; Virtanen, S.; Fervel, V.; Olsson, C.-O.A.; Mischler, S.
2004-01-01
In this work, the behaviour of a CoCrMo alloy under simulated body conditions was investigated. More specifically, the electrochemical properties of the alloy and the relevant mechanisms in the passive and transpassive states were studied in detail. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisation, cyclic voltammetry, rotating disc electrode and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed. Further, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the passive films was carried out. A good correlation between the results obtained from all the experimental techniques was achieved. Overall, it was found that the passive film on CoCrMo changed in composition and thickness with both potential and time. The passive behaviour of the CrCrMo alloy is due to a formation an oxide film highly enriched with Cr (∼90% Cr oxides) on the alloy surface. The passive and transpassive behaviour of the alloy is hence dominated by the alloying element Cr. In the transpassive region, strong thickening of the oxide film takes place, combined with a change in the composition of the film, and strongly increased dissolution rate. In the transpassive region, all alloying elements dissolve according to the composition of the alloy. The metal ion release is also very strongly enhanced by cyclic variation of the potential between reducing and oxidizing conditions. In this case, during activation/repassivation cycles, cobalt dissolution is greater than expected from the composition of the alloy. Therefore, active dissolution behaviour is mainly dominated by the alloying element Co
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nisbet, A.F.; Lembrechts, J.F.
1990-01-01
Any investigations into the effect of countermeasures on radionuclide transfer to plants should include a comprehensive chemical analysis of soil solution. This is because of the disturbances that soil-based countermeasures cause on soil:solution equilibria and radionuclide distribution between solid and liquid phases. As it is difficult to determine directly the effects of countermeasures under field conditions, it is recommended that laboratory-based studies be done first. These should include batch equilibrium experiments for soil:solution interactions, and hydroponic studies for solution:plant relationships. Speciation of radionuclides should form a fundamental part of both studies. (author)
Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de
2003-01-01
In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christensen, L.
2001-12-01
The purpose of this report is to analyse the effects on private transport and environmental impact from urban size and structure, and the localisation. In this analysis, the CO{sub 2}-emission is used as the indicator of the environmental impact of the transport i.e. as a result of the energy consumption. The report is organised in 3 main chapters concerning localisation of residential areas, workplace, and centre functions. One of the important results from the analyses is the environmental benefit of avoiding residential development in smaller towns and villages. It is especially important to avoid urban sprawl around the big cities. Concentration in the big cities or in the neighbouring cities is environmentally much more promising. On the other hand it might be expedient to promote a slow development with workplaces in smaller towns to get a good balance between inhabitants and workplaces but it is important to give priority to non-specialised workplaces. Residential or business development in whichever size of the cities above 10,000 inhabitants makes no difference. On the other hand an expansion of centre activities has substantial effect on the CO{sub 2}-emission especially in cities with more than 22,000 inhabitants. Variation in localization inside the cities influences the CO{sub 2}-emission much more than the variability between cities. Residential areas as well as workplace intensive business ought to be promoted at central places near the stations. Upon deciding whether to give priority to residential areas or business at an actual area, more aspects need to be considered. One problem is that a residence and a workplace generate different person kilometres and the areas they occupy vary. It seems to be best to give priority to residential areas in the central areas and to business development around the stations. But this depends on the actual conditions and more detailed analyses might also be revealed. A planning policy promoting a development with
Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A
2016-11-01
Transport of solutes helps to regulate normal physiology and proper function of cartilage in diarthrodial joints. Multiple studies have shown the effects of characteristic parameters such as concentration of proteoglycans and collagens and the orientation of collagen fibrils on the diffusion process. However, not much quantitative information and accurate models are available to help understand how the characteristics of the fluid surrounding articular cartilage influence the diffusion process. In this study, we used a combination of micro-computed tomography experiments and biphasic-solute finite element models to study the effects of three parameters of the overlying bath on the diffusion of neutral solutes across cartilage zones. Those parameters include bath size, degree of stirring of the bath, and the size and concentration of the stagnant layer that forms at the interface of cartilage and bath. Parametric studies determined the minimum of the finite bath size for which the diffusion behavior reduces to that of an infinite bath. Stirring of the bath proved to remarkably influence neutral solute transport across cartilage zones. The well-stirred condition was achieved only when the ratio of the diffusivity of bath to that of cartilage was greater than ≈1000. While the thickness of the stagnant layer at the cartilage-bath interface did not significantly influence the diffusion behavior, increase in its concentration substantially elevated solute concentration in cartilage. Sufficient stirring attenuated the effects of the stagnant layer. Our findings could be used for efficient design of experimental protocols aimed at understanding the transport of molecules across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karavaeva, E.N.; Molchanova, I.V.
1976-01-01
The results of experiments performed to study the behaviour of radioactive and stable isotopes of Ca in soil - solution - plant system at different soil moistening are given. The experiments have been conducted in culture pans with two soils: soddy-meadow and soddy-podzolic differing in a number of physico-chemical properties. The solution of radioactive Ca( 45 CaCl 2 ) has been applied to soddy-meadow soil at the rate of 0.2 μcurie/kg, and to soddy-podzolic soil - at the rate of 0.1 μcurie/kg. The distribution and accumulation coefficients are estimated by the ratio to the total content of stable Ca and 45 Ca in soil. A direct relationship between distribution coefficients and the rate of soil moistening is observed. It has been established that 45 Ca and the natural stable isotopes of Ca applied to the soil differ in the type of distribution in soil - soil solution system and in accumulation by plants. However, a great similarity has been observed in behaviour of radioactive and stable isotopes of Ca depending on soil moistening
Thermally Cross-Linkable Hole Transport Materials for Solution Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs
Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ohyoung; Chin, Byung Doo; Lee, Chil Won
2018-04-01
Materials for unique fabrication of a solution-processed, multi-layered organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were developed. Preparation of a hole transport layer with a thermally cross-linkable chemical structure, which can be processed to form a thin film and then transformed into an insoluble film by using an amine-alcohol condensation reaction with heat treatment, was investigated. Functional groups, such as triplenylamine linked with phenylcarbazole or biphenyl, were employed in the chemical structure of the hole transport layer in order to maintain high triplet energy properties. When phenylcarbazole or biphenyl compounds continuously react with triphenylamine under acid catalysis, a chemically stable thin film material with desirable energy-level properties for a blue OLED could be obtained. The prepared hole transport materials showed excellent surface roughness and thermal stability in comparison with the commercial reference material. On the solution-processed model hole transport layer, we fabricated a device with a blue phosphorescent OLED by using sequential vacuum deposition. The maximum external quantum, 19.3%, was improved by more than 40% over devices with the commercial reference material (11.4%).
Finite element simulation of moisture movement and solute transport in a large caisson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huyakorn, P.S.; Jones, B.G.; Parker, J.C.; Wadsworth, T.D.; White, H.O. Jr.
1987-01-01
The results of the solute transport experiments performed on compacted, crushed Bandelier Tuff in caisson B of the experimental cluster described by DePoorter (1981) are simulated. Both one- and three-dimensional simulations of solute transport have been performed using two selected finite element codes. Results of bromide and iodide tracer experiments conducted during near-steady flow conditions have been analyzed for pulse additions made on December 6, 1984, and followed over a period of up to 60 days. In addition, a pulse addition of nonconservative strontium tracer on September 28, 1984, during questionably steady flow conditions has been analyzed over a period of 240 days. One-dimensional finite element flow and transport simulations were carried out assuming the porous medium to be homogeneous and the injection source uniformly distributed. To evaluate effects of the nonuniform source distribution and also to investigate effects of inhomogeneous porous medium properties, three dimensional finite element analyses of transport were carried out. Implications of the three-dimensional effects for the design and analysis of future tracer studies are discussed
Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan
2016-04-01
Quantification of flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface adjacent to the atmosphere is decisive to prevent groundwater pollution and conserve groundwater quality, to develop successful remediation strategies and to understand nutrient cycling. In nature, due to erratic precipitation-evaporation patterns, soil moisture content and related hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone are not only variable in space but also in time. Flow directions and flow paths locally change between precipitation and evaporation periods. This makes the identification and description of solute transport processes in the vadose zone a complex problem. Recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a) focused on the investigation of upward transport of solutes during evaporation in heterogeneous soil columns, where heterogeneity was introduced by a sharp vertical material interface between two types of sand. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both (lateral) directions was observed at different depths of the investigated soil columns. Following recent approaches, we conduct two-dimensional numerical simulations in a similar setup which is composed of two sands with a sharp vertical material interface. The investigation is broadened from the sole evaporation to combined precipitation-evaporation cycles in order to quantify transport processes resulting from the combined effects of heterogeneous soil structure and dynamic flow conditions. Simulations are performed with a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm (Ippisch et al., 2006; Bechtold et al., 2011b). By comparing scenarios with cyclic boundary conditions and stationary counterparts with the same net flow rate, we found that duration and intensity of precipitation and evaporation periods potentially have an influence on lateral redistribution of solutes and thus leaching rates. Whether or not dynamic boundary conditions lead to significant deviations in the transport
2013-03-01
This : study : examines : the : travel : behaviour : and : attitudes : of : recently : resettled : refugees : in : Chittenden : County, : Vermont, : with : particular : attention : to : distinctions : based : on : gender : and : age. : It : is : base...
Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Review of Task 6C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, John; Hodgkinson, David
2005-03-01
This report forms part of an independent review of the specifications, execution and results of Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, which is seeking to provide a bridge between site characterization (SC) and performance assessment (PA) approaches to solute transport in fractured rock. The present report is concerned solely with Task 6C, which relates to the construction and parametrisation of a block-scale hydrostructural model of the TRUE Block Scale region of the Aespoe Hard Rock laboratory. The task objectives, specifications and outcome are summarised and reviewed. Also, consideration is given to how the hydrostructural model might affect the outcomes of Task 6D and 6E. The main conclusions of this review are summarised below: The Task 6C hydrostructural model is a more comprehensive approach to quantitatively describing a volume of fractured rock than has been achieved hitherto. The idea of including solute retention characteristics as indices attached to individual fractures is an efficient device resulting in a whole volume of fractured rock described by a few spreadsheets. The hydrostructural model is clearly defined and provides a useful test bed for Tasks 6D and 6E. It would have been beneficial if the specifications for Task 6C had been more clearly defined as a hierarchy of requirements, and performance measures had been defined and evaluated to allow comparison of alternative approaches. The device used to reduce connectivity, namely reducing the average size of background fractures, has the effect of producing a final model with an 'unnatural' gap in the overall distribution of fracture sizes. It appears that the exploratory boreholes could be important conductive structures within the region of the 200 m block even though they are segmented into shorter sections by packers. If correct, this implies that the boreholes should be included explicitly in the model if close replication of TRUE Block
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yaqi
2012-01-01
The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) is an accepted technique to verify that a numerical discretization for the radiation transport equation has been implemented correctly. This technique offers a few advantages over other methods such as benchmark problems or analytical solutions. The solution can be manufactured such that properties for the angular flux are either stressed or preserved. For radiation transport, these properties can include desired smoothness, positiveness and arbitrary order of anisotropy in angle. Another advantage is that the angular flux solution can be manufactured for multidimensional problems where analytical solutions are difficult to obtain in general.
Mechanisms to explain the reverse perivascular transport of solutes out of the brain.
Schley, D; Carare-Nnadi, R; Please, C P; Perry, V H; Weller, R O
2006-02-21
Experimental studies and observations in the human brain indicate that interstitial fluid and solutes, such as amyloid-beta (Abeta), are eliminated from grey matter of the brain along pericapillary and periarterial pathways. It is unclear, however, what constitutes the motive force for such transport within blood vessel walls, which is in the opposite direction to blood flow. In this paper the potential for global pressure differences to achieve such transport are considered. A mathematical model is constructed in order to test the hypothesis that perivascular drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes out of brain tissue is driven by pulsations of the blood vessel walls. Here it is assumed that drainage occurs through a thin layer between astrocytes and endothelial cells or between smooth muscle cells. The model suggests that, during each pulse cycle, there are periods when fluid and solutes are driven along perivascular spaces in the reverse direction to the flow of blood. It is shown that successful drainage may depend upon some attachment of solutes to the lining of the perivascular space, in order to produce a valve-like effect, although an alternative without this requirement is also postulated. Reduction in pulse amplitude, as in ageing cerebral vessels, would prolong the attachment time, encourage precipitation of Abeta peptides in vessel walls, and impair elimination of Abeta from the brain. These factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and in the accumulation of Abeta in the brain in Alzheimer's disease.
A lattice Boltzmann model for solute transport in open channel flow
Wang, Hongda; Cater, John; Liu, Haifei; Ding, Xiangyi; Huang, Wei
2018-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann model of advection-dispersion problems in one-dimensional (1D) open channel flows is developed for simulation of solute transport and pollutant concentration. The hydrodynamics are calculated based on a previous lattice Boltzmann approach to solving the 1D Saint-Venant equations (LABSVE). The advection-dispersion model is coupled with the LABSVE using the lattice Boltzmann method. Our research recovers the advection-dispersion equations through the Chapman-Enskog expansion of the lattice Boltzmann equation. The model differs from the existing schemes in two points: (1) the lattice Boltzmann numerical method is adopted to solve the advection-dispersion problem by meso-scopic particle distribution; (2) and the model describes the relation between discharge, cross section area and solute concentration, which increases the applicability of the water quality model in practical engineering. The model is verified using three benchmark tests: (1) instantaneous solute transport within a short distance; (2) 1D point source pollution with constant velocity; (3) 1D point source pollution in a dam break flow. The model is then applied to a 50-year flood point source pollution accident on the Yongding River, which showed good agreement with a MIKE 11 solution and gauging data.
Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malin, Wahlberg; Imre, Pazsit
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a series of model transport problems, for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. Due to the non-linear character of the embedding equations, their solution can only be obtained numerically. However, this can be done via a robust and effective iteration scheme. In return, the domain of applicability is far wider than the model problems investigated in this paper. The use of the invariant embedding method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel and unexpected application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the reflected flux from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast and monotonically converging to the exact solutions. (authors)
Minkov, Ivan L.; Manev, Emil D.; Sazdanova, Svetla V.; Kolikov, Kiril H.
2013-01-01
Osmosis is essential for the living organisms. In biological systems the process usually occurs in confined volumes and may express specific features. The osmotic pressure in aqueous solutions was studied here experimentally as a function of solute concentration (0.05–0.5 M) in two different regimes: of constant and variable solution volume. Sucrose, a biologically active substance, was chosen as a reference solute for the complex tests. A custom made osmotic cell was used. A novel operative experimental approach, employing limited variation of the solution volume, was developed and applied for the purpose. The established equilibrium values of the osmotic pressure are in agreement with the theoretical expectations and do not exhibit any evident differences for both regimes. In contrast, the obtained kinetic dependences reveal striking divergence in the rates of the process at constant and varied solution volume for the respective solute concentrations. The rise of pressure is much faster at constant solution volume, while the solvent influx is many times greater in the regime of variable volume. The results obtained suggest a feasible mechanism for the way in which the living cells rapidly achieve osmotic equilibrium upon changes in the environment. PMID:24459448
On the spectral analysis of iterative solutions of the discretized one-group transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard
2004-01-01
We analyze the Fourier-mode technique used for the spectral analysis of iterative solutions of the one-group discretized transport equation. We introduce a direct spectral analysis for the iterative solution of finite difference approximations for finite slabs composed of identical layers, providing thus a complementary analysis that is more appropriate for reactor applications. Numerical calculations for the method of characteristics and with the diamond difference approximation show the appearance of antisymmetric modes generated by the iteration on boundary data. We have also utilized the discrete Fourier transform to compute the spectrum for a periodic slab containing N identical layers and shown that at the limit N → ∞ one obtains the familiar Fourier-mode solution
Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay
2016-09-01
Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It
Bordukalo-Niksic, Tatjana; Mokrovic, Gordana; Stefulj, Jasminka; Zivin, Marko; Jernej, Branimir; Cicin-Sain, Lipa
2010-12-01
Altered activity of brain serotonergic (5HT) system has been implicated in a wide range of behaviours and behavioural disorders, including anxiety. Functioning of 5HT-1A receptor has been suggested as a modulator of emotional balance in both, normal and pathological forms of anxiety. Here, we studied serotonergic modulation of anxiety-like behaviour using a genetic rat model with constitutional differences in 5HT homeostasis, named Wistar-Zagreb 5HT (WZ-5HT) rats. The model, consisting of high-5HT and low-5HT sublines, was developed by selective breeding of animals for extreme activities of peripheral (platelet) 5HT transporter, but selection process had affected also central 5HT homeostasis, as evidenced from neurochemical and behavioural studies. Anxiety-like behaviour in WZ-5HT rats was evaluated by two commonly used paradigms: open field and elevated-plus maze. The involvement of 5HT-1A receptors in behavioural response was assessed by measuring mRNA expression in cell bodies (raphe nuclei) and projection regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus) by use of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, and by measuring functionality of cortical 5HT-1A receptors by use of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT radioligand binding. Animals from the high-5HT subline exhibit increased anxiety-like behaviour and decreased exploratory activity when exposed to novel environment. No measurable differences in constitutional (baseline) functionality or expression of 5HT-1A receptors between sublines were found. The results support contribution of increased serotonergic functioning to the anxiety-like behaviour. They also validate the high-5HT subline of WZ-5HT rats as a potential model to study mechanisms of anxiety, especially of its nonpathological form, while the low-5HT subline may be useful to model sensation seeking phenotype. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ranathunge, Kosala; Kim, Yangmin X; Wassmann, Friedrich; Kreszies, Tino; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas
2017-03-01
Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). The hydraulic conductivity of roots ( Lp r ) and of cortical cells ( Lp c ) was measured using root and cell pressure probes. When grown in hydroponics, barley roots did not form an exodermis, even at their basal zones. However, they developed an endodermis. Endodermal Casparian bands first appeared as 'dots' as early as at 20 mm from the apex, whereas a patchy suberin lamellae appeared at 60 mm. The endodermal suberin accounted for the total suberin of the roots. The absolute amount in the basal zone was significantly higher than in the apical zone, which was inversely proportional to the Lp r . Comparison of Lp r and Lp c suggested that cell to cell pathways dominate for water transport in roots. However, the calculation of Lp r from Lp c showed that at least 26 % of water transport occurs through the apoplast. Roots had different solute permeabilities ( P sr ) and reflection coefficients ( σ sr ) for the solutes used. The σ sr was below unity for the solutes, which have virtually zero permeability for semi-permeable membranes. Suberized endodermis significantly reduces Lp r of seminal roots. The water and solute transport across barley roots is composite in nature and they do not behave like ideal osmometers. The composite transport model should be extended by adding components arranged in series (cortex, endodermis) in addition to the currently included components arranged in parallel (apoplastic, cell to cell pathways). © The
Colloid transport in porous media: impact of hyper-saline solutions.
Magal, Einat; Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Walker, Sharon L; Yakirevich, Alexander
2011-05-01
The transport of colloids suspended in natural saline solutions with a wide range of ionic strengths, up to that of Dead Sea brines (10(0.9) M) was explored. Migration of microspheres through saturated sand columns of different sizes was studied in laboratory experiments and simulated with mathematical models. Colloid transport was found to be related to the solution salinity as expected. The relative concentration of colloids at the columns outlet decreased (after 2-3 pore volumes) as the solution ionic strength increased until a critical value was reached (ionic strength > 10(-1.8) M) and then remained constant above this level of salinity. The colloids were found to be mobile even in the extremely saline brines of the Dead Sea. At such high ionic strength no energetic barrier to colloid attachment was presumed to exist and colloid deposition was expected to be a favorable process. However, even at these salinity levels, colloid attachment was not complete and the transport of ∼ 30% of the colloids through the 30-cm long columns was detected. To further explore the deposition of colloids on sand surfaces in Dead Sea brines, transport was studied using 7-cm long columns through which hundreds of pore volumes were introduced. The resulting breakthrough curves exhibited a bimodal shape whereby the relative concentration (C/C(0)) of colloids at the outlet rose to a value of 0.8, and it remained relatively constant (for the ∼ 18 pore volumes during which the colloid suspension was flushed through the column) and then the relative concentration increased to a value of one. The bimodal nature of the breakthrough suggests different rates of colloid attachment. Colloid transport processes were successfully modeled using the limited entrapment model, which assumes that the colloid attachment rate is dependent on the concentration of the attached colloids. Application of this model provided confirmation of the colloid aggregation and their accelerated attachment during
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juilfs, G.G.
2001-01-01
The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions. The influence of plastic strain on the diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed structural steel (FeE 690T) was investigated using the electrochemical permeation technique. The plastic deformation was introduced either by cold rolling or by tensile straining. Specially prepared C(T)-specimen enabled the direct determination of the diffusion coefficient in the highly deformed region ahead of a blunting crack. It was shown, that the apparent diffusion coefficient depends on the plastic strain and on the overall hydrogen concentration, whereas the maximum hydrogen flux remained almost unchanged. These observations are interpreted in terms of variations in the dislocation density, which act as 'sinks' for the diffusable hydrogen atoms. The results are compared with model calculations, that describe the hydrogen transport as a function of the trap density. The comparison of the numerical simulation and the experimental data shows a good agreement over the whole range of plastic strain levels, leading to a trap density of 6.1.10 19 /d 3 . Together with the results of a previous study on the fracture toughness of FeE 690T in the presence of hydrogen the permeation data obtained in this work suggest that the observed influence of deformation rates on the fracture mechanism can be attributed to the reduced mobility of hydrogen atoms in the plastic zone. The assumption that the hydrogen transport during monotonic straining is controlled by diffusion was confirmed by investigations concerning the formation of surface films. Using a potentiodynamic method (cyclovoltammetry) a characterisation of the surface reactions involved in permeation experiments was performed. It was shown that the nature of the passive layers forming on the surface depends on the applied potential, affecting mainly the hydrogen absorption
Pattern of 14C-behaviour in sheep organism after being received with grass or in soda solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponomareva, R.P.; Fedorov, E.A.; Shilov, V.P.; Milakina, L.A.; Savina, V.I.
1990-01-01
A study was made on regularities of 14 C behaviour in sheep organism after being received with the ration as a part of Na 2 CO 3 solution and green mass of grass- 14 C. It is shown that 14 C, received by sheep organism, is actively involved in carbon metabolism, penetrates blood and enters milk. The equilibrium state of the nuclide in ration-milk chain is achieved during one day. It was established that C 14 , received by sheep organism with grass, was removed two times slower from the organism and penetrated milk move actively
Cadmium uptake from solution by plants and its transport from roots to shoots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarvis, S.C.; Jones, L.H.P.; Hopper, M.J.
1976-02-01
The uptake of cadmium by the roots of plants, and its transport to shoots was examined using solution culture. Uptake by the roots of perennial ryegrass over a period of 4 hours from an aqueous solution containing 0.25 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/ was (i) enhanced by killing the roots and (ii) depressed when Ca/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ or Zn/sup 2 +/ were added to the solution. The distribution of cadmium between the roots and shoots of 23 species was examined at 4 days after a single, 3-day exposure to a nutrient solution containing 0.01 ppm added Cd. In all except 3 species, i.e. kale, lettuce and watercress, more than 50% of that taken up was retained in the shoot, and in fibrous roots of fodder beet, parsnip, carrot and radish it was greater than in the swollen storage roots. When perennial ryegrass was similarly exposed to solutions containing 0.01, 0.05, and 0.25 ppm added cadmium, uptake, as measured at 3 days after adding cadmium, increased with increasing rates of addition, but the proportion retained in the roots was constant (approximately 88%). There was no further transport from roots to shoots during the next 21 days, with the result that the concentration in the shoots decreased progressively with increasing growth. It is concluded that although the roots of several species can take up large quantities of cadmium from solution there are mechanisms which may restrict the movement of cadmium through plants, and thus to animals. 21 references, 7 tables.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolova, L.M.; Frolov, A.A.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.
1984-01-01
Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions is studied under the action of intensive internal alpha-irradiation conditioned by curium nuclides. In 0.3-1.1 mol/l solutions of nitric acid radiation-chemical oxidation of neptunium (4) and reduction of neptunium (6) is obeyed to the first order law of reaction rate in respect to neptunium concentration. Effective constants of neptunium (4) oxidation rates and neptuniumi(6) reduction rates are not dependent on neptunium ion in1tial concentration and increase with a growth of a dose rate of alpha-irradiation of solution. In equilibrium only neptunium (5) and neptunium (6) are present in solutions with HNO 3 concentration less than 1 mol/l. In more concentrated solutions equilibrium between sexa-, penta- and tetravalent neptunium forms is established. Equilibrium concentrations of neptunium valent forms are not dependent on neptunium initial oxidation state under the same initial conditions (dose rate, neptunium concentration and acidity. It is shown form experimental data that under the action of alpha-irradiation neptunium (5) both is oxidated to neptunium (6) and is reduced to neptunium (4)
Fibrin structural and diffusional analysis suggests that fibers are permeable to solute transport.
Leonidakis, Kimon Alexandros; Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Patterson, Jennifer; Vos, Bart E; Koenderink, Gijsje H; Vermant, Jan; Lambrechts, Dennis; Roeffaers, Maarten; Van Oosterwyck, Hans
2017-01-01
Fibrin hydrogels are promising carrier materials in tissue engineering. They are biocompatible and easy to prepare, they can bind growth factors and they can be prepared from a patient's own blood. While fibrin structure and mechanics have been extensively studied, not much is known about the relation between structure and diffusivity of solutes within the network. This is particularly relevant for solutes with a size similar to that of growth factors. A novel methodological approach has been used in this study to retrieve quantitative structural characteristics of fibrin hydrogels, by combining two complementary techniques, namely confocal fluorescence microscopy with a fiber extraction algorithm and turbidity measurements. Bulk rheological measurements were conducted to determine the impact of fibrin hydrogel structure on mechanical properties. From these measurements it can be concluded that variations in the fibrin hydrogel structure have a large impact on the rheological response of the hydrogels (up to two orders of magnitude difference in storage modulus) but only a moderate influence on the diffusivity of dextran solutes (up to 25% difference). By analyzing the diffusivity measurements by means of the Ogston diffusion model we further provide evidence that individual fibrin fibers can be semi-permeable to solute transport, depending on the average distance between individual protofibrils. This can be important for reducing mass transport limitations, for modulating fibrinolysis and for growth factor binding, which are all relevant for tissue engineering. Fibrin is a natural biopolymer that has drawn much interest as a biomimetic carrier in tissue engineering applications. We hereby use a novel combined approach for the structural characterization of fibrin networks based on optical microscopy and light scattering methods that can also be applied to other fibrillar hydrogels, like collagen. Furthermore, our findings on the relation between solute transport
Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran [DHI Water and Environment AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)
2006-03-15
been analyzed. Results from the transport modelling show that a solute in the bedrock is transported quickly towards the peat surface in discharge areas for Bolundsfjaerden. After around 10 years, a stationary condition is reached. For the recharge area that develops in large parts of the mire, the solute is transported through horizontal dispersion, which results in much lower concentrations. The solute concentration is at the lowest where the overland water pressure is at the highest close to the south western inlet. Puttan has a vertical flow pattern that differs from Bolundsfjaerden. The pressure from water on the peat surface is considerably lower and for a major part of the year Puttan is a discharge area with an upwards flow direction. The spatial distribution of solutes is more even over the surface than for Bolundsfjaerden, but higher concentrations are found around today's shoreline. A solute reaching the wetland through surface runoff is transported relatively slow through the mire at Bolundsfjaerden. Due to the recharge conditions, the solute is spread to the underlying soil layers. The vertical solute transport follows the discharge and recharge areas, where high concentrations, up to the source strength, are reached in major parts of the formation, while lower concentrations are reached in the discharge areas and underneath clay sediment.
Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran
2006-03-01
analyzed. Results from the transport modelling show that a solute in the bedrock is transported quickly towards the peat surface in discharge areas for Bolundsfjaerden. After around 10 years, a stationary condition is reached. For the recharge area that develops in large parts of the mire, the solute is transported through horizontal dispersion, which results in much lower concentrations. The solute concentration is at the lowest where the overland water pressure is at the highest close to the south western inlet. Puttan has a vertical flow pattern that differs from Bolundsfjaerden. The pressure from water on the peat surface is considerably lower and for a major part of the year Puttan is a discharge area with an upwards flow direction. The spatial distribution of solutes is more even over the surface than for Bolundsfjaerden, but higher concentrations are found around today's shoreline. A solute reaching the wetland through surface runoff is transported relatively slow through the mire at Bolundsfjaerden. Due to the recharge conditions, the solute is spread to the underlying soil layers. The vertical solute transport follows the discharge and recharge areas, where high concentrations, up to the source strength, are reached in major parts of the formation, while lower concentrations are reached in the discharge areas and underneath clay sediment
Challenges and solutions for studying collective animal behaviour in the wild.
Hughey, Lacey F; Hein, Andrew M; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Jensen, Frants H
2018-05-19
Mobile animal groups provide some of the most compelling examples of self-organization in the natural world. While field observations of songbird flocks wheeling in the sky or anchovy schools fleeing from predators have inspired considerable interest in the mechanics of collective motion, the challenge of simultaneously monitoring multiple animals in the field has historically limited our capacity to study collective behaviour of wild animal groups with precision. However, recent technological advancements now present exciting opportunities to overcome many of these limitations. Here we review existing methods used to collect data on the movements and interactions of multiple animals in a natural setting. We then survey emerging technologies that are poised to revolutionize the study of collective animal behaviour by extending the spatial and temporal scales of inquiry, increasing data volume and quality, and expediting the post-processing of raw data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
The expectancy-value muddle in the theory of planned behaviour - and some proposed solutions.
French, David P; Hankins, Matthew
2003-02-01
The authors of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour recommended a method for statistically analysing the relationships between beliefs and the Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control constructs. This method has been used in the overwhelming majority of studies using these theories. However, there is a growing awareness that this method yields statistically uninterpretable results (Evans, 1991). Despite this, the use of this method is continuing, as is uninformed interpretation of this problematic research literature. This is probably due to the lack of a simple account of where the problem lies, and the large number of alternatives available. This paper therefore summarizes the problem as simply as possible, gives consideration to the conclusions that can be validly drawn from studies that contain this problem, and critically reviews the many alternatives that have been proposed to address this problem. Different techniques are identified as being suitable, according to the purpose of the specific research project.
Characterization of a novel organic solute transporter homologue from Clonorchis sinensis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanyan Lu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is a liver fluke that can dwell in the bile ducts of mammals. Bile acid transporters function to maintain the homeostasis of bile acids in C. sinensis, as they induce physiological changes or have harmful effects on C. sinensis survival. The organic solute transporter (OST transports mainly bile acid and belongs to the SLC51 subfamily of solute carrier transporters. OST plays a critical role in the recirculation of bile acids in higher animals. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA of the 480-amino acid OST from C. sinensis (CsOST. Genomic analysis revealed 11 exons and nine introns. The CsOST protein had a 'Solute_trans_a' domain with 67% homology to Schistosoma japonicum OST. For further analysis, the CsOST protein sequence was split into the ordered domain (CsOST-N at the N-terminus and disordered domain (CsOST-C at the C-terminus. The tertiary structure of each domain was built using a threading-based method and determined by manual comparison. In a phylogenetic tree, the CsOST-N domain belonged to the OSTα and CsOST-C to the OSTβ clade. These two domains were more highly conserved with the OST α- and β-subunits at the structure level than at sequence level. These findings suggested that CsOST comprised the OST α- and β-subunits. CsOST was localized in the oral and ventral suckers and in the mesenchymal tissues abundant around the intestine, vitelline glands, uterus, and testes. This study provides fundamental data for the further understanding of homologues in other flukes.
Characterization of a novel organic solute transporter homologue from Clonorchis sinensis
Dai, Fuhong; Lee, Ji-Yun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok
2018-01-01
Clonorchis sinensis is a liver fluke that can dwell in the bile ducts of mammals. Bile acid transporters function to maintain the homeostasis of bile acids in C. sinensis, as they induce physiological changes or have harmful effects on C. sinensis survival. The organic solute transporter (OST) transports mainly bile acid and belongs to the SLC51 subfamily of solute carrier transporters. OST plays a critical role in the recirculation of bile acids in higher animals. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA of the 480-amino acid OST from C. sinensis (CsOST). Genomic analysis revealed 11 exons and nine introns. The CsOST protein had a ‘Solute_trans_a’ domain with 67% homology to Schistosoma japonicum OST. For further analysis, the CsOST protein sequence was split into the ordered domain (CsOST-N) at the N-terminus and disordered domain (CsOST-C) at the C-terminus. The tertiary structure of each domain was built using a threading-based method and determined by manual comparison. In a phylogenetic tree, the CsOST-N domain belonged to the OSTα and CsOST-C to the OSTβ clade. These two domains were more highly conserved with the OST α- and β-subunits at the structure level than at sequence level. These findings suggested that CsOST comprised the OST α- and β-subunits. CsOST was localized in the oral and ventral suckers and in the mesenchymal tissues abundant around the intestine, vitelline glands, uterus, and testes. This study provides fundamental data for the further understanding of homologues in other flukes. PMID:29702646
Groundwater and solute transport modeling at Hyporheic zone of upper part Citarum River
Iskandar, Irwan; Farazi, Hendy; Fadhilah, Rahmat; Purnandi, Cipto; Notosiswoyo, Sudarto
2017-06-01
Groundwater and surface water interaction is an interesting topic to be studied related to the water resources and environmental studies. The study of interaction between groundwater and river water at the Upper Part Citarum River aims to know the contribution of groundwater to the river or reversely and also solute transport of dissolved ions between them. Analysis of drill logs, vertical electrical sounding at the selected sections, measurement of dissolved ions, and groundwater modeling were applied to determine the flow and solute transport phenomena at the hyporheic zone. It showed the hyporheic zone dominated by silt and clay with hydraulic conductivity range from 10-4∼10-8 m/s. The groundwater flowing into the river with very low gradient and it shows that the Citarum River is a gaining stream. The groundwater modeling shows direct seepage of groundwater into the Citarum River is only 186 l/s, very small compared to the total discharge of the river. Total dissolved ions of the groundwater ranged from 200 to 480 ppm while the river water range from 200 to 2,000 ppm. Based on solute transport modeling it indicates dissolved ions dispersion of the Citarum River into groundwater may occur in some areas such as Bojongsoang-Dayeuh Kolot and Nanjung. This situation would increase the dissolved ions in groundwater in the region due to the contribution of the Citarum River. The results of the research can be a reference for further studies related to the mechanism of transport of the pollutants in the groundwater around the Citarum River.
Capillary-Driven Solute Transport and Precipitation in Porous Media during Dry-Out
Ott, Holger; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin; Snippe, Jeroen
2014-05-01
The injection of dry or under-saturated gases or supercritical (SC) fluids into water bearing formations might lead to a formation dry-out in the vicinity of the injection well. The dry-out is caused by the evaporation/dissolution of formation water into the injected fluid and the subsequent transport of dissolved water in the injected fluid away from the injection well. Dry-out results in precipitation from solutes of the formation brine and consequently leads to a reduction of the rock's pore space (porosity) and eventually to a reduction of permeability near the injection well, or even to the loss of injectivity. Recently evidence has been found that the complexity of the pore space and the respective capillary driven solute transport plays a key role. While no effective-permeability (Keff) reduction was observed in a single-porosity sandstone, multi porosity carbonate rocks responded to precipitation with a strong reduction of Keff. The reason for the different response of Keff to salt precipitation is suspected to be in the exact location of the precipitate (solid salt) in the pore space. In this study, we investigate dry-out and salt precipitation due to supercritical CO2 injection in single and multi-porosity systems under near well-bore conditions. We image fluid saturation changes by means of μCT scanning during desaturation. We are able to observe capillary driven transport of the brine phase and the respective transport of solutes on the rock's pore scale. Finally we have access to the precipitated solid-salt phase and their distribution. The results can proof the thought models behind permeability porosity relationships K(φ) for injectivity modeling. The topic and the mechanisms we show are of general interest for drying processes in porous material such as soils and paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropov, I.G.; Vasilevskaya, T.V.
1997-01-01
The state of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides was studied in solutions of different compositions to develop appropriate methodology and technology for treatment of spent decontamination solutions. Complex physico-chemical methods were used for this study. Particular attention was paid to the sorption of 137 Cs and 90 Sr on different natural and synthetic inorganic sorbents, as the most specific and selective sorbents for separation of these radionuclides from different solutions. Sorption of CS and Sr on different fractions of soil was also studied in connection with development of rehabilitation methods for contaminated territories. (author). 2 refs, 20 tabs
Hyporheic less-mobile porosity and solute transport in porous media
MahmoodPoorDehkordy, F.; Briggs, M. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Scruggs, C.; Singha, K.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.
2017-12-01
Solute transport and reactive processes are strongly influenced by hydrodynamic exchange with the hyporheic zone. Contaminant transport and redox zonation in the hyporheic zone and near-stream aquifer can be impacted by the exchange between mobile and less-mobile porosity zones in heterogeneous porous media. Less-mobile porosity zones can be created by fine materials with tight pore throats (e.g. clay, organics) and in larger, well-connected pores down gradient of flow obstructions (e.g. sand behind cobbles). Whereas fluid sampling is primarily responsive to the more-mobile domain, tracking solute tracer dynamics by geoelectrical methods provides direct information about both more- and less-mobile zones. During tracer injection through porous media of varied pore connectivity, a lag between fluid and bulk electrical conductivity is observed, creating a hysteresis loop when plotted in conductivity space. Thus, the combination of simultaneous fluid and bulk electrical conductivity measurements enables a much improved quantification of less-mobile solute dynamics compared to traditional fluid-only sampling approaches. We have demonstrated the less-mobile porosity exchange in laboratory-scale column experiments verified by simulation models. The experimental approach has also been applied to streambed sediments in column and reach-scale field experiments and verified using numerical simulation. Properties of the resultant hysteresis loops can be used to estimate exchange parameters of less-mobile porosity. Our integrated approach combining field experiments, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling provides new insights into the effect of less-mobile porosity on solute transport in the hyporheic zone.
Fiori, A.; Zarlenga, A.; Jankovic, I.; Dagan, G.
2017-12-01
Natural gradient steady flow of mean velocity U takes place in heterogeneous aquifers of random logconductivity Y = lnK , characterized by the normal univariate PDF f(Y) and autocorrelation ρY, of variance σY2 and horizontal integral scale I. Solute transport is quantified by the Breakthrough Curve (BTC) M at planes at distance x from the injection plane. The study builds on the extensive 3D numerical simulations of flow and transport of Jankovic et al. (2017) for different conductivity structures. The present study further explores the predictive capabilities of the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE), with macrodispersivity αL given by the First Order Approximation (FOA), by checking in a quantitative manner its applicability. After a discussion on the suitable boundary conditions for ADE, we find that the ADE-FOA solution is a sufficiently accurate predictor for applications, the many other sources of uncertainty prevailing in practice notwithstanding. We checked by least squares and by comparison of travel time of quantiles of M that indeed the analytical Inverse Gaussian M with αL =σY2 I , is able to fit well the bulk of the simulated BTCs. It tends to underestimate the late arrival time of the thin and persistent tail. The tail is better reproduced by the semi-analytical MIMSCA model, which also allows for a physical explanation of the success of the Inverse Gaussian solution. Examination of the pertinent longitudinal mass distribution shows that it is different from the commonly used Gaussian one in the analysis of field experiments, and it captures the main features of the plume measurements of the MADE experiment. The results strengthen the confidence in the applicability of the ADE and the FOA to predicting longitudinal spreading in solute transport through heterogeneous aquifers of stationary random structure.
Shimakata, Takaaki; Kamoshida, Shingo; Kawamura, Jumpei; Ogane, Naoki; Kameda, Yoichi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Takeda, Risa; Naka, Ayano; Sakamaki, Kuniko; Hayashi, Yurie; Kuwao, Sadahito
2016-11-01
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive tumour with high rates of liver metastasis and poor prognosis, and for which a validated chemotherapy regimen has not been established. Drug uptake by solute carrier (SLC) transporters is proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to develop important insights into effective chemotherapeutic regimens for AFP-producing GC. We evaluated immunohistochemically the expression levels of a panel of SLC transporters in 20 AFP-producing GCs and 130 conventional GCs. SLC transporters examined were human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT6 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). The rates of high expression levels of hENT1 (hENT1 high ) and OAT2 (OAT2 high ) were statistically higher in AFP-producing GC, compared with conventional GC. When analysing hENT1 and OAT2 in combination, hENT1 high /OAT2 high was the most particular expression profile for AFP-producing GC, with a greater significance than hENT1 or OAT2 alone. However, no significant differences in OCT2, OCT6 or OATP1B3 levels were detected between AFP-producing and conventional GCs. However, immunoreactivity for hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 tended to be increased in GC tissues compared with non-neoplastic epithelia. Because hENT1 and OAT2 are crucial for the uptake of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively, our results suggest that patients with AFP-producing GC could potentially benefit from gemcitabine/fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy. Increased expression of hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 may also be associated with the progression of GC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.
2013-01-01
A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica S Guzman
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the striatum are thought to play major regulatory functions in motor behaviour and reward. These neurons express two vesicular transporters that can load either acetylcholine or glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Consequently cholinergic neurons can release both neurotransmitters, making it difficult to discern their individual contributions for the regulation of striatal functions. Here we have dissected the specific roles of acetylcholine release for striatal-dependent behaviour in mice by selective elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT from striatal cholinergic neurons. Analysis of several behavioural parameters indicates that elimination of VAChT had only marginal consequences in striatum-related tasks and did not affect spontaneous locomotion, cocaine-induced hyperactivity, or its reward properties. However, dopaminergic sensitivity of medium spiny neurons (MSN and the behavioural outputs in response to direct dopaminergic agonists were enhanced, likely due to increased expression/function of dopamine receptors in the striatum. These observations indicate that previous functions attributed to striatal cholinergic neurons in spontaneous locomotor activity and in the rewarding responses to cocaine are mediated by glutamate and not by acetylcholine release. Our experiments demonstrate how one population of neurons can use two distinct neurotransmitters to differentially regulate a given circuitry. The data also raise the possibility of using VAChT as a target to boost dopaminergic function and decrease high striatal cholinergic activity, common neurochemical alterations in individuals affected with Parkinson's disease.
A computational model for simulating solute transport and oxygen consumption along the nephrons
Vallon, Volker; Edwards, Aurélie
2016-01-01
The goal of this study was to investigate water and solute transport, with a focus on sodium transport (TNa) and metabolism along individual nephron segments under differing physiological and pathophysiological conditions. To accomplish this goal, we developed a computational model of solute transport and oxygen consumption (QO2) along different nephron populations of a rat kidney. The model represents detailed epithelial and paracellular transport processes along both the superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons, with the loop of Henle of each model nephron extending to differing depths of the inner medulla. We used the model to assess how changes in TNa may alter QO2 in different nephron segments and how shifting the TNa sites alters overall kidney QO2. Under baseline conditions, the model predicted a whole kidney TNa/QO2, which denotes the number of moles of Na+ reabsorbed per moles of O2 consumed, of ∼15, with TNa efficiency predicted to be significantly greater in cortical nephron segments than in medullary segments. The TNa/QO2 ratio was generally similar among the superficial and juxtamedullary nephron segments, except for the proximal tubule, where TNa/QO2 was ∼20% higher in superficial nephrons, due to the larger luminal flow along the juxtamedullary proximal tubules and the resulting higher, flow-induced transcellular transport. Moreover, the model predicted that an increase in single-nephron glomerular filtration rate does not significantly affect TNa/QO2 in the proximal tubules but generally increases TNa/QO2 along downstream segments. The latter result can be attributed to the generally higher luminal [Na+], which raises paracellular TNa. Consequently, vulnerable medullary segments, such as the S3 segment and medullary thick ascending limb, may be relatively protected from flow-induced increases in QO2 under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27707705
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)
2016-12-01
Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.
All-solution processed composite hole transport layer for quantum dot light emitting diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiaoli [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China); Dai, Haitao, E-mail: htdai@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Shuguo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Xiaowei [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Tangchang Road 1088, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)
2016-03-31
In the present work, poly-TPD and TCTA composite hole transport layer (HTL) was employed in solution processed CdSe/ZnS quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs). As the doping level of TCTA can determine the carriers transport efficiency of HTL, the proper mixing ratio of TCTA and poly-TPD should be found to optimize the performance of composite HTL for QLEDs. The doping of poly-TPD by low TCTA content can make its HOMO level lower and then reduce the energy barrier height from HTL to quantum dots (QDs), whereas the doping of poly-TPD by the concentrated TCTA results in the degraded performance of QLEDs due to its decreased hole transport mobility. By using the optimized composition with poly-TPD:TCTA (3:1) as the hole transport layer, the luminescence of the device exhibits about double enhancement compared with that of poly-TPD based device. The improvement of luminescence is mainly attributed to the lower energy barrier of hole injection. The Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) mechanism in the devices was investigated through theoretical and experimental analysis and the results indicate that the TCTA doping makes no difference on FRET. Therefore, the charge injection mechanism dominates the improved performance of the devices. - Highlights: • Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated by all solution method. • The performance of QLEDs was optimized by varying the composite hole transport layer. • The blend HTL could promote hole injection by optimizing HOMO levels. • The energy transfer mechanism was analyzed by studying Förster resonant energy transfer process.
Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption
Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.
1999-01-01
A model for trace metals that considers in-stream transport, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption is presented. Linkage between a surface complexation submodel and the stream transport equations provides a framework for modeling sorption onto static and/or dynamic surfaces. A static surface (e.g., an iron- oxide-coated streambed) is defined as a surface with a temporally constant solid concentration. Limited contact between solutes in the water column and the static surface is considered using a pseudokinetic approach. A dynamic surface (e.g., freshly precipitated metal oxides) has a temporally variable solid concentration and is in equilibrium with the water column. Transport and deposition of solute mass sorbed to the dynamic surface is represented in the stream transport equations that include precipitate settling. The model is applied to a pH-modification experiment in an acid mine drainage stream. Dissolved copper concentrations were depressed for a 3 hour period in response to the experimentally elevated pH. After passage of the pH front, copper was desorbed, and dissolved concentrations returned to ambient levels. Copper sorption is modeled by considering sorption to aged hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) on the streambed (static surface) and freshly precipitated HFO in the water column (dynamic surface). Comparison of parameter estimates with reported values suggests that naturally formed iron oxides may be more effective in removing trace metals than synthetic oxides used in laboratory studies. The model's ability to simulate pH, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between trace metal chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale.
The role of halide ions on the electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkali solutions
Begum, S. Nathira; Muralidharan, V. S.; Basha, C. Ahmed
2008-02-01
Active dissolution and passivation of transition metals in alkali solutions is of technological importance in batteries. The performance of alkaline batteries is decided by the presence of halides as they influence passivation. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried out on iron in different sodium hydroxide solutions in presence of halides. In alkali solutions iron formed hydroxo complexes and their polymers in the interfacial diffusion layer. With progress of time they formed a cation selective layer. The diffusion layer turned into bipolar ion selective layer consisted of halides, a selective inner sublayer to the metal side and cation selective outer layer to the solution side. At very high anodic potentials, dehydration and deprotonation led to the conversion of salt layer into an oxide.
Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Vanclooster, Marnik
2012-05-01
Solute transport in partially saturated soils is largely affected by fluid velocity distribution and pore size distribution within the solute transport domain. Hence, it is possible to describe the solute transport process in terms of the pore size distribution of the soil, and indirectly in terms of the soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach that allows predicting the parameters of the Convective Lognormal Transfer model from knowledge of soil moisture and the Soil Moisture Characteristic (SMC), parameterized by means of the closed-form model of Kosugi (1996). It is assumed that in partially saturated conditions, the air filled pore volume act as an inert solid phase, allowing the use of the Arya et al. (1999) pragmatic approach to estimate solute travel time statistics from the saturation degree and SMC parameters. The approach is evaluated using a set of partially saturated transport experiments as presented by Mohammadi and Vanclooster (2011). Experimental results showed that the mean solute travel time, μ(t), increases proportionally with the depth (travel distance) and decreases with flow rate. The variance of solute travel time σ²(t) first decreases with flow rate up to 0.4-0.6 Ks and subsequently increases. For all tested BTCs predicted solute transport with μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model performed much better as compared to predictions with μ(t) and σ²(t) estimated from calibration of solute transport at shallow soil depths. The use of μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model therefore increases the robustness of the CLT model in predicting solute transport in heterogeneous soils at larger depths. In view of the fact that reasonable indirect estimates of the SMC can be made from basic soil properties using pedotransfer functions, the presented approach may be useful for predicting solute transport at field or watershed scales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Asymptotic behaviour of solutions to a system of Schrödinger equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Carvajal, X.; Gamboa, P.; Nečasová, Šárka; Nguyen, H. H.; Vero, O.
2017-01-01
Roč. 2017, č. 171 (2017), s. 1-23 ISSN 1072-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : coupled Schrodinger system * energy conservation * global solution * growth of solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2016 https://ejde.math.txstate.edu/Volumes/2017/171/abstr.html
A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples.
Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L; Ershler, William B; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H
2016-05-06
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90% viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs after
A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L.; Ershler, William B.; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H.
2016-01-01
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90 % viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs
Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.
2004-01-01
The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a
Li, Ruipeng
2012-09-04
A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Charlton, Scott R.
2010-01-01
The computer program PHAST (PHREEQC And HST3D) simulates multicomponent, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated groundwater flow systems. PHAST is a versatile groundwater flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. Major enhancements in PHAST Version 2 allow spatial data to be defined in a combination of map and grid coordinate systems, independent of a specific model grid (without node-by-node input). At run time, aquifer properties are interpolated from the spatial data to the model grid; regridding requires only redefinition of the grid without modification of the spatial data. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated groundwater systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock/water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, or density-dependent flow. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux (specified-flux), and leaky (head-dependent) conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers, drains, and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association or Pitzer specific interaction thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange sites, surface complexation sites, solid solutions, and gases; and
Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida
Harvey, Judson W.; Saiers, James E.; Newlin, Jessica T.
2005-01-01
Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant‐rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open‐ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one‐dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the “main flow zone”). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h−1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth‐averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water
Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil.
Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang
2016-02-01
In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
External intermittency prediction using AMR solutions of RANS turbulence and transported PDF models
Olivieri, D. A.; Fairweather, M.; Falle, S. A. E. G.
2011-12-01
External intermittency in turbulent round jets is predicted using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modelling approach coupled to solutions of the transported probability density function (pdf) equation for scalar variables. Solutions to the descriptive equations are obtained using a finite-volume method, combined with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm, applied in both physical and compositional space. This method contrasts with conventional approaches to solving the transported pdf equation which generally employ Monte Carlo techniques. Intermittency-modified eddy viscosity and second-moment turbulence closures are used to accommodate the effects of intermittency on the flow field, with the influence of intermittency also included, through modifications to the mixing model, in the transported pdf equation. Predictions of the overall model are compared with experimental data on the velocity and scalar fields in a round jet, as well as against measurements of intermittency profiles and scalar pdfs in a number of flows, with good agreement obtained. For the cases considered, predictions based on the second-moment turbulence closure are clearly superior, although both turbulence models give realistic predictions of the bimodal scalar pdfs observed experimentally.
Zhang, Hua; Harter, Thomas; Sivakumar, Bellie
2006-06-01
Facies-based geostatistical models have become important tools for analyzing flow and mass transport processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet little is known about the relationship between these latter processes and the parameters of facies-based geostatistical models. In this study, we examine the transport of a nonpoint source solute normal (perpendicular) to the major bedding plane of an alluvial aquifer medium that contains multiple geologic facies, including interconnected, high-conductivity (coarse textured) facies. We also evaluate the dependence of the transport behavior on the parameters of the constitutive facies model. A facies-based Markov chain geostatistical model is used to quantify the spatial variability of the aquifer system's hydrostratigraphy. It is integrated with a groundwater flow model and a random walk particle transport model to estimate the solute traveltime probability density function (pdf) for solute flux from the water table to the bottom boundary (the production horizon) of the aquifer. The cases examined include two-, three-, and four-facies models, with mean length anisotropy ratios for horizontal to vertical facies, ek, from 25:1 to 300:1 and with a wide range of facies volume proportions (e.g., from 5 to 95% coarse-textured facies). Predictions of traveltime pdfs are found to be significantly affected by the number of hydrostratigraphic facies identified in the aquifer. Those predictions of traveltime pdfs also are affected by the proportions of coarse-textured sediments, the mean length of the facies (particularly the ratio of length to thickness of coarse materials), and, to a lesser degree, the juxtapositional preference among the hydrostratigraphic facies. In transport normal to the sedimentary bedding plane, traveltime is not lognormally distributed as is often assumed. Also, macrodispersive behavior (variance of the traveltime) is found not to be a unique function of the conductivity variance. For the parameter range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen
2007-12-01
We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatab, A.F.; Sheta, M.E.; Mahfouz, M.G.; Tolba, A.A.
2007-01-01
The sorption behaviours of thorium (IV) and uranium (VI) from aqueous sulphate solutions have been studied using n-dodecylamine and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) dissolved in benzene and impregnated onto amberlite XAD-4 (styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer). The sorption behaviours were evaluated as a function of free acidity, salting out effect, ph value, equilibrium time, V/m ratio, initial metal ion concentration, loaded amine concentration and sorption temperature. The equilibrium time for Th(IV) and U(VI) sorption from aqueous sulphate solution was found to be 90 and 60 minutes, respectively. The sorption of Th(IV) was quantitatively at ph range 3.7-4.3 and at 4.3-5.2 for U(VI). The sorption capacity of the impregnated resin was determined by batch method and it was found to be 0.031 and 0.033 mmol/g for Th(IV) and U(VI), respectively. Elution of Th(IV) from thorium-loaded impregnated resin was quantitatively achieved by using 2 mol/l HNO 3 and by using 0.1 mol/l HCl for U(VI)
Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300oC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D.
1999-12-01
The major contributions of the isotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300 o C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb 2 O 3 increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200 o C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250 o C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb 2 O 5 ·xH 2 O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na 2α [H(H 2 O)] 2-2α Sb 2 O 6 , which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200 o C and decreases at temperatures above 250 o C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO 3 - or Sb(OH) 6 - ), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations ≥ 0.00005 mol·dm -3 in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be ruled out that hydrated Sb 2 O 5 (especially the pyrochlore form) might be less soluble in near-neutral, low
Improved performance of organic solar cells with solution processed hole transport layer
Bhargav, Ranoo; Gairola, S. P.; Patra, Asit; Naqvi, Samya; Dhawan, S. K.
2018-06-01
This work is based on Cobalt Oxide as solution processed, inexpensive and effective hole transport layer (HTL) for efficient organic photovoltaic applications (OPVs). In Organic solar cell (OSC) devices ITO coated glass substrate used as a transparent anode electrode for light incident, HTL material Co3O4 dissolve in DMF solvent deposited on anode electrode, after that active layer material (donor/acceptor) deposited on to HTL and finally Al were deposited by thermal evaporation used as cathode electrode. These devices were fabricated with PCDTBT well known low band gap donor material in OSCs and blended with PC71BM as an acceptor material using simplest device structure ITO/Co3O4/active layer/Al at ambient conditions. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) based on Co3O4 and PEDOT:PSS have been achieved to up to 3.21% and 1.47% with PCDTBT respectively. In this study we reported that the devices fabricated with Co3O4 showed better performance as compare to the devices fabricated with well known and most studied solution processed HTL material PEDOT:PSS under identical environmental conditions. The surface morphology of the HTL film was characterized by (AFM). Lastly, we have provided Co3O4 as an efficient hole transport material HTL for solution processed organic photovoltaic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hursin, Mathieu; Downar, Thomas J.; Yoon, Joo Il; Joo, Han Gyu
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Reactivity initiated accident analysis with direct whole core transient transport code. • Comparison with usual “two steps” procedure. • Effect of effective delayed neutron fraction definition on energy deposition in the fuel. • Effect of homogenized few-group cross sections generation at the assembly level on energy deposition in the fuel. • Effect of effective fuel temperature definition on energy deposition in the fuel. - Abstract: The impact of the approximations in the “two-steps” procedure used in the current generation of nodal simulators for core transient calculations is assessed by using a higher order solution obtained from a direct, whole core, transient transport calculation. A control rod ejection accident in an idealized minicore is analyzed with PARCS, which uses the two-steps procedure and DeCART which provides the higher order solution. DeCART is used as lattice code to provide the homogenized cross sections and kinetics parameters to PARCS. The approximations made by using (1) the homogenized few-group cross sections and kinetic parameters generated at the assembly level, (2) an effective delayed neutrons fraction, (3) an effective fuel temperature and (4) the few-group formulation are investigated in terms of global and local core power behavior. The results presented in the paper show that the current two-steps procedure produces sufficiently accurate transient results with respect to the direct whole core calculation solution, provided that its parameters are carefully generated using the prescriptions described in the present article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryshetti, Suresh; Gardas, Ramesh L; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Solvation behaviour of diclofenac drug studied in aqueous solutions. • Density and speed of sound of drug in aq. glycine and L-proline are measured. • Hydrophobic nature of diclofenac sodium salt is studied. • Effect of temperature on solvation of diclofenac sodium salt is analysed. - Abstract: Apparent molar volume (V 2,ϕ ) and apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2,ϕ ) of diclofenac sodium salt (DSS) drug within the concentration range of (0.001 to 0.008) mol · kg −1 in (0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) mol · kg −1 aqueous glycine and L-proline solutions are computed from the experimental density (ρ) and speed of sound (u) values at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Derived parameters such as partial molar properties, transfer partial molar properties, hydration numbers and Hepler’s constant are computed from the data of V 2,ϕ and K s,2,ϕ . These parameters have been used to understand the effect of temperature on interactions between DSS drug and aqueous glycine/L-proline solution. Furthermore, the structure making and breaking ability of DSS drug in probed solutions are analysed at experimental conditions
Adsorption and colloidal behaviour of carrier-free 7Be in aqueous solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benes, P.; Jiranek, V.
1974-01-01
The state of carrier-free 7 Be in aqueous nitrate solutions was studied by electrophoresis, centrifugation and dialysis. In solutions of pH 2+ cation. At pH > 4 hydrolysis of beryllium proceeds which results in the formation of BeOH + ions and Be(OH) 2 molecules. The larger part of these molecules is adsorbed on the surface of colloidal impurities present in the solution. The pseudocolloids thus formed are positively charged up to pH 11. In alkaline solutions (pH > 11), negatively charged pseudocolloids and anionic hydroxocomplexes of beryllium exist. Adsorption and desorption of carrier-free beryllium was studied on glass, plexiglass and polyethylene as a function of pH, age and ionic strength (NaNO 3 ) of the solution. It has been found that the adsorption begins at pH 3-5, passes through a maximum at pH 8-11 and decreases to a very low value at pH 14. Probable mechanismus of the adsorption were discussed. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Amalendu; Chauhan, Nalin
2011-01-01
Densities, ρ, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V φ , partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V φ o , and experimental slope, S V were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the (∂V φ 0 /∂T) P values. The partial molar volume of transfer, ΔV φ 0 from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V φ 0 with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH 3 + COO - , and CH 2 groups to V φ 0 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem@sify.co [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Chauhan, Nalin [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)
2011-02-15
Densities, {rho}, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}, partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V{sub {phi}}{sup o}, and experimental slope, S{sub V} were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the ({partial_derivative}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} values. The partial molar volume of transfer, {Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH{sub 3}{sup +}COO{sup -}, and CH{sub 2} groups to V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}.
FASTREACT – An efficient numerical framework for the solution of reactive transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trinchero, Paolo; Molinero, Jorge; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We present a tool for the efficient solution of reactive transport problems. • The tool is used to simulate radionuclide transport in a two-dimensional medium. • The results are successfully compared with those obtained using an Eulerian approach. • A large-scale application example is also solved. • The results show that the proposed tool can efficiently solve large-scale models. - Abstract: In the framework of safety assessment studies for geological disposal, large scale reactive transport models are powerful inter-disciplinary tools aiming at supporting regulatory decision making as well as providing input to repository engineering activities. Important aspects of these kinds of models are their often very large temporal and spatial modelling scales and the need to integrate different non-linear processes (e.g., mineral dissolution and precipitation, adsorption and desorption, microbial reactions and redox transformations). It turns out that these types of models may be computationally highly demanding. In this work, we present a Lagrangian-based framework, denoted as FASTREACT, that aims at solving multi-component-reactive transport problems with a computationally efficient approach allowing complex modelling problems to be solved in large spatial and temporal scales. The tool has been applied to simulate radionuclide migration in a synthetic heterogeneous transmissivity field and the results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a standard Eulerian approach. Finally, the same geochemical model has been coupled to an ensemble of realistic three-dimensional transport pathways to simulate the migration of a set of radionuclides from a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel to the surface. The results of this modelling exercise, which includes key processes such as the exchange of mass between the conductive fractures and the matrix, show that FASTREACT can efficiently solve large-scale reactive transport models
Radiation-chemical behaviour of Rh(4) in perchlorate and nitrate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirova, M.V.; Khalkina, E.V.
1994-01-01
Kinetic of rhodium(4) reduction in the process of radiolysis in solutions of perchloric (0.6-3.2 mol/l) and nitric (2-9 mol/l) acids with rhodium (4) concentration (0.4-5)x10 -3 mol/l has been studied. Irradiation of the solutions was carried out using a 60 Co source with dose rate of 3.5 Gy/s in the absorbed dose range up to 10 4 Gy. A mechanism of radiation-chemical reduction of rhodium(4) in perchloric and nitric acid solutions in suggested, the reason for high radiation-chemical yields of reduction is discussed. 7 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs
Behaviour of Pu-IV with various ion exchangers in solutions containing nitric acid and oxalates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walter, E.; Ali, S.A.
1982-02-01
The distribution of Pu-IV on the ion exchangers Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8 und Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate were investigated. The results indicate that nitric acid and oxalic acid influence each other during complexation of Pu-IV with oxalate ions solutions containing nitric acid it is not possible to neglect the formation of Pu-IV nitrate complexes. The complex Pu(IV) (C 2 O 4 ) 3 2 - only is formed in solutions containing low nitric acid and high oxalic acid concentrations. The separation of Pu-IV in Dowex Chelating Resin from nitric acid solution in the presence of higher oxalate concentrations is possible, provided that the nitric acid concentration is lower than 0.25 molar [fr
Cherevko, A. A.; Bord, E. E.; Khe, A. K.; Panarin, V. A.; Orlov, K. J.
2017-10-01
This article proposes the generalized model of Van der Pol — Duffing equation for describing the relaxation oscillations in local brain hemodynamics. This equation connects the velocity and pressure of blood flow in cerebral vessels. The equation is individual for each patient, since the coefficients are unique. Each set of coefficients is built based on clinical data obtained during neurosurgical operation in Siberian Federal Biomedical Research Center named after Academician E. N. Meshalkin. The equation has solutions of different structure defined by the coefficients and right side. We investigate the equations for different patients considering peculiarities of their vessel systems. The properties of approximate analytical solutions are studied. Amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics are built for the small-dimensional solution approximations.
Application of preconditioned GMRES to the numerical solution of the neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patton, B.W.; Holloway, J.P.
2002-01-01
The generalized minimal residual (GMRES) method with right preconditioning is examined as an alternative to both standard and accelerated transport sweeps for the iterative solution of the diamond differenced discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. Incomplete factorization (ILU) type preconditioners are used to determine their effectiveness in accelerating GMRES for this application. ILU(τ), which requires the specification of a dropping criteria τ, proves to be a good choice for the types of problems examined in this paper. The combination of ILU(τ) and GMRES is compared with both DSA and unaccelerated transport sweeps for several model problems. It is found that the computational workload of the ILU(τ)-GMRES combination scales nonlinearly with the number of energy groups and quadrature order, making this technique most effective for problems with a small number of groups and discrete ordinates. However, the cost of preconditioner construction can be amortized over several calculations with different source and/or boundary values. Preconditioners built upon standard transport sweep algorithms are also evaluated as to their effectiveness in accelerating the convergence of GMRES. These preconditioners show better scaling with such problem parameters as the scattering ratio, the number of discrete ordinates, and the number of spatial meshes. These sweeps based preconditioners can also be cast in a matrix free form that greatly reduces storage requirements
Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone: Workshop proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Springer, E.P.; Fuentes, H.R.
1987-04-01
Issues addressed were the adequacy of the data for the various models, effectiveness of the models to represent the data, particular information provided by the models, the role of caisson experiments in providing fundamental knowledge of porous-media water flow and solute transport, and the importance of geochemistry to the transport of nonconservative tracers. These proceedings include the presentations made by each of the modelers; the summary document written by the panel; and a transcript of the discussions, both the discussions that followed individual presentations and the general discussion held on the second day. This publication completes the series on the workshop. Volume I in the series (NUREG/CR-4615, Vol. I) contains background information and the data sets provided each modeler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svensson, Urban
2001-04-01
A particle tracking algorithm, PARTRACK, that simulates transport and dispersion in a sparsely fractured rock is described. The main novel feature of the algorithm is the introduction of multiple particle states. It is demonstrated that the introduction of this feature allows for the simultaneous simulation of Taylor dispersion, sorption and matrix diffusion. A number of test cases are used to verify and demonstrate the features of PARTRACK. It is shown that PARTRACK can simulate the following processes, believed to be important for the problem addressed: the split up of a tracer cloud at a fracture intersection, channeling in a fracture plane, Taylor dispersion and matrix diffusion and sorption. From the results of the test cases, it is concluded that PARTRACK is an adequate framework for simulation of transport and dispersion of a solute in a sparsely fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovac, D.; Otto, G.; Hobler, G.
2005-01-01
In this paper we present a model of amorphous pocket formation that is based on binary collision simulations to generate the distribution of deposited energy, and on numerical solution of the heat transport equation to describe the quenching process. The heat transport equation is modified to consider the heat of melting when the melting temperature is crossed at any point in space. It is discretized with finite differences on grid points that coincide with the crystallographic lattice sites, which allows easy determination of molten atoms. Atoms are considered molten if the average of their energy and the energy of their neighbors meets the melting criterion. The results obtained with this model are in good overall agreement with published experimental data on P, As, Te and Tl implantations in Si and with data on the polyatomic effect at cryogenic temperature
Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Amato, A. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Giove, D. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Korn, G.; Krasa, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Leanza, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Manna, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell' Universitá 2 - 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Marchese, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Milluzzo, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Petringa, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Via Messina 829 - 95100 Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); and others
2015-10-01
Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser–Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2017-09-01
This work presents a hierarchical model for solute transport in bounded layered porous media with random permeability. The model generalizes the Taylor-Aris dispersion theory to stochastic transport in random layered porous media with a known velocity covariance function. In the hierarchical model, we represent (random) concentration in terms of its cross-sectional average and a variation function. We derive a one-dimensional stochastic advection-dispersion-type equation for the average concentration and a stochastic Poisson equation for the variation function, as well as expressions for the effective velocity and dispersion coefficient. We observe that velocity fluctuations enhance dispersion in a non-monotonic fashion: the dispersion initially increases with correlation length λ, reaches a maximum, and decreases to zero at infinity. Maximum enhancement can be obtained at the correlation length about 0.25 the size of the porous media perpendicular to flow.
Solute transport in a well under slow-purge and no-purge conditions
Plummer, M. A.; Britt, S. L.; Martin-Hayden, J. M.
2010-12-01
Non-purge sampling techniques, such as diffusion bags and in-situ sealed samplers, offer reliable and cost-effective groundwater monitoring methods that are a step closer to the goal of real-time monitoring without pumping or sample collection. Non-purge methods are, however, not yet completely accepted because questions remain about how solute concentrations in an unpurged well relate to concentrations in the adjacent formation. To answer questions about how undisturbed well water samples compare to formation concentrations, and to provide the information necessary to interpret results from non-purge monitoring systems, we have conducted a variety of physical experiments and numerical simulations of flow and transport in and through monitoring wells under low-flow and ambient flow conditions. Previous studies of flow and transport in wells used a Darcy’s law - based continuity equation for flow, which is often justified under the strong, forced-convection flow caused by pumping or large vertical hydraulic potential gradients. In our study, we focus on systems with weakly forced convection, where density-driven free convection may be of similar strength. We therefore solved Darcy’s law for porous media domains and the Navier Stokes equations for flow in the well, and coupled solution of the flow equations to that of solute transport. To illustrate expected in-well transport behavior under low-flow conditions, we present results of three particular studies: (1) time-dependent effluent concentrations from a well purged at low-flow pumping rates, (2) solute-driven density effects in a well under ambient horizontal flow and (3) temperature-driven mixing in a shallow well subject to seasonal temperature variations. Results of the first study illustrate that assumptions about the nature of in-well flow have a significant impact on effluent concentration curves even during pumping, with Poiseuille-type flow producing more rapid removal of concentration differences
Solution-grown organic single-crystalline p-n junctions with ambipolar charge transport.
Fan, Congcheng; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Jiang, Hao; Fu, Weifei; Wu, Jiake; Yuan, Wentao; Wang, Yong; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng; Bao, Zhenan
2013-10-25
Organic single-crystalline p-n junctions are grown from mixed solutions. First, C60 crystals (n-type) form and, subsequently, C8-BTBT crystals (p-type) nucleate heterogeneously on the C60 crystals. Both crystals continue to grow simultaneously into single-crystalline p-n junctions that exhibit ambipolar charge transport characteristics. This work provides a platform to study organic single-crystalline p-n junctions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Global existence of weak solutions to dissipative transport equations with nonlocal velocity
Bae, Hantaek; Granero-Belinchón, Rafael; Lazar, Omar
2018-04-01
We consider 1D dissipative transport equations with nonlocal velocity field: where is a nonlocal operator given by a Fourier multiplier. We especially consider two types of nonlocal operators: (1) , the Hilbert transform, (2) . In this paper, we show several global existence of weak solutions depending on the range of γ, δ and α. When , we take initial data having finite energy, while we take initial data in weighted function spaces (in the real variables or in the Fourier variables), which have infinite energy, when .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garratt, T.J.
1989-05-01
Compartment models for the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere are conventionally solved using a numerical time-stepping procedure. This report examines an alternative method based on the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms, which is potentially more efficient and accurate for some classes of problem. The central problem considered is the most efficient and robust technique for solving the Laplace-transformed rate equations. The conclusion is that Gaussian elimination is the most efficient and robust solution method. A general compartment model has been implemented on a personal computer and used to solve a realistic case including radionuclide decay chains. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arna Fariza
2009-08-01
Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.
Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos
2016-01-01
tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical convection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were hereby reasonable well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer mass......Solute transport through the soil matrix is heterogeneous and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. Hundred...... of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5 % and up to 50 % of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. The hereby predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points up to 50% of applied...
The solution of the multigroup neutron transport equation using spherical harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fletcher, K.
1981-01-01
A solution of the multi-group neutron transport equation in up to three space dimensions is presented. The flux is expanded in a series of unnormalised spherical harmonics. Using the various recurrence formulae a linked set of first order differential equations is obtained for the moments psisup(g)sub(lm)(r), γsup(g)sub(lm)(r). Terms with odd l are eliminated resulting in a second order system which is solved by two methods. The first is a finite difference formulation using an iterative procedure, secondly, in XYZ and XY geometry a finite element solution is given. Results for a test problem using both methods are exhibited and compared. (orig./RW) [de
Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad; El-Amin, Mohamed
2012-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new technique for the numerical solution of the various partial differential equations governing flow and transport phenomena in porous media. This method is proposed to be used in high level programming languages like
Behaviour of Type 316 steel in acidic sulphate solutions at 300-3500C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, J.F.
1987-11-01
Most cation resin beds in service in CEGB power stations, and particularly those in AGR stations, are regenerated with sulphuric acid. Slippage results in trace levels of sulphate passing into the boilers. Previous work has shown that in once-through boilers, feedwater containing 2 μg kg -1 of sulphate could concentrate at localized dry-out sites to form solutions having from 0.1 to 7 wt% of solute. It has been shown also that if the sulphate was present in an acidic solution and it were to be in contact with Type 316 austentitic superheater steel, then intergranular corrosion and intergranular cracking could occur. Previous data, including some unreported results, are tabulated and discussed. The current work had two main objectives. The first was to extend the previous investigations to examine a wider range of acidic sulphate concentrations (as indicated by calculations on the concentration of solute in feedwater), the influence of environment pH, and the effect of sensitization of specimens. The second objective was primarily concerned with elucidating the causes of scatter in the results. This involved examining the influence of electrode potential, the ageing characteristics of the environment, and the method of applying stress to the specimens. (author)
Investigation of radiation-chemical behaviour of divalent palladium in perchloric acid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirova, M.V.; Kalinina, S.V.
1988-01-01
Gamma-radiolysis of divalent palladium in perchloric acid solutions is studied. Absorption spectra of intermediate palladium compounds formed in the irradiated solution are taken. The analysis of literature data as well as comparative analysis of the absorption spectra obtained under irradiation of palladium (2) perchloric acid solutions with absorption spectra of palladium chlorocomplexes allows to suppose that the mentioned compounds are chlorocomplexes of palladium (2) of different composition depending on HClO 4 concentration in the initial solution and absorbed radiation dose. Radiation-chemical reduction of palladium (2) up to metal is stated to take place in the whole studied range of initial concentrations of components of the system and dose rates. Kinetic dependences of metallic palladium formation are obtained. Values of radiation-chemical yields of metallic palladium formation depending on the initial concentrations of palladium (2) and perchloric acid are given. A mechanism of radiolytic reduction of palladium (2) in the investigated system is suggested based on the experimental data, and a theoretical value of the radiation-chemical yield of palladium (2) reduction being in a good agreement with experimentally found values is calculated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singla, Meenu; Kumar, Harsh; Jindal, Rajeev
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous amoxicillin solutions. • Partial molar volumes and compressibility of transfer. • Group contribution have been calculated. • (Ion + hydrophilic) and (hydrophilic + hydrophilic) interactions are present. • Pair-wise interactions are dominant in the mixtures. - Abstract: The interactions of glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-valine (Val) and L-Leucine (Leu) with drug amoxicillin (AMX) as a function of temperature have been investigated by combination of volumetric and acoustic measurements. Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous solutions of amoxicillin have been measured at T = (305.15, 310.15 and 315.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), the partial molar volume (V ϕ 0 ) and standard partial molar volumes of transfer (ΔV ϕ 0 ) for amino acids from water to aqueous amoxicillin solutions have been calculated from density data. Group contributions of amino acids to partial molar volume were determined. Partial molar isentropic compression (κ ϕ,s ) and partial molar isentropic compression of transfer (Δκ ϕ,S 0 ) have been calculated from speed of sound data. The pair and triplet interaction coefficient have been calculated from both the properties. The results have been explained based on competing patterns of interactions of co-solvents and the solute
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stadler, S.; Kim, J.I.
1988-06-01
Hydrolysis and redox reactions of the Am(III) and Am(V) ions have been investigated in NaClO 4 and NaCl solutions as well as in natural saline groundwaters. The hydrolysis constants of Am(OH) n 3-n species and the solubility product of Am(OH) 3 (s) have been determined in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , 0.1 M NaCl and 0.6 M NaCl solutions. As observed in concentrated NaCl solutions (> 3 M), the α-radiation induces the radiolytic oxidation of the Cl - -ion to produce Cl 2 , HClO, ClO - and other oxidized species, which result in a strongly oxidizing medium. Consequently Am(III) is oxidized to Am(V). Under these conditions the hydrolysis constants of AmO 2 (OH) n 1-n species and the solubility product are also determined. The α-radiation induced radiolysis reactions in NaCl solution and the subsequent oxidation reaction of Am(III) have been systematically investigated by varying pH, NaCl concentration and specific α-activity. Also included in the investigation are a few selected groundwaters of relatively high salinity from the Gorleben aquifer systems. (orig.) [de
Behaviours of trinitratonitrosyl complexes of ruthenium in dilute nitric acid solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugimoto, S [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Takasaki (Japan)
1979-07-01
This study aimed to elucidate the protolysis and condensation processes of the Ru complexes in relation to the concentration of nitric acid. The compositions of the dissociated and undissociated complexes were determined by the extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) and absorption spectroscopy in order to follow the rather rapid protolysis reaction of the complexes. The test solutions were prepared by dissolving the freshly obtained complexes into 0.50 - 0.001 M nitric acid solutions. The amounts of the undissociated complexes were determined at different elapses of time in the test solutions. The protolysis became significant when the concentration was below 0.15 M, and the dissociation rate suddenly increased at this concentration. At the concentrations above 0.2 M, the absorption peak of the complexes at 480 nm survived even after 144 hours. But below 0.15 M, the formation of dissociation products by protolysis was observed after the disappearance of the absorption peak. The amount of dissociation products rapidly increased after the preparation of the test solution as the concentration decreased below 0.15 M.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xun Yue
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels that facilitate the transmembrane transport of water and solutes. When transmembrane mineral nutrient transporters exhibit the same expression patterns as aquaporins under diverse temporal and physiological conditions, there is a greater probability that they interact. In this study, genome-wide temporal profiling of transcripts analysis and coexpression network-based approaches are used to examine the significant specificity correlation of aquaporins and transmembrane solute transporters in developing maize leaf. The results indicate that specific maize aquaporins are related to specific transmembrane solute transporters. The analysis demonstrates a systems-level correlation between aquaporins, nutrient transporters, and the homeostasis of mineral nutrients in developing maize leaf. Our results provide a resource for further studies into the physiological function of these aquaporins.
Transport of neutral solute across articular cartilage: the role of zonal diffusivities.
Arbabi, V; Pouran, B; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A
2015-07-01
Transport of solutes through diffusion is an important metabolic mechanism for the avascular cartilage tissue. Three types of interconnected physical phenomena, namely mechanical, electrical, and chemical, are all involved in the physics of transport in cartilage. In this study, we use a carefully designed experimental-computational setup to separate the effects of mechanical and chemical factors from those of electrical charges. Axial diffusion of a neutral solute Iodixanol into cartilage was monitored using calibrated microcomputed tomography micro-CT images for up to 48 hr. A biphasic-solute computational model was fitted to the experimental data to determine the diffusion coefficients of cartilage. Cartilage was modeled either using one single diffusion coefficient (single-zone model) or using three diffusion coefficients corresponding to superficial, middle, and deep cartilage zones (multizone model). It was observed that the single-zone model cannot capture the entire concentration-time curve and under-predicts the near-equilibrium concentration values, whereas the multizone model could very well match the experimental data. The diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was found to be at least one order of magnitude larger than that of the middle zone. Since neutral solutes were used, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content cannot be the primary reason behind such large differences between the diffusion coefficients of the different cartilage zones. It is therefore concluded that other features of the different cartilage zones such as water content and the organization (orientation) of collagen fibers may be enough to cause large differences in diffusion coefficients through the cartilage thickness.
Transport of fluid and solutes in the body II. Model validation and implications.
Gyenge, C C; Bowen, B D; Reed, R K; Bert, J L
1999-09-01
A mathematical model of short-term whole body fluid, protein, and ion distribution and transport developed earlier [see companion paper: C. C. Gyenge, B. D. Bowen, R. K. Reed, and J. L. Bert. Am. J. Physiol. 277 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 46): H1215-H1227, 1999] is validated using experimental data available in the literature. The model was tested against data measured for the following three types of experimental infusions: 1) hyperosmolar saline solutions with an osmolarity in the range of 2,000-2,400 mosmol/l, 2) saline solutions with an osmolarity of approximately 270 mosmol/l and composition comparable with Ringer solution, and 3) an isosmotic NaCl solution with an osmolarity of approximately 300 mosmol/l. Good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was obtained with respect to the trends and magnitudes of fluid shifts between the intra- and extracellular compartments, extracellular ion and protein contents, and hematocrit values. The model is also able to yield information about inaccessible or difficult-to-measure system variables such as intracellular ion contents, cellular volumes, and fluid fluxes across the vascular capillary membrane, data that can be used to help interpret the behavior of the system.
Water, solute and heat transport in the soil: the Australian connection
Knight, John
2016-04-01
The interest of Peter Raats in water, solute and heat transport in the soil has led to scientific and/or personal interactions with several Australian scientists such as John Philip, David Smiles, Greg Davis and John Knight. Along with John Philip and Robin Wooding, Peter was an early user of the Gardner (1958) linearised model of soil water flow, which brought him into competition with John Philip. I will discuss some of Peter's solutions relevant to infiltration from line and point sources, cavities and basins. A visit to Canberra, Australia in the early 1980s led to joint work on soil water flow, and on combined water and solute movement with David Smiles and others. In 1983 Peter was on the PhD committee for Greg Davis at the University of Wollongong, and some of the methods in his thesis 'Mathematical modelling of rate-limiting mechanisms of pyritic oxidation in overburden dumps' were later used by Peter's student Sjoerd van der Zee. David Smiles and Peter wrote a survey article 'Hydrology of swelling clay soils' in 2005. In the last decade Peter has been investigating the history of groundwater and vadose zone hydrology, and recently he and I have been bringing to light the largely forgotten work of Lewis Fry Richardson on finite difference solution of the heat equation, drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.
Yuan, Wei; Li, Guanglei; Gil, Eun Seok; Lowe, Tao Lu; Fu, Bingmei M
2010-04-01
Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and maintenance of many BBB characteristics over repeated passages. To test whether the SGL of bEnd3 monolayer carries similar charge as that in the intact BBB and quantify this charge, which can be characterized by the SGL thickness (L(f)) and charge density (C(mf)), we measured the solute permeability of bEnd3 monolayer to neutral solutes and to solutes with similar size but opposite charges: negatively charged alpha-lactalbumin (-11) and positively charged ribonuclease (+3). Combining the measured permeability data with a transport model across the cell monolayer, we predicted the L(f) and the C(mf) of bEnd3 monolayer, which is approximately 160 nm and approximately 25 mEq/L, respectively. We also investigated whether orosomucoid, a plasma glycoprotein modulating the charge of the intact BBB, alters the charge of bEnd3 monolayer. We found that 1 mg/mL orosomucoid would increase SGL charge density of bEnd3 monolayer to approximately 2-fold of its control value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))
2007-12-15
We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was
Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Yoshida, Kenta; Zhao, Ping; Meyer, Timothy W; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Giacomini, Kathleen M
2016-09-06
One of the characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the accumulation of uremic solutes in the plasma. Less is known about the effects of uremic solutes on transporters that may play critical roles in pharmacokinetics. We evaluated the effect of 72 uremic solutes on organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3) using a fluorescent probe substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein. A total of 12 and 13 solutes were identified as inhibitors of OAT1 and OAT3, respectively. Several of them inhibited OAT1 or OAT3 at clinically relevant concentrations and reduced the transport of other OAT1/3 substrates in vitro. Review of clinical studies showed that the active secretion of most drugs that are known substrates of OAT1/3 deteriorated faster than the renal filtration in CKD. Collectively, these data suggest that through inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3, uremic solutes contribute to the decline in renal drug clearance in patients with CKD.
Akgul Gundogdu, Nurcan; Sevig, Emine Umit; Guler, Nuran
2018-04-01
To assess the effect of the solution-focused approach interview technique on overweight/obese adolescents' nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours. Obesity is a serious health problem for all age groups, particularly adolescents; therefore, it is important for adolescents to develop healthy nutrition habits and acquire exercise behaviours. Unless healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours are acquired, obesity can develop in adolescence, continue in adulthood. Focusing on solutions can be effective for overweight/obese adolescents to develop healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours. A pretest-post-test randomised controlled trial design was used. The study included 32 overweight/obese adolescents (16 for intervention group, 16 for control group) aged 12-13 years who attended a health centre and met the inclusion criteria. The solution-focused Approach interview technique was applied to the intervention group. Eight solution-focused interviews were conducted with each adolescent at 2-week intervals (interview length 30-45 min). For each group, anthropometric, metabolic measurement follow-ups were conducted in the first and sixth months. The data were evaluated using independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon test, respectively, for normally, non-normally distributed variables. The categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. The value p exercise attitude and behaviour scale scores were higher in the sixth month follow-up; difference between the follow-ups was significant (p exercise attitude and behaviour scores. Eight interviews during 6 months were adequate for positive development of their nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours; significant decrease in their weight, BMI percentile, BMI-SDS values; and normal metabolic values. The solution-focused approach interview technique enabled overweight/obese adolescents' weight and blood glucose to be controlled against obesity. It helped them acquire healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grauer, R.
1983-02-01
Because of their amorphous structure, glasses are particularly suitable matrixes for the solidification of the mixture of radionuclides included in the high level wastes from reactor fuel reprocessing. They are not sensitive to variations in the fractions present of different waste oxides and are resistent to the effects of irradiation. In particular, borosilicate glasses have been investigated for around 25 years and the vitrification techniques have been tested on the technological scale. The environmental conditions within a final waste repository are expected to be such that the chemical resistance of glasses to attack by groundwaters is of special interest. In the present report the corrosion behaviour is described, with emphasis being placed upon the most significant controlling parameters. Since experimental determination of corrosion rates must be done in relatively short-time experiments, the results of which can depend strongly upon the measurement methods employed, it is necessary to carry out a critical assessment of the techniques commonly used in laboratory work. Experimental results are illustrated by means of selected examples. Particular emphasis is placed upon the effects of increased temperatures and of irradiation. The models which have been proposed for the estimation of the long-term corrosion behaviour of glasses are not yet fully sufficient and improvements are required. Furthermore, the actual corrosion rates which are fed into such models must be replaced by values more appropriate for the actual environmental conditions to which the glasses are most likely to be exposed within high level waste repositories. It should be noted, however, that even with current conservative input data on corrosion rates, typical estimated lifetimes for vitrified waste blocks are of the order of 10 5 years. The report concludes with recommendations concerning the most useful areas for further investigations. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sérgio Luiz de Assis
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Titanium alloys are largely used for biomedical applications mainly due to their high corrosion resistance resulting from the protective oxide film formed on their surface. The literature, however, has pointed out discrepancies between in vitro tests and in vivo tests. These discrepancies have been ascribed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated by inflammatory reactions. In this investigation the electrochemical behaviour of a Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, which was developed as material for implants, has been evaluated in Hanks' solution, with and without H2O2. The evolution of the electrochemical behavior was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and the results were fitted to an equivalent circuit that simulates an oxide film as a duplex layer structure composed of an inner barrier layer and an outer porous layer. In the solution without H2O2, the oxide film was very stable during the whole test period. On the other hand, in the solution with H2O2, the EIS results varied significantly, indicating a progressive decrease in the barrier layer resistance until 35 days which was followed by the restoration of the barrier layer protective characteristics against corrosion, either due to its growth or to its self-healing after partial consumption of the oxidant agent. The oxide film formed on the Ti alloy samples after 125 days of immersion in Hanks' solution, either with or without H2O2 was analyzed by XPS. The XPS results revealed the presence of TiO and TiO2 on the samples immersed in the two electrolytes, however, Ti2O3 was only found on the samples exposed to the H2O2 containing solution.
Flow and solute transport in backfilled tunnel and collapsed backfill - possible extension of Comp32
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neretnieks, Ivars
2006-09-01
In the Swedish deep geological final repository for spent fuel the tunnels will be filled with a backfill with low permeability. However, some flow may take place in the backfill. Nuclides released from a leaking canister could diffuse up to the flowing water in the backfill and be transported downstream in the tunnel. At an intersection of the tunnel with a fracture zone the contaminated water might flow out into the zone.This report addresses the transport mechanisms and rate of transport from a leaking canister up through the buffer and backfill in the deposition hole, further into the backfill in the tunnel and the transport along the tunnel. Spreading by diffusion in the buffer and backfill as well as retardation of sorbing nuclides is accounted for.The transport mechanisms and rates of transport are described and some simple models with analytical solutions are used to quantify the processes. These simple solutions are used to gain insights into when different transport mechanisms are important. The simple solutions are used to simulate a base case example where a non-sorbing nuclide (iodide) and a sorbing nuclide (radium) move in the backfill by diffusion and by advective flow. The simple sample calculations show that it would take thousands of years for iodide to move 20 m along the tunnel and that a release pulse would spread out considerably over time. The sorbing nuclide 226 Ra with a half life of 1,600 years would be strongly retarded by sorption and would decay to insignificance during its migration along the tunnel. The consequences of a collapse of backfill leaving a channel above the backfill is also studied by a simple analytical model that accounts for water flowing in the collapsed part of the backfill at the ceiling of the tunnel. A nuclide that diffuses up to the flowing channel will flow with the ('rapidly' flowing) water but will be retarded by diffusion down into the backfill again. This down diffusion retards the nuclide migration
Flow and solute transport in backfilled tunnel and collapsed backfill - possible extension of Comp32
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neretnieks, Ivars [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology
2006-09-15
In the Swedish deep geological final repository for spent fuel the tunnels will be filled with a backfill with low permeability. However, some flow may take place in the backfill. Nuclides released from a leaking canister could diffuse up to the flowing water in the backfill and be transported downstream in the tunnel. At an intersection of the tunnel with a fracture zone the contaminated water might flow out into the zone.This report addresses the transport mechanisms and rate of transport from a leaking canister up through the buffer and backfill in the deposition hole, further into the backfill in the tunnel and the transport along the tunnel. Spreading by diffusion in the buffer and backfill as well as retardation of sorbing nuclides is accounted for.The transport mechanisms and rates of transport are described and some simple models with analytical solutions are used to quantify the processes. These simple solutions are used to gain insights into when different transport mechanisms are important. The simple solutions are used to simulate a base case example where a non-sorbing nuclide (iodide) and a sorbing nuclide (radium) move in the backfill by diffusion and by advective flow. The simple sample calculations show that it would take thousands of years for iodide to move 20 m along the tunnel and that a release pulse would spread out considerably over time. The sorbing nuclide {sup 226}Ra with a half life of 1,600 years would be strongly retarded by sorption and would decay to insignificance during its migration along the tunnel. The consequences of a collapse of backfill leaving a channel above the backfill is also studied by a simple analytical model that accounts for water flowing in the collapsed part of the backfill at the ceiling of the tunnel. A nuclide that diffuses up to the flowing channel will flow with the ('rapidly' flowing) water but will be retarded by diffusion down into the backfill again. This down diffusion retards the nuclide
Finite medium Green's function solutions to nuclide transport in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oston, S.G.
1979-01-01
Current analytical techniques for predicting the transport of nuclides in porous materials center on the Green's function approach - i.e., determining the response characteristics of a geologic pathway to an impulse function input. To data, the analyses all have set the boundary conditions needed to solve the 1-D transport equation as though each pathway were infinite in length. The purpose of this work is to critically examine the effect that this infinite pathway assumption has on Green's function models of nuclide transport in porous media. The work described herein has directly attacked the more difficult problem of obtaining suitable Green's functions for finite pathways whose dimensions, in fact, may not be much greater than the diffusion length. Two different finite media Green's functions describing the nuclide mass flux have been determined, depending on whether the pathway is terminated by a high or a low flow resistance at the outlet end. Pulse shapes and peak amplitudes have been computed for each Green's function over a wide range of geohydrologic parameters. These results have been compared to both infinite and semi-infinite medium solutions. It was found that predicted pulse shapes are quite sensitive to selection of a Green's function model for short pathways only. For long pathways all models tend toward a symmetric Gaussian flux-time history at the outlet. Thus, the results of our previous waste transport studies using the infinite pathway assumption are still generally valid because they always included at least one long pathway. It was also found that finite medium models offer some unique computational advantages for evaluating nuclide transport in a series of connecting pathways
Electrochemical behaviour of copper in N,N-dimethylformamide + 0.5 M potassium perchlorate solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. MENTUS
2000-09-01
Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition and dissolution of copper in 0.0025 M CuSO4 + N,N-dimethylformamide + 0.5 M KClO4 solution was examined by the rotating disc and potentiodynamic methods. Both platinum and copper were used as working electrodes. A wide polarization range 1 to +2 V vs. SCE, and several temperatures between 25 and 55°C were encompased. The Cu/electrolyte interface was found to be permanently out of equilibrium, as a consequence of the development of a passivating layer. In accordance with the classic theory of a copper electrode in acidified aqueous solutions, the cathodic and anodic Tafel lines of metallic copper define a unique value of the exchange current density, however, their slopes do not correspond to the classic theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spitsyn, V. I.; Balukova, V. D.; Gromov, V. V.; Zakharov, S. I.; Zhagin, B. P.; Spiridonov, F. M.
1960-07-01
Research on the sorption of radioisotopes under natural conditions employing the controlled filtration process was performed. Radioisotopes were introduced into the solution as soon as filtration had become steady and the process continued for four months. Soil samples were then taken by drilling at different depths and analysed to determine their radioisotope content. Diffusion of radioisotopes was observed at depths of up to 10 m; two distinct boundaries of soil-activity decrease were ascertained: at the surface of the site and at the depth of the solution filtration front. In addition, the radiostrontium absorption by natural sorbents, principally pure minerals widely distributed in soils and subsoils, was investigated separately. The presence of calcium ions, even in small quantities, sharply reduces the degree of radiostrontium sorption. However, other conditions being equal, strontium may be absorbed to a greater extent than calcium, according to the composition of the sorbent. The field investigations of radiostrontium sorption and migration showed that when filtering radioactive solutions two possible variants have to be taken into account. In the first case the solutions are discharged into soil unaffected by any flow of ground water. In this situation the radiostrontium is retained by the soil. In the second case, the radioisotopes proceed directly into the water-bearing horizon. The radiostrontium will then migrate with the ground water flow and through the soil and this migration will be further affected by the sorption and desorption processes occurring. The experiments performed demonstrate the ease with which long-lived radioisotopes migrate under natural conditions and call attention to the need for thorough study of ground water problems in connexion with various methods of disposing of radioactive waste into ground. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, F.; Kolar, M.; Maak, P.
2008-01-01
Used fuel containers in a deep geological repository will be subject to various forms of corrosion. For containers made from oxygen-free, phosphorus-doped copper, the most likely corrosion processes are uniform corrosion, underdeposit corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. The environmental conditions within the repository are expected to evolve with time, changing from warm and oxidizing initially to cool and anoxic in the long-term. In response, the corrosion behaviour of the containers will also change with time as the repository environment evolve. A reactive-transport model has been developed to predict the time-dependent uniform corrosion behaviour of the container. The model is based on an experimentally-based reaction scheme that accounts for the various chemical, microbiological, electrochemical, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption/desorption, redox, and mass-transport processes at the container surface and in the compacted bentonite-based sealing materials within the repository. Coupling of the electrochemical interfacial reactions with processes in the bentonite buffer material allows the effect of the evolution of the repository environment on the corrosion behaviour of the container to be taken into account. The Copper Corrosion Model for Uniform Corrosion predicts the time-dependent corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the container, as well as the evolution of the near-field environment
Brody, Z. H.
The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…
Mass spectrometric studies of the complexing behaviour of actinide ions in solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steppert, Michael
2012-01-01
As the long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel is governed by Plutonium and the Minor Actinides, these elements are focussed on for investigations in the framework of safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories. To shed more light on the selectivity of the partitioning ligands BTP and BTBP towards the extraction of trivalent actinides, the complexes these ligands form with lanthanides in octanolic solution were characterized. The differences in the extraction efficiencies among the different lanthanides were traced back to the varying preferential formation of Ln(BTP)3 complexes, depending on the ionic radius of the lanthanides. Additionally it was shown that depending on the sterical demand of BTBP ligands nitrate anions coordinate in the first coordination shell of Eu(BTBP)2-complexes. As the behavior of Plutonium under geochemical conditions is of particular interest for the safety assessment of potential nuclear waste repositories, the second part of the thesis focuses on the hydrolysis and colloid formation behavior of aqueous Plutonium solutions. The solution species of Zirconium(IV) as analogue for Plutonium(IV) as well as of Uranium(VI) and Plutonium(VI) were characterized and quantified by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moreover the colloid-induced reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and the subsequent formation of colloidal species was investigated. [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valdes Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Calvo, S.; Perez-Gramatges, A.; Rapado-Paneque, M.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; Ponciano, C. R.; Silveira, E. F. . E-mail. apgram@instec.cu
2007-01-01
Ionising radiation used for sterilisation can have an effect on the physico-chemical properties of pharmaceutically relevant excipient systems, affecting therefore the stability of the formulation. The effect of gamma irradiation on the phase behaviour (cloud point - CP) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) of aqueous solutions of Triton X-100, used as a model nonionic surfactant, is investigated in this paper. Micellar solutions irradiated with ?-rays in a dose range between 0 and 70 kGy, including the sterilisation range of pharmaceutical preparations, were analysed using mass spectrometry. Results show a slight shift in molecular mass distribution of ethoxylated surfactant, which indicates degradation of polyethoxylated chains by water radical attacks. This fact, combined with the formation of cross-linked species, is considered to be responsible for the decrease observed in CP and CMC values of micellar solutions at all absorbed doses. There is no spectroscopic evidence of radiation damage to aromatic ring or hydrocarbon tail of surfactant. Models based on Flory-Huggins theory were employed to estimate CP from changes in mass distribution and to obtain cross-linking fractions. (Author)
Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) model: Formulation and user's manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Kincaid, C.T.; Monti, A.M.
1987-10-01
The CFEST (Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport) code has been developed to analyze coupled hydrologic, thermal, and solute transport processes. It treats single-pahse Darcy ground-water flow in a horizontal or vertical plane, or in fully three-dimensional space under nonisothermal conditions. The code has the capability to model discontinuous and continuous layering, time-dependent and constant sources/sinks, and transient as well as steady-stae ground-water flow. The code offers a wide choice of boundary conditions such as precsribed heads, nodal injection or withdrawal, constant or spatially varying infiltration rates, and welemental source/sink. Initial conditions for the flow analysis can be prescribed pressure or hydraulic head. The heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and porosity can be described by geologic unit or explicity for given elements. Three-dimensional elelments are generated from user-defined well logs at each surface node. To facilitate interaction between disciplines, support programs are provided to plot the finite element grid, well logs, contour maps of input and output parameters, and vertical cross sections. Ground-water travel paths and times and volumetric rates from a specified point can be determined from support programs. This report includes governing partial differential equations, finite element formulation, a use's manual, verification test examples, sample problems, and source listings. 36 refs., 121 figs., 36 tabs
Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Guzman, Christian; Hoyos Villada, Fanny; Morales Vargas, Amalia; Rivera, Baudelino; Da Silva, Mayesse; Moreno Padilla, Pedro; Steenhuis, Tammo
2015-04-01
Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from the La Vega micro watershed in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small basin of the Aguaclara watershed network receiving different types of conservation measures. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predictions were used with one of these based on infiltration-excess and the other on saturation-excess runoff. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations between scales. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the La Vega micro watershed showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on saturation-excess, semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used infiltration excess model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.
Solution and Study of the Two-Dimensional Nodal Neutron Transport Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panta Pazos, Ruben; Biasotto Hauser, Eliete; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco
2002-01-01
In the last decade Vilhena and coworkers reported an analytical solution to the two-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of the neutron transport equation in a convex domain. The key feature of these works was the application of the combined collocation method of the angular variable and nodal approach in the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the transverse integration of the SN equations. This procedure leads to a set of one-dimensional S N equations for the average angular fluxes in the variables x and y. These equations were solved by the old version of the LTS N method, which consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the set of nodal S N equations and solution of the resulting linear system by symbolic computation. It is important to recall that this procedure allow us to increase N the order of S N up to 16. To overcome this drawback we step forward performing a spectral painstaking analysis of the nodal S N equations for N up to 16 and we begin the convergence of the S N nodal equations defining an error for the angular flux and estimating the error in terms of the truncation error of the quadrature approximations of the integral term. Furthermore, we compare numerical results of this approach with those of other techniques used to solve the two-dimensional discrete approximations of the neutron transport equation. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, J.
2010-10-01
A standard numerical procedure for the solution of singular integral equations is applied to the one-dimensional transport equation for monoenergetic neutrons. As is usual in quadrature methods, the procedure yields an Eigen system whose solution provide, for the critical slab, both the eigenvalue which is proportional to the number of secondary neutrons per collision, and the density as a function of position. The results obtained with two versions of the procedure, differing only in the extent of the basic region to which they are applied, are compared with analytically derived results available for benchmarking. The procedures considered yield consistent results for the calculated neutron densities and eigenvalues. Since the one-dimensional transport kernel and its spatial moments are integrable and their integrals can be put in terms of exponential integral functions, the resulting approximations to the neutron density yield somewhat lengthy but closed, forms. These approximate expressions of the neutron density can be used to render, after they are operated on, closed-form formulas for build-up factors, extrapolation distances or angular densities or employed for other purposes that require an analytical expression of the neutron density. As an example of this latter capability, the results of the calculation of the angular density at the surface of the slab are provided. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shelkovich, V M
2008-01-01
This is a survey of some results and problems connected with the theory of generalized solutions of quasi-linear conservation law systems which can admit delta-shaped singularities. They are the so-called δ-shock wave type solutions and the recently introduced δ (n) -shock wave type solutions, n=1,2,..., which cannot be included in the classical Lax-Glimm theory. The case of δ- and δ'-shock waves is analyzed in detail. A specific analytical technique is developed to deal with such solutions. In order to define them, some special integral identities are introduced which extend the concept of weak solution, and the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are derived. Solutions of Cauchy problems are constructed for some typical systems of conservation laws. Also investigated are multidimensional systems of conservation laws (in particular, zero-pressure gas dynamics systems) which admit δ-shock wave type solutions. A geometric aspect of such solutions is considered: they are connected with transport and concentration processes, and the balance laws of transport of 'volume' and 'area' to δ- and δ'-shock fronts are derived for them. For a 'zero-pressure gas dynamics' system these laws are the mass and momentum transport laws. An algebraic aspect of these solutions is also considered: flux-functions are constructed for them which, being non-linear, are nevertheless uniquely defined Schwartz distributions. Thus, a singular solution of the Cauchy problem generates algebraic relations between its components (distributions).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schatz, Timothy; Martikainen, Jari; Koskinen, Kari
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. In principle, in a KBS-3 type repository, the volume of a deposition hole is fixed and the bentonite buffer mass accordingly balanced to lead to the development of a suitable swelling pressure upon saturation. However, fractures intersecting the deposition holes give rise to the possibility that volume constrained conditions do not universally exist. Such fractures may provide pathways for the continued, localised, free swelling of bentonite buffer material. Loss of mass from the deposition hole by extrusion into intersecting fractures may compromise the long-term safety and performance of the buffer component of the engineered barrier system. Furthermore, the continued hydration and expansion of extruded bentonite in these fracture environments could lead to the separation of colloid-sized (or larger) particles by diffusion or shear which may have to be accounted for in possible radionuclide migration scenarios. Geochemical conditions, with respect to both solution and material composition, are considered to play important roles regarding the fracture extrusion/erosion of bentonite buffer material. For example, calcium-montmorillonite exhibits limited free swelling relative to sodium-montmorillonite and the colloidal and rheological properties of montmorillonite dispersions are sensitive to the presence of electrolytes. Insofar as both the buffer material composition (due to ion exchange) and groundwater composition (dilution resulting from infiltration of glacial melt water) are expected to evolve with time, so too might the potential for fracture extrusion/erosion of buffer material vary over time. The hydraulic characteristics of the intersecting fracture are expected to influence the extrusion/erosion process as well. To evaluate the effect of material and solution composition on the potential for extrusion of buffer mass into intersecting fractures, a series of batch experiments were performed. In these
How ISCO Can Interfere in Soil Pore Distribution and Solute Transport
Favero, M.; Freitas, J. G.; Furquim, S. A. C.; Thomson, N. R.; Cooper, M.
2016-12-01
Recently in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been a remedy of choice for sites contaminated with organic compounds. However, the impact of the chemical oxidant on soil properties and, therefore, on solute transport and remediation efficiency still lacks understanding. This research effort sought to evaluate the changes in soil physical properties and solute transport behavior in a typical tropical soil (Oxisol) resulting from exposure to persulfate. The Oxisol used had a microaggregate structure, resulting in a relatively high hydraulic conductivity despite the high clay content (67%). One-dimensional laboratory experiments were performed using a saturated undisturbed column. The injection of an ideal tracer (bromide), a reactive tracer (phenol) and persulfate (12 ± 1 gL-1 for 30 d) were performed consecutively. The tracer tests were repeated following persulfate injection. Transport parameters (longitudinal dispersivity: αL and retardation factor: R) and the effective porosity (ne) were obtained by fitting the breakthrough curves with an analytical solution for one-dimensional transport. Micromorphological analyses of porosity were conducted on impregnated soil blocks from control and oxidized systems. The bromide and phenol tracer test data yielded αL of 2.431 ± 0.002 cm, ne of 41.99 ± 1.52 %, R of 1.10, and a first-order decay rate coefficient of 6.5x10-5 min-1 prior to persulfate exposure. The effluent persulfate concentration stabilized at C/Co of 0.8 after 4 d of injection and the breakthrough was delayed relative to bromide. Concurrent with the breakthrough of persulfate, the pH decreased and a progressive release of Al (III) over the first 4 d with subsequent stabilization were observed. Following persulfate exposures the hydraulic conductivity increased about one-order of magnitude. Micromorphological analysis showed that persulfate produced alterations in poroids types, with an increase of complex packing voids. It was verified that persulfate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samper, J.; Ajora, C. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC, Barcerlona (Spain))
1993-01-01
During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs.
Cusping, transport and variance of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations
Carnaffan, Sean; Kawai, Reiichiro
2017-06-01
We study properties of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations through the lens of the probability density functions of anomalous diffusion processes. In particular, we examine solutions in terms of their cusping, travelling wave behaviours, and variance, within the framework of stochastic representations of generalized Fokker-Planck equations. We give our analysis in the cases of anomalous diffusion driven by the inverses of the stable, tempered stable and gamma subordinators, demonstrating the impact of changing the distribution of waiting times in the underlying anomalous diffusion model. We also analyse the cases where the underlying anomalous diffusion contains a Lévy jump component in the parent process, and when a diffusion process is time changed by an uninverted Lévy subordinator. On the whole, we present a combination of four criteria which serve as a theoretical basis for model selection, statistical inference and predictions for physical experiments on anomalously diffusing systems. We discuss possible applications in physical experiments, including, with reference to specific examples, the potential for model misclassification and how combinations of our four criteria may be used to overcome this issue.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strobel, Sebastian [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arinaga, Kenji [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hansen, Allan [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tornow, Marc [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2007-07-25
A novel concept for metal electrodes with few 10 nm separation for electrical conductance measurements in an aqueous electrolyte environment is presented. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material with 10 nm buried silicon dioxide serves as a base substrate for the formation of SOI plateau structures which, after recess-etching the thin oxide layer, thermal oxidation and subsequent metal thin film evaporation, feature vertically oriented nanogap electrodes at their exposed sidewalls. During fabrication only standard silicon process technology without any high-resolution nanolithographic techniques is employed. The vertical concept allows an array-like parallel processing of many individual devices on the same substrate chip. As analysed by cross-sectional TEM analysis the devices exhibit a well-defined material layer architecture, determined by the chosen material thicknesses and process parameters. To investigate the device in aqueous solution, we passivated the sample surface by a polymer layer, leaving a micrometre-size fluid access window to the nanogap region only. First current-voltage characteristics of a 65 nm gap device measured in 60 mM buffer solution reveal excellent electrical isolation behaviour which suggests applications in the field of biomolecular electronics in a natural environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baik, Min Hoon
1994-02-01
In this study, adsorpt