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Sample records for solute solubility surface

  1. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules

  2. Fluoro-apatite surface composition in aqueous solution deduced from potentiometric, electrokinetic, and solubility measurements, and spectroscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, C.; Oelkers, E.H.; Schott, J.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The surface chemistry of fluoro-apatite in aqueous solution was investigated using electrokinetic techniques, potentiometric titrations, solubility measurements, and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. All methods indicate the formation of Ca/F depleted, P enriched altered layer via exchange reactions between H + and Ca 2+ , and OH - and F - at the fluoro-apatite (FAP) surface. Observations suggest that this leached layer has a di-calcium phosphate (CaHPO 4 ) composition and that it controls the apparent solubility of FAP. Electrokinetic measurements yield an iso-electric point value of 1 ± 0.5 consistent with a negatively charged FAP surface at pH ≥ 1. In contrast, surface titrations give an apparent pH of point of zero charge of similar to 7.7, consistent with a positively charged surface at pH ≤ 7.7. These differences are shown to stem from proton consumption by both proton exchange and dissolution reactions at the FAP surface. After taking account for these effects, FAP surface charge is shown to be negative to at least pH 4 by surface titration analysis. (authors)

  3. Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, F.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6); Vinograd, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences

    2015-07-01

    The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks {sup 226}Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO{sub 4} as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter W{sub BaRa}, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final {sup 226}Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions and (2) the

  4. Work surface for soluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional work surface for aqueous plutonium is illustrated. It is constructed by means of estimating work as a function of the ambient pH and redox potential in a plutonium solution. The surface is useful for illustrating the chemistry of disproportionation reactions. Work expressions are easier to use than work integrals. (author)

  5. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  6. Molybdenum solubility in aluminium nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, X.; Sans, D.; Bertrand, M.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Excoffier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Valery, J.F. [AREVA-NC, DOR/RDP, Paris - La Defense (France)

    2016-07-01

    For over 60 years, research reactors (RR or RTR for research testing reactors) have been used as neutron sources for research, radioisotope production ({sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc), nuclear medicine, materials characterization, etc... Currently, over 240 of these reactors are in operation in 56 countries. They are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperature (cooled to below 100 C. degrees). The fuel assemblies are typically plates or cylinders of uranium alloy and aluminium (U-Al) coated with pure aluminium. These fuels can be processed in AREVA La Hague plant after batch dissolution in concentrated nitric acid and mixing with UOX fuel streams. The aim of this study is to accurately measure the solubility of molybdenum in nitric acid solution containing high concentrations of aluminium. The higher the molybdenum solubility is, the more flexible reprocessing operations are, especially when the spent fuels contain high amounts of molybdenum. To be most representative of the dissolution process, uranium-molybdenum alloy and molybdenum metal powder were dissolved in solutions of aluminium nitrate at the nominal dissolution temperature. The experiments showed complete dissolution of metallic elements after 30 minutes long stirring, even if molybdenum metal was added in excess. After an induction period, a slow precipitation of molybdic acid occurs for about 15 hours. The data obtained show the molybdenum solubility decreases with increasing aluminium concentration. The solubility law follows an exponential relation around 40 g/L of aluminium with a high determination coefficient. Molybdenum solubility is not impacted by the presence of gadolinium, or by an increasing concentration of uranium. (authors)

  7. Solubility of cobalt in primary circuit solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.; Joyer, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) was measured in PWR primary circuit conditions, in the temperature range 250-350 deg C, and the results were compared with the ones obtained on magnetite and nickel ferrite. As in the former cases, it was found that, in the prevailing primary circuit conditions, the solubility of the cobalt ferrite was minimum at temperatures around 300 deg C, for cobalt as well as for iron. The equilibrium iron concentration is significantly lower than in the case of magnetite. The results are discussed in relation with the POTHY code, based only on thermodynamic laws and data, used for the prediction of the primary circuit chemistry

  8. Investigation of samarium solubility in the magnesium based solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhlin, L.L.; Padezhnova, E.M.; Guzej, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Electric resistance measurements and microscopic analysis were used to investigate the solubility of samarium in a magnesium-based solid solution. The constitutional diagram Mg-Sm on the magnesium side is of an eutectic type with the temperature of the eutectic transformation of 542 deg C. Samarium is partly soluble in solid magnesium, the less so, the lower is the temperature. The maximum solubility of samarium in magnesium (at the eutectic transformation point) is 5.8 % by mass (0.99 at. %). At 200 deg C, the solubility of samarium in magnesium is 0.4 % by mass (0.063 at. %)

  9. Solubility of xenon in amino-acid solutions. II. Nine less-soluble amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, Richard P.; Himm, Jeffrey F.; Pollack, Gerald L.

    1988-05-01

    Ostwald solubility (L) of xenon gas, as the radioisotope 133Xe, has been measured as a function of solute concentration, at 25.0 °C, in aqueous solutions of nine amino acids. The amino-acid concentrations investigated covered much of their solubility ranges in water, viz., asparagine monohydrate (0-0.19 M), cysteine (0-1.16 M), glutamine (0-0.22 M), histidine (0-0.26 M), isoleucine (0-0.19 M), methionine (0-0.22 M), serine (0-0.38 M), threonine (0-1.4 M), and valine (0-0.34 M). We have previously reported solubility results for aqueous solutions of six other, generally more soluble, amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, hydroxyproline, lysine, and proline), of sucrose and sodium chloride. In general, L decreases approximately linearly with increasing solute concentration in these solutions. If we postulate that the observed decreases in gas solubility are due to hydration, the results under some assumptions can be used to calculate hydration numbers (H), i.e., the number of H2O molecules associated with each amino-acid solute molecule. The average values of hydration number (H¯) obtained at 25.0 °C are 15.3±1.5 for asparagine, 6.8±0.3 for cysteine, 11.5±1.1 for glutamine, 7.3±0.7 for histidine, 5.9±0.4 for isoleucine, 10.6±0.8 for methionine, 11.2±1.3 for serine, 7.7± 1.0 for threonine, and 6.6±0.6 for valine. We have also measured the temperature dependence of solubility L(T) from 5-40 °C for arginine, glycine, and proline, and obtained hydration numbers H¯(T) in this range. Between 25-40 °C, arginine has an H¯ near zero. This may be evidence for an attractive interaction between xenon and arginine molecules in aqueous solution.

  10. Ionic solubility and solutal advection governed augmented evaporation kinetics of salt solution pendant droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vivek; Harikrishnan, A. R.; Khurana, Gargi; Dhar, Purbarun

    2018-01-01

    The presence of dispersed inclusions is known to modify the interfacial characteristics in liquids by adsorption-desorption of the ions at interfaces. The present article reports the influencing role of dissolved ions in a polar fluid on its evaporation dynamics. The evaporation dynamics of pendant droplets of aqueous solutions of variant simple salts and concentrations have been experimentally studied. The presence of salts is observed to enhance the evaporation rate (obeying the classical D2 law), and the enhancement has been found to hold a direct proportionality to the concentration of the dissolved salt. Furthermore, it is observed that the degree of enhancement in the evaporation rate is also directly proportional to the solubility of the salt in question. The phenomenon is explained based on the chemical kinetics and thermodynamics of hydration of the ionic species in the polar fluid. The classical evaporation rate constant formulation is found to be inadequate in modeling the enhanced species transport. Additional probing via particle image velocimetry reveals augmented internal circulation within the evaporating salt based drops compared to pure water. Mapping the dynamic surface tension reveals that a salt concentration gradient is generated between the bulk and periphery of the droplet and it could be responsible for the internal advection cells visualized. A thermo-solutal Marangoni and Rayleigh convection based mathematical formulation has been put forward, and it is shown that the enhanced solute-thermal convection could play a major role in enhanced evaporation. The internal circulation mapped from experiments is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. Scaling analysis further reveals that the stability of the solutal Marangoni convection surpasses the thermal counterpart with higher salt concentration and solubility. The present article sheds insight into the possible domineering role of conjugate thermohydraulic and

  11. Actinide solution equlibria and solubilities in geologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.

    1983-04-01

    Stability constants and solubility products for actinide (Th, U, Np, Pu and Am) hydroxide and carbonate complexes have been collected, and total solubilities have been calculated under conditions representative of deep granitic groundwaters (pH 7-9.5; high total carbonate concentration according to log (CO 3 )=0.76pH-10.83; redox potentials corresponding to oxic systems, Eh>0.8-0.06pH, and reducing systems, Eh 2 (s), UO 2 (s), NpO 2 (s), PuO 2 (s) and Am 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (s)m, respectively, and the corresponding calculated maximum solubilities are 3 times 10- 10 M(0.07 μg/1) for Th, 0.3-250 times 10- 10 M (0.01-6 μg/1) for U (depending on the carbonate concentration), 1 times 10- 10 M(0.03 μg/1) for Np, 1-3 times 10- 9 M (0.2-0.7 μg/1) for Pu and 0.6-2 times 10- 7 M (15-50 μg/1) for Am. The calculated solubilities for U are in fair agreement with observed uranium concentrations in natural deep groundwaters. Hexavalent uranium carbonate species would dominate in solution except under highly reducing conditions (Eh 5 -10- 6 M (mg/1-level). (author)

  12. Proteins in solution: Fractal surfaces in solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tscheliessnig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the surface of a protein in solution, as well of the interface between protein and 'bulk solution', is introduced. The experimental technique of small angle X-ray and neutron scattering is introduced and described briefly. Molecular dynamics simulation, as an appropriate computational tool for studying the hydration shell of proteins, is also discussed. The concept of protein surfaces with fractal dimensions is elaborated. We finish by exposing an experimental (using small angle X-ray scattering and a computer simulation case study, which are meant as demonstrations of the possibilities we have at hand for investigating the delicate interfaces that connect (and divide protein molecules and the neighboring electrolyte solution.

  13. The impacts of surface polarity on the solubility of nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Su, Jiguo; Ou, Xinwen; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the dependence of water solubility and hydration behavior of nanoparticles on their surface polarity, we designed polar nanoparticles with varying surface polarity by assigning atomic partial charge to the surface of C60. The water solubility of the nanoparticle is enhanced by several orders of magnitude after the introduction of surface polarity. Nevertheless, when the atomic partial charge grows beyond a certain value (q M ), the solubility continuously decreases to the level of nonpolar nanoparticle. It should be noted that such q M is comparable with atomic partial charge of a variety of functional groups. The hydration behaviors of nanoparticles were then studied to investigate the non-monotonic dependence of solubility on the surface polarity. The interaction between the polar nanoparticle and the hydration water is stronger than the nonpolar counterpart, which should facilitate the dissolution of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, the surface polarity also reduces the interaction of hydration water with the other water molecules and enhances the interaction between the nanoparticles which may hinder their dispersion. Besides, the introduction of surface polarity disturbs and even rearranges the hydration structure of nonpolar nanoparticle. Interestingly, the polar nanoparticle with less ordered hydration structure tends to have higher water solubility.

  14. Surface properties, solubility and dissolution kinetics of bamboo phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, Fabrice; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2006-04-01

    Although phytoliths, constituted mainly by micrometric opal, exhibit an important control on silicon cycle in superficial continental environments, their thermodynamic properties and reactivity in aqueous solution are still poorly known. In this work, we determined the solubility and dissolution rates of bamboo phytoliths collected in the Réunion Island and characterized their surface properties via electrophoretic measurements and potentiometric titrations in a wide range of pH. The solubility product of "soil" phytoliths ( pKsp0=2.74 at 25 °C) is equal to that of vitreous silica and is 17 times higher than that of quartz. Similarly, the enthalpy of phytoliths dissolution reaction (ΔHr25-80°C=10.85kJ/mol) is close to that of amorphous silica but is significantly lower than the enthalpy of quartz dissolution. Electrophoretic measurements yield isoelectric point pH IEP = 1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.5 ± 0.2 for "soil" (native) and "heated" (450 °C heating to remove organic matter) phytoliths, respectively. Surface acid-base titrations allowed generation of a 2-p K surface complexation model. Phytoliths dissolution rates, measured in mixed-flow reactors at far from equilibrium conditions at 2 ⩽ pH ⩽ 12, were found to be intermediate between those of quartz and vitreous silica. The dissolution rate dependence on pH was modeled within the concept of surface coordination theory using the equation: R=k1·{>SiOH2+}n+k2·{>SiOH0}+k3·{>SiO-}m, where {> i} stands for the concentration of the surface species present at the SiO 2-H 2O interface, ki are the rate constants of the three parallel reactions and n and m represent the order of the proton- and hydroxy-promoted reactions, respectively. It follows from the results of this study that phytoliths dissolution rates exhibit a minimum at pH ˜ 3. This can explain their good preservation in the acidic soil horizons of Réunion Island. In terms of silicon biogeochemical cycle, phytoliths represent a large buffering reservoir

  15. Surface and conductivity properties of imidazoles solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalski, Marek; Domanska, Urszula; Czyrny, Dagmara; Dyczko, Dagmara

    2002-01-01

    The surface tension, σ, of the solutions of benzimidazole, 2-phenylimidazole and 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole in water, or water + 10 mol% of acetonitrile, or in other solvents as well as the solubilities and conductivity of benzimidazole and 2-phenylimidazole in water in function of concentration at 298.15 K were measured. The enthalpy of fusion, or solid-solid phase transition and the melting temperatures were determined for the substances under study by the scanning calorimetry (DSC). These solutions exhibit, in a wide range of concentrations, the normal linear, or parabolic decreasing dependencies and the maximum of surface tension at very low concentrations and show the S-shaped dependencies, being in function of the initial sample, never reported before. The results were confirmed by the conductivity measurements. The results were interpreted in terms of the changing structure of the interface. It was concluded that the observed phenomena were caused by an induced nucleation of benzimidazole, 2-phenylimidazole and especially by 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole by columnar discotic structures due to the initial concentration. The surface properties of these solutions reflect the interactions of hydrophobic parts of the guest molecules adsorbed at the interface, as a result of the hydrogen bonded structure of the solution

  16. Tetraphenylborate Solubility in High Ionic Strength Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Ginn, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1998-04-01

    Solubility of sodium and potassium salts of the tetraphenylborate ion (TPB) in simulated Savannah River Site High Level Waste was investigated. Data generated from this study allow more accurate predictions of TPB solubility at the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility. Because previous research showed large deviations in the observed solubility of TPB salts when compared with model predictions, additional data were generated to better understand the solubility of TPB in more complex systems of high ionic strength and those containing both potassium and sodium. These data allow evaluation of the ability of current models to accurately predict equilibrium TPB concentrations over the range of experimental conditions investigated in this study

  17. Calculation of solubility of salts in binary aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of theoretical calculation of solubility of some salts of the MX-type, where M - Na, K, Cs; X - F-I, as well as CsNO 3 and others forming no crystal hydrates in the solid phase, and the azeotropic composition in the water-HNO 3 system is studied. The calculational results of solubility are shown to depend very much on the values accepted for the standard free energies of component formation, melting heats and crystallization and on the difference in heat capacity of the melt and the solid phase

  18. Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of Concentrated Solutions of Soluble Coffee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolík, Václav; Žitný, R.; Tovčigrečko, Valentin; Delgado, M.; Allaf, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 93-98 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:MSM 212200008 Keywords : coffee extract * soluble coffee * viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2002

  19. Investigation of CuI solubility in potassium metaniobate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanirbergenov, B.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of solubility and potentiometry have been used to established the formation of the iodidometaniobate copper (1) complex [CuINbO 3 ] - in the case of CuI and KNbO 3 interaction. The data of the potentiometric method show the complex dissociation constant to be (0.9+-0.4)x10 -12

  20. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  1. Water Soluble Vitamins Enhance the Growth of Microorganisms in Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotani, Sachiko; Tani, Katsuji; Nagai, Katsuhito; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Mukai, Junji; Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions contain amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes, with or without some water soluble vitamins. Peripheral venous catheters are one of the causes of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI), which requires infection control. In Japan, PPN solutions have rarely been prepared under aseptic conditions. However, in recent years, the necessity of adding vitamins to infusions has been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water soluble vitamins on growth of microorganisms in PPN solutions. AMINOFLUID ® (AF), BFLUID ® (BF), PARESAFE ® (PS) and PAREPLUS ® (PP) PPN solutions were used. Water soluble vitamins contained in PP were also used. Causative microorganisms of CRBSI were used. Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased after 24 hours or 48 hours in all solutions. On the other hand, Escherichia coli , Serratia marcescens , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans increased, especially in PP. When each water soluble vitamin was added to BF and PS, growth of S. aureus was greater in solutions that contained nicotinamide than in solutions that contained other vitamins. As for C. albicans , they grew in all test solutions. C. albicans grew especially well in solutions that contained biotin. When commercial amino acids and glucose solutions with electrolytes are administered, in particular those containing multivitamins or water soluble vitamins, efforts to control infection must be taken to prevent proliferation of microorganisms.

  2. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 degree C, 30 degree C, 40 degree C, and 50 degree C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic

  3. Solubility and viscosity for CO_2 capture process using MEA promoted DEAE aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Dong; Wang, LeMeng; Zhang, Pan; Mi, ChenLu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of CO_2 in MEA promoted DEAE aqueous solution was measured. • Mass fraction and temperature dependences of solubility were illustrated. • Viscosities of carbonated MEA–DEAE solutions were measured and calculated. • Temperature, mass fraction and CO_2 loading dependences of viscosity were illustrated. - Abstract: The saturated solubility of CO_2 in monoethanolamine (MEA) promoted 2-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) aqueous solution was investigated at temperatures ranging from (303.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction and temperature dependences of the saturated solubility and CO_2 loading are illustrated. The viscosities of both CO_2-unloaded and CO_2-loaded DEAE–MEA aqueous solutions were measured and then calculated by using the Weiland equation. The effects of temperature, mass fraction and CO_2 loading on viscosities are demonstrated.

  4. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming

    2010-06-16

    Highly hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles have been molecularly designed. For the first time, the application of highly water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles as novel draw solutes in forward osmosis (FO) was systematically investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by various groups were synthesized to explore the correlation between the surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles and the achieved osmolality. We verified that magnetic nanoparticles capped with polyacrylic acid can yield the highest driving force and subsequently highest water flux among others. The used magnetic nanoparticles can be captured by the magnetic field and recycled back into the stream as draw solutes in the FO process. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes in FO. It is believed that magnetic nanoparticles will soon be extensively used in this area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Distribution of Carbonated Apatite as a Function of Solution Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhettry; Wang; Hsu; Fox; Baig; Barry; Zhuang; Otsuka; Higuchi

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that carbonated apatites (CAPs) exhibit the phenomenon of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) in weak acid media. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine two questions: first, whether the MES concept is applicable to a broader range of solution conditions and, second, whether a driving force function associated with a surface complex having a constant stoichiometry governs the dissolution of CAP and, if so, what is this stoichiometry. CAP preparations with carbonate contents of 1.8-5.7 wt% (synthesized by hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate in solutions of varying bicarbonate levels or by direct precipitation from supersaturated calcium/phosphate/carbonate solutions) were studied as follows. MES distributions for each of the CAP preparations were determined by equilibrating the CAP under stirred conditions in a series of acetate buffers (0.10 M) containing various levels of calcium and phosphate in the pH range 4.5-6.5 and a solution calcium/phosphate ratio in the range 0.1-10. The amount dissolved in each instance was regarded as the fraction of the CAP possessing an MES value greater than that corresponding to the ion activity product (IAP) of the equilibrating solution. The solution IAPs were calculated from the solution compositions using plausible calcium phosphate stoichiometries, viz., dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, carbonated apatite (based on the bulk composition of the particular CAP involved in the experiment), and tetracalcium phosphate. The fraction of CAP dissolved was plotted against the solution IAPs for each experimental set using each of the six assumed stoichiometries for the surface complex. The results demonstrated that the MES concept was applicable to all of the CAP preparations in media of various solution compositions and different pH levels. The most important new outcome of this study was that MES profiles for each of the

  6. Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching

  7. Solubility of drugs in aqueous polymeric solution: effect of ovalbumin on microencapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hesham Abdul; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2012-03-01

    Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.

  8. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility

  9. Dissolution and solubility behavior of fenofibrate in sodium lauryl sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Gladys E; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Amidon, Gordon L

    2005-10-01

    The solubility of fenofibrate in pH 6.8 McIlvaine buffers containing varying concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate was determined. The dissolution behavior of fenofibrate was also examined in the same solutions with rotating disk experiments. It was observed that the enhancement in intrinsic dissolution rate was approximately 500-fold and the enhancement in solubility was approximately 2000-fold in a pH 6.8 buffer containing 2% (w/v) sodium lauryl sulfate compared to that in buffer alone. The micellar solubilization equilibrium coefficient (k*) was estimated from the solubility data and found to be 30884+/-213 L/mol. The diffusivity for the free solute, 7.15x10(-6) cm2/s, was calculated using Schroeder's additive molal volume estimates and Hayduk-Laurie correlation. The diffusivity of the drug-loaded micelle, estimated from the experimental solubility and dissolution data and the calculated value for free solute diffusivity, was 0.86x10(-6) cm2/s. Thus, the much lower enhancement in dissolution of fenofibrate compared to its enhancement in solubility in surfactant solutions appears to be consistent with the contribution to the total transport due to enhanced micellar solubilization as well as a large decrease (approximately 8-fold) in the diffusivity of the drug-loaded micelle.

  10. Bulk diffusion and solubility of silver and nickel in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenzou-Badrour, H.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study of solubility and bulk diffusion of /sup 110/Ag and /sup 63/Ni in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions in the temperature range 220 to 88 0 C are reported. Owing to the low solubility of silver and nickel in lead, Fick's solution corresponding to the boundary condition of a constant concentration of solute at the surface has been used. Depth profile concentration analysis suggests a fundamental difference between the diffusion mechanisms of silver and nickel. Since silver penetration profiles in pure lead give diffusion coefficients independent of the penetration depth and silver concentration, it is suggested that slight decreases of silver diffusivity in lead-silver solid solutions have no significance. This implies that the interstitial silver atoms do not associate significantly with each other to form Ag-Ag dimers. In contrast, different behaviors of /sup 63/Ni depth profile concentration in pure lead and saturated PbNi solid solutions agree with a Ni-Ni interaction leading to the formation of less mobile dimers near the surface in pure lead

  11. Measurement and prediction of the solubility of acid gases in monoethanolamine solutions at low partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, P; Mather, A E

    1977-12-01

    An apparatus for the determination of the solubility of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures in ethanolamine solutions at low pressures is described. With this apparatus, the solubility of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and their mixtures in aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine was measured at partial pressures between 0.001 kPa and 9 kPa at temperatures of 80 and 100/sup 0/C. The results for the mixture were compared with two methods of prediction based on a thermodynamic model. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Densities and solubilities of Glycylglycine and Glycyl-L-Alanine in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Mollerup, Jørgen; Rudolph, E. Susanne J.

    2004-01-01

    Solubilities of glycylglycine and glycyl-L-alanine in aqueous electrolyte solutions containing 0-6 molal NaCl, 0-1 molal Na2SO4, and 0-1 molal (NH4)(2)SO4, have been determined experimentally at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The solubility of glycylglycine and glycyl-L-alanine in pure water...... is 1.74 and 4.78 mol/kg of water, respectively. The solubility of glycylglycine in salt solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, and (NH4)(2)SO4 show a moderate salting-in effect. The solubility of glycyl-L-alanine show a minor or no salting-in effect at low salt concentrations and a moderate salting-out effect...... at higher salt concentrations in NaCl and Na2SO4, and in (NH4)(2)SO4 the solubility is almost constant. The densities of the solutions have been determined experimentally, and the volume expansions by dissolving salt and dipeptide in water have been calculated. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Study of the formation of soluble complexes of sodium caseinate and xanthan in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhannache, Bouchra; HadjSadok, Abdelkader; Touabet, Abdelkrim

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to determinate the optimum conditions for the formation of soluble complexes between sodium caseinate and xanthan in solution at neutral pH, in the presence of the NaCl. The study of the influence of the concentrations of these three substances showed that salt was the most influent factor. It worsens the thermodynamic incompatibility of the two biopolymers in solution, when they are present at large amounts. However, it contributes to soluble complexes formation, when sodium caseinate concentration is below 5.5%. In this case, gels with enhanced rheological properties were obtained. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the complexes formation within these gels involves hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, dynamic light scattering revealed that dilution cause their dissociation. These soluble complexes are promising ingredients to ensure new texturing properties.

  14. Solubility of hydrogen in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  15. Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Dico C.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  16. The solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, P.J.G.; Agrawal, N.J.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the electrolyte equation of state as developed previously for the system MDEA-H2O-CO2-CH4 was further developed for the system MDEA-H2O-H2S-CH4. With this thermodynamic equilibrium model the total solubility of hydrogen sulfide and the speciation in aqueous solutions of

  17. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-01-01

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct

  18. Oil-soluble and water-soluble BTPhens and their europium complexes in octanol/water solutions: interface crossing studied by MD and PMF simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benay, G; Wipff, G

    2013-01-31

    Bistriazinyl-phenantroline "BTPhen" ligands L display the remarkable feature to complex trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions, with a marked selectivity for the latter. We report on molecular dynamics studies of tetrasubstituted X(4)BTPhens: L(4+) (X = (+)Et(3)NCH(2)-), L(4-) (X = (-)SO(3)Ph-), and L(0) (X = CyMe(4)) and their complexes with Eu(III) in binary octanol/water solutions. Changes in free energies upon interface crossing are also calculated for typical solutes by potential of mean force PMF simulations. The ligands and their complexes partition, as expected, to either the aqueous or the oil phase, depending on the "solubilizing" group X. Furthermore, most of them are found to be surface active. The water-soluble L(4+) and L(4-) ligands and their (L)Eu(NO(3))(3) complexes adsorb at the aqueous side of the interface, more with L(4-) than with L(4+). The oil soluble ligand L(0) is not surface active in its endo-endo form but adsorbs on the oil side of the interface in its most polar endo-exo form, as well as in its protonated L(0)H(+) and complexed (L(0))Eu(NO(3))(3) states. Furthermore, comparing PMFs of the Eu(III) complexes with and without nitric acid shows that acidifying the aqueous phase has different effects, depending on the ligand charge. In particular, acid promotes the Eu(III) extraction by L(0) via the (L(0))(2)Eu(NO(3))(2+) complex, as observed experimentally. Overall, the results point to the importance of interfacial adsorption for the liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by BTPhens and analogues.

  19. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations. (paper)

  20. Solubility and solution thermodynamics of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in ten organic solvents at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Yang; Wang, Jian; Du, Cunbin; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in ten solvents were determined. • The solubility were correlated with four thermodynamic models. • Standard dissolution enthalpy and excess enthalpy of the solutions were computed. - Abstract: Knowledge of solubility for 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in different solvents is essential for its purification and further theoretical studies. In this paper, the solid-liquid equilibrium for 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in ten pure organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, toluene, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, acetone, cyclohexane and 1,4-dioxane) was established using the isothermal saturation method at temperatures T = (278.15–313.15) K under pressure of 101.2 kPa, and the solubility of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in these solvents were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In general, the mole fraction solubility followed the following order from high to low in different solvents: 1,4-dioxane (0.1799–0.3390) > acetone (0.1128–0.3010) > ethyl acetate (0.08414–0.2654) > acetonitrile (0.04179–0.2027) > toluene (0.02367–0.1104) > n-propanol (0.01080–0.04514) > ethanol (0.01020–0.04202) > isopropanol (0.008595–0.03763) > methanol (0.007391–0.03198) > cyclohexane (0.001027–0.005617). The modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model were employed to correlate the measured solubility data of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in the selected solvents. Results indicated that the largest values of RAD and RMSD acquired by the four models were less than 0.76% and 9.13 × 10"−"4, respectively. The modified Apelblat equation provided better results than the other three models. Furthermore, the standard dissolution enthalpy and excess enthalpy of the solutions were computed from the solubility values. The standard dissolution enthalpies vary within the range from (14.88 to 45.57) kJ·mol"−"1 and are all positive, the dissolution process of 2-methyl-6

  1. pH-potentiometric determination of solubility of barely soluble organic extracting agents in water and aqueous solutions of neutral salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, E.M.; Charykov, A.K.; Tikhomirov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    A pH-potentiometric method has been used to estimate the solubility of chloroform, benzene and nitrobenzene in water. The desalting effect is studied of alkali metal chlorides on chloroform solubility to establish the following phenomenological series of alkali metal cations by their desalting action: Li + + + + + . The non-conformity of chloroform solubility values in water-isoactive solutions of different salts is indicative of the high specificity of desalting processes with respect to the chemical nature of the desalting cation. Salt effects also essentially depend on the chemical nature of the desalted substance, particularly on its acid-base properties

  2. Metastable equilibrium solubility behavior of carbonated apatite in the presence of solution strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, D D; Bi, Y; Baig, A A; Higuchi, W I

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the concept of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) to describe the anomalous solubility behavior of carbonated apatite (CAP) in the presence of solution strontium. A CAP sample (4.8 wt% CO(3), synthesized at 70 degrees C) was prepared by precipitation. Baseline MES distributions were determined in a series of 0.1 M acetate buffers containing only calcium and phosphate (no strontium) over a broad range of solution conditions. In order to assess the influence of strontium, MES profiles were then determined in a similar fashion with 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of the solution calcium being replaced on an equal molar basis by solution strontium. From the compositions of the equilibrating buffer solutions, ion activity products (IAPs) of the form Ca(10-n)Sr(n)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (n = 0-10) were calculated in an attempt to determine the correct function governing the dissolution of the CAP preparation. The results demonstrate the following important findings: (a) at high solution strontium/calcium ratios (i.e., when 60% or more of the solution calcium was replaced by strontium), the MES profiles in all the experiments were found to be essentially superimposable when the solution IAPs were calculated using the stoichiometry of Ca(6)Sr(4)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), and (b), at low solution strontium/calcium ratios (i.e., when 40% or less of the solution calcium was replaced by strontium), the stoichiometry yielding MES data superpositioning was found to be that of hydroxyapatite. When other stoichiometries were assumed, good superpositioning of the data was not possible.

  3. Surface phase transformations, surface complexation and solubilities of hydroxyapatite in the absence/presence of Cd(II) and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viipsi, Karin; Sjöberg, Staffan; Shchukarev, Andrey; Tõnsuaadu, Kaia

    2012-01-01

    The removal of Cd from aqueous solutions by hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated with and without EDTA being present. Batch experiments were carried out using synthetic hydroxyapatite with Ca/P 1.57 and a specific surface area of 37.5 m 2 /g in the pH range 4–9 (25 °C; 0.1 M KNO 3 ). The surface composition of the solid phases were analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The surface layer of HAP was found to undergo a phase transformation with a (Ca + Cd)/P atomic ratio of 1.4 and the involvement of an ion exchange process (Ca 2+ ↔ Cd 2+ ). The amount of Cd removed from the solution increased with increasing pH, reaching ≈100% at pH 9. In the presence of EDTA Cd removal was reduced due to the formation of [CdEDTA] 2− in solution. The solubility of HAP increases in the presence of EDTA at pH values above 5, mainly due to the formation of [CaEDTA] 2− . In contrast to this, the solubility was found to decrease in the presence of Cd 2+ and CdEDTA 2− . Using XPS the formation of a Cd-enriched HAP surface was found, which was interpreted as the formation of a solid solution of the general composition: Ca 8.4-x Cd x (HPO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 4.4 (OH) 0.4 . The information from the chemical analyses and XPS data was used to design an equilibrium model that takes into account dissolution, solution and surface complexation, as well as possible phase transformations. The total concentration of Ca, phosphate, EDTA, and Cd in solution were used in the equilibrium analysis. In the calculations the computer code WinSGW, which is based on the SOLGASWATER algorithm, was used. The following equilibria and compositions of the solid solutions were found to give the best fit to experimental data: logK s (Ca 7.6 Cd 0.8 (HPO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 4.4 (OH) 0.4 (s)+4.8H + ⇋7.6Ca 2+ +0.8Cd 2+ +6HPO 4 2- +0.4H 2 O)=-28.03±0.07. The corresponding value for the composition Ca 5.6 Cd 2.8 (HPO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 4.4 (OH) 0.4 (s) is −27.39 ± 0.06. The proposed model can be used

  4. Differential solubility of curcuminoids in serum and albumin solutions: implications for analytical and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quitschke Wolfgang W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available curcumin preparations contain a mixture of related polyphenols, collectively referred to as curcuminoids. These encompass the primary component curcumin along with its co-purified derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcuminoids have numerous biological activities, including inhibition of cancer related cell proliferation and reduction of amyloid plaque formation associated with Alzheimer disease. Unfortunately, the solubility of curcuminoids in aqueous solutions is exceedingly low. This restricts their systemic availability in orally administered formulations and limits their therapeutic potential. Results Methods are described that achieve high concentrations of soluble curcuminoids in serum. Solid curcuminoids were either mixed directly with serum, or they were predissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and added as aliquots to serum. Both methods resulted in high levels of curcuminoid-solubility in mammalian sera from different species. However, adding aliquots of dimethyl sulfoxide-dissolved curcuminoids to serum proved to be more efficient, producing soluble curcuminoid concentrations of at least 3 mM in human serum. The methods also resulted in the differential solubility of individual curcuminoids in serum. The addition of dimethyl sulfoxide-dissolved curcuminoids to serum preferentially solubilized curcumin, whereas adding solid curcuminoids predominantly solubilized bisdemethoxycurcumin. Either method of solubilization was equally effective in inhibiting dose-dependent HeLa cell proliferation in culture. The maximum concentration of curcuminoids achieved in serum was at least 100-fold higher than that required for inhibiting cell proliferation in culture and 1000-fold higher than the concentration that has been reported to prevent amyloid plaque formation associated with Alzheimer disease. Curcuminoids were also highly soluble in solutions of purified albumin, a major component of

  5. Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 292 and 535 K. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reactions are obtained from a least- squares analysis of the data. Altogether, thermochemical properties are established for five anionic complexes: Cu(OH) 3 - , Cu(OH) 4 = , Cu(OH) 2 (HPO 4 ) = , Cu(OH) 3 (H 2 PO 4 ) = , and Cu(OH) 2 (PO 4 ) ≡ . Precise thermochemical parameters are also derived for the Cu(OH) + hydroxocomplex based on CuO solubility behavior previously observed in pure water (*) at elevated temperatures. The relative ease of Cu(II) ion hydrolysis is such that Cu(OH) 3 - species become the preferred hydroxocomplex for pH ≥ 9.4. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  7. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-08-01

    Large quantities of organic chemicals used in reprocessing spent nuclear-fuels at the Hanford Site have accumulated in underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. The organic content of these tanks must he known so that the potential for hazardous reactions between organic components and sodium nitrate/nitrite salts in the waste can he evaluated. The solubilities of organic compounds described in this report will help determine if they are present in the solid phases (salt cake and sludges) as well as the liquid phase (interstitial liquor/supernate) in the tanks. The solubilities of five significant sodium salts of carboxylic acids and aminocarboxylic acids [sodium oxalate, formate, citrate, nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and ethylendiaminetetraacetate (EDTA)] were measured in a simulated supernate solution at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 50 degrees C

  8. Solubility of some phenolic compounds in aqueous alkali metal nitrate solutions from (293.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noubigh, Adel [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)], E-mail: Adel.anoubigh@ipest.rnu.tn; Cherif, Mourad [IPEIEM, Universite de Tunis-El Manar, BP244. 2096. El Manar II (Tunisia); Provost, Elise [Laboratoire Chimie et procedes, ENSTA, 32 Rue de Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris, Cedex 15 (France); Abderrabba, Manef [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper is continuation of the study concerning the solubility-temperature dependence data for some phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in two nitrate salts (KNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}) aqueous solutions. The solubilities of PhC were determined in the temperature ranging from (293.15 to 318.15) K. It has been observed that the solubility, in aqueous nitrate solutions, increases with increasing temperature. Results showed that alkali metal nitrate has a salting-out effect on the solubility of PhC. The effect of the anion of the electrolyte on the solubility of PhC is observed by comparing these results with values reported in the previous papers for the effect of LiCl, NaCl and KCl. For each cation, the solubilites of the phenolic compounds are higher with nitrate anion than with chloride anion. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The solubility data were accurately correlated by a semi empirical equation. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC ({delta}{sub tr}G{sup 0}) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the nitrate salts have been calculated from the solubility data. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive {delta}{sub tr}G{sup 0} value which is mainly of enthalpic origin.

  9. Exactly soluble models for surface partition of large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Bugaev, K.A.; Elliott, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The surface partition of large clusters is studied analytically within a framework of the 'Hills and Dales Model'. Three formulations are solved exactly by using the Laplace-Fourier transformation method. In the limit of small amplitude deformations, the 'Hills and Dales Model' gives the upper and lower bounds for the surface entropy coefficient of large clusters. The found surface entropy coefficients are compared with those of large clusters within the 2- and 3-dimensional Ising models

  10. Solubility of flue gas components in NaOH based scrubber solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandelin, K; Backman, R

    1997-11-01

    The work reported here is a thermodynamic study on the solubility of flue gas components in aqueous solutions containing sodium salts. The result of the work is an equilibrium model. The model presented here includes sodium hydroxide and sodium salts that makes it possible to study simultaneous absorption of flue gas components in alkaline scrubber solutions. The model is applied on the absorption of a flue gas into a NaOH scrubber solution. The calculations show that it is possible to simultaneously absorb sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, and ammonia without carbon dioxide co-absorption. The calculations also show that gaseous NO and N{sub 2}O cannot be scrubbed unless they are oxidized to nitrate or reduced to ammonia. (author) SIHTI 2 Research Programme. 59 refs.

  11. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming; Wang, Kai Yu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2010-01-01

    of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes

  12. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.

  13. Solubility Limits of Dibutyl Phosphoric Acid in Uranium Solutions at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.; Pierce, R.A.; Ray, R.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Savannah River Site has enriched uranium (EU) solution which has been stored for almost 10 years since being purified in the second uranium cycle of the H area solvent extraction process. The concentrations in solution are 6 g/L U and about 0.1 M nitric acid. Residual tributylphosphate in the solutions has slowly hydrolyzed to form dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) at concentrations averaging 50 mg/L. Uranium is known to form compounds with DBP which have limited solubility. The potential to form uranium-DBP solids raises a nuclear criticality safety issue. SRTC tests have shown that U-DBP solids will precipitate at concentrations potentially attainable during storage of enriched uranium solutions. Evaporation of the existing EUS solution without additional acidification could result in the precipitation of U-DBP solids if DBP concentration in the resulting solution exceeds 110 ppm at ambient temperature. The same potential exists for evaporation of unwashed 1CU solutions. The most important variables of interest for present plant operations are HNO 3 and DBP concentrations. Temperature is also an important variable controlling precipitation. The data obtained in these tests can be used to set operating and safety limits for the plant. It is recommended that the data for 0 degrees C with 0.5 M HNO 3 be used for setting the limits. The limit would be 80 mg/L which is 3 standard deviations below the average of 86 observed in the tests. The data shows that super-saturation can occur when the DBP concentration is as much as 50 percent above the solubility limit. However, super-saturation cannot be relied on for maintaining nuclear criticality safety. The analytical method for determining DBP concentration in U solutions was improved so that analyses for a solution are accurate to within 10 percent. However, the overall uncertainty of results for periodic samples of the existing EUS solutions was only reduced slightly. Thus, sampling appears to be the largest portion

  14. Basigin-2 Is a Cell Surface Receptor for Soluble Basigin Ligand*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Robert J.; Chen, Li; Mesquita, Fernando S.; Nowak, Romana A.

    2008-01-01

    The metastatic spread of a tumor is dependent upon the ability of the tumor to stimulate surrounding stromal cells to express enzymes required for tissue remodeling. The immunoglobulin superfamily protein basigin (EMMPRIN/CD147) is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed by tumor cells that stimulates matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in stromal cells. The ability of basigin to stimulate expression of molecules involved in tissue remodeling and angiogenesis makes basigin a potential target for the development of strategies to block metastasis. However, the identity of the cell surface receptor for basigin remains controversial. The goal of this study was to determine the identity of the receptor for basigin. Using a novel recombinant basigin protein (rBSG) corresponding to the extracellular domain of basigin, it was demonstrated that the native, nonglycosylated rBSG protein forms dimers in solution. Furthermore, rBSG binds to the surface of uterine fibroblasts, activates the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and induces expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3. Proteins that interact with rBSG were isolated using a biotin label transfer technique and sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrophotometry. The results demonstrate that rBSG interacts with basigin expressed on the surface of fibroblasts and is subsequently internalized. During internalization, rBSG associates with a novel form of human basigin (basigin-3). It was concluded that cell surface basigin functions as a membrane receptor for soluble basigin and this homophilic interaction is not dependent upon glycosylation of the basigin ligand. PMID:18434307

  15. Oligomerization of hydrophobin SC3 in solution : From soluble state to self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna F.; Kruif, Cornelis G. de; Robillard, George T.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophobin SC3 is a protein with special self-association properties that differ depending on whether it is in solution, on an air/water interface or on a solid surface. Its self-association on an air/water interface and solid surface have been extensively characterized. The current study focuses

  16. Solubility of jarosite solid solutions precipitated from acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the common occurrence of 15 to 25 mole percent hydronium substitution on the alkali site in jarosites, it is necessary to consider the hydronium content of jarosites in any attempt at rigorous evaluation of jarosite solubility or of the saturation state of natural waters with respect to jarosite. A Gibbs free energy of 3293.5±2.1 kJ mol-1 is recommended for a jarosite solid solution of composition K.77Na.03(H3O).20Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. Solubility determinations for a wider range of natural and synthetic jarosite solid solutions will be necessary to quantify the binary and ternary mixing parameters in the (K-Na-H3O) system. In the absence of such studies, molar volume data for endmember minerals indicate that the K-H3O substitution in jarosite is probably closer to ideal mixing than either the Na-K or Na-H3O substitution.

  17. A novel method for determining the solubility of small molecules in aqueous media and polymer solvent systems using solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Hala M; Chen, Xin; Aburub, Aktham; Mishra, Dinesh; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    To explore the application of solution calorimetry for measuring drug solubility in experimentally challenging situations while providing additional information on the physical properties of the solute material. A semi-adiabatic solution calorimeter was used to measure the heat of dissolution of prednisolone and chlorpropamide in aqueous solvents and of griseofulvin and ritonavir in viscous solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone and N-ethylpyrrolidone. Dissolution end point was clearly ascertained when heat generation stopped. The heat of solution was a linear function of dissolved mass for all drugs (solution of 9.8 ± 0.8, 28.8 ± 0.6, 45.7 ± 1.6 and 159.8 ± 20.1 J/g were obtained for griseofulvin, ritonavir, prednisolone and chlorpropamide, respectively. Saturation was identifiable by a plateau in the heat signal and the crossing of the two linear segments corresponds to the solubility limit. The solubilities of prednisolone and chlopropamide in water by the calorimetric method were 0.23 and 0.158 mg/mL, respectively, in agreement with the shake-flask/HPLC-UV determined values of 0.212 ± 0.013 and 0.169 ± 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. For the higher solubility and high viscosity systems of griseofulvin and ritonavir in NEP/PVP mixtures, respectively, solubility values of 65 and 594 mg/g, respectively, were obtained. Solution calorimetry offers a reliable method for measuring drug solubility in organic and aqueous solvents. The approach is complementary to the traditional shake-flask method, providing information on the solid properties of the solute. For highly viscous solutions, the calorimetric approach is advantageous.

  18. Estimation of the solubility parameters of model plant surfaces and agrochemicals: a valuable tool for understanding plant surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayet, Mohamed; Fernández, Victoria

    2012-11-14

    Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic method for estimating the solubilities of model plant surface constituents and relating them to the effects of agrochemicals. Following the van Krevelen and Hoftyzer method, we calculated the solubility parameters of three model plant species and eight compounds that differ in hydrophobicity and polarity. In addition, intact tissues were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the surface free energy, polarity, solubility parameter and work of adhesion of each were calculated from contact angle measurements of three liquids with different polarities. By comparing the affinities between plant surface constituents and agrochemicals derived from (a) theoretical calculations and (b) contact angle measurements we were able to distinguish the physical effect of surface roughness from the effect of the chemical nature of the epicuticular waxes. A solubility parameter model for plant surfaces is proposed on the basis of an increasing gradient from the cuticular surface towards the underlying cell wall. The procedure enabled us to predict the interactions among agrochemicals, plant surfaces, and cuticular and cell wall components, and promises to be a useful tool for improving our understanding of biological surface interactions.

  19. Soluble extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, EMN) regulates cancer-related cellular functions by homotypic interactions with surface CD147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutti, Nadine; Kuepper, Michael; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) is a widely expressed glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which exists in both a membrane-spanning and a soluble form. Homotypic interactions of EMMPRIN underlie its multiple roles in normal development and pathological situations such as viral infections, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. This study employed a recombinant soluble, fully glycosylated EMMPRIN domain (rhsEMN) as a tool to characterize the structural basis of EMMPRIN-EMMPRIN receptor (EMNR) contacts and their functional effects on MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. rhsEMN did not form dimers in solution but bound to surface EMMPRIN (EMN) on MCF-7 cells with high affinity and was readily internalized. The interaction interface for the homotypic contact was localized to the N-terminal Ig domain. rhsEMN exerted a stimulatory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells whereas it reduced cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were accompanied by an upregulation of endogenous EMMPRIN as well as of matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14), a membrane-bound protease involved in the extracellular release of soluble EMMPRIN, indicating a regulatory feedback mechanism. The proliferation-promoting activity of rhsEMN was mimicked by a novel functional antibody directed to EMMPRIN, underscoring that crosslinking of cell surface EMMPRIN (EMNR) is crucial for eliciting intracellular signalling. Addressing malignancy-related signal transduction in HEK-293 cells, we could show that rhsEMN triggers the oncogenic Wnt pathway. © 2015 FEBS.

  20. Prediction of non-polar gas solubilities in water, alcohols and aqueous alcohol solutions by the modified ASOG method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K.

    1982-07-01

    This study evaluated a technique for predicting gas solubilities based on a modified ASOG group-contribution method, considering water, alcohols, and aqueous alcohol solutions as the solvents. The nonpolar gaseous solutes considered were oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and butane. Gas solubilities were correlated and predicted for a partial gas pressure of 1 atm and a temperature range of 50/sup 0/-100/sup 0/F (10/sup 0/-40/sup 0/C) in pure solvents, and then predicted for the same pressure and temperature range in mixed solvents using only the solubility data for the pure solvents. The deviations between the observed and predicted solubilities averaged 6.0% in pure systems and 10.2% in mixed solvents.

  1. Solubility of NpO2 in Na2CO3 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Yang, Han Beom; Lee, Eil Hee; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2010-03-01

    Solubilities of NpO 2 were measured in 0.1 M Na 2 CO 3 (pH 11.25) and 0.1 M Na 2 CO 3 -0.5M H 2 O 2 (pH 11.25), respectively, for two weeks. Three detection methods such as gas proportional counting (GPC), liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and ICP-MS were used for the measurement of dissolved NpO 2 in the solutions and the results by different methods were compared with each other. The solubility of NpO 2 increased as the contact time increased and those after 2 weeks showed 4.4 x 10 -9 M in 0.10 M Na 2 CO 3 (pH 11.25) and 2.4 x 10 -8 M in 0.10 M Na 2 CO 3 -0.5M H 2 O 2 (pH 11.25), respectively

  2. Bulk solubility and speciation of plutonium(VI) in phosphate-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weger, H.T.; Okajima, S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Reed, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility and speciation of Pu(VI) with phosphate as a function of pH was investigated to determine the ability of phosphate to act as an actinide getter. The general properties were first investigated and are reported here with the goal of performing more quantitative experiments in the future. Solubility was approached from oversaturation at initial pH = 4, 10 and 13.4. Absorption spectra were recorded, the solution filtered and the filtrate counted. Absorption spectra were obtained at varying phosphate concentrations and at pH of 2.7 to 11.9. The effect of complexation on the 833 mn Pu(VI) band was characterized. Evidence for three phosphate complexes was obtained for pH -5 to 10 -6 M Pu(VI) was measured in the filtrate at pH ≤ 10 that were passed through a 50 mn filter. Pu(VI) complexes with phosphate over hydroxide at pH ≤ 11.6, but at pH ≥ 11.9, only hydrolyzed Pu(VI) was detected. At pH = 12, the concentration of Pu(VI) was as high as 10 -4 M

  3. Solubility of unirradiated UO2 fuel in aqueous solutions. Comparison between experimental and calculated (EQ3/6) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1995-11-01

    The solubility behaviour of unirradiated UO 2 pellets was studied under oxic (air-saturated) and anoxic (N 2 ) conditions in deionized water, in sodium bicarbonate solutions with varying bicarbonate content (60 - 600 ppm), in Allard groundwater simulating granitic fresh groundwater conditions, and in bentonite water simulating the effects of bentonite on granitic fresh groundwater (25 deg C). The release of uranium was measured during static batch dissolution experiments of long duration (2-6 years). A comparison was made with the theoretical solubility data calculated with the geochemical code EQ3/6 in order to evaluate solubility (steady state) limiting factors. (orig.) (26 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs.)

  4. Hydration interactions and stability of soluble microbial products in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Long-Fei; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) are organic compounds excreted by microorganisms in their metabolism and decay and the main constituents in effluent from biological wastewater treatment systems. They also have an important contribution to the dissolved organic matters in natural aqueous systems. So far the interactions between SMP colloids have not been well explored. In this work, the interactions between SMP colloids in water and salt solutions were studied by using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Zeta potential and acid-base titration techniques. The second osmotic virial coefficient had a larger value in a 750-mM salt solution than that in a 50-mM solution, indicating that repulsion between SMP colloids increased with an increase in salt concentration, which is contrary with the classic Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Such a repulsion was attributed to water structuring and enhanced by the accumulation of hydrophilic counter ions around SMP colloids and the formed hydration force. The repulsion and hydration effect led to the dispersing and deeper draining structure, accompanied by a decreased hydrodynamic radius and increased diffusion coefficient. This hydration force was related to so-called ion specific effect, and electrolyte sodium chloride had a more substantial effect on hydration force than KCl, CsCl, NaBr and NaI. Our results provide an experimental approach to explore the SMP structures, inter-colloid interactions and confirm the non-DLVO forces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib; Lahti, Erik; Zhang, Jinsuo, E-mail: zhang.3558@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19" t" h Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes.

  6. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Samin, Adib; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Lahti, Erik; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Zhang, Jinsuo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes

  7. Solution properties of targacanthin (water-soluble part of gum tragacanth exudate from Astragalus gossypinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Musavi, Seyed Mohammad; Kiumarsi, Amir; Williams, Peter A

    2006-02-28

    Solution properties of tragacanthin (the water-soluble part of gum tragacanth) were studied by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) combined with multi-angle light scattering and viscometry at 25 degrees C. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to determine the hydrodynamic radius. Ultrasonic degradation was applied to obtain biopolymer fractions of different molecular weights. The dependence of intrinsic viscosity [eta] and radius of gyration (s2)z(1/2) on weight average molecular mass M(w) for this biopolymer were found to be [eta] = 9.077 x 10(-5) M(w)(0.87) (dL g(-1)) and (s2)z(1/2) in the range of M(w) from 1.8 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6). The conformational parameters of tragacanthin were calculated to be 1111 nm for molar mass per unit contour length (M(L)), 26 nm for persistence length (q) and 1.87 ratio of R(g)/R(h). It was found that the Smidsrød parameter B, the empirical stiffness parameter was 0.013, which is lower than that of several polysaccharides indicating the stiff backbone for tragacanthin. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of gum tragacanth and its insoluble and soluble fractions (bassorin and tragacanthin, respectively) were studied. For concentrations equal to 1%, at 25 degrees C and in the absence of salt, bassorin solution showed the highest viscosity and shear thinning behaviour. Power law and Williamson models were used to describe the rheological behaviour of bassorin and tragacanthin, respectively. Oscillatory shear experiments showed a gel like structure for the bassorin but for tragacanthin the oscillatory data were as would be expected for semi-dilute to concentrated solution of entangled, random coil polymers. NaCl changed the steady and oscillatory rheological properties of both fractions and in this way the final viscosity of bassorin was even less than tragacanthin. The calculated activation energy for bassorin and tragacanthin indicated a more rapid decrease in viscosity with temperature for tragacanthin. The plot of

  8. On solubility of perchloric (periodic) acid and α-cyanacetanmide in aqueous solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omarova, R.A.; Balysbekov, S.M.; Erkasov, R.Sh.; Nikolenko, O.N.

    1996-01-01

    Acid-base interaction within perchloric (periodic) acid-α-cyanacetamide-water systems in studied by method of solubility under isothermal conditions at 25 deg C. Solubility regularities of crystalline α-cyanacetamide in perchloric and periodic acid solutions are determined, the concentration limits of formation of a new solid phase-tris(α-cyanacetamide) perchlorate within perchloric acid-α-cyanacetamide-water system are determined. The compound is identified by means of chemical and X-ray phase analyses, its density and melting temperature are determined. Iodic acid and α-cyanacetamide water solution base system is shown to belong to a simple eutonic type. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Experimental study on soluble chemical transfer to surface runoff from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Yang, Jinzhong; Hu, Bill X; Sun, Huaiwei

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff, under condition of irrigation and subsurface drainage, would improve surface water quality. In this paper, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of various soil and hydraulic factors on chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff. The factors include maximum depth of ponding water on soil surface, initial volumetric water content of soil, depth of soil with low porosity, type or texture of soil and condition of drainage. In the experiments, two soils, sand and loam, mixed with different quantities of soluble KCl were filled in the sandboxes and prepared under different initial saturated conditions. Simulated rainfall induced surface runoff are operated in the soils, and various ponding water depths on soil surface are simulated. Flow rates and KCl concentration of surface runoff are measured during the experiments. The following conclusions are made from the study results: (1) KCl concentration in surface runoff water would decrease with the increase of the maximum depth of ponding water on soil surface; (2) KCl concentration in surface runoff water would increase with the increase of initial volumetric water content in the soil; (3) smaller depth of soil with less porosity or deeper depth of soil with larger porosity leads to less KCl transfer to surface runoff; (4) the soil with finer texture, such as loam, could keep more fertilizer in soil, which will result in more KCl concentration in surface runoff; and (5) good subsurface drainage condition will increase the infiltration and drainage rates during rainfall event and will decrease KCl concentration in surface runoff. Therefore, it is necessary to reuse drained fertile water effectively during rainfall, without polluting groundwater. These study results should be considered in agriculture management to reduce soluble chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff for reducing non-point sources pollution.

  10. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D.

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300 o C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb 2 O 3 increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200 o C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250 o C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb 2 O 5 ·xH 2 O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na 2α [H(H 2 O)] 2-2α Sb 2 O 6 , which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200 o C and decreases at temperatures above 250 o C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO 3 - or Sb(OH) 6 - ), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations ≥ 0.00005 mol·dm -3 in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be ruled out that hydrated Sb 2 O 5 (especially the pyrochlore form) might be less soluble in near-neutral, low

  11. Decreasing DOC trends in soil solution along the hillslopes at two IM sites in southern Sweden--geochemical modeling of organic matter solubility during acidification recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Bringmark, Lage

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies report increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the last two decades in boreal lakes and streams in Europe and North America. Recently, a hypothesis was presented on how various spatial and temporal factors affect the DOC dynamics. It was concluded that declining sulphur deposition and thereby increased DOC solubility, is the most important driver for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters. If this recovery hypothesis is correct, the DOC levels should increase both in the soil solution as well as in the surrounding surface waters as soil pH rises and the ionic strength declines due to the reduced input of SO(4)(2-) ions. In this project a geochemical model was set up to calculate the net humic charge and DOC solubility trends in soils during the period 1996-2007 at two integrated monitoring sites in southern Sweden, showing clear signs of acidification recovery. The Stockholm Humic Model was used to investigate whether the observed DOC solubility is related to the humic charge and to examine how pH and ionic strength influence it. Soil water data from recharge and discharge areas, covering both podzols and riparian soils, were used. The model exercise showed that the increased net charge following the pH increase was in many cases counteracted by a decreased ionic strength, which acted to decrease the net charge and hence the DOC solubility. Thus, the recovery from acidification does not necessarily have to generate increasing DOC trends in soil solution. Depending on changes in pH, ionic strength and soil Al pools, the trends might be positive, negative or indifferent. Due to the high hydraulic connectivity with the streams, the explanations to the DOC trends in surface waters should be searched for in discharge areas and peat lands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between the solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and micellar solutions, with their normal boiling points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, M.; Grieser, F.; Powell, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A linear correlation between the logarithm of the solubility in water of aromatic hydrocarbons and their normal boiling points is shown. Similarly, the logarithm of the distribution ratio of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous micellar solution is shown to be linearly related to the boiling points of the hydrocarbons. 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Density, viscosity, and N2O solubility of aqueous amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronu, Ugochukwu E.; Hartono, Ardi; Svendsen, Hallvard F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Viscosity of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Henry’s law constant/N 2 O solubility of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Schumpe model. Correlations for density, viscosity, and N 2 O solubility. - Abstract: Physicochemical properties of aqueous amino acid salt (AAS), potassium salt of sarcosine (KSAR) and aqueous amine amino acid salt (AAAS), 3-(methylamino)propylamine/sarcosine (SARMAPA) have been studied. Densities of KSAR were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.25 for temperature range 298.15 K to 353.15 K, the viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N 2 O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 363.15 K). Densities of SARMAPA were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.23 for temperature range (298.15 K to 353.15 K), viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N 2 O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 343.15 K). Experimental results were correlated well with empirical correlations and N 2 O solubility results for KSAR were predicted adequately by a Schumpe model. The solubilities of N 2 O in AAS and AAAS are significantly lower than values for amines. The solubilities vary as: amine > AAAS > AAS.

  14. Thermodynamics of Highly Supersaturated Aqueous Solutions of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs-Impact of a Second Drug on the Solution Phase Behavior and Implications for Combination Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing interest in formulating combination products that contain two or more drugs. Furthermore, it is also common for different drug products to be taken simultaneously. This raises the possibility of interactions between different drugs that may impact formulation performance. For poorly water-soluble compounds, the supersaturation behavior may be a critical factor in determining the extent of oral absorption. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the maximum achievable supersaturation for several poorly water-soluble compounds alone, and in combination. Model compounds included ritonavir, lopinavir, paclitaxel, felodipine, and diclofenac. The "amorphous solubility" for the pure drugs was determined using different techniques and the change in this solubility was then measured in the presence of differing amounts of a second drug. The results showed that "amorphous solubility" of each component in aqueous solution is substantially decreased by the second component, as long as the two drugs are miscible in the amorphous state. A simple thermodynamic model could be used to predict the changes in solubility as a function of composition. This information is of great value when developing co-amorphous or other supersaturating formulations and should contribute to a broader understanding of drug-drug physicochemical interactions in in vitro assays as well as in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  16. Possibilities of application of perfect solution model to calculation of equilibrium composition of complex carbonitrides and their solubility in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, M.I.; Popov, V.V.; Cheremnykh, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Using the Fe-Nb-V-C-N and Fe-Ti-V-C-N systems' low carbon steels, the earlier suggested model of perfect solid solutions has been experimentally researched. Also studied has been the feasibility to calculate the composition of carbonitrides in steels by the derived equations, that comprise, as parameters, products of respective compounds' solubility and coefficients of components interaction in iron-based solid solutions. A conclusion is drawn that perfect solutions models may be used adequately for complex carbonitrides like Nbsub(p)Vsub(1-p)Csub(q)Nsub(1-q) and Tisub(p)Vsub(1-p)Csub(q)Nsub(1-q) during the calculations of their equilibrium composition and solubility in steels

  17. Glass-surface area to solution-volume ratio and its implications to accelerated leach testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; McVay, G.L.; Riddle, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    The value of glass surface area to solution volume ratio (SA/V) can strongly influence the leaching rate of PNL 76-68 glass. The leaching rate is largely governed by silicon solubility constraints. Silicic acid in solution reduced the elemental release of all glass components. No components are leached to depths greater than that of silicon. The presence of the reaction layer had no measurable effect on the rate of leaching. Accelerated leach testing is possible since PNL 76-68 glass leaching is solubility-controlled (except at very low SA/V values). A series of glasses leached with SA/V x time = constant will yield identical elemental release

  18. Modelling uranium solubilities in aqueous solutions: Validation of a thermodynamic data base for the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomenech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental solubilities of U 4+ and UO 2 2+ that are reported in the literature have been collected. Data on oxides, hydroxides and carbonates have been selected for this work. They include results both at 25 degrees C and at higher temperatures. The literature data have been compared with calculated uranium solubilities obtained with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs and an uranium thermodynamic data base selected for the Swedish nuclear waste management program. This verification/validiation exercise has shown that more experimental data is needed to determine the chemical composition of anionic uranyl hydroxo complexes as well as their equilibrium constants of formation. There is also a need for more solubility data on well characterised alkaline or alkaline-earth uranates. For the uranyl carbonate system, the calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental literature values, which span over a wide range of pH, (CO 3 2- ) T , CO 2 (g)-pressure, and T. The experimental solubility of UO 2 (s) agrees also well with the EQ3/6 calculations for pH greater than 6. However, in more acidic solutions the experimental solubilities are higher than the calculated values. This is due to the formation of polynuclear hydroxo complexes of uranium, which are not well characterised, and are not included in the thermodynamic data base used in this study. (authors)

  19. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin, E-mail: songaixin@sdu.edu.cn; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol. • The fabrication process of superhydrophobic metal surfaces greatly increases the safety in industrial manufacture in commercial scale. • The superhydrophobic copper surfaces show excellent corrosion resistance. - Abstract: A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  20. Measurement and modelling of the solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous 1,8-p-menthane-diamine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Ning, Peng-Ge; Cao, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of CO 2 was measured in aqueous MDA up to 1.97 CO 2 loading. • KE model was used to correlate VLE data in α 1 regions separately. • Four chemical equilibrium constants were determined. • Sterically hindering effect for MDA in CO 2 absorption was demonstrated. • MDA absorption efficiency was compared with MEA, MDEA and PZ. -- Abstract: The solubility of CO 2 in aqueous 1,8-p-menthane-diamine (MDA) solution with substance concentrations of 0.625 and 1.25 mol · L −1 was measured at temperatures (313.15, 333.15 and 353.15) K with CO 2 partial pressures ranging from (0.55 to 776.0) kPa and CO 2 loading ranging from (0.120 to 1.97) mol CO 2 per mol MDA. The gas solubility results are expressed as the partial pressure of CO 2 (P CO 2 ) against its mole ratio, i.e.α CO 2 (mol CO 2 per mol MDA). The chemical absorption reaction and thermodynamic model have been proposed. The physicochemical Kent–Eisenberg model was used to correlate all the experimental results of the solubility of CO 2 in the aqueous MDA solutions under investigation. The chemical equilibrium constants and model parameters were determined by fitting the VLE data

  1. Surface solitons in waveguide arrays: Analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Aristeidis; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2007-08-06

    A novel phase-space method is employed for the construction of analytical stationary solitary waves located at the interface between a periodic nonlinear lattice of the Kronig-Penney type and a linear or nonlinear homogeneous medium as well as at the interface between two dissimilar nonlinear lattices. The method provides physical insight and understanding of the shape of the solitary wave profile and results to generic classes of localized solutions having either zero or nonzero semi-infinite backgrounds. For all cases, the method provides conditions involving the values of the propagation constant of the stationary solutions, the linear refractive index and the dimensions of each part in order to assure existence of solutions with specific profile characteristics. The evolution of the analytical solutions under propagation is investigated for cases of realistic configurations and interesting features are presented such as their remarkable robustness which could facilitate their experimental observation.

  2. Surface properties of heat-induced soluble soy protein aggregates of different molecular masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengxian; Xiong, Youling L; Qin, Fang; Jian, Huajun; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Suspensions (2% and 5%, w/v) of soy protein isolate (SPI) were heated at 80, 90, or 100 °C for different time periods to produce soluble aggregates of different molecular sizes to investigate the relationship between particle size and surface properties (emulsions and foams). Soluble aggregates generated in these model systems were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heat treatment increased surface hydrophobicity, induced SPI aggregation via hydrophobic interaction and disulfide bonds, and formed soluble aggregates of different sizes. Heating of 5% SPI always promoted large-size aggregate (LA; >1000 kDa) formation irrespective of temperature, whereas the aggregate size distribution in 2% SPI was temperature dependent: the LA fraction progressively rose with temperature (80→90→100 °C), corresponding to the attenuation of medium-size aggregates (MA; 670 to 1000 kDa) initially abundant at 80 °C. Heated SPI with abundant LA (>50%) promoted foam stability. LA also exhibited excellent emulsifying activity and stabilized emulsions by promoting the formation of small oil droplets covered with a thick interfacial protein layer. However, despite a similar influence on emulsion stability, MA enhanced foaming capacity but were less capable of stabilizing emulsions than LA. The functionality variation between heated SPI samples is clearly related to the distribution of aggregates that differ in molecular size and surface activity. The findings may encourage further research to develop functional SPI aggregates for various commercial applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effect of enzymatic treatment of extracted sunflower proteins on solubility, amino acid composition, and surface activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, José Miñones; Escobar, María del Mar Yust; Pedroche Jiménez, Justo J; Rodríguez, Francisco Millán; Rodríguez Patino, Juan M

    2005-10-05

    Industrial proteins from agriculture of either animal or vegetable origin, including their peptide derivatives, are of great importance, from the qualitative and quantitative point of view, in food formulations (emulsions and foams). A fundamental understanding of the physical, chemical, and functional properties of these proteins is essential if the performance of proteins in foods is to be improved and if underutilized proteins, such as plant proteins (and their hydrolysates and peptides derivatives), are to be increasingly used in traditional and new processed food products (safe, high-quality, health foods with good nutritional value). In this contribution we have determined the main physicochemical characteristics (solubility, composition, and analysis of amino acids) of a sunflower protein isolate (SPI) and its hydrolysates with low (5.62%), medium (23.5%), and high (46.3%) degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic treatment with Alcalase 2.4 L for DH 5.62 and 23.5% and with Alcalase 2.4 L and Flavorzyme 1000 MG sequentially for DH 46.3%. The protein concentration dependence on surface pressure (surface pressure isotherm), a measure of the surface activity of the products (SPI and its hydrolysates), was obtained by tensiometry. We have observed that the degree of hydrolysis has an effect on solubility, composition, and content of the amino acids of the SPI and its hydrolysates. The superficial activity and the adsorption efficiency were also affected by the degree of hydrolysis.

  4. Conformations and molecular interactions of poly-γ-glutamic acid as a soluble microbial product in aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Jian-Tao; Wang, Long-Fei; Wu, Sha; Zhang, Guang-zhao; Yu, Han-Qing; Ye, Xiao-dong; Shi, Qing-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) are of significant concern in the natural environment and in engineered systems. In this work, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), which is predominantly produced by Bacillus sp., was investigated in terms of pH-induced conformational changes and molecular interactions in aqueous solutions; accordingly, its sedimentation coefficient distribution and viscosity were also elucidated. Experimental results indicate that pH has a significant impact on the structure and m...

  5. Synthesis and spectral properties of axially substituted zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) water soluble phthalocyanines in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasymchuk, Y.S.; Volkov, S.V.; Chernii, V.Ya.; Tomachynski, L.A.; Radzki, St.

    2004-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of novel water soluble axially substituted Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines with gallic, 5-sulfosalicyllic, oxalic acids, and methyl ester of gallic acid as axial ligands coordinated to the central atom metal of phthalocyanine are presented. The absorption spectra of complex solutions in various solvents were characterized. The dependence of the spectral red shift from Reichardt's empirical polarity parameter is described. The deviation from the linearity of Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law was investigated for the range of concentration 5x10 -6 to 10x10 -5 M. Fluorescent properties of axially substituted phthalocyaninato metal complexes in DMSO solutions were investigated

  6. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  7. The solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, P. J. G.; Agrawal, N. J.; Solbraa, E.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the electrolyte equation of state as proposed by Solbraa [E. Solbraa, Equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of natural gas processing, Ph.D. thesis Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2002] was systematically studied and improved to describe the solubility of

  8. Lyophilization monophase solution technique for improvement of the solubility and dissolution of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, M; Kulkarni, P K

    2012-01-01

    Piroxicam (PX), an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of PX by freeze drying technique using dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water as co-solvent system. The prepared crystals containing PX were evaluated for DMF and chloroform solvent residual by gas chromatography and solubility and in vitro dissolution. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter; X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the freeze dried crystals was compared with its recrystallized and pure samples. The samples were stored in stability chamber to investigate their physical stability. Solvent residual of DMF and chloroform was found to be within the toxic level. Freeze dried crystals exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the PX crystals were significantly improved compared to its recrystallized and pure samples. In stability test, the release profile of the freeze dried crystals was almost unchanged as compared with the freshly prepared freeze dried crystals stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for 90 days. Hence, this technique can be used for formulation of PX tablets by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients.

  9. Solid dispersions in oncology: a solution to solubility-limited oral drug absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawicki, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the formulation method solid dispersion and how it works to resolve solubility-limited absorption of orally dosed anticancer drugs. Dissolution in water is essential for drug absorption because only dissolved drug molecules are absorbed. The problem is that half of the arsenal

  10. Simple multipurpose apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2016-01-01

    students of chemical engineering program at University of Southern Denmark. The exercises included solubility measurement and cooling crystallization of salicylic acid from five different organic solvents and extraction of artemisinin from the leaves of the plant Artemisia annua by using different solvents...

  11. Determination and correlation of solubility and solution thermodynamics of oxiracetam in three (alcohol + water) binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kangli; Du, Shichao; Wu, Songgu; Cai, Dongchen; Wang, Jinxu; Zhang, Dejiang; Zhao, Kaifei; Yang, Peng; Yu, Bo; Guo, Baisong; Li, Daixi; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of racemic oxiracetam in three binary solvents were determined. • The experimental solubility of racemic oxiracetam were correlated by four models. • The dissolution thermodynamic properties of racemic oxiracetam were calculated. - Abstract: In this paper, we proposed a static analysis method to experimentally determine the (solid + liquid) equilibrium of racemic oxiracetam in (methanol + water), (ethanol + water) and (isopropanol + water) binary solvents with alcohol mole fraction ranging from 0.30 to 0.90 at atmosphere pressure (p = 0.1 MPa). For the experiments, the temperatures range from (283.15 to 308.15) K. The results showed that the solubility of oxiracetam increased with the increasing temperature, while decreased with the increasing organic solvent fraction in all three tested binary solvent systems. The modified Apelblat model, the CNIBS/Redlich–Kister model, the combined version of Jouyban–Acree model and the NRTL model were employed to correlate the measured solubility values, respectively. Additionally, some of the thermodynamic properties which can help to evaluate its dissolution behavior were obtained based on the NRTL model.

  12. Measurement and modelling of urea solubility in aqueous propane-1,2,3-triol and prop-2-enoic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jéssica dos J; Rocha, João A.A.B.; Costa, Glória M.N.; Cabral-Albuquerque, Elaine C.M.; Alves, Tito L.M.; Pinto, José C.; Fialho, Rosana L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities were shown to increase with temperature and to decrease with the increasing organic solvent content. • The UNIFAC method provided good fitting of the available data, after the estimation of a single model parameter. • The empirical method showed to be more efficient to describe several solution concentrations however, it is not predictive. - Abstract: The aim of the present study is to measure the solubility of urea in aqueous solutions of prop-2-enoic acid and propane-1,2,3-triol, as these compounds are used as co-monomers to produce urea base co-polymers. Experimental values have been obtained at several concentrations and temperatures. Solubility results were modelled with the help of an exponential empirical correlation, ideal solid-liquid equilibrium correlation and the Universal Functional Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) method, used to describe the activity coefficient in the liquid phase. The empirical correlation requires two empirical parameters for each solvent and leads to the best fit for the available data. The UNIFAC method correlation also has a good numerical performance and is completely predictive, and it does not require the estimation of additional parameters.

  13. Highly water soluble nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Heeman; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sungchan; Seo, Bumkyoung; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we introduced highly water-soluble hyperbranched caroboxylated polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CPG-MNPs). It is known that the highly branched, globular architecture of PG significantly increase solubility compared to linear polymer and they are eco-friendly. The CPG-MNPs showed no aggregate of particles in water even after placing external magnet, and exhibited a high water flux in FO process. The CPG-MNPs are, therefore, potentially useful as a draw solute in FO processes. The operation of nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWRs) results in numerous radioactive waste streams which vary in radioactivity content. Most PWR stations have experienced leakages of boric acid into liquid radioactive waste systems. These wastes contain about 0.3∼0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40∼90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. Forward osmosis (FO), a low energy technique based on membrane technologies, has recently garnered attention for its utility in wastewater treatment and desalination applications. In the FO process, water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution with a low osmotic pressure (the feed solution) to a solution with a high osmotic pressure (the draw solution). The driving force in FO processes is provided by the osmotic gradient between the two solutions. Low energy costs and low degrees of membrane fouling are two of the advantages conveyed by FO processes over other processes, such as reverse osmosis processes that rely on a hydraulic pressure driving force. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field

  14. Highly water soluble nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Heeman; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sungchan; Seo, Bumkyoung; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    . In this study, we introduced highly water-soluble hyperbranched caroboxylated polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CPG-MNPs). It is known that the highly branched, globular architecture of PG significantly increase solubility compared to linear polymer and they are eco-friendly. The CPG-MNPs showed no aggregate of particles in water even after placing external magnet, and exhibited a high water flux in FO process. The CPG-MNPs are, therefore, potentially useful as a draw solute in FO processes. The operation of nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWRs) results in numerous radioactive waste streams which vary in radioactivity content. Most PWR stations have experienced leakages of boric acid into liquid radioactive waste systems. These wastes contain about 0.3∼0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40∼90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. Forward osmosis (FO), a low energy technique based on membrane technologies, has recently garnered attention for its utility in wastewater treatment and desalination applications. In the FO process, water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution with a low osmotic pressure (the feed solution) to a solution with a high osmotic pressure (the draw solution). The driving force in FO processes is provided by the osmotic gradient between the two solutions. Low energy costs and low degrees of membrane fouling are two of the advantages conveyed by FO processes over other processes, such as reverse osmosis processes that rely on a hydraulic pressure driving force. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field

  15. Solubility and speciation of actinides in salt solutions and migration experiments of intermediate level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study into the solubility of the actinides americium and plutonium in concentrated salt solutions, the release of radionuclides from various forms of conditioned ILW and the migration behaviour of these nuclides through geological material specific to the Gorleben site in Lower Saxony is described. A detailed investigation into the characterization of four highly concentrated salt solutions in terms of their pH, Eh, inorganic carbon contents and their densities is given and a series of experiments investigating the solubility of standard americium(III) and plutonium(IV) hydroxides in these solutions is described. Transuranic mobility studies for solutions derived from the standard hydroxides through salt and sand have shown the presence of at least two types of species present of widely differing mobility; one migrating with approximately the same velocity as the solvent front and the other strongly retarded. Actinide mobility data are presented and discussed for leachates derived from the simulated ILW in cement and data are also presented for the migration of the fission products in leachates derived from real waste solidified in cement and bitumen. Relatively high plutonium mobilities were observed in the case of the former and in the case of the real waste leachates, cesium was found to be the least retarded. The sorption of ruthenium was found to be largely associated with the insoluble residues of the natural rock salt rather than the halite itself. (orig./RB)

  16. SOLUBILITIES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS IN THE COPPER SULFATE + SULFURIC ACID + SEAWATER SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Justel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different temperatures (293.15 to 318.15 K, and its effect on physical properties (density, viscosity, and solubility. Knowledge of these properties and solubility data are useful in the leaching process and in the design of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystallization plants from the leaching process using seawater by means of the addition of sulfuric acid.

  17. Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.

  18. Novel surface-modified nanostructured lipid carriers with partially deacetylated water-soluble chitosan for efficient ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baocheng; Luo, Qiuhua; Song, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dandan; Pan, Hao; Zhang, Wenji; He, Ling; Ma, Shilin; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to propose novel surface-modified nanostructured lipid carriers with partially deacetylated water-soluble chitosan (NLC-PDSC) as an efficient ocular delivery system to improve its transcorneal penetration and precorneal retention. PDSC with a deacetylation degree of around 50% was synthesized using an improved method. NLC loaded with flurbiprofen (FB) were prepared by melt emulsification method. They presented spherical morphology under both transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. After coating with 0.15% (w/v) PDSC solution, the NLC showed a core-shell structure and a reversed zeta potential. The enhanced transcorneal penetration of the coated NLC was evaluated using isolated rabbit corneas, with significantly increased apparent permeability coefficient being 1.40- and 1.75-fold of the NLC and FB phosphate solution (FB-sol; p < 0.05), respectively. Precorneal retention assessed by gamma scintigraphy in vivo showed that the area under the remaining activity-time curve of the PDSC-coated formulation was 1.3-fold of the NLC and 2.4-fold of FB-sol. Moreover, in vivo ocular tolerance study indicated that there was no difference in irritation between the coated and noncoated NLC. In conclusion, novel NLC demonstrate high potential for ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chemistry of Secondary Metabolites (Production, Properties, Biological Activity, etc.: Solubility Study of the Interaction between Pamam G-3 Dendrimer and 5 Fluorouracil in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. PALECZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(amidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM are polymeric macromolecules that can find their use as carriers of small ligand molecules such as cosmetics and drugs. 5- Fluorouracil is a potent oncological drug, whose usage is limited because of its relatively high toxicity.The surface and internal layer groups in PAMAM dendrimer belonging to the third (G3 generation create an open-type structure, which facilitate small ligand molecules to bind with them.The formation equilibrium of PAMAM G3 dendrimer complex with an oncologic drug such as 5 fluorouracil (FU in water at room temperature was examined. Using the results of the drug solubility in dendrimer solutions, the maximal number of drug molecules in the dendrimer-drug complex was evaluated. Solubility results show that PAMAM G3 dendrimer can transfer tens 5 fluorouracil molecules in aqueous solution.This research work was funded from the Polish budget appropriations for science in the years 2013-2015, project number IP2012 022372.

  20. Soluble and immobilized graphene oxide activates complement system differently dependent on surface oxidation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Peter Popp; Petersen, Søren Vermehren; Bovet, Nicolas Emile

    2016-01-01

    on two related elements of innate immunity: the complement system and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in human blood. In solution, there was a decrease in GO-mediated complement activation with decreasing surface oxygen content (and altered oxygen functionality), whereas with immobilized GO complement...... response were reversed and increased with decreasing oxygen content. GO solutions, at concentrations below complement activating threshold, did not induce IL-6 release from human blood leukocytes, and further dampened lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 release in the whole blood. The latter effect became more...... profound with GO's having higher oxygen content. This protective role of GO solutions, however, disappeared at higher concentrations above complement-activating threshold. We discuss these results in relation to GO surface structure and properties, and implications for local administration and development...

  1. Solubility of Gliclazide and Ion-Molecular Interactions with Aminopropanol in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Imad I.; El-Sabawi, Dina; Abu-Dahab, Rana

    2018-01-01

    A new salt of gliclazide (GZD) was prepared and was shown to have a significantly higher aqueous solubility at physiological pH together with superior dissolution profiles in comparison to GZD employing an organic amino-alcohol base. Characterization by NMR, IR, DSC, conductometry and HPLC techniques concluded that an ion pair salt is formed between acidic GZD and basic aminopropanol (AMP). In addition to the presence of about 5% tightly bound water, hydrogen bonds appeared to form extensively between GZD, AMP and water molecules. Unlike many of solubility enhancing approaches, the salt did not hamper the permeability of GZD as shown by transport through Caco-2 cells model. In vivo studies on rats confirmed that the blood glucose lowering effect of GZD-AMP was significantly higher and more rapid compared to parent GZD indicating an enhanced overall performance of the prepared salt.

  2. Chemical milling solution produces smooth surface finish on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, H. C.

    1966-01-01

    Elementary sulfur mixed into a solution of caustic soda and salts produces an etchant which will chemically mill end-grain surfaces on aluminum plate. This composition results in the least amount of thickness variation and pitting.

  3. Solution Properties of Water-Soluble “Smart” Poly(N-acryloyl-N′-ethyl piperazine-co-methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roshan Deen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble copolymers of N-acryloyl-N′-ethylpiperazine (AcrNEP with methyl methacrylate (MMA were synthesized to high conversion by free-radical solution polymerization. The composition of the copolymers was determined using Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR. Copolymers containing AcrNEP content above 44 mol% were readily soluble in water and exhibited the critical solution temperature behavior. The copolymers were strongly responsive to changes in pH of the external medium due to the presence of tertiary amine functions that could be protonated at low pH. The influence of various factors such as copolymer composition, pH, temperature, salt and surfactant concentration on the LCST of the copolymers were systematically studied. The intrinsic viscosity of the copolymers in dimethyl formamide decreased with increase in temperature due to a decrease in thermodynamic affinity between polymer chains and solvent molecules. The viscosity behavior of the copolymers in sodium chloride solution was similar to that of classical polyelectrolytes and hydrophobically modified polyacrylate systems.

  4. Luminescent, water-soluble silicon quantum dots via micro-plasma surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jeslin J; Siva Santosh Kumar Kondeti, Vighneswara; Bruggeman, Peter J; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2016-01-01

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs), with their broad absorption, narrow and size-tunable emission, and potential biocompatibility are highly attractive materials in biological imaging applications. The inherent hydrophobicity and instability of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs are obstacles to their widespread implementation. In this work, we successfully produced highly luminescent, hydrophilic SiQDs with long-term stability in water using non-thermal plasma techniques. Hydrogen-terminated SiQDs were produced in a low-pressure plasma and subsequently treated in water using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for surface modification. Preliminary assessments of the chemical mechanism(s) involved in the creation of water-soluble SiQDs were performed using Fenton’s reaction and various plasma chemistries, suggesting both OH and O species play a key role in the oxidation of the SiQDs. (letter)

  5. Influence of biopolymers on the solubility of branched-chain amino acids and stability of their solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi Rac; Lee, Gyu Whan; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Choi, Seung Jun

    2018-01-15

    This study confirmed the possibility of biopolymer-type stabilizers to increase the saturation concentration of branched-chain amino acids by preventing their crystallization/precipitation. Although microfluidization increased the initial solubility, it failed to increase the saturation concentration of the branched-chain amino acids. The saturation concentration of the branched-chain amino acids increased from 3.81% to 4.42% and 4.85% after the incorporation of food hydrocolloids and proteins, respectively. However, the branched-chain amino acids:stabilizer ratio did not affect the solubility. In the case of food hydrocolloid-based solutions, crystal formation and growth of branched-chain amino acids occurred during storage, resulting in the precipitation of branched-chain amino acid crystals. However, food proteins effectively increased the stability of the solubilized branched-chain amino acids. The improved solubility and stability of the solubilized branched-chain amino acids could be attributed to interactions between the functional groups (carboxyl, amine, sulfate, aliphatic, aromatic, etc.) of the stabilizer and the branched-chain amino acid molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic surface properties of poly(methylalkyldiallylammonium chloride) solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novikova, A. A.; Vlasov, P. S.; Lin, S.-Y.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Noskov, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, November (2017), s. 122-127 ISSN 1876-1070 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solutions * dynamic surface tension * dilational surface rheology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  7. Ionic enhancement of silica surface nanowear in electrolyte solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-11-20

    The nanoscale wear and friction of silica and silicon nitride surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated by using sharp atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tips coated with silicon nitride. Measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions of varying pH and in monovalent and divalent cation chloride and nitrate solutions. The silica surface was shown to wear strongly in solutions of high pH (≈11.0), as expected, but the presence of simple cations, such as Cs+ and Ca2+, was shown to dramatically effect the wear depth and friction force for the silica surface. In the case of monovalent cations, their hydration enthalpies correlated well with the wear and friction. The weakest hydrated cation of Cs+ showed the most significant enhancement of wear and friction. In the case of divalent cations, a complex dependence on the type of cation was found, where the type of anion was also seen to play an important role. The CaCl2 solution showed the anomalous enhancement of wear depth and friction force, although the solution of Ca(NO3)2 did not. The present results obtained with an AFM tip were also compared with previous nanotribology studies of silica surfaces in electrolyte solutions, and possible molecular mechanisms as to why cations enhance the wear and friction were also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Ionic enhancement of silica surface nanowear in electrolyte solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Teramoto, Naofumi; McNamee, Cathy E.; Marston, Jeremy; Higashitani, Ko

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale wear and friction of silica and silicon nitride surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated by using sharp atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tips coated with silicon nitride. Measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions of varying pH and in monovalent and divalent cation chloride and nitrate solutions. The silica surface was shown to wear strongly in solutions of high pH (≈11.0), as expected, but the presence of simple cations, such as Cs+ and Ca2+, was shown to dramatically effect the wear depth and friction force for the silica surface. In the case of monovalent cations, their hydration enthalpies correlated well with the wear and friction. The weakest hydrated cation of Cs+ showed the most significant enhancement of wear and friction. In the case of divalent cations, a complex dependence on the type of cation was found, where the type of anion was also seen to play an important role. The CaCl2 solution showed the anomalous enhancement of wear depth and friction force, although the solution of Ca(NO3)2 did not. The present results obtained with an AFM tip were also compared with previous nanotribology studies of silica surfaces in electrolyte solutions, and possible molecular mechanisms as to why cations enhance the wear and friction were also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Equilibrium solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions of 1-amino-2-propanol as function of concentration, temperature, and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolledo-Morales, Miguel Angel; Rebolledo-Libreros, Maria Esther [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion de Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion de Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Gas solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions of 1-amino-2-propanol was measured. Solubility increases as pressure and concentration of 1-amino-2-propanol increase. The Kent-Eisenberg model was used to correlate all the experimental results. Aqueous solutions of MIPA are an excellent alternative to use in gas purification. - Abstract: Using a dynamic method with recirculation of the vapour phase, experimental values for the gas solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of 1-amino-2-propanol (MIPA) were measured at T = (313.15 and 393.15) K, over the pressure range of (0.2 to 2436.4) kPa. The concentrations of the studied aqueous MIPA solutions were (0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50) mass fraction. The results of gas solubility are given as the partial pressure of CO{sub 2}, p{sub CO{sub 2}}, against its mole ratio, {alpha}{sub CO{sub 2}} (mol CO{sub 2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} MIPA), and its mole fraction, x{sub CO{sub 2}}. It is observed that the solubility of CO{sub 2} increases as the concentration of MIPA in solution increases, at a given temperature throughout the pressure range considered; also the solubility values increase, under constant temperature, as the pressure increases in the studied concentration range of MIPA. The physicochemical model of Kent and Eisenberg was used to correlate simultaneously all the experimental results of the solubility of CO{sub 2} in the studied aqueous solutions of MIPA. The model correlates satisfactorily the experimental results. The deviation for pressure was 96.9 kPa using 62 experimental solubility points. The solubility results of carbon dioxide presented in this work are compared with those reported in the literature for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and it is possible to conclude that the aqueous solutions of MIPA are an excellent alternative to use in gas purification processes, since the

  10. Forced Spreading of Aqueous Solutions on Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Surfaces for Rapid Evaporation and Solute Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Singh, Vickramjeet; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    Solute separation of aqueous mixtures is mainly dominated by water vaporization. The evaporation rate of an aqueous drop grows with increasing the liquid-gas interfacial area. The spontaneous spreading behavior of a water droplet on a total wetting surface provides huge liquid-gas interfacial area per unit volume; however, it is halted by the self-pinning phenomenon upon addition of nonvolatile solutes. In this work, it is shown that the solute-induced self-pinning can be overcome by gravity, leading to anisotropic spreading much faster than isotropic spreading. The evaporation rate of anisotropic spreading on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine surface is 25 times larger as that on a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface. Dramatic enhancement of evaporation is demonstrated by simultaneous formation of fog atop liquid film. During anisotropic spreading, the solutes are quickly precipitated out within 30 s, showing the rapid solute-water separation. After repeated spreading process for the dye-containing solution, the mean concentration of the collection is doubled, revealing the concentration efficiency as high as 100%. Gravity-enhanced spreading on total wetting surfaces at room temperature is easy to scale-up with less energy consumption, and thus it has great potentials for the applications of solute separation and concentration.

  11. Microbes and associated soluble and volatile chemicals on periodically wet household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Misztal, Pawel K; De Cassia Pessotti, Rita; Behie, Scott W; Tian, Yilin; Goldstein, Allen H; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Taylor, John W; Traxler, Matt F; Bruns, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower. Microbial communities were studied using culture-dependent and independent techniques, including targeting RNA for amplicon sequencing. Volatile and soluble chemicals from paired samples were analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques to explore the links between the observed microbiota and chemical exudates. Microbial analysis revealed a rich biological presence on the surfaces exposed in kitchen sinks and bathroom shower stalls. Microbial composition, matched for DNA and RNA targets, varied by surface type and sampling period. Bacteria were found to have an average of 25× more gene copies than fungi. Biomass estimates based on qPCR were well correlated with measured total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Abundant VOCs included products associated with fatty acid production. Molecular networking revealed a diversity of surface-borne compounds that likely originate from microbes and from household products. Microbes played a role in structuring the chemical profiles on and emitted from kitchen sinks and shower stalls. Microbial VOCs (mVOCs) were predominately associated with the processing of fatty acids. The mVOC composition may be more stable than that of microbial communities, which can show temporal and spatial variation in their responses to changing environmental conditions. The mVOC output from microbial metabolism on kitchen sinks and bathroom showers should be apparent through careful

  12. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.; Eperon, G. E.; Snaith, H. J.; Chapman, S. J.; Goriely, A.

    2014-01-01

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  14. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  15. Study of Bovine Serum Albumin Solubility in Aqueous Solutions by Intrinsic Viscosity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto Masuelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA in water is scarcely studied, and the thermodynamic properties arising from the experimental measurements have not been reported. Intrinsic viscosity measurements are very useful in assessing the interaction between the solute and solvent. This work discussed in a simple determination of the enthalpy of BSA in aqueous solution when the concentration ranges from 0.2 to 36.71% wt. and the temperature from 35 to 40°C. The relationship between the concentration and intrinsic viscosity is determined according to the method of Huggins. The temperature increase reduces the ratio between inherent viscosity and concentration (ηi/c. This is reflected in the Van't Hoff curve. Furthermore, this work proposes hydrodynamic cohesion value as an indicator of the degree of affinity of protein with water and thermodynamic implications in conformational changes.

  16. Implementation of equilibrium aqueous speciation and solubility (EQ3 type) calculations into Cantera for electrolyte solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2009-06-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level capability for modeling brine thermodynamic properties using the open-source code Cantera. This implementation into Cantera allows for the application of chemical thermodynamics to describe the interactions between a solid and an electrolyte solution at chemical equilibrium. The formulations to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes are based on Pitzer's model to calculate molality-based activity coefficients using a real equation-of-state (EoS) for water. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of solutes at elevated temperature and pressures are computed using the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) EoS for ionic and neutral aqueous species. The thermodynamic data parameters for the Pitzer formulation and HKF EoS are from the thermodynamic database compilation developed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) used with the computer code EQ3/6. We describe the adopted equations and their implementation within Cantera and also provide several validated examples relevant to the calculations of extensive properties of electrolyte solutions.

  17. Refractive index and solubility control of para-cymene solutions for index-matched fluid-structure interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-12-01

    To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of para-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility control of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.

  18. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles and their conjuntion with water soluble polymers for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Huong; Lam Thi Kieu Giang; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Quoc Minh

    2009-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with suitable bio-compatible substances have been used in biomedicine, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue engineering, and hyperthermia and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the synthesis of SPION and its surface modification for in-vitro experiments. The particle diameter and structure were estimated by FESEM, TEM, XRD analyses. The saturation magnetization was characterized. SPION with a mean size of 12 nm have been prepared under N 2 atmosphere, with support of natural polymeric starch, by controlling chemical coprecipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts ratios of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . The surface of SPION-nanoparticles was treated with a coordinatable agent for higher dispersion ability in water and remaining the superparamagnetic behavior. The prepared iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with starch, dextran, PEG or MPEG to extend the application potential in the quite different engineering field of nano biomedicine.

  19. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  20. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  1. Approximate solutions of some problems of scattering of surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Choudhary

    Abstract. A class of mixed boundary value problems (bvps), occurring in the study of scattering of surface water waves by thin vertical rigid barriers placed in water of finite depth, is examined for their approximate solutions. Two different placings of vertical barriers are analyzed, namely, (i) a partially immersed barrier and.

  2. Ternary system of dihydroartemisinin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and lecithin: simultaneous enhancement of drug solubility and stability in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Haiyan; Gu, Jingkai; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Xueju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously improve the solubility and stability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in aqueous solutions by a ternary cyclodextrin system comprised of DHA, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and a third auxiliary substance. Solubility and phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing efficiency of HP-β-CD in association with various auxiliary substances. Then, the solid binary (DHA-HP-β-CD or DHA-lecithin) and ternary systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and power X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The effect of the ternary system on the solubility, dissolution and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions was also investigated. As a result, the soybean lecithin was found to be the most promising third component in terms of solubility enhancement. For the solid characterization, the disappearance of the drug crystallinity indicated the formation of new solid phases, implicating the formation of the ternary system. The dissolution rate of the solid ternary system was much faster than that of the drug alone and binary systems. Importantly, compared with binary systems, the ternary system showed a significant improvement in the stability of DHA in Hank's balanced salt solutions (pH 7.4). The solubility and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions were simultaneously enhanced by the ternary system, which might be attributed to the possible formation of a ternary complex. For the ternary interactions, results of molecular docking studies further indicated that the lecithin covered the top of the wide rim of HP-β-CD and surrounded around the peroxide bridging of DHA, providing the possibility for the ternary complex formation. In summary, the ternary system prepared in our study, with simultaneous enhancement of DHA solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, might have an important pharmaceutical potential in the development of a better

  3. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  4. Dilute and Semidilute Solutions of a Nonionic, Rigid, Water-soluble Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul; Huberty, Wayne; Zhang, Donghui; Water-Soluble Rodlike Polymer Team Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The solution physics of random polymer chains was established largely on the behavior of commercial polymers such as polystyrene for organic solvents or nonionic poly(ethyleneoxide) for aqueous solvents. Not only are these materials widely available for industrial use, they can be synthesized to be essentially monodisperse. When it comes to stiff polymers, good choices are few and less prone to be used in industrial applications. Much was learned from polypeptides such as poly(benzylglutamate) or poly(stearylglutamate) in polar organic solvents and nonpolar organic solvents, respectively, but aqueous systems generally require charge. Poly(Nɛ-2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]acetyl-L-Lysine) a.k.a. PEGL was pioneered by Deming and coworkers. In principle, PEGL provides a convenient platform from which to study stiff polymer behavior--phase relations, dynamics, liquid crystal formation and gelation--all with good molecular weight control and uniformity and without electrical charge. Still, a large gap in knowledge exists between PEGL and traditional rodlike polymer systems. To narrow this gap, dynamic and static scattering, circular dichroism, and viscosity measurements have been made in dilute and semidilute solutions as necessary preliminaries for lyotropic liquid crystalline and gel phases. Supported by NSF DMR 1306262. Department of Chemistry and Macromolecular Studies Group. Current address: Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering.

  5. Fouling of roughened stainless steel surfaces during convective heat transfer to aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, A.; Malayeri, M.R.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of heat transfer performance due to fouling is the prime cause for higher energy consumption and inefficiency in many industrial heat exchangers such as those in power plants, refineries, food and dairy industries. Fouling is also a very complex process in which many geometrical, physical and operating parameters are involved with poorly understood interaction. Among them, the surface roughness is an important surface characteristic that would greatly influence crystallisation fouling mechanisms and hence deposition morphology and stickability to the surface. In this work, the effect of the surface roughness of AISI 304 BA stainless steel surfaces on fouling of an aqueous solution with inverse solubility behaviour has been investigated under convective heat transfer. Several experiments have been performed on roughened surfaces ranging from 0.18 to 1.55 μm for different bulk concentrations and heat fluxes. The EDTA titration method was used to measure the concentration of the calcium sulphate salt in order to maintain it at constant value during each fouling run. Experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of very rough surfaces (1.55 μm) decreases more rapidly than that of 0.54 μm. Several facts contribute to this behaviour notably (1) increased of primary heterogeneous nucleation rate on the surfaces; (2) reduction of local shear stress in the valleys and (3) reduced removal rate of the crystals from the surfaces where the roughness elements protrude out of the viscous sub-layer. The results also show linear and proportional variation of the fouling rate and heat flux within the range of operating conditions. In addition, the deposition process in terms of fouling rate could only be affected at lower surface contact angles. Such results would particularly be of interest for new surface treatment technologies which aim at altering the surface texture

  6. Adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole on copper surface from phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, L.P.; Selyaninov, I.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.I.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electrochemical and XPS results has shown that adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) on copper electrodes in neutral phosphate solutions proceeds through the formation of the chemical bonds by copper (I) cations with exo-sulfur and nitrogen atoms. A protection layer formed of Cu(I)MBT complex prevents precipitation of copper (II) phosphate on a copper surface. The thickness of the surface film consisting of a complex [Cu(I)MBT] n (having probably polymeric nature), where MBT acts as at least three-dentate ligand, increases depending on the exposure time, reaching 8-9 nm after immersing for 12 h in test solution. Even in a case of the preliminary formation of copper (II) phosphate on the copper electrode at the anodic potential addition of small amounts of MBT results in complete removal of copper (II) phosphate from the surface.

  7. Fully plastic solutions of semi-elliptical surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Kitajima, Yasumi; Ueda, Hiroyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element analyses of semi-elliptical surface cracks are performed under the fully plastic condition. The power-law hardening materials and the deformation theory of plasticity are assumed. Either the penalty function method or the Uzawa's algorithm is utilized to treat the incompressibility of plastic strains. The local and global J-integral values are obtained using a virtual crack extension technique for plates and cylinders with semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to uniform tensions. The fully plastic solutions for surface cracked plates are given in the form of polynominals with geometric parameters a/t, a/c and the strain hardening exponent (n). In addition, the effects of curvature on fully plastic solutions are discussed through the comparison between the results of plates and cylinders. (author)

  8. The effect of ochre applied to buffer zones on soluble phosphorus retention during combined surface and subsurface flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibiandehkordi, R.; Quinton, J.; Surridge, B.

    2012-12-01

    Despite invention of a wide range of mitigating measures, diffuse phosphorus (P) pollution from agricultural lands still remains a major threat to the water resources. Thus, reducing P inputs along with improving the effectiveness of current best management practices (BMPs) is necessary to avoid eutrophication. Buffer zones are considered to be among the BMPs to control diffuse P pollution. However, these features are less effective in controlling soluble P loss with a retention range of -71 to +95% which is generally governed by the process of infiltration. Moreover, the soil in buffer strip system can be saturated over a course of time thereby enriching surface and subsurface runoff with soluble P. The aim of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of ochre applied to buffer strips in reducing the loss of soluble P during coupled surface and subsurface flow conditions. Batch experiments showed a maximum P retention capacity of 17.2 g kg-1 for ochre collected from a mine water treatment plant in Capehouse, UK without any risk of P desorption or releasing trace elements to the environment. The preliminarily results of flume experiments confirms the suitability of ochre to be used as a soil amendment in conjunction with buffer strips for tackling soluble P loss.

  9. CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions containing Na+, Ca2+, Cl−, SO42− and HCO3-: The effects of electrostricted water and ion hydration thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Kimberly; Bennett, Philip C.; Wolfe, Will; Zhang, Tongwei; Romanak, Katherine D.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of CO 2 into deep subsurface brines for carbon sequestration is regarded as one of the few viable means of reducing the amount of CO 2 entering the atmosphere. Ions in solution partially control the amount of CO 2 that dissolves, but the mechanisms of the ion's influence are not clearly understood and thus CO 2 solubility is difficult to predict. In this study, CO 2 solubility was experimentally determined in water, NaCl, CaCl 2 , Na 2 SO 4, and NaHCO 3 solutions and a mixed brine similar to the Bravo Dome natural CO 2 reservoir; ionic strengths ranged up to 3.4 molal, temperatures to 140 °C, and CO 2 pressures to 35.5 MPa. Increasing ionic strength decreased CO 2 solubility for all solutions when the salt type remained unchanged, but ionic strength was a poor predictor of CO 2 solubility in solutions with different salts. A new equation was developed to use ion hydration number to calculate the concentration of electrostricted water molecules in solution. Dissolved CO 2 was strongly correlated (R 2  = 0.96) to electrostricted water concentration. Strong correlations were also identified between CO 2 solubility and hydration enthalpy and hydration entropy. These linear correlation equations predicted CO 2 solubility within 1% of the Bravo Dome brine and within 10% of two mixed brines from literature (a 10 wt % NaCl + KCl + CaCl 2 brine and a natural Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl − type brine with minor amounts of Mg 2+ , K + , Sr 2+ and Br − ). - Highlights: • Measured CO 2 solubility in Na + , Cl − , HCO 3 - , Ca 2+ and SO 4 2− solutions at high PCO 2 . • A new equation calculates electrostricted water (mol/kgw) from hydration number. • CO 2 solubility strongly correlates (R 2  = 0.96) to electrostricted water. • Ion electrostriction of water limits its availability for CO 2 caging and solvation. • Correlations predict CO 2 solubility of several mixed brines to within 1–9%.

  10. Polymer diffusion in the interphase between surface and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Lukas; Weidmann, Monika; Ali, Wael; Hildebrandt, Marcus; Gutmann, Jochen Stefan; Hoffmann-Jacobsen, Kerstin

    2018-05-22

    Total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS) is applied to study the self-diffusion of polyethylene glycol solutions in the presence of weakly attractive interfaces. Glass coverslips modified with aminopropyl- and propyl-terminated silanes are used to study the influence of solid surfaces on polymer diffusion. A model of three phases of polymer diffusion allows to describe the experimental fluorescence autocorrelation functions. Besides the two-dimensional diffusion of adsorbed polymer on the substrate and three-dimensional free diffusion in bulk solution, a third diffusion time scale is observed with intermediate diffusion times. This retarded three-dimensional diffusion in solution is assigned to long range effects of solid surfaces on diffusional dynamics of polymers. The respective diffusion constants show Rouse scaling (D~N -1 ) indicating a screening of hydrodynamic interactions by the presence of the surface. Hence, the presented TIR-FCS method proves to be a valuable tool to investigate the effect of surfaces on polymer diffusion beyond the first adsorbed polymer layer on the 100 nm length scale.

  11. Stability analysis of a pressure-solution surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Doron; Nur, Amos; Aharonov, Einat

    We present a linear stability analysis of a dissolution surface subjected to non-hydrostatic stress. A sinusoidal perturbation is imposed on an initially flat solid/fluid interface, and the consequent changes in elastic strain energy and surface energy are calculated. Our results demonstrate that if the far-field lateral stresses are either greater, or much smaller than the fluid pressure, the perturbed configuration has a lower strain energy than the initial one. For wavelengths greater than a critical wavelength this energy decrease may be large enough to offset the increased surface energy. Under these conditions, the perturbation grows unstably. If these conditions are not met, the surface becomes flat. The growth rate and wavelength of the maximally unstable mode depend on the mechanism of matter transport. We conclude that the instability discussed in this paper may account for the formation of stylolites and other pressure-solution phenomena, such as roughening of grain contacts.

  12. Role of Molecular Interactions for Synergistic Precipitation Inhibition of Poorly Soluble Drug in Supersaturated Drug-Polymer-Polymer Ternary Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dev; Chauhan, Harsh; Atef, Eman

    2016-03-07

    We are reporting a synergistic effect of combined Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 in precipitation inhibition of indomethacin (IND) in solutions at low polymer concentration, a phenomenon that has significant implications on the usefulness of developing novel ternary solid dispersion of poorly soluble drugs. The IND supersaturation was created by cosolvent technique, and the precipitation studies were performed in the absence and the presence of individual and combined PVP K90 and Eudragit E100. The studies were also done with PEG 8000 as a noninteracting control polymer. A continuous UV recording of the IND absorption was used to observe changes in the drug concentration over time. The polymorphic form and morphology of precipitated IND were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The change in the chemical shift in solution (1)H NMR was used as novel approach to probe IND-polymer interactions. Molecular modeling was used for calculating binding energy between IND-polymer as another indication of IND-polymer interaction. Spontaneous IND precipitation was observed in the absence of polymers. Eudragit E100 showed significant inhibitory effect on nuclei formation due to stronger interaction as reflected in higher binding energy and greater change in chemical shift by NMR. PVP K90 led to significant crystal growth inhibition due to adsorption on growing IND crystals as confirmed by modified crystal habit of precipitate in the presence of PVP K90. Combination of polymers resulted in a synergistic precipitation inhibition and extended supersaturation. The NMR confirmed interaction between IND-Eudragit E100 and IND-PVP K90 in solution. The combination of polymers showed similar peak shift albeit using lower polymer concentration indicating stronger interactions. The results established the significant synergistic precipitation inhibition effect upon combining Eudragit E100 and PVP K90 due to drug-polymer interaction.

  13. Mechanistic studies of the oxidation of soluble species of ruthenium in nitric acid solutions. Application to the removal of ruthenium from nuclear fuel dissolution solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, V.

    2001-01-01

    Ruthenium is one of the most troublesome fission products during nuclear fuel reprocessing. His removal from nitric acid fuel dissolution solutions, above the PUREX process, is under consideration. Electro-volatilization could be a possible way to eliminate this element. It consists in the oxidation of soluble ruthenium species coupled with the volatilization of formed RuO 4 . Soluble species are nitrate and nitro complexes of nitrosyl ruthenium RuNO 3+ . The first part of this work deals with the direct oxidation of RuNO 3+ at a golden or a platinum anode. It has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and infrared and UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy. The oxidation of RuNO 3+ begins with an adsorption step, which precedes the formation of RuO 4 . Then a reaction between RuO 4 and RuNO 3+ occurs to produce a Ru IV compound, which is also electro-oxidized to RuO 4 . The second part concerns potentiostatic electro-volatilization experiences. The rate of electro-volatilization decreases with increasing HNO 3 concentration. At low concentrations, kinetic is controlled by the volatilization of RuO 4 . The rate-determining step is the oxidation of RuNO 3+ at concentrations higher than 1 M. In HNO 3 4 M, the addition of AgNO 3 is required to accelerate the oxidation of RuNO 3+ . The last part is devoted to the study of the indirect oxidation of RuNO 3+ . The electrocatalytic power of electro-generated Ag II is illustrated by voltammetric techniques and potentiostatic electrolysis. The existence of a limit concentration of AgNO 3 is shown (which value depends on experimental conditions) beyond which kinetic is controlled by the RuO 4 volatilization step. These results indicate that the electro-volatilization kinetic could be increased by optimizing the volatilization conditions. (author)

  14. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  15. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2016-01-01

    . The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution

  16. Solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate-bearing solutions at 0.7-3.0 GPa, 800° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignano, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Apatite is a major reservoir for the rare-earth elements (REE) in the earth's crust. However, little is known about its solubility in metamorphic fluids. We measured the solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate bearing fluids at 800° C and 1.0-2.0 GPa using a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl-graphite furnaces. A single Durango fluor-apatite crystal was loaded into a 1.6 mm OD Pt inner capsule, which was crimped and then placed in a 3.5 OD Pt outer capsule with ultra pure H2O and NaCl or powdered albite. Solubility was determined by the weight loss of the apatite grain after 24 hrs. In the H2O-NaCl experiments, total dissolved solids (TDS) were initially below detection (0.4 millimolal) between XNaCl= 0 and XNaCl= 0.025. At XNaCl= 0.035, solubility was 3.3(0.2) millimolal (errors are 1s), and it increased to 57.5(0.4) millimolal at XNaCl= 0.526. Our results show that there is an enhancement in apatite solubility with increasing pressure in pure H2O. Solubility is initially below detection at bearing solutions. This probably explains textures in which monazite mantles apatite, which are common in granulite metamorphic terranes, such as the Kiirunavaara magnetite-apatite ore.

  17. Solutal Marangoni flows of miscible liquids drive transport without surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Muller, Koen; Shardt, Orest; Afkhami, Shahriar; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-11-01

    Mixing and spreading of different liquids are omnipresent in nature, life and technology, such as oil pollution on the sea, estuaries, food processing, cosmetic and beverage industries, lab-on-a-chip devices, and polymer processing. However, the mixing and spreading mechanisms for miscible liquids remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that a fully soluble liquid drop deposited on a liquid surface remains as a static lens without immediately spreading and mixing, and simultaneously a Marangoni-driven convective flow is generated, which are counterintuitive results when two liquids have different surface tensions. To understand the dynamics, we develop a theoretical model to predict the finite spreading time and length scales, the Marangoni-driven convection flow speed, and the finite timescale to establish the quasi-steady state for the Marangoni flow. The fundamental understanding of this solutal Marangoni flow may enable driving bulk flows and constructing an effective drug delivery and surface cleaning approach without causing surface contamination by immiscible chemical species.

  18. Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Marco M C; Goff, H Douglas; Kisch, Julie A; Coulson, Alex; Wright, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum are underutilized dietary fibers of interest to the food industry. However, because the ability of soluble fibers to modulate postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism has been related to their viscous effects, the utility of these and other low-viscosity soluble fibers remains unproven. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum concentration, product viscosity, and the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in the context of glucose solutions as well as fluid and gelled dairy products. Twelve healthy males participated in a randomized crossover postprandial study in which they visited the laboratory following overnight fasts on 11 occasions to consume one of 11 study treatments, each consisting of 50 g available carbohydrates. The study treatments included a glucose reference (in duplicate), glucose solutions containing soy-soluble polysaccharides (6%), flaxseed gum (0.7%), or guar gum (0.23%), all matched for an apparent viscosity of 61 mPa·s at 50 s⁻¹, as well as dairy-based beverages and puddings with 0% or 1% soluble fiber added. Blood samples were collected at fasting and up to 2 hours postprandially for determination of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration, and time-to-peak values as well as glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) were calculated. Fiber fortification of a 50 g glucose solution had no effect on postprandial blood glucose or insulin levels, even at a high concentration (i.e., 6% soy-soluble polysaccharides). Glucose AUC and GI values for the dairy-based beverage (p glucose reference. Glucose AUC and GI values for the soy-soluble polysaccharide-fortified dairy products (p glucose reference. No significant differences were observed between the fiber-fortified fluid and gelled dairy-based study treatments and no significant differences were observed in terms of the

  19. An airport surface surveillance solution based on fusion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Xu, Yang; Liang, Xuelin; Yang, Yihuang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an airport surface surveillance solution combined with Multilateration (MLAT) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). The moving target to be monitored is regarded as a linear stochastic hybrid system moving freely and each surveillance technology is simplified as a sensor with white Gaussian noise. The dynamic model of target and the observation model of sensor are established in this paper. The measurements of sensors are filtered properly by estimators to get the estimation results for current time. Then, we analysis the characteristics of two fusion solutions proposed, and decide to use the scheme based on sensor estimation fusion for our surveillance solution. In the proposed fusion algorithm, according to the output of estimators, the estimation error is quantified, and the fusion weight of each sensor is calculated. The two estimation results are fused with weights, and the position estimation of target is computed accurately. Finally the proposed solution and algorithm are validated by an illustrative target tracking simulation.

  20. The influence of surface roughness and solution concentration on pool boiling process in Diethanolamine aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshechin, Mohsen; Salimi, Farhad; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    In this research, the effect of surface roughness and concentration of solution on bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density for pool boiling of water/diethanolamine (DEA) binary solution were investigated experimentally. In this investigation, boiling heat transfer coefficient, bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density have been experimentally investigated in various concentrations and heat fluxes. Microstructured surfaces with a wide range of well-defined surface roughness were fabricated, and a heat flux between 1.5-86 kW/m2 was achieved under atmospheric conditions. The Results indicated that surface roughness and concentration of solution increase the bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density with increasing heat flux. The boiling heat transfer coefficient in mixtures of water/DEA increases with increasing concentration of DEA in water. The experimental results were compared with predictions of several used correlations in the literatures. Results showed that the boiling heat transfer coefficients of this case study are much higher than the predicted values by major existing correlations and models. The excellent agreement for bubble departing frequency found between the models of Jackob and Fritz (1966) and experimental data and also the nucleation site density were in close agreement with the model of Paul (1983) data. f bubble departure frequency, 1/s or Hz N Number of nucleation sites per area per time R c Minimum cavity size, m D c critical diameter, m g gravitational acceleration, m/s2 ρ density, kg/m3 T temperature, °c ΔT temperature difference, °c d d vapor bubble diameter, m h fg enthalpy of vaporization, J/kg R Roughness, μm Ja Jakob number cp specific heat, J/kg °c Pr Prandtl number Ar Archimedes number h Heat transfer coefficient, J/(m2 °c) tg time it takes to grow a bubble, s q/A heat flux (kW/m2) tw time required to heat the layer, s gc Correction coefficient of incompatible units R a Surface

  1. Variation of solubility, biokinetics and dose coefficient of industrial uranium oxides according to the specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazel, V.; Houpert, P.; Ansorbolo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Paquet, F.

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro solubility, absorption to blood, lung retention and dose coefficient of industrial UO 2 samples were studied as a function of the specific surface area (SSA) of the particles. An in vitro study has been carried out on two samples of industrial UO 4 to compare the results with those obtained with UO 2 . Ten UO 2 samples supplied by different fuel factories or research laboratories, presented specific surface areas from 1.00 to 4.45 m 2 .g -1 . The wide range of values of SSA was due to the different conditions of fabrication. Dissolution tests in cell culture medium made on these ten samples have shown that the solubility increased 2.5-fold when the SSA increased 1.7-fold. The same tendency has been found for UO 4 , a soluble compound, and for U 3 O 8 , a moderately soluble compound. Four in vivo experiments carried out on rats by intratracheal instillation of dust suspensions of UO 2 , have highlighted the decrease in lung retention and the increase of absorption to blood with the SSA. The experimental absorption parameters calculated from the in vivo data allowed specific dose coefficients to be obtained which decreased from 6.6 to 4.3 μSv.Bq -1 when the SSA increased from 1.60 to 3.08 m 2 .g -1 . Thus, the medical monitoring of workers at the workplace has to take into account any change in the fabrication process of the uranium compound which can affect the physiochemical properties and consequently the dose coefficient. (author)

  2. Turbulent solutal convection and surface patterning in solid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    We describe experiments in which crystals of NaCl, KBr, and KCl are dissolved from below by aqueous solutions containing concentrations of the respective salts from zero concentration to near saturation. The solution near the solid-liquid interface is gravitationally unstable, producing turbulent hydrodynamic motion similar to thermal convection from a single surface cooled from above. The coupling of the fluid flow with the solid dissolution produces irregular patterns at the solid-liquid interface with a distribution of horizontal length scales. The dissolution mass flux and the pattern length scales are compared with a turbulent boundary layer model. Remarkable agreement is found, showing that the fluid motion controls both the dissolution rate and the interface patterning. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. The solubility of UO22+ in dilute sodium chloride solutions and in high-ionic strength sodium sulfate and chlorine brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, L.N.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Wruck, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium is a major component of high-level nuclear waste. In an oxidizing environment, UO 2 2+ would be expected to be the dominant dissolved species in solution. In addition to dilute solutions, because high-level nuclear waste may be stored in repositories containing salt, it is important to characterize the aqueous chemistry of UO 2 2+ and the solubility-controlling U(VI) solids in high-ionic strength brines as a function of pH. We have studied the solubility of UO 2 2+ by precipitation of solid phase in 0.001 molal NaCl, 5.2 molal NaCl, and saturated Na 2 SO 4 at pH values ranging from 5 to 12. The solution concentrations were measured by alpha particle liquid scintillation counting. The precipitated solids were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  4. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  5. Bee venom phospholipase A2 as a membrane-binding vector for cell surface display or internalization of soluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babon, Aurélie; Wurceldorf, Thibault; Almunia, Christine; Pichard, Sylvain; Chenal, Alexandre; Buhot, Cécile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Gillet, Daniel

    2016-06-15

    We showed that bee venom phospholipase A2 can be used as a membrane-binding vector to anchor to the surface of cells a soluble protein fused to its C-terminus. ZZ, a two-domain derivative of staphylococcal protein A capable of binding constant regions of antibodies was fused to the C-terminus of the phospholipase or to a mutant devoid of enzymatic activity. The fusion proteins bound to the surface of cells and could themselves bind IgGs. Their fate depended on the cell type to which they bound. On the A431 carcinoma cell line the proteins remained exposed on the cell surface. In contrast, on human dendritic cells the proteins were internalized into early endosomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine at high pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Thomsen, Kaj; Solbraa, Even

    2015-01-01

    A static-analytic method was used to measure the H2S solubility in 50 wt% MDEA and in presence of methane as a makeup gas. The solubility was measured at 7000 kPa total pressure, and at 50 and 70 degrees C, for H2S partial pressures from 31 to 974 kPa. Measurements were also performed at 1500 k...

  7. Simultaneous solution of the geoid and the surface density anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Safari, A.; Karimi, R.; AllahTavakoli, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The main application of the land gravity data in geodesy is "local geoid" or "local gravity field" modeling, whereas the same data could play a vital role for the anomalous mass-density modeling in geophysical explorations. In the realm of local geoid computations based on Geodetic Boundary Value Problems (GBVP), it is needed that the effect of the topographic (or residual terrain) masses be removed via application of the Newton integral in order to perform the downward continuation in a harmonic space. However, harmonization of the downward continuation domain may not be perfectly possible unless accurate information about the mass-density of the topographic masses be available. On the other hand, from the exploration point of view the unwanted topographical masses within the aforementioned procedure could be regarded as the signal. In order to overcome the effect of the remaining masses within the remove step of the GBVP, which cause uncertainties in mathematical modeling of the problem, here we are proposing a methodology for simultaneous solution of the geoid and residual surface density modeling In other words, a new mathematical model will be offered which both provides the needed harmonic space for downward continuation and at the same time accounts for the non-harmonic terms of gravitational field and makes use of it for residual mass density modeling within the topographic region. The presented new model enjoys from uniqueness of the solution, opposite to the inverse application of the Newton integral for mass density modeling which is non-unique, and only needs regularization to remove its instability problem. In this way, the solution of the model provides both the incremental harmonic gravitational potential on surface of the reference ellipsoid as the gravity field model and the lateral surface mass-density variations via the second derivatives of the non harmonic terms of gravitational field. As the case study and accuracy verification, the proposed

  8. Solubility of NaNd(CO3)2.6H2O(c) in concentrated Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, L.; Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Fulton, R.W.; Novak, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) was identified to be the final equilibrium solid phase in suspensions containing concentrated sodium carbonate (0.1 to 2.0 M) and sodium bicarbonate (0.1 to 1.0 M), with either NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) or Nd 2 (CO 3 ) 3 x xH 2 O(s) as initial solids. A thermodynamic model, based on Pitzer's specific into-interaction approach, was developed to interpret the solubility of NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) as functions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate concentrations. In this model, the solubility data of NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) were explained by assuming the formation of NdCO 3 + , Nd(CO 3 ) 2 - and Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- species and invoking the specific ion interactions between Na + and Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- . Ion interaction parameters for Na + -Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- were developed to fit the solubility data. Based on the model calculations, Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- was the predominant aqueous neodymium species in 0.1 to 2 M sodium carbonate and 0.1 to 1 M sodium bicarbonate solutions. The logarithm of the NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O solubility product (NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c)=Na + +Nd 3+ +2 CO 3 2- +6 H 2 O) was calculated to be -21.39. This model also provided satisfactory interpretation of the solubility data of the analogous Am(III) system in less concentrated carbonate and bicarbonate solutions. (orig.)

  9. Effect of a mixture of caffeine and nicotinamide on the solubility of vitamin (B2) in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneev, M P; Evstigneev, V P; Santiago, A A Hernandez; Davies, D B

    2006-05-01

    The effect of caffeine (CAF) and nicotinamide (NMD) on the solubility of a vitamin B2 derivative (FMN) has been evaluated for mixtures containing either a single hydrotrope (CAF or NMD) or the two hydrotropes simultaneously. A model for analysis of ternary systems, which takes into account all possible complexes between the molecules, has been developed and tested with experimental NMR data on the three-component mixture FMN-CAF-NMD. The results indicate that special attention should be given to the concentration of a hydrotropic agent used to enhance the solubility of a particular drug. A decrease in the efficacy of solubility of the vitamin on addition of large amounts of hydrotropic agent is expected in the two-component systems due to the increased proportion of self-association of the hydrotrope. It is found that a mixture of two hydrotropic agents leads to an increase in the solubility of the vitamin in three-component compared to the two-component system. Rather than using just one hydrotropic agent, it is proposed that a strategy for optimising the solubility of aromatic drugs is to use a mixture of hydrotropic agents.

  10. Fouling of Structured Surfaces during Pool Boiling of Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esawy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bubble characteristics in terms of density, size, frequency and motion are key factors that contribute to the superiority of nucleate pool boiling over the other modes of heat transfer. Nevertheless, if heat transfer occurs in an environment which is prone to fouling, the very same parameters may lead to accelerated deposit formation due to concentration effects beneath the growing bubbles. This has led heat exchanger designers frequently to maintain the surface temperature below the boiling point if fouling occurs, e.g. in thermal seawater desalination plants. The present study investigates the crystallization fouling of various structured surfaces during nucleate pool boiling of CaSO 4 solutions to shed light into their fouling behaviour compared with that of plain surfaces for the same operating conditions. As for the experimental part, a comprehensive set of clean and fouling experiments was performed rigorously. The structured tubes included low finned tubes of different fin densities, heights and materials and re-entrant cavity Turbo-B tube types.The fouling experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure for different heat fluxes ranging from 100 to 300 k W/m 2 and CaSO 4 concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6 g/L. For the sake of comparison, similar runs were performed on plain stainless steel and copper tubes.Overall for the finned tubes, the experimental results showed a significant reduction of fouling resistances of up to 95% compared to those of the stainless steel and copper plain tubes. In addition, the scale formation that occurred on finned tubes was primarily a scattered and thin crystalline layer which differs significantly from those of plain tubes which suffered from a thick and homogenous layer of deposit with strong adhesion. Higher fin densities and lower fin heights always led to better antifouling performance for all investigated finned tubes. It was also shown that the surface material strongly affects the scale formation of finned tubes i

  11. Redox potentials and kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction and solubility of cerium sulfates in sulfuric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulenova, A.; Creager, S. E.; Navratil, J. D.; Wei, Y.

    Experimental work was performed with the aim of evaluating the Ce 4+/Ce 3+ redox couple in sulfuric acid electrolyte for use in redox flow battery (RFB) technology. The solubility of cerium sulfates in 0.1-4.0 M sulfuric acid at 20-60 °C was studied. A synergistic effect of both sulfuric acid concentration and temperature on the solubility of cerous sulfate was observed. The solubility of cerous sulfate significantly decreased with rising concentration of sulfuric acid and rising temperature, while the solubility of ceric sulfate goes through a significant maximum at 40 °C. Redox potentials and the kinetics of the cerous/ceric redox reaction were also studied under the same temperature-concentration conditions. The redox potentials were measured using the combined redox electrode (Pt-Ag/AgCl) in equimolar Ce 4+/Ce 3+ solutions (i.e.[Ce 3+]=[Ce 4+]) in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox potentials significantly decrease (i.e. shift to more negative values) with rising sulfuric acid concentration; a small maximum is observed at 40 °C. Cyclic voltammetric experiments confirmed slow electrochemical kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction on carbon glassy electrodes (CGEs) in sulfuric acid solutions. The observed dependencies of solubilities, the redox potentials and the kinetics of Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction on sulfuric acid concentration are thought to be the result of inequivalent complexation of the two redox species by sulfate anions: the ceric ion is much more strongly bound to sulfate than is the cerous ion. The best temperature-concentration conditions for the RFB electrolytes appear to be 40 °C and 1 M sulfuric acid, where the relatively good solubility of both cerium species, the maximum of redox potentials, and the more or less satisfying stability of CGE s were found. Even so, the relatively low solubility of cerium salts in sulfuric acid media and slow redox kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction at carbon indicate that the Ce 3+/Ce

  12. Solubilities of gases in ionic liquids using a corresponding-states approach to Kirkwood-Buff solution theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The solubilities of gases in ionic liquids and compressed liquid densities have been successfully described over a wide range of conditions using a reformulated corresponding-states formulation for direct correlation function integrals. In addition, comparisons with experimental data show reliabl...... prediction of ionic liquid characteristic properties from simple rules.......The solubilities of gases in ionic liquids and compressed liquid densities have been successfully described over a wide range of conditions using a reformulated corresponding-states formulation for direct correlation function integrals. In addition, comparisons with experimental data show reliable...

  13. A nonlinear model for surface segregation and solute trapping during planar film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoying; Spencer, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Surface segregation and solute trapping during planar film growth is one of the important issues in molecular beam epitaxy, yet the study on surface composition has been largely restricted to experimental work. This paper introduces some mathematical models of surface composition during planar film growth. Analytical solutions are obtained for the surface composition during growth

  14. Retention of Proanthocyanidin in Wine-like Solution Is Conferred by a Dynamic Interaction between Soluble and Insoluble Grape Cell Wall Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Li, Sijing; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2016-11-09

    For better understanding of the factors that impact proanthocyanidin (PA) adsorption by insoluble cell walls or interaction with soluble cell wall-derived components, application of a commercial polygalacturonase enzyme preparation was investigated to modify grape cell wall structure. Soluble and insoluble cell wall material was isolated from the skin and mesocarp components of Vitis vinifera Shiraz grapes. It was observed that significant depolymerization of the insoluble grape cell wall occurred following enzyme application to both grape cell wall fractions, with increased solubilization of rhamnogalacturonan-enriched, low molecular weight polysaccharides. However, in the case of grape mesocarp, the solubilization of protein from cell walls (in buffer) was significant and increased only slightly by the enzyme treatment. Enzyme treatment significantly reduced the adsorption of PA by insoluble cell walls, but this effect was observed only when material solubilized from grape cell walls had been removed. The loss of PA through interaction with the soluble cell wall fraction was observed to be greater for mesocarp than skin cell walls. Subsequent experiments on the soluble mesocarp cell wall fraction confirmed a role for protein in the precipitation of PA. This identified a potential mechanism by which extracted grape PA may be lost from wine during vinification, as a precipitate with solubilized grape mesocarp proteins. Although protein was a minor component in terms of total concentration, losses of PA via precipitation with proteins were in the order of 50% of available PA. PA-induced precipitation could proceed until all protein was removed from solution and may account for the very low levels of residual protein observed in red wines. The results point to a dynamic interaction of grape insoluble and soluble components in modulating PA retention in wine.

  15. Formation, stability, and solubility of metal oxide nanoparticles: surface entropy, and free energy of ferrihydrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.

    2015-01-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is an excellent model for understanding nanoparticle behavior in general. Moreover, Fh is one of the most important Fe (hydr) oxides in nature. Fh particles can be extremely small leading to a very high reactive surface area that changes its chemical potential, strongly affecting

  16. Behavior of uranium during the formation of granitic magma by anatexis (I). Influence of redox conditions and the presence of chloride on the solubility of uranium in the hydrothermal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoru Nakashima; Toshimichi Iiyama, J.

    1983-01-01

    The behavior of uranium is examined experimentally in the course of partial fusion of natural or synthetic granitic rocks. Uranium is definitely soluble in the associated hydrothermal solutions containing chloride under oxidizing conditions, but it is not soluble in the same fluids under reducing conditions [fr

  17. Spatial distributions of soluble salts in surface snow of East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Iizuka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand how sea salt reacts in surface snow of Antarctica, we collected and identified non-volatile particles in surface snow along a traverse in East Antarctica. Samples were obtained during summer 2012/2013 from coastal to inland regions within 69°S to 80°S and 39°E to 45°E, a total distance exceeding 800 km. The spatial resolution of samples is about one sample per latitude between 1500 and 3800 m altitude. Here, we obtain the atomic ratios of Na, S and Cl, and calculate the masses of sodium sulphate and sodium chloride. The results show that, even in the coast snow sample (69°S, sea salt is highly modified by acid (HNO3 or H2SO4. The fraction of sea salt that reacts with acid increases in the region from 70°S to 74°S below 3000 m a.s.l., where some NaCl remains. At the higher altitudes (above 3300 m a.s.l. in the inland region (74°S to 80°S, the reaction uses almost all of the available NaCl.

  18. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  19. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  20. Radionuclide transport in fractured porous media -- Analytical solutions for a system of parallel fractures with a kinetic solubility-limited dissolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.H.; Chen, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical solutions are developed for the problem of radionuclide transport in a system of parallel fractures situated in a porous rock matrix. A kinetic solubility-limited dissolution model is used as the inlet boundary condition. The solutions consider the following processes: (a) advective transport in the fractures, (b) mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion along the fractures, (c) molecular diffusion from a fracture to the porous matrix, (d) molecular diffusion within the porous matrix in the direction perpendicular to the fracture axis, (e) adsorption onto the fracture wall, (f) adsorption within the porous matrix, and (g) radioactive decay. The solutions are based on the Laplace transform method. The general transient solution is in the form of a double integral that is evaluated using composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature. A simpler transient solution that is in the form of a single integral is also presented for the case that assumes negligible longitudinal dispersion along the fractures. The steady-state solutions are also provided. A number of examples are given to illustrate the effects of the following important parameters: (a) fracture spacings, (b) dissolution-rate constants, (c) fracture dispersion coefficient, (d) matrix retardation factor, and (e) fracture retardation factor

  1. Effect of surface chemistry, solution pH, and ionic strength on the removal of herbicides diuron and amitrole from water by an activated carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha-Cámara, M A; López-Ramón, M V; Alvarez-Merino, M A; Moreno-Castilla, C

    2007-01-30

    A study was conducted on the effects of carbon surface chemistry, solution pH, and ionic strength on the removal of diuron and amitrole from aqueous solutions by adsorption on an as-received and oxidized activated carbon fiber. Results obtained were explained by the surface characteristics of the adsorbents and the characteristics of the herbicide molecules. Under the experimental conditions used, diuron uptake was much higher than that of amitrole, despite its larger molecular dimensions, due to the lesser water solubility, greater hydrophobicity, and larger dipolar moment of diuron compared with amitrole. Uptake variations associated with differences in carbon surface oxidation, solution pH, and ionic strength were explained by corresponding changes in electrostatic, hydrophobic, and van der Waals interactions.

  2. Micropore surface area of alkali-soluble plant macromolecules (humic acids) drives their decomposition rates in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Gabriella; Spagnol, Manuela; Tambone, Fulvia; Pilu, Roberto; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that micropore surface area (MSA) of alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules of aerial plant residues of maize constitutes an important factor that explains their humification in soil, that is, preservation against biological degradation. On the other hand, root plant residue contributes to the soil humus balance, as well. Following the experimental design used in a previous paper published in this journal, this study shows that the biochemical recalcitrance of the alkali-soluble acid-insoluble fraction of the root plant material, contributed to the root maize humification of both Wild-type maize plants and its corresponding mutant brown midrib (bm3), this latter characterized by reduced lignin content. Humic acids (HAs) existed in root (root-HAs) were less degraded in soil than corresponding HAs existed in shoot (shoot-HAs): shoot-HAs bm3 (48%)>shoot-HAs Wild-type (37%)>root-HAs Wild-type (33%)>root-HAs bm3 (22%) (degradability shown in parenthesis). These differences were related to the MSA of HAs, that is, root-HAs having a higher MSA than shoot-HAs: shoot-HAs bm3 (41.43+/-1.2m(2)g(-1))

  3. The interplay between surfaces and soluble factors define the immunologic and angiogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansfield Kristen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as those present in tumor settings might induce a DC phenotype that is poorly immunogenic and with the capability of promoting angiogenesis. We hypothesize that this plasticity may be caused not only by the action of specific cytokines or growth factors but also by the properties of the surfaces with which they interact, such as extracellular matrix (ECM components. Results Herewith we studied the effect of different surfaces and soluble factors on the biology of DCs. To accomplish this, we cultured murine myeloid(m DCs on surfaces coated with fibronectin, collagen I, gelatin, and Matrigel using poly-D-lysine and polystyrene as non-biological surfaces. Further, we cultured these cells in the presence of regular DC medium (RPMI 10% FBS or commercially available endothelial medium (EGM-2. We determined that mDCs could be kept in culture up to 3 weeks in these conditions, but only in the presence of GM-CSF. We were able to determine that long-term DC cultures produce an array of angiogenic factors, and that some of these cultures still retain the capability to induce T cell responses. Conclusions Altogether these data indicate that in order to design DC-based vaccines or treatments focused on changing the phenotype of DCs associated with diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis, it becomes necessary to fully investigate the microenvironment in which these cells are present or will be delivered.

  4. Adsorption and wetting mechanisms at the surface of aqueous hydrocarbon solutions as a possible source of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiki, M.; Quentel, F.; Elleouet, C.; Olier, R.; Privat, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrocarbons in solutions have been the subject of very few investigations despite their relevance, in particular, in situations where environmental mechanisms are involved. We present, here, a synthesis of several studies conducted within our laboratory about the adsorption, at the water surface, of benzene and cyclohexane from under-saturated solutions. The co-adsorption of lead nitrate is also evidenced, though it does not adsorb in absence of organic molecules in the surface. Most of the data reported here were collected from series of measurements made with a very uncommon method: the bubble column; this technique, though being very time-demanding and lacking of user-friendliness, proved its usefulness and relevance in the study of such weakly adsorbable, surface-tension inactive compounds. The study of mixtures is simple and requires no model, which is precious in environmental research. The gathered data demonstrate that, through mechanical mechanisms such as bubbling, co-adsorption can lead to the passing from water to the atmosphere of harmful non-soluble, poorly surface-active, components. (authors)

  5. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  6. Effect of Citric Acid Surface Modification on Solubility of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavini, Ranuri; Sandaruwan, Chanaka; De Silva, Madhavi; Priyadarshana, Gayan; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Karunaratne, Veranja

    2018-04-04

    Worldwide, there is an amplified interest in nanotechnology-based approaches to develop efficient nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers to address major challenges pertaining to food security. However, there are significant challenges associated with fertilizer manufacture and supply as well as cost in both economic and environmental terms. The main issues relating to nitrogen fertilizer surround the use of fossil fuels in its production and the emission of greenhouse gases resulting from its use in agriculture; phosphorus being a mineral source makes it nonrenewable and casts a shadow on its sustainable use in agriculture. This study focuses on development of an efficient P nutrient system that could overcome the inherent problems arising from current P fertilizers. Attempts are made to synthesize citric acid surface-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using wet chemical precipitation. The resulting nanohybrids were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction to extract the crystallographic data, while functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Morphology and particle size were studied using scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Its effectiveness as a source of P was investigated using water release studies and bioavailability studies using Zea mays as the model crop. Both tests demonstrated the increased availability of P from nanohybrids in the presence of an organic acid compared with pure hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and rock phosphate.

  7. Incorporating Pitzer equations in a new thermodynamic model for the prediction of acid gases solubility in aqueous alkanolamine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhseinat, E.; Mota Martinez, M.; Peters, C.J.; Banat, F.

    2014-01-01

    In gas sweetening, acid gases such as CO2 and/or H2S are usually removed by "chemical" absorption through aqueous amine solutions such as N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution. Reliable prediction of equilibrium properties (vapor–liquid equilibrium and species distribution) is needed for a rigorous

  8. Influence of corrosive solutions on microhardness and chemistry of magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted on cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved to specimen size along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in corrosive solutions containing HCl, NaOH, or HNO3 and in water without exposing the specimen to any other environment. The results indicated that chloride (such as MgCl2) and sodium films are formed on the magnesium oxide surface as a result of interactions between an HCl-containing solution and a cleaved magnesium oxide surface. The chloride films soften the magnesium oxide surface. In this case microhardness is strongly influenced by the pH value of the solution. The lower the pH, the lower the microhardness. Sodium films, which are formed on the magnesium oxide surface exposed to an NaOH containing solution, do not soften the magnesium oxide surface.

  9. Instant and supersaturated dissolution of naproxen and sesamin (poorly water-soluble drugs and supplements) nanoparticles prepared by continuous expansion of liquid carbon dioxide solution through long dielectric nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Toshihiko, E-mail: tarita@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (Japan); Manabe, Noriyoshi [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Nakahara, Koichi [Suntory Bussiness Expert Limited, Frontier Center for Value Creation (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of naproxen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, BCS Class 2) and sesamin (a poorly water-soluble lignan) were investigated. By applying a newly developed rapid expansion system of liquid carbon dioxide solutions equipped with a dielectric nozzle, well-separated and fine both naproxen NPs (averaged particle size (APS) = 46.9 nm) and sesamin NPs (APS = 60.2 nm) were obtained without heating, surfactants, and co-solvents. Obtained naproxen and sesamin NPs had large surface/weight ratio, therefore, they showed instant dissolution to water until about ten percent higher than the saturated concentrations. In addition, the technique developed in the study has big advantage on producing especially drug NPs because the NPs produced by the method never includes neither poisonous additives (especially co-solvents and detergents) nor thermally denatured compounds.

  10. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems? In vivo studies of chase dosing lipid vehicles with aqueous suspensions of a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension. For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability issues in the lipid vehicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  12. Solubility and phase separation of 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS), and 3-morpholino-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO) in aqueous 1,4-dioxane and ethanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solubilities of MOPS and MOPSO buffers in aqueous 1,4-dioxane and ethanol solutions. → We found that MOPS-induced phase separation of aqueous solution of 1,4-dioxane. → The phase diagram of (MOPS + water + 1,4-dioxane) system at 298.15 K is documented. → The tie-lines within the two-liquid phase region were also determined at 298.15 K. → The effective excluded volume theory was applied to correlate the binodal LLE data. - Abstract: The buffers 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS) and 3-morpholino-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO) are useful biological zwitterionic buffers within the pH range of 6.5 to 7.9 and 6.2 to 7.6, respectively. The solubilities of these buffers were determined in binary mixtures (1,4-dioxane + water) and (ethanol + water) at T = 298.15 K by using the results of density measurements. It has been observed that MOPS induced liquid-liquid phase splitting for the mixtures of 40% to 90% (w/w) 1,4-dioxane in water. The two-liquid phase formation was visualized with disperse orange 25. The phase equilibrium boundaries, including the regions of one liquid, two liquids, (one liquid + one solid) and (two liquids + one solid), for the (MOPS + water + 1,4-dioxane) system have been determined experimentally at T = 298.15 K. The tie lines of the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium were also measured. The Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equation were used to evaluate the reliability of the tie-line data. The binodal curve was fitted to an empirical equation and the effective excluded volume (EEV) model. The apparent free energies of transfer (ΔG tr ' ) of MOPS and MOPSO from water to 1,4-dioxane and ethanol solutions have been calculated from the solubility data. These ΔG tr ' values were compared with those of some related biological buffers (TRIS, TAPS, TAPSO, and TABS). Furthermore, we also calculated the contribution of transfer free energies (Δg tr ' ) of -OH group from water to 1,4-dioxane and ethanol solutions.

  13. Solution Exchange Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Sequential Surface Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pester, Christian; Mattson, Kaila; Bothman, David; Klinger, Daniel; Lee, Kenneth; Discekici, Emre; Narupai, Benjaporn; Hawker, Craig

    The covalent attachment of polymers has emerged as a viable strategy for the preparation of multi-functional surfaces. Patterned, surface-grafted polymer brushes provide spatial control over wetting, mechanical, biological or electronic properties, and allow fabrication of `intelligent' substrates which selectively adapt to their environment. However, the route towards patterned polymer brush surfaces often remains challenging, creating a demand for more efficient and less complicated fabrication strategies. We describe the design and application of a novel experimental setup to combine light-mediated and flow chemistry for the fabrication of hierarchical surface-grafted polymer brushes. Using light-mediated, surface initiated controlled radical polymerization and post-functionalization via well-established, and highly efficient chemistries, polymer brush films of previously unimaginable complexity are now shown to be accessible. This methodology allows full flexibility to exchange both lithographic photomasks and chemical environments in-situ, readily affording multidimensional thin film architectures, all from uniformly functionalized substrates.

  14. Sub-nanoscale surface ruggedness provides a water-tight seal for exposed regions in soluble protein structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schulz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble proteins must maintain backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs water-tight to ensure structural integrity. This protection is often achieved by burying the BHBs or wrapping them through intermolecular associations. On the other hand, water has low coordination resilience, with loss of hydrogen-bonding partnerships carrying significant thermodynamic cost. Thus, a core problem in structural biology is whether natural design actually exploits the water coordination stiffness to seal the backbone in regions that are exposed to the solvent. This work explores the molecular design features that make this type of seal operative, focusing on the side-chain arrangements that shield the protein backbone. We show that an efficient sealing is achieved by adapting the sub-nanoscale surface topography to the stringency of water coordination: an exposed BHB may be kept dry if the local concave curvature is small enough to impede formation of the coordination shell of a penetrating water molecule. Examination of an exhaustive database of uncomplexed proteins reveals that exposed BHBs invariably occur within such sub-nanoscale cavities in native folds, while this level of local ruggedness is absent in other regions. By contrast, BHB exposure in misfolded proteins occurs with larger local curvature promoting backbone hydration and consequently, structure disruption. These findings unravel physical constraints fitting a spatially dependent least-action for water coordination, introduce a molecular design concept, and herald the advent of water-tight peptide-based materials with sufficient backbone exposure to remain flexible.

  15. Bloch Surface Waves Biosensors for High Sensitivity Detection of Soluble ERBB2 in a Complex Biological Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Sampaoli, Camilla; Danz, Norbert; Munzert, Peter; Sonntag, Frank; Centola, Fabio; Occhicone, Agostino; Tremante, Elisa; Giacomini, Patrizio; Michelotti, Francesco

    2017-08-17

    We report on the use of one-dimensional photonic crystals to detect clinically relevant concentrations of the cancer biomarker ERBB2 in cell lysates. Overexpression of the ERBB2 protein is associated with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. To detect soluble ERBB2, we developed an optical set-up which operates in both label-free and fluorescence modes. The detection approach makes use of a sandwich assay, in which the one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are modified with monoclonal antibodies, in order to guarantee high specificity during the biological recognition. We present the results of exemplary protein G based label-free assays in complex biological matrices, reaching an estimated limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. On-chip and chip-to-chip variability of the results is addressed too, providing repeatability rates. Moreover, results on fluorescence operation demonstrate the capability to perform high sensitive cancer biomarker assays reaching a resolution of 0.6 ng/mL, without protein G assistance. The resolution obtained in both modes meets international guidelines and recommendations (15 ng/mL) for ERBB2 quantification assays, providing an alternative tool to phenotype and diagnose molecular cancer subtypes.

  16. Evaluating the influence of process parameters on soluble microbial products formation using response surface methodology coupled with grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Luo, Hong-Wei; Fang, Fang; Li, Wen-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) present a major part of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluents from biological wastewater treatment systems, and the SMP formation is greatly influenced by a variety of process parameters. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with grey relational analysis (GRA) method was used to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, temperature, NH(4)(+)-N concentration and aeration rate on the SMP production in batch activated sludge reactors. Carbohydrates were found to be the major component of SMP, and the influential priorities of these factors were: temperature>substrate concentration > aeration rate > NH(4)(+)-N concentration. On the basis of the RSM results, the interactive effects of these factors on the SMP formation were evaluated, and the optimal operating conditions for a minimum SMP production in such a batch activated sludge system also were identified. These results provide useful information about how to control the SMP formation of activated sludge and ensure the bioreactor high-quality effluent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of Action of TiF4 on Dental Enamel Surface: SEM/EDX, KOH-Soluble F, and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comar, Lívia P; Souza, Beatriz M; Al-Ahj, Luana P; Martins, Jessica; Grizzo, Larissa T; Piasentim, Isabelle S; Rios, Daniela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-10-12

    This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the action of TiF4 on sound and carious bovine and human enamel. Sound (S) and pre-demineralised (DE) bovine and human (primary and permanent) enamel samples were treated with TiF4 (pH 1.0) or NaF varnishes (pH 5.0), containing 0.95, 1.95, or 2.45% F for 12 h. The enamel surfaces were analysed using SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) (n = 10, 5 S and 5 DE) and KOH-soluble fluoride was quantified (n = 20, 10 S and 10 DE). Hydroxyapatite powder produced by precipitation method was treated with the corresponding fluoride solutions for 1 min (n = 2). The formed compounds were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD). All TiF4 varnishes produced a coating layer rich in Ti and F on all types of enamel surface, with micro-cracks in its extension. TiF4 (1.95 and 2.45% F) provided higher fluoride deposition than NaF, especially for bovine enamel (p enamel. The Ti content was higher for bovine and human primary enamel than human permanent enamel, with some differences between S and DE. The XRD analysis showed that TiF4 induced the formation of new compounds such as CaF2, TiO2, and Ti(HPO4)2·H2O. In conclusion, TiF4 (>0.95% F) interacts better, when compared to NaF, with bovine and human primary enamel than with human permanent enamel. TiF4 provoked higher F deposition compared to NaF. Carious enamel showed higher F uptake than sound enamel by TiF4 application, while Ti uptake was dependent on the enamel condition and origin. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Solubility and hydrolysis of Np(V) in dilute to concentrated alkaline NaCl solutions. Formation of Na-Np(V)-OH solid phases at 22 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Vladimir G. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Fellhauer, David; Gaona, Xavier; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Joerg; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    The solubility of Np(V) was investigated at T=22±2 C in alkaline NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.1-5.0 M). The solid phases controlling the solubility at different -log{sub 10} m{sub H{sup +}}(pH{sub m}) and NaCl concentration were characterized by XRD, quantitative chemical analysis, SEM-EDS and XAFS (both XANES and EXAFS). Aqueous phases in equilibrium with Np(V) solids were investigated for selected samples within 8.9≤pH{sub m}≤10.3 by UV-vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy. In 0.1 M NaCl, the experimental solubility of the initial greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) solid phase is in good agreement with previous results obtained in NaClO{sub 4} solutions, and is consistent with model calculations for fresh NpO{sub 2}OH(am) using the thermodynamic data selection in NEA-TDB. Below pH{sub m}∝11.5 and for all NaCl concentrations studied, Np concentration in equilibrium with the solid phase remained constant during the timeframe of this study (∝2 years). This observation is in contrast to the aging of the initial NpO{sub 2}OH(am) into a more crystalline modification with the same stoichiometry, NpO{sub 2}OH(am, aged), as reported in previous studies for concentrated NaClO{sub 4} and NaCl. Instead, the greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) transforms into a white solid phase in those systems with [NaCl]≥1.0 M and pH{sub m}≥11.5, and into two different pinkish phases above pH{sub m}∝13.2. The solid phase transformation is accompanied by a drop in Np solubility of 0.5-2 log{sub 10}-units (depending upon NaCl concentration). XANES analyses of green, white and pink phases confirm the predominance of Np(V) in all cases. Quantitative chemical analysis shows the incorporation of Na{sup +} in the original NpO{sub 2}OH(am) material, with Na:Np ≤ 0.3 for the greenish solids and 0.8 ≤ Na:Np ≤ 1.6 for the white and pinkish phases. XRD data confirms the amorphous character of the greenish phase, whereas white and pink solids show well-defined but discrepant XRD patterns

  19. The effects of disordered structure on the solubility and dissolution rates of some hydrophilic, sparingly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharraf, M; Sebhatu, T; Nyström, C

    1999-01-15

    The effects of experimental design on the apparent solubility of two sparingly soluble hydrophilic compounds (barium sulphate and calcium carbonate) were studied in this paper. The apparent solubility appeared to be primarily dependent on the amount of solute added to the solvent in each experiment, increasing with increased amounts. This effect seems to be due to the existence of a peripheral disordered layer. However physico-chemical methods used in the present study were not able to unambiguously verify the existence of any disorder in the solid state structure of the drugs. At higher proportions of solute to solvent, the solubility reached a plateau corresponding to the solubility of the disordered or amorphous molecular form of the material. Milling the powders caused the plateau to be reached at lower proportions of solute to solvent, since this further disordered the surface of the drug particles. It was also found that the apparent solubility of the drugs tested decreased after storage at high relative humidities. A model for describing the effects of a disordered surface layer of varying thickness and continuity on the solubility of a substance is presented. This model may be used as a method for detection of minute amount of disorder, where no other technique is capable of detecting the disordered structure. It is suggested that recrystallisation of the material occurs via slow solid-state transition at the surface of the drug particle; this would slowly reduce the apparent solubility of the substance at the plateau level to the thermodynamically stable value. A biphasic dissolution rate profile was obtained. The solubility of the disordered surface of the particles appeared to be the rate-determining factor during the initial dissolution phase, while the solubility of the crystalline core was the rate-determining factor during the final slower phase.

  20. Antibacterial activity, surface roughness, flexural strength, and solubility of conventional luting cements containing chlorhexidine diacetate/cetrimide mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Tüzüner, Tamer; Baygin, Ozgul; Buruk, Celal Kurtulus; Durkan, Rukiye; Bagis, Bora

    2013-08-01

    The failure of fixed dental restorations is commonly associated with caries. The use of conventional luting cements containing antibacterial agents may overcome this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity (ABA), surface roughness (Ra), flexural strength (FS), and solubility (SL) patterns of the conventional dental luting cements zinc phosphate (ZP), zinc polycarboxylate (PC), and glass ionomer (GIC) after the addition of 5% chlorhexidine diacetate/cetrimide (CHX+CT). Antibacterial agents with a total concentration of 5% (2.5% CHX+2.5% CT) were added to antibacterial agent-free conventional luting cement powders (ZPC, PCC, and GICC) and designated as experimental groups (ZPE, PCE, and GICE). ABA against Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus casei (LB) was examined by using the agar diffusion test method. Ra, FS, and SL values were obtained after storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U with Bonferroni correction tests were used to test for agar diffusion (α=.05) and 2-way ANOVA and Fisher Least Significant Difference (LSD) test were used to measure Ra, FS, and SL (α=.05). The control groups exhibited limited ABA. With the exception of PCE>PCC on day 1 for SM, all experimental groups showed significantly greater and longer-lasting protection against SM and LB bacteria for up to 180 days than their controls (PZPE; P>.05, PCC>PCE; PGICC (P>.05) when compared with their individual controls. Control groups exhibited higher FS values than did the experimental groups (ZPC>ZPE; PPCE; PGICE; P>.05). The experimental groups exhibited higher solubilities than did their controls in the ZPC (P>.05) and GICC groups (P<.05) but were lower in PCC group (P<.05). Incorporating a 5% CHX+CT mixture into conventional dental luting cements and altering their Ra, FS, and SL values may provide greater antibacterial protection against SM and LB. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the

  1. Asymptotic Normality of the Optimal Solution in Multiresponse Surface Mathematical Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-García, José A.; Caro-Lopera, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    An explicit form for the perturbation effect on the matrix of regression coeffi- cients on the optimal solution in multiresponse surface methodology is obtained in this paper. Then, the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is studied and the critical point characterisation of the convex program, associated with the optimum of a multiresponse surface, is also analysed. Finally, the asymptotic normality of the optimal solution is derived by the standard methods.

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of acidic gas solubility in aqueous solutions of MEA, MDEA and MEA-MDEA blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrachnos, Ath.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Voutsas, EC

    2006-01-01

    and extended in this study to the absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solutions and aqueous MDEA-MEA blends. The results of the model are compared with experimental data taken from the literature. Very satisfactory predictions of acidic gas vapor-liquid equilibrium over MDEA, MEA...

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.

  4. Solidification of salt solutions on a horizontal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, S.L.; Viskanta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The freezing of water-salt solutions on a horizontal wall is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The growth of the solid-liquid region is observed for NaCl - H sub(2)O and N H sub(4)Cl - H sub(2)O systems under different temperature and concentration conditions. A unidirectional mathematical model is used to predict the solidification process. The transport of heat is by diffusion, and convection is absent. The mass diffusion is neglected and the growth of crystal is governed by the transport of heat. In all experiments, the solution salt concentration is smaller than the eutectic composition, and the wall temperature is higher than the eutectic temperature. The predicted temperature and salt concentration profiles, as well as the interface position, are compared with experimental data. (author)

  5. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to

  6. Study of the solubility of yttrium, praseodymium, neodymium, and gadolinium sulfates in the presence of sodium and potassium in sulfuric-phosphoric acid solutions at 20 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokshin, Eh.P.; Tareeva, O.A.; Kashulina, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of yttrium, praseodymium, neodymium, and gadolinium sulfates in the presence of sodium and potassium ions and the composition of solid phases were studied at 20 deg C in relation to the concentration of acids in sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric-phosphoric acid solutions containing up to 36 wt % H 2 SO 4 and 33.12 g 1 -1 H 3 PO 4 . The formation of double sulfates of praseodymium and neodymium with sodium and potassium ions, as well as of gadolinium sulfate with sodium ions of the composition 1 : 1 was revealed. In water at 20 deg C, the solubility products of PrNa(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, NdNa(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, GdNa(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, PrK(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, and NdK(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O are found to be 7.28x10 -8 , 7.84x10 -8 , 3.09x10 -6 , 3.02x10 -6 , and 1.70x10 -6 , respectively [ru

  7. Effect of solution and leaf surface polarity on droplet spread area and contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Justin J; Forster, W Alison; van Leeuwen, Rebecca M

    2016-03-01

    How much an agrochemical spray droplet spreads on a leaf surface can significantly influence efficacy. This study investigates the effect solution polarity has on droplet spreading on leaf surfaces and whether the relative leaf surface polarity, as quantified using the wetting tension dielectric (WTD) technique, influences the final spread area. Contact angles and spread areas were measured using four probe solutions on 17 species. Probe solution polarity was found to affect the measured spread area and the contact angle of the droplets on non-hairy leaves. Leaf hairs skewed the spread area measurement, preventing investigation of the influence of surface polarity on hairy leaves. WTD-measured leaf surface polarity of non-hairy leaves was found to correlate strongly with the effect of solution polarity on spread area. For non-polar leaf surfaces the spread area decreases with increasing solution polarity, for neutral surfaces polarity has no effect on spread area and for polar leaf surfaces the spread area increases with increasing solution polarity. These results attest to the use of the WTD technique as a means to quantify leaf surface polarity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Conformation evolution of oil contaminants onto aluminum oxide surface in aqueous solution: The effect of surface coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenkun; Liu, Haitao, E-mail: xwk584523412@126.com; Sun, Yazhou; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The dynamic conformational change of oil contaminations, at various surface coverages onto perfect α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) surface in aqueous solution is given. • The effect of surface coverage of oil molecules on the driving forces for the conformational change of oil contaminations is described. • The effect of interfacial water on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminations is considered. - Abstract: The microscopic conformational change process of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface in aqueous solution was investigated by using all-atom classic molecular dynamics simulations. The change in removal mechanism of oil contaminants induced by surface coverage (surface area per molecule) was emphatically explored. Our simulation results strongly reveal that the increase in oil surface coverage induces an evident difference in microscopic detachment processes of oil contaminants. At a low surface coverage, oil contaminants can be thoroughly detached from solid surface. The whole detachment process could be divided into multi stages, including conformational change of oil contaminants on solid surface, dynamic motion of those in bulk solution and rapid migration of those from bulk solution to air/water interface. With surface coverage increasing, water diffusion becomes the key to induce conformational change and promote the detachment of oil contaminants. When oil surface coverage exceeds a threshold value, oil contaminants also undertake an evident conformational change process exhibiting typical characteristics but an incomplete detachment process occurs. All findings of the present study are helpful for the interpretation of the removal mechanism of oil contaminants on solid surface.

  9. SOLUBILITIES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS IN THE COPPER SULFATE + SULFURIC ACID + SEAWATER SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Justel, F. J.; Claros, M.; Taboada, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different...

  10. Surface rheology of surfactant solutions close to equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baets, P.J.M.; Stein, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the authors present surface rheol. measurements of various surfactant solns. close to equil. in a Langmuir trough. The authors find that the storage modulus is, in the systems investigated, higher than the loss modulus. The rheol. behavior depends strongly on the surfactant concn.,

  11. Exact solution to surface displacement associated with sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 3, No.2 ... The z-axis is perpendicular to the free surface and directed inside the half ...... Pulse Generation in an Elastic Half space by Normal Pressure, International Journal of ...

  12. Free-surface viscous flow solution methods for ship hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  13. On the use of differential solubility in aqueous ethanol solutions to narrow the DP range of food-grade starch hydrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Amy S; Lapis, Trina J; Silver, Rachel K; Ferreira, Andrew J; Beaudry, Christopher M; Lim, Juyun; Penner, Michael H

    2016-04-15

    Considerable research is focused on understanding the functionality of starch hydrolysis products (SHP) consisting of glucose, maltose, maltooligosaccharides (MOS), and maltopolysaccharides (MPS). A confounding factor in this research is the high molecular dispersity of commercially available SHP. The study presented herein characterizes a flexible fractionation approach for lowering the dispersity of such products. This was accomplished by fractionating a corn syrup solids (CSS) preparation based on the differential solubility of its component saccharides in aqueous-ethanol solutions. Products obtained from selected fractionations were characterized with respect to degree of polymerization (DP; liquid chromatography), dextrose equivalency (reducing sugar assays), and prevalence of branching (NMR). Glucose and maltose were preferentially removed from CSS using high (⩾90%) ethanol extractants. Preparations with relatively narrow ranges of MOS, lower DP MPS, and higher DP MPS were obtained through repetitive 70%-ethanol extractions. Linear, as opposed to branched, MOS and MPS were preferentially extracted under all conditions tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of copper and nickel contaminants from Si surface by use of cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Liu, Y.-L.; Nakamura, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The cleaning method using cyanide solutions has been developed to remove heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) from Si surfaces. Immersion of Si wafers with both Cu and Ni contaminants in potassium cyanide (KCN) solutions of methanol at room temperature decreases these surface concentrations below the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of ∼3x10 9 atoms/cm 2 . UV spectra of the KCN solutions after cleaning of the Cu-contaminated Si surface show that stable copper-cyanide complexes are formed in the solution, leading to the prevention of the re-adsorption of copper in the solutions. From the complex stability constants, it is concluded that the Cu(CN) 4 3- is the most dominant species in the KCN solutions

  15. Particle Size, Surface Area, and Amorphous Content as Predictors of Solubility and Bioavailability for Five Commercial Sources of Ferric Orthophosphate in Ready-To-Eat Cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Robin S; Strasburg, Gale M; Romsos, Dale R; Wilson, Lori A; Lai, Grace H; Huang, Hsimin

    2016-03-01

    Ferric orthophosphate (FePO₄) has had limited use as an iron fortificant in ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal because of its variable bioavailability, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Even though FePO₄ has desirable sensory properties as compared to other affordable iron fortificants, few published studies have well-characterized its physicochemical properties. Semi-crystalline materials such as FePO₄ have varying degrees of molecular disorder, referred to as amorphous content, which is hypothesized to be an important factor in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to systematically measure the physicochemical factors of particle size, surface area, amorphous content, and solubility underlying the variation in FePO₄ bioavailability. Five commercial FePO₄ sources and ferrous sulfate were added to individual batches of RTE cereal. The relative bioavailability value (RBV) of each iron source, determined using the AOAC Rat Hemoglobin Repletion Bioassay, ranged from 51% to 99% (p Solubility in dilute HCl accurately predicted RBV (R² = 0.93, p = 0.008). Amorphous content measured by Dynamic Vapor Sorption ranged from 1.7% to 23.8% and was a better determinant of solubility (R² = 0.91; p = 0.0002) than surface area (R² = 0.83; p = 0.002) and median particle size (R² = 0.59; p = 0.12). The results indicate that while solubility of FePO₄ is highly predictive of RBV, solubility, in turn, is strongly linked to amorphous content and surface area. This information may prove useful for the production of FePO₄ with the desired RBV.

  16. Particle Size, Surface Area, and Amorphous Content as Predictors of Solubility and Bioavailability for Five Commercial Sources of Ferric Orthophosphate in Ready-To-Eat Cereal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S. Dickmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ferric orthophosphate (FePO4 has had limited use as an iron fortificant in ready-to-eat (RTE cereal because of its variable bioavailability, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Even though FePO4 has desirable sensory properties as compared to other affordable iron fortificants, few published studies have well-characterized its physicochemical properties. Semi-crystalline materials such as FePO4 have varying degrees of molecular disorder, referred to as amorphous content, which is hypothesized to be an important factor in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to systematically measure the physicochemical factors of particle size, surface area, amorphous content, and solubility underlying the variation in FePO4 bioavailability. Five commercial FePO4 sources and ferrous sulfate were added to individual batches of RTE cereal. The relative bioavailability value (RBV of each iron source, determined using the AOAC Rat Hemoglobin Repletion Bioassay, ranged from 51% to 99% (p < 0.05, which is higher than typically reported. Solubility in dilute HCl accurately predicted RBV (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.008. Amorphous content measured by Dynamic Vapor Sorption ranged from 1.7% to 23.8% and was a better determinant of solubility (R2 = 0.91; p = 0.0002 than surface area (R2 = 0.83; p = 0.002 and median particle size (R2 = 0.59; p = 0.12. The results indicate that while solubility of FePO4 is highly predictive of RBV, solubility, in turn, is strongly linked to amorphous content and surface area. This information may prove useful for the production of FePO4 with the desired RBV.

  17. Effect of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of alcohols in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Carmen M. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)], E-mail: cmromeroi@unal.edu.co; Jimenez, Eulogio [Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna (Spain); Suarez, Felipe [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of aqueous solutions has often been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on water. In this work, we present experimental results for surface tension of aqueous solutions of n-pentanol, n-hexanol, n-heptanol, and n-octanol at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K at several concentrations. The results were used to evaluate the limiting experimental slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction and the hydrophobicity constant of the Connors model at each temperature. The thermodynamic behavior of aqueous alcohol solutions is discussed in terms of the effect of the hydrocarbon chain on water structure. The temperature dependence of the limiting slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction, as well as the hydrophobicity constant derived from surface measurements, is interpreted in terms of alcohol hydration.

  18. Effect of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of alcohols in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Carmen M.; Jimenez, Eulogio; Suarez, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of aqueous solutions has often been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on water. In this work, we present experimental results for surface tension of aqueous solutions of n-pentanol, n-hexanol, n-heptanol, and n-octanol at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K at several concentrations. The results were used to evaluate the limiting experimental slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction and the hydrophobicity constant of the Connors model at each temperature. The thermodynamic behavior of aqueous alcohol solutions is discussed in terms of the effect of the hydrocarbon chain on water structure. The temperature dependence of the limiting slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction, as well as the hydrophobicity constant derived from surface measurements, is interpreted in terms of alcohol hydration

  19. A study of diazonium couplings with aromatic nucleophiles both in solution and on a polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Shuyun; Parker, Emily M.; Griffiths, Jon-Paul; Moloney, Mark G.; Wu, Linda Y. L.

    2017-04-01

    Diazonium coupling is a technique finding wider application to materials and biological science, for hybridization and linking processes, and for the construction of responsive surface functionality. For this reason, detailed examination of solution and surface processes was warranted, and results of such a study are reported here. The modification of polystyrene surfaces was examined as a model, and the process compared to a solution mimic using N,N-dimethylaniline. It was confirmed that solution and solid surface reactions proceed in a similar manner in terms of the chemical functionality generated, but with lower chemical efficiency and reaction times slower for the latter, in a reaction which was pH dependent. The solution process was shown to give only the trans-azo para- coupled products. Whilst there are clear similarities between the solution and surface chemistry, the efficiency of coupling at a surface is not necessarily replicated in the chemical yield of the mimicking solution processes, but nonetheless provides an alternative to other Click-type surface modifications. It should not be assumed that such couplings occur with quantitative efficiency at the surface.

  20. The use of in situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the study of surface phenomena on electrodes in selected lithium battery electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurbach, D.; Chusid, O.

    This paper presents some examples of surface studies of noble metals and Li electrodes in Li battery electrolyte solutions using in situ FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. These examples include the study of a mixture of solvents, the role of the reduction of salt in the build-up of surface films on the electrodes and the impact of contaminants such as traces of oxgen and water. The techniques included multiple and single internal reflectance modes and external reflectance (SNIFTIRS-type) mode. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (i) salts containing the -SO 2CF 3 group are much more reactive on Li than LiAsF 6. Their reduction dominates the surface chemistry developed on Li in ethereal solutions; (ii) water reduction on Li in wet 1,3-dioxolane solution may not form stable LiOH films due to the further reaction of the hydroxy group with the solvent; (iii) in spite of its low solubility, oxygen dissolved in propylene carbonate and tetrahydrofuran solutions has some impact on the surface chemistry developed on Li in these solutions (probably due to Li 2O formation).

  1. Free Surface Flows and Extensional Rheology of Polymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Biagioli, Madeleine; Estrada, Alexandro; Sharma, Vivek

    Free-surface flows - jetting, spraying, atomization during fuel injection, roller-coating, gravure printing, several microfluidic drop/particle formation techniques, and screen-printing - all involve the formation of axisymmetric fluid elements that spontaneously break into droplets by a surface-tension-driven instability. The growth of the capillary-driven instability and pinch-off dynamics are dictated by a complex interplay of inertial, viscous and capillary stresses for simple fluids. Additional contributions by elasticity, extensibility and extensional viscosity play a role for complex fluids. We show that visualization and analysis of capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics of the columnar neck in an asymmetric liquid bridge created by dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) can be used for characterizing the extensional rheology of complex fluids. Using a wide variety of complex fluids, we show the measurement of the extensional relaxation time, extensional viscosity, power-law index and shear viscosity. Lastly, we elucidate how polymer composition, flexibility, and molecular weight determine the thinning and pinch-off dynamics of polymeric complex fluids.

  2. Determination of the solubility of Np(IV), Pu(III) - (VI),Am(III) - (VI), and Te(IV), (V) hydroxo compounds in 0.5 - 14 M NaOH solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1996-09-24

    The solubilities of Am(III), Np(IV), Pu(IV), Tc(IV), Np(V), Pu(V), Am(V), and Tc(V) hydroxo compounds were studied in 0.5 to 14 M NaOH solutions at 25{+-}2 {degrees}C. The effects of fluoride, phosphate, carbonate, oxalate, and some other organic complexing agents on the solubilities of Np(IV), Pu(IV), and TC(IV) hydroxides were investigated at 1.0 and 4.0 M NAOH. Some predictions were made on the dissolved (I.V) and (V) species present in alkali solutions.

  3. Line printing solution-processable small molecules with uniform surface profile via ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Tan, Wanyi; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Line printing offers a feasible approach to remove the pixel well structure which is widely used to confine the ink-jet printed solution. In the study, a uniform line is printed by an ink-jet printer. To achieve a uniform surface profile of the printed line, 10vol% low-volatile solvent DMA (3,4-Dimethylanisole) is mixed with high-volatile solvent Pxy (p-xylene) as the solvent. After a solution-processable small molecule is dissolved, the surface tension of DMA solution becomes lower than that of Pxy solution, which creates an inward Marangoni flow during the solvent evaporation. The inward Marangoni flow balances out the outward capillary flow, thereby forming a flat film surface. The line width of the printed line depends on the contact angle of the solution on the hole injection layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An initial research on solute migration model coupled with adsorption of surface complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Tianwei; Chen Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    The influence of solution chemical action in groundwater on solute migration has attracted increasing public attention, especially adsorption action occurring on surface of solid phase and liquid phase, which has play a great role in solute migration. There are various interpretations on adsorption mechanism, in which surface complexion is one of successful hypothesis. This paper first establishes a geochemical model based on surface complexion and then coupled it with traditional advection-dispersion model to constitute a solute migration model, which can deal with surface complexion action. The simulated results fit very well with those obtained by the precursors, as compared with a published famous example, which indicates that the model set up by this paper is successful. (authors)

  5. Solubility Model for Ferrous Iron Hydroxide, Hibbingite, Siderite, and Chukanovite in High Saline Solutions of Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulfate, and Sodium Carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungtae; Marrs, Cassandra; Nemer, Martin; Jang, Jay Je-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Here, a solubility model is presented for ferrous iron hydroxide (Fe(OH) 2 (s)), hibbingite (Fe 2 Cl(OH) 3 (s)), siderite (FeCO 3 (s)), and chukanovite (Fe 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 (s)). The Pitzer activity coefficient equation was utilized in developing the model to account for the excess free energies of aqueous species in the background solutions of high ionic strength. Solubility limiting minerals were analyzed before and after experiments using X-ray diffraction. Formation of Fe(OH) 2 (s) was observed in the experiments that were initiated with Fe 2 Cl(OH) 3 (s) in Na 2 SO 4 solution. Coexistence of siderite and chukanovite was observed in the experiments in Na 2 CO 3 + NaCl solutions. Two equilibrium constants that had been reported by us for the dissolution of Fe(OH) 2 (s) and Fe 2 Cl(OH) 3 (s) (Nemer et al.) were rederived in this paper, using newer thermodynamic data selected from the literature to maintain internal consistency of the series of our data analyses in preparation, including this paper. Three additional equilibrium constants for the following reactions were determined in this paper: dissolution of siderite and chukanovite and dissociation of the aqueous species Fe(CO 3 ) 2 –2 . Five Pitzer interaction parameters were derived in this paper: β (0) , β (1) , and C φ parameters for the species pair Fe +2 /SO 4 –2 ; β (0) and β (1) parameters for the species pair Na+/Fe(CO3)2–2. Our model predicts that, among the four inorganic ferrous iron minerals, siderite is the stable mineral in two WIPP-related brines (WIPP: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), i.e., GWB and ERDA6 (Brush and Domski), and the electrochemical equilibrium between elemental iron and siderite provides a low oxygen fugacity (10 –91.2 atm) that can keep the actinides at their lowest oxidation states. (Nemer et al., Brush and Domski; references numbered 1 and 2 in the main text).

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic wood surfaces via a solution-immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Chengyu

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobic wood surfaces were fabricated from potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) through a convenient solution-immersion method. The reaction involves a hydrogen bond assembly and a polycondensation process. The silanol was formed by reacting PMS aqueous solution with CO2, which was assembled on the wood surface via hydrogen bonds with the wood surface -OH groups. The polymethylsilsesquioxane coating was obtained through the polycondensation reaction of the hydroxyl between wood and silanol. The morphology of products were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface chemical composition was determined using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and contact angle measurement. Analytical results revealed that rough protuberances uniformly covered the wood surface, thus transforming the wood surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The water contact angle of the superhydrophobic wood surface was about 153° and a sliding angle was 4.6°.

  7. Effect of electrolytes on surface tension and surface adsorption of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemian, Ensieh; Najafi, Mojgan; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Felegari, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Surface and bulk properties of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C 6 mim][Cl] as an ionic liquid (IL) have been investigated by surface tension and electrical conductivity techniques at various temperatures. Results reveal that the ionic liquid behaves as surfactant-like and aggregates in aqueous solution. Critical aggregation concentration (cac) values obtained by conductivity and surface tension measurements are in good agreement with values found in the literature. A series of important and useful adsorption parameters including cac, surface excess concentration (Γ), and minimum surface area per molecule (A min ) at the air + water interface were estimated from surface tension in the presence and absence of different electrolytes. Obtained data show that the surface tension as well as the cac of [C 6 mim][Cl] is reduced by electrolytes. Also, values of surface excess concentration (Γ) show that the IL ions in the presence of electrolyte have much larger affinity to adsorption at the surface and this affinity increased in aqueous electrolyte solution in the order of I - > Br - > Cl - for counter ion of salts that was explained in terms of a larger repulsion of chloride anions from interface to the bromide and iodide anion as well as difference in their excess polarizability.

  8. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of water-soluble L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles as fluorescence probe for detection of Hg(II) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhaoxia; Yang Hong; Zhang Yi; Yan Xiuping

    2006-01-01

    Water-soluble L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution at room temperature through a straightforward one-pot process by using safe and low-cost inorganic salts as precursors, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, spectrofluorometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrometry. The prepared L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles were evaluated as fluorescence probe for Hg(II) detection. The fluorescence quenching of the L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles depended on the concentration and pH of Hg(II) solution. Maximum fluorescence quenching was observed at pH 7.4 with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 360 nm and 495 nm, respectively. Quenching of its fluorescence due to Hg(II) at the 20 nmol l -1 level was unaffected by the presence of 5 x 10 6 -fold excesses of Na(I) and K(I), 5 x 10 5 -fold excesses of Mg(II), 5 x 10 4 -fold excesses of Ca(II), 500-fold excesses of Al(III), 91-fold excesses of Mn(II), 23.5-fold excesses of Pb(II), 25-fold excesses of Fe(III), 25-fold excesses of Ag(I), 8.5-fold excesses of Ni(II) and 5-fold excesses of Cu(II). Under optimal conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity increased linearly with the concentration of Hg(II) ranging from 16 nmol l -1 to 112 nmol l -1 . The limit of detection for Hg(II) was 2.4 nmol l -1 . The developed method was applied to the detection of trace Hg(II) in aqueous solutions

  9. Attractive forces between hydrophobic solid surfaces measured by AFM on the first approach in salt solutions and in the presence of dissolved gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mehdi; Nguyen, Anh V; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2015-02-17

    Interfacial gas enrichment of dissolved gases (IGE) has been shown to cover hydrophobic solid surfaces in water. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) data has recently been supported by molecular dynamics simulation. It was demonstrated that IGE is responsible for the unexpected stability and large contact angle of gaseous nanobubbles at the hydrophobic solid-water interface. Here we provide further evidence of the significant effect of IGE on an attractive force between hydrophobic solid surfaces in water. The force in the presence of dissolved gas, i.e., in aerated and nonaerated NaCl solutions (up to 4 M), was measured by the AFM colloidal probe technique. The effect of nanobubble bridging on the attractive force was minimized or eliminated by measuring forces on the first approach of the AFM probe toward the flat hydrophobic surface and by using high salt concentrations to reduce gas solubility. Our results confirm the presence of three types of forces, two of which are long-range attractive forces of capillary bridging origin as caused by either surface nanobubbles or gap-induced cavitation. The third type is a short-range attractive force observed in the absence of interfacial nanobubbles that is attributed to the IGE in the form of a dense gas layer (DGL) at hydrophobic surfaces. Such a force was found to increase with increasing gas saturation and to decrease with decreasing gas solubility.

  10. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  11. Invariant description of solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems in hodograph space: hydrodynamic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrodynamic surfaces are solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems viewed as non-parametrized submanifolds of the hodograph space. We propose an invariant differential-geometric characterization of hydrodynamic surfaces by expressing the curvature form of the characteristic web in terms of the reciprocal invariants. (author)

  12. Effect of pH values on surface modification and solubility of phosphate bioglass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Wenjuang; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The bioactive glass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system were synthesized by the sol-gel technique, and then chemically treated at different pH values to study the solubility and surface modification. Samples sintered at 650 °C for 4 h consisted of the crystalline phase β-Ca 2P 2O 7 and the glass matrix. After soaking in the solution at pH 1.0, the residual glass matrix on the surface appeared entirely dissolved and no new phase could be detected. Whereas at pH 3.0, web-like layer exhibiting peaks corresponding to CaP 2O 6 was formed and covered the entire surface of the sample. When conducted at pH 10.0, only part of the glass matrix was dissolved and a new phase Ca 4P 6O 19 was precipitated, forming the petaline layer. The chemical treatment can easily change the surface morphologies and phase composition of this bioactive glass-ceramics. The higher level of surface roughness resulting from the new-formed layer would improve the interface bonding and benefit for cell adhesion.

  13. Photoionization of rhodamine dyes adsorbed at the aqueous solution surfaces investigated by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Koichiro; Ishioka, Toshio; Harata, Akira; Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2002-01-01

    Photoionization spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation as a photon source was applied to the aqueous solution surfaces of rhodamine B (RhB), rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), and rhodamine 101 (Rh101) with their concentration of 0-100 μmol dm -3 . Synchrotron radiation was irradiated upon the solution surface between two electrodes in the photon energy range of 4-7 eV, and photoionization current was measured by a pico-ammeter. The photocurrent for each of the rhodamine aqueous solution surface showed an increase with the photon energy above a threshold photon energy. The photoionization threshold of RhB at the aqueous solution surface was 5.6 eV, which was smaller than that in the gas phase. The intensity of photoionization current of Rh6G was smaller than that of RhB or Rh101. Photoionization processes and the state of Rhodamine dye molecules at the aqueous solution surface were discussed in connection with results of surface tension measurements. (author)

  14. Molar Surface Gibbs Energy of the Aqueous Solution of Ionic Liquid [C4mim][Oac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jing; ZHENG Xu; TONG Jian; QU Ye; LIU Lu; LI Hui

    2017-01-01

    The values of density and surface tension for aqueous solution of ionic liquid(IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate([C4mim][OAc]) with various molalities were measured in the range of 288.15-318.15 K at intervals of 5 K.On the basis of thermodynamics,a semi-empirical model-molar surface Gibbs energy model of the ionic liquid solution that could be used to predict the surface tension or molar volume of solutions was put forward.The predicted values of the surface tension for aqueous [C4im][OAc] and the corresponding experimental ones were highly correlated and extremely similar.In terms of the concept of the molar Gibbs energy,a new E(o)tv(o)s equation was obtained and each parameter of the new equation has a clear physical meaning.

  15. Calculation of amorphous silica solubilities at 25° to 300°C and apparent cation hydration numbers in aqueous salt solutions using the concept of effective density of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Robert O.; Williams, Marshall L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous salt solutions at 25° to 300°C can be calculated using information on its solubility in pure water and a model in which the activity of water in the salt solution is defined to equal the effective density. pe, of “free” water in that solution. At temperatures of 100°C and above, pe closely equals the product of the density of the solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution. At 25°C, a correction parameter must be applied to pe that incorporates a term called the apparent cation hydration number, h. Because of the many assumptions and other uncertainties involved in determining values of h, by the model used here, the reported numbers are not necessarily real hydration numbers even though they do agree with some published values determined by activity and diffusion methods. Whether or not h is a real hydration number, it would appear to be useful in its inclusion within a more extensive activity coefficient term that describes the departure of silica solubilities in concentrated salt solutions from expected behavior according to the model presented here. Values of h can be calculated from measured amorphous silica solubilities in salt solutions at 25°C provided there is no complexing of dissolved silica with the dissolved salt, or if the degree of complexing is known. The previously postulated aqueous silica-sulfate complexing in aqueous Na2SO4 solutions is supported by results of the present effective density of water model

  16. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  17. Bioavailability of elemental iron powders to rats is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and predicted by iron solubility and particle surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James H; Newman, Samuel M; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-11-01

    Foods are fortified with elemental forms of iron to reduce iron deficiency. However, the nutritional efficacy of current, commercially produced elemental iron powders has not been verified. We determined the bioavailability of six commercial elemental iron powders and examined how physicochemistry influences bioavailability. Relative biological value (RBV) of the iron powders was determined using a hemoglobin repletion/slope ratio method, treating iron-deficient rats with repletion diets fortified with graded quantities of iron powders, bakery-grade ferrous sulfate or no added iron. Iron powders were assessed physicochemically by measuring iron solubility in hydrochloric acid at pH 1.0 and 1.7, surface area by nitrogen gas adsorption and surface microstructure by electron microscopy. Bioavailability from the iron powders, based on absolute iron intake, was significantly less than from FeSO4 (100%; P Electrolytic (54%; A-131, U.S.) > Electrolytic (46%; Electrolytic Iron, India) > H-Reduced (42%; AC-325, U.S.) > Reduced (24%; ATOMET 95SP, Canada) > CO-Reduced (21%; RSI-325, Sweden). Solubility testing of the iron powders resulted in different relative rankings and better RBV predictability with increasing time at pH 1.7 (R2 = 0.65 at 150 min). The prediction was improved with less time and lower pH (R2 = 0.82, pH 1.0 at 30 min). Surface area, ranging from 90 to 370 m2/kg, was also highly predictive of RBV (R2 = 0.80). Bioavailability of iron powders is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and varies up to three times among different commercial forms. Solubility at pH 1.0 and surface area were predictive of iron bioavailability in rats.

  18. Surface modification of polystyrene with atomic oxygen radical anions-dissolved solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lian; Yan Lifeng; Zhao Peitao; Torimoto, Yoshifumi; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Li Quanxin

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to surface modification of polystyrene (PS) polymer with atomic oxygen radical anions-dissolved solution (named as O - water) has been investigated. The O - water, generated by bubbling of the O - (atomic oxygen radical anion) flux into the deionized water, was characterized by UV-absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The O - water treatments caused an obvious increase of the surface hydrophilicity, surface energy, surface roughness and also caused an alteration of the surface chemical composition for PS surfaces, which were indicated by the variety of contact angle and material characterization by atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Particularly, it was found that some hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl (OH) and carbonyl (C=O) groups were introduced onto the polystyrene surfaces via the O - water treatment, leading to the increases of surface hydrophilicity and surface energy. The active oxygen species would react with the aromatic ring molecules on the PS surfaces and decompose the aromatic compounds to produce hydrophilic hydroxyl and carbonyl compounds. In addition, the O - water is also considered as a 'clean solution' without adding any toxic chemicals and it is easy to be handled at room temperature. Present method may suit to the surface modification of polymers and other heat-sensitive materials potentially

  19. Simulated flow and solute transport, and mitigation of a hypothetical soluble-contaminant spill for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, to investigate the transport and factors affecting mitigation of a hypothetical spill of a soluble contaminant into the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. The study reach, 53 miles of the lower New River between Hinton and Fayette, is characterized as a pool-and-riffle stream that becomes narrower, steeper, and deeper in the downstream direction. A USGS unsteady-flow model, DAFLOW (Diffusion Analogy FLOW), and a USGS solute-transport model, BLTM (Branch Lagrangian Transport Model), were applied to the study reach. Increases in discharge caused decreases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. Decreases in discharge caused increases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. This study indicated that the effects of an accidental spill could be mitigated by regulating discharge from Bluestone Dam. Knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the spill, location and time of the spill, and discharge of the river can aid in determining a mitigation response.

  20. Iterative discrete ordinates solution of the equation for surface-reflected radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of numerical solution of the integral equation for the radiance reflected from an anisotropic surface. The equation relates the radiance at the surface level with BRDF and solutions of the standard radiative transfer problems for a slab with no reflection on its surfaces. It is also shown that the kernel of the equation satisfies the condition of the existence of a unique solution and the convergence of the successive approximations to that solution. The developed method features two basic steps: discretization on a 2D quadrature, and solving the resulting system of algebraic equations with successive over-relaxation method based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Presented numerical examples show good coincidence between the surface-reflected radiance obtained with DISORT and the proposed method. Analysis of contributions of the direct and diffuse (but not yet reflected) parts of the downward radiance to the total solution is performed. Together, they represent a very good initial guess for the iterative process. This fact ensures fast convergence. The numerical evidence is given that the fastest convergence occurs with the relaxation parameter of 1 (no relaxation). An integral equation for BRDF is derived as inversion of the original equation. The potential of this new equation for BRDF retrievals is analyzed. The approach is found not viable as the BRDF equation appears to be an ill-posed problem, and it requires knowledge the surface-reflected radiance on the entire domain of both Sun and viewing zenith angles.

  1. Thermodynamic functions for solubility of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in nine organic solvents from T = (283.15 to 318.15) K and apparent thermodynamic properties of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinbao; Wang, Mingju; Du, Cunbin; Cong, Yang; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in nine organic solvents were determined. • The solubilities were correlated by using four thermodynamic models. • The mixing properties of solution were computed based on Wilson model. - Abstract: Separation of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid from its isomeric mixtures has essential significance in industry. In this work, by using isothermal saturation method, the solid-liquid equilibrium for 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in nine organic solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, 1,4-dioxane and 2-butanone) were obtained experimentally within a temperature range from (283.15 to 318.15) K under atmosphere pressure of 101.2 kPa, and the solubility values of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in these solvents were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. Within the studied temperature range, the mole fraction solubility of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in selected organic solvents increased with increasing temperature. Except for ethyl acetate, the descending order of the mole fraction solubility values were as follow: 1,4-dioxane > acetone > 2-butanone > methanol > ethanol > isopropanol > n-propanol > acetonitrile. The solubility values determined for 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in the selected solvents were correlated and back calculated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model. The largest values of RAD and RMSD obtained with the four models were 0.67% and 4.02 × 10 −4 , respectively. In general, the four thermodynamic models were all acceptable for describing the solubility behaviour of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid in these solvents. In addition, the apparent mixing Gibbs energy, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy, activity coefficient at infinitesimal concentration and reduced excess enthalpy were calculated. The acquired solubility data and thermodynamic studies would be very important in optimizing the separation process of 3-nitro-o-toluic acid from

  2. Solubility determination and thermodynamic modelling of allisartan isoproxil in different binary solvent mixtures from T = (278.15 to 313.15) K and mixing properties of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yaoyao; Yang, Peng; Du, Shichao; Li, Kangli; Zhao, Kaifei; Xu, Shijie; Hou, Baohong; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of allisartan isoproxil in binary solvent mixtures were determined. • Apelblat, CNIBS/R-K and Jouyban-Acree models were used to correlate the solubility. • Solubility parameter theory was used to explain the co-solvency phenomenon. • Regular mixing rules were used to calculate solubility parameter of binary solvents. • The mixing thermodynamics were calculated and discussed based on NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solubility of allisartan isoproxil in binary solvent mixtures, including (acetone + water), (acetonitrile + water) and (methanol + water), was determined by a gravimetric method with the temperature ranging from (278.15 to 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa). The solubility of allisartan isoproxil in three binary solvent mixtures all increased with the rising of temperature at a constant solvent composition. For the binary solvent mixtures of (methanol + water), the solubility increased with the increasing of methanol fraction, while it appeared maximum value at a certain solvent composition in the other two binary solvent mixtures (acetone + water and acetonitrile + water). Based on the theory of solubility parameter, Fedors method and two mixing rules were employed to calculate the solubility parameters, by which the proximity of solubility parameters between allisartan isoproxil and binary solvent mixtures explained the co-solvent phenomenon. Additionally, the modified Apelblat equation, CNIBS/R-K model and Jouyban-Acree model were used to correlate the solubility data in binary solvent mixtures, and it turned out that all the three correlation models could give a satisfactory result. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamic properties were calculated based on NRTL model, which indicated that the mixing process was spontaneous and exothermic.

  3. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solution-Processed Organic and Halide Perovskite Transistors on Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeremy W; Smith, Hannah L; Zeidell, Andrew; Diemer, Peter J; Baker, Stephen R; Lee, Hyunsu; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Guthold, Martin; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-05-31

    Solution-processable electronic devices are highly desirable due to their low cost and compatibility with flexible substrates. However, they are often challenging to fabricate due to the hydrophobic nature of the surfaces of the constituent layers. Here, we use a protein solution to modify the surface properties and to improve the wettability of the fluoropolymer dielectric Cytop. The engineered hydrophilic surface is successfully incorporated in bottom-gate solution-deposited organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite field-effect transistors (HTP-FETs) fabricated on flexible substrates. Our analysis of the density of trapping states at the semiconductor-dielectric interface suggests that the increase in the trap density as a result of the chemical treatment is minimal. As a result, the devices exhibit good charge carrier mobilities, near-zero threshold voltages, and low electrical hysteresis.

  5. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished.

  6. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished. 40 references

  7. Effect of a New Surface Treatment Solution on the Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner...Solution on the Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel ABSTRACT Clean & Boost (Apex Dental Materials) is a novel surface treatment solution...designed to be used in place of phosphoric acid to increase the bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel and more effectively remove contaminants

  8. Cross Validation Through Two-Dimensional Solution Surface for Cost-Sensitive SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Tay, Keng Yeow; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2017-06-01

    Model selection plays an important role in cost-sensitive SVM (CS-SVM). It has been proven that the global minimum cross validation (CV) error can be efficiently computed based on the solution path for one parameter learning problems. However, it is a challenge to obtain the global minimum CV error for CS-SVM based on one-dimensional solution path and traditional grid search, because CS-SVM is with two regularization parameters. In this paper, we propose a solution and error surfaces based CV approach (CV-SES). More specifically, we first compute a two-dimensional solution surface for CS-SVM based on a bi-parameter space partition algorithm, which can fit solutions of CS-SVM for all values of both regularization parameters. Then, we compute a two-dimensional validation error surface for each CV fold, which can fit validation errors of CS-SVM for all values of both regularization parameters. Finally, we obtain the CV error surface by superposing K validation error surfaces, which can find the global minimum CV error of CS-SVM. Experiments are conducted on seven datasets for cost sensitive learning and on four datasets for imbalanced learning. Experimental results not only show that our proposed CV-SES has a better generalization ability than CS-SVM with various hybrids between grid search and solution path methods, and than recent proposed cost-sensitive hinge loss SVM with three-dimensional grid search, but also show that CV-SES uses less running time.

  9. Volumetric interpretation of protein adsorption: interfacial packing of protein adsorbed to hydrophobic surfaces from surface-saturating solution concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ping; Parhi, Purnendu; Krishnan, Anandi; Noh, Hyeran; Haider, Waseem; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Allara, David L; Vogler, Erwin A

    2011-02-01

    The maximum capacity of a hydrophobic adsorbent is interpreted in terms of square or hexagonal (cubic and face-centered-cubic, FCC) interfacial packing models of adsorbed blood proteins in a way that accommodates experimental measurements by the solution-depletion method and quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM) for the human proteins serum albumin (HSA, 66 kDa), immunoglobulin G (IgG, 160 kDa), fibrinogen (Fib, 341 kDa), and immunoglobulin M (IgM, 1000 kDa). A simple analysis shows that adsorbent capacity is capped by a fixed mass/volume (e.g. mg/mL) surface-region (interphase) concentration and not molar concentration. Nearly analytical agreement between the packing models and experiment suggests that, at surface saturation, above-mentioned proteins assemble within the interphase in a manner that approximates a well-ordered array. HSA saturates a hydrophobic adsorbent with the equivalent of a single square or hexagonally-packed layer of hydrated molecules whereas the larger proteins occupy two-or-more layers, depending on the specific protein under consideration and analytical method used to measure adsorbate mass (solution depletion or QCM). Square or hexagonal (cubic and FCC) packing models cannot be clearly distinguished by comparison to experimental data. QCM measurement of adsorbent capacity is shown to be significantly different than that measured by solution depletion for similar hydrophobic adsorbents. The underlying reason is traced to the fact that QCM measures contribution of both core protein, water of hydration, and interphase water whereas solution depletion measures only the contribution of core protein. It is further shown that thickness of the interphase directly measured by QCM systematically exceeds that inferred from solution-depletion measurements, presumably because the static model used to interpret solution depletion does not accurately capture the complexities of the viscoelastic interfacial environment probed by QCM. Copyright © 2010

  10. Experiment and model for the surface tension of amine–ionic liquids aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Du, LeiXia; Fu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface tensions of MEA/DEA–ionic liquids aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using a thermodynamic equation. • The temperature dependence of the surface tension was illustrated. • The effects of the mass fractions of MEA/DEA and ionic liquids were demonstrated. - Abstract: The surface tension (γ) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF 4 ])–monoethanolamine (MEA), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim][Br])–MEA, [Bmim][BF 4 ]–diethanolamine (DEA) and [Bmim][Br]–DEA aqueous solutions was measured by using the BZY-1 surface tension meter. The temperature ranged from (293.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction of amines and ionic liquids (ILS) respectively ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and 0.05 to 0.10. A thermodynamic equation was proposed to model the surface tension of amines–ILS aqueous solutions and the calculated results agreed well with the experiments. The effects of temperature, mass fraction of amines and ILS on the surface tension were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations

  11. Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail: mateome@cab.inta-csic.es

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions.

  12. Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions

  13. Optimized Hypernetted-Chain Solutions for Helium -4 Surfaces and Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guo-Xin

    This thesis is a study of inhomogeneous Bose systems such as liquid ('4)He slabs and inhomogeneous Fermi systems such as the electron gas in metal films, at zero temperature. Using a Jastrow-type many-body wavefunction, the ground state energy is expressed by means of Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood -Yvon and Hypernetted-Chain techniques. For Bose systems, Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for the one- and two -body functions and systematic approximation methods are physically motivated. It is shown that the optimized variational method includes a self-consistent summation of ladder- and ring-diagrams of conventional many-body theory. For Fermi systems, a linear potential model is adopted to generate the optimized Hartree-Fock basis. Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for the two-body correlations which serve to screen the strong bare Coulomb interaction. The optimization of the pair correlation leads to an expression of correlation energy in which the state averaged RPA part is separated. Numerical applications are presented for the density profile and pair distribution function for both ('4)He surfaces and metal surfaces. Both the bulk and surface energies are calculated in good agreement with experiments.

  14. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  15. Nanoshaving and Nanografting of Water Soluble Polymers on Glass and Silicon Dioxide Surfaces with Applications to DNA Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Ochoa, Rosie; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Here we present a scanning probe lithography technique that allows for patterning of aqueous polymers on glass or silicon dioxide surfaces. The surfaces were functionalized by covalently bonding a silane monolayer with a known surface charge to either a glass slide or a silicon wafer. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer, passivating the functionalized surface. An Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) probe was used to remove a portion of the polymer layer, exposing the functional silane layer underneath. Employing this method we made chemically active submicron regions. These regions were backfilled with a fluorescent polymer and Lambda-DNA. Chemical differentiation was verified through tapping mode AFM and optical fluorescent microscopy. Lines with a pitch as small as 20nm were observed with AFM height and phase mode data.

  16. Sulfidic photochemical passivation of GaAs surfaces in alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsmeier, T.; Ivankov, A.; Bauhofer, W.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a remarkable enhancement of the passivation effect of sulfidic solutions through illumination with above band gap light. Luminescence measurements on GaAs surfaces which have been illuminated during chemical passivation reveal in comparison to nonilluminated samples a further reduction of their surface density of states as well as a significantly increased stability of the passivation. Investigations with photoelectron spectroscopy show that illumination leads to a nearly complete removal of oxides on the surface. Measurements on Schottky diodes which have been manufactured with photochemically passivated GaAs indicate a noticeable decrease in band bending and a depinning of the Fermi level

  17. Studies for the use of water soluble chelating polymer in ultra-filtration technique for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, S.K.; Mahatele, A.K.; Tripathi, S.C.; Vijayan, K.; Munshi, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out for the removal of uranium from aqueous medium using water soluble chelating polymer by ultra-filtration technique. The water soluble polymers are the option for the surfactants used in the micellar enhanced ultra-filtration technique. More than 95% separation of uranium carried out under different experimental conditions, suggest that the technique can be effectively employed for the removal uranium from the aqueous effluent streams. (author)

  18. Effect of solution chemistry on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate onto mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuyang Y; Shiang Fu, Q; Gao, Dawen; Criddle, Craig S; Leckie, James O

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an emergent contaminant of substantial environmental concerns, yet very limited information has been available on PFOS adsorption onto mineral surfaces. PFOS adsorption onto goethite and silica was investigated by batch adsorption experiments under various solution compositions. Adsorption onto silica was only marginally affected by pH, ionic strength, and calcium concentration, likely due to the dominance of non-electrostatic interactions. In contrast, PFOS uptake by goethite increased significantly at high [H+] and [Ca2+], which was likely due to enhanced electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and positively charged goethite surface. The effect of pH was less significant at high ionic strength, likely due to electrical double layer compression. PFOS uptake was reduced at higher ionic strength for a strongly positively charged goethite surface (pH 3), while it increased for a weakly charged surface (pH 7 and 9), which could be attributed to the competition between PFOS-surface electrostatic attraction and PFOS-PFOS electrostatic repulsion. A conceptual model that captures PFOS-surface and PFOS-PFOS electrostatic interactions as well as non-electrostatic interaction was also formulated to understand the effect of solution chemistry on PFOS adsorption onto goethite and silica surfaces. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Protein Adsorption of Titanium Surface by Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel and convenient method of chemical treatment to modify the hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA titanium surfaces and machined titanium surfaces were treated with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solution. The wetting behavior of both kinds of surfaces was measured by water contact angle (WCA test. The surface microstructure was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D optical microscopy. The elemental compositions of the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The protein adsorption analysis was performed with fibronectin. Results showed that, after 1 M NaHCO3 treatment, the hydrophilicity of both SLA and machined surfaces was enhanced. No significant microstructural change presented on titanium surfaces after NaHCO3 treatment. The deprotonation and ion exchange activities might cause the enhanced hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. The increased protein adsorption of NaHCO3-treated SLA surfaces might indicate their improved tissue-integration in clinical use.

  20. Surface tension anomalies in room temperature ionic liquids-acetone solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Murata, Keisuke; Kiyokawa, Shota; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Surface tension anomalies were observed in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-acetone solutions. The RTILs are 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazorium iodide with [Cnmim][I] in a [Cnmim][I]-x mol% acetone. The maximum value of the surface tension appeared at 40 mol% acetone, although density decreased monotonically with an increase in acetone concentration. A small alkyl chain length effect of the Cnmim+ cations was observed in the surface tension. By the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, it was found that I- anion-mediated surface structure became dominant above 40 mol%. In the different [Cnmim][TFSI]-acetone mixtures, normal decay of the surface tension was observed on the acetone concentration scale, where TFSI- is bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

  1. Solubility of uranovanadates of the series A2+(VUO6)2 · nH2O (A2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb) in water or aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernorukov, N.G.; Sulejmanov, E.V.; Nipruk, O.V.; Lizunova, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Solubility of uranovanadates of the series A 2+ (VUO 6 ) 2 · nH 2 O (A 2+ - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb) in water and aqueous solutions of inorganic acids at 25 deg C and different pH values was determined experimentally. The data obtained permitted calculation the Gibbs standard functions of formation and consideration of their state under conditions that were not studied experimentally, in the presence of carbon dioxide, in particular [ru

  2. Review on theoretical calculation of the magnetite solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myongjin; Kim, Hongpyo

    2013-01-01

    FAC is influenced by many factors such as water chemistry (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (D. O.) in a solution, and etc.), chemical composition of carbon steel, and fluid dynamics. Magnetite is formed at the inner surface of carbon steel, and protects the integrity of pipes from the damage. The magnetite has a stable state at each equilibrium condition, so that it can be dissolved into the fluid under conditions that satisfy the equilibrium state. The iron solubility can be calculated by considering the reaction equilibrium constants for prediction of a change in the magnetite layer. In the present work, studies on the magnetite solubility were reviewed for the theoretical calculation of magnetite, and iron solubility data were compared to find the proper solubility values of each study

  3. Manufacture of nanosized apatite coatings on titanium with different surface treatments using a supersaturated calcification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Paz Ramos

    Full Text Available The biomimetic method is used for the deposition of calcium phosphate coatings (Ca - P on the surface of different biomaterials. However, the application of this method requires long exposure times in order to obtain a suitable layer thickness for its use in medical devices. In this paper, we present a fast approach to obtain apatite coatings on titanium, using a combination of supersaturated calcification solution (SCS with chemical modification of the titanium surface. Also, it was evaluated the effect of four different surface treatments on the apatite deposition rate. Commercially pure titanium plates were activated by chemical or thermochemical treatments. Then, the activated samples were immersed in a solution with high content of calcium and phosphate ions at 37 ºC for 24 h, mimicking the physiological conditions. The coatings were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The use of SCS solutions allowed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite coatings within a period of 24 h with a thickness between 1 and 5.3 µm. Besides, precipitates of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a globular configuration, forming aggregates with submicrometer size, were found in SCS solutions.

  4. Characterization of surface processes on mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Annual report for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1993-11-01

    Performance assessments by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are being done investigating the environmental risk related to long-term disposal of hazardous wastes resulting from the use of radioactive materials that must subsequently be isolated from the environment. The YMP site, located in southwestern Nevada, is intended for the storage of high-level wastes generated by nuclear energy-related activities, including spent fuel and waste from reprocessed fuel rods. The work covered by this contract is necessary for producing a defensible model and dataset, and may be critical for evaluation of repository compliance. This work, performed by the Environmental Engineering and Science research group at Stanford University, will quantify the adsorption of uranyl on various minerals. The project's principle objective is to provide sorption coefficients for uranyl and other ions of interest to predict radionuclide movements form the repository to accessible environments. This adsorption data is essential for the unambiguous interpretation of field experiments and observations. In this report, details of the activity and progress made with respect to the study of uranyl adsorption on mineral surfaces is presented and discussed

  5. Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A model for trace metals that considers in-stream transport, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption is presented. Linkage between a surface complexation submodel and the stream transport equations provides a framework for modeling sorption onto static and/or dynamic surfaces. A static surface (e.g., an iron- oxide-coated streambed) is defined as a surface with a temporally constant solid concentration. Limited contact between solutes in the water column and the static surface is considered using a pseudokinetic approach. A dynamic surface (e.g., freshly precipitated metal oxides) has a temporally variable solid concentration and is in equilibrium with the water column. Transport and deposition of solute mass sorbed to the dynamic surface is represented in the stream transport equations that include precipitate settling. The model is applied to a pH-modification experiment in an acid mine drainage stream. Dissolved copper concentrations were depressed for a 3 hour period in response to the experimentally elevated pH. After passage of the pH front, copper was desorbed, and dissolved concentrations returned to ambient levels. Copper sorption is modeled by considering sorption to aged hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) on the streambed (static surface) and freshly precipitated HFO in the water column (dynamic surface). Comparison of parameter estimates with reported values suggests that naturally formed iron oxides may be more effective in removing trace metals than synthetic oxides used in laboratory studies. The model's ability to simulate pH, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between trace metal chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale.

  6. Surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in antiseptic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yuliati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid ionomer cement or resin modified glass ionomer cement is a developed form of conventional glass ionomer cement. This hybrid ionomer cement can be eroded if in direct contact with acid solution which will affect surface hardness. The aim of this study is to learn surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in methyl salicylate 0.06% (pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% (pH 2.9 solution. Sample of hybrid ionomer cement with 5 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness was immersed in sterile aquadest solution (control, methyl salicylate pH 3.6, povidon iodine pH 2.9 for 1 minute, 7 and 14 minutes. Surface hardness was measured with Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. The obtained data was analyzed statistically with ANOVA followed by LSD test. The result of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in sterile aquadest, methyl salicylate 0.06% pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 for one minute, showed no significant difference; while immersion for 7 and 14 minutes showed a significant difference. The conclusion states that hybrid ionomer cement after 14 minutes immersion in povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 has the lowest surface hardness.

  7. Experimental determination of the hydrolysis constants of Pt sup 2+ and Pd sup 2+ at 25C from the solubility of Pt and PD in aqueous hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, S.A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    The solubilities of Pt and Pd metal were measured at 25C in 10{sup {minus}4} to 10.0 molal NaOH solutions under a reduced oxygen atmosphere in order to determine the stoichiometry and stability constants for Pt and Pd hydroxide complexes. Equilibration times of over one year were employed. The Pd data are consistent with the existence of Pd(OH){sub 2}{sup 0}(aq) from pH 9 to 12 and Pd(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}} from pH 12 to 15.5. No conclusive evidence for a Pd(OH){sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} complex was obtained, but the data do not preclude its existence at high pH. For Pt, the data are consistent with a single complex for pH = 9 to 15.5, i.e., Pt(OH){sub 2}{sup 0}(aq). A graphical treatment of the data yields the following cumulative stability constants: log {beta}{sub 2} = 18.9 {plus minus} 1.0 and log {beta}{sub 3} = 20.9 {plus minus} 1.0 for Pd and log {beta}{sub 2} = 29.9 {plus minus} 1.0 for Pt. The stepwise stability constant for Pd(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}} log K{sub 3} = 2.0 is in relatively good agreement with that derived from data in the literature (log K{sub 3} = 1.8). However, the cumulative stability constants for Pd measured in this work are considerably smaller than those reported in the literature. The log{beta}{sub 2} = 29.9 {plus minus} 1.0 value measured for Pt compares relatively well with a theoretically estimated value of 28.3. The data suggest that the predominant inorganic form of Pt and Pd in freshwaters may be the neutral hydroxide species. In seawater, the hydroxide complex of Pt is also predicted to predominate over the chloride complex, but, in the case of Pd, the hydroxide complex appears to be less stable and it is presently not clear whether the chloride or the hydroxide complex will predominate. In fluids responsible for serpentinization, Pt and Pd may also be mobilized as hydroxide complexes.

  8. The distribution of soluble radionuclide-relevant trace elements between salt minerals and saline solutions; Die Verteilung loeslicher Radionuklid-relevanter Spurenelemente zwischen Salzmineralen und salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Ina

    2015-07-16

    The research platform ENTRIA (Disposal options for radioactive residues Interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation principles) includes the sub-project ''Final disposal in deep geological formations without any arrangements for retrieval''. This approach considers rock salt (beside clay and granite) as host rock formation for disposal of heat-producing long-live waste. Most rock salt formations contain Mg-rich brines derived from highly evolved sea water evaporation processes now included in the rock salt mass. If such brines get access to metal-canister corrosion will allow release of soluble nuclides to the brine. In this scenario, it cannot be excluded that contaminated brines leave the deep seated disposal area and move along geological or technical migration pathways towards the rock salt/cap rock contact. The temperature of the brine will drop from near 80 C to 25 or 30 C. The deceasing temperature of the brine causes precipitation of magnesian chloride and sulfate phase in equilibrium with the brine. In order to understand the salt precipitation and the retention mechanism of dissolved trace elements experiments have been set up which allow formation of sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and hydrous Mg-sulphates under controlled conditions. The retention capacity of crystallizing salt minerals based occurring in magnesian brine solutions at decreasing temperature within a salt dome is best measured as the distribution coefficient D. This concept assumes incorporation of trace elements into the lattice of salt minerals. The distribution coefficients of the trace elements, Rb, Cs, Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B between sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and MgSO{sub 4} phases have been determined at experimental temperatures of 25, 35, 55 and 83 C. The results clearly indicate the following range of distribution coefficients (D): Sylvite D > 1 Rb and Br, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Carnallite D > 1 Rb and Cs, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Kainite D

  9. In vitro dynamic solubility test: influence of various parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thélohan, S; de Meringo, A

    1994-10-01

    This article discusses the dissolution of mineral fibers in simulated physiological fluids (SPF), and the parameters that affect the solubility measurement in a dynamic test where an SPF runs through a cell containing fibers (Scholze and Conradt test). Solutions simulate either the extracellular fluid (pH 7.6) or the intracellular fluid (pH 4.5). The fibers have various chemical compositions and are either continuously drawn or processed as wool. The fiber solubility is determined by the amount of SiO2 (and occasionally other ions) released in the solution. Results are stated as percentage of the initial silica content released or as dissolution rate v in nm/day. The reproducibility of the test is higher with the less soluble fibers (10% solubility), than with highly soluble fibers (20% solubility). The influence of test parameters, including SPF, test duration, and surface area/volume (SA/V), has been studied. The pH and the inorganic buffer salts have a major influence: industrial glasswool composition is soluble at pH 7.6 but not at pH 4.5. The opposite is true for rock- (basalt) wool composition. For slightly soluble fibers, the dissolution rate v remains constant with time, whereas for highly soluble fibers, the dissolution rate decreases rapidly. The dissolution rates believed to occur are v1, initial dissolution rate, and v2, dissolution rate of the residual fibers. The SA of fibers varies with the mass of the fibers tested, or with the fiber diameter at equal mass. Volume, V, is the chosen flow rate. An increase in the SA/V ratio leads to a decrease in the dissolution rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Concentration Dependences of the Surface Tension and Density of Solutions of Acetone-Ethanol-Water Systems at 293 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Mezhidov, V. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Concentration dependences of the surface tension and density of solutions of three-component acetone-ethanol-water systems and the bounding binary systems at 273 K are studied. The molar volume, adsorption, and composition of surface layers are calculated. Experimental data and calculations show that three-component solutions are close to ideal ones. The surface tensions of these solutions are calculated using semi-empirical and theoretical equations. Theoretical equations qualitatively convey the concentration dependence of surface tension. A semi-empirical method based on the Köhler equation allows us to predict the concentration dependence of surface tension within the experimental error.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of Greek dolomitic marble surface interacted with uranium and thorium in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godelitsas, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Misaelides, P.

    2008-01-01

    The surface of a typical Greek (Thassian) dolomitic marble was studied after interaction with U- and Th-containing aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L, free-drift experiments for 1 week at atmospheric P CO 2 ), using 12 C-RBS and Laser μ-Raman spectroscopy. Powder-XRD and SEM-EDS were also applied to investigate the phases deposited on the surface of the interacted samples. The obtained results indicated a considerable removal of U from the aqueous medium mainly due to massive surface precipitation of amorphous UO 2 -hydroxide phases forming a relatively thick (μm-sized) coating on the carbonate substrate. The interaction of Th with dolomitic marble surface is also intense leading to a formation of an amorphous Th-hydroxide layer of similar thickness but of significantly lower elemental atomic proportion

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of Greek dolomitic marble surface interacted with uranium and thorium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godelitsas, A. [Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, 15784 Zographou, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr; Kokkoris, M. [School of Applied Mathematics and Physics, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zographou, Athens (Greece); Chatzitheodoridis, E. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zographou, Athens (Greece); Misaelides, P. [Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    The surface of a typical Greek (Thassian) dolomitic marble was studied after interaction with U- and Th-containing aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L, free-drift experiments for 1 week at atmospheric P{sub CO{sub 2}}), using {sup 12}C-RBS and Laser {mu}-Raman spectroscopy. Powder-XRD and SEM-EDS were also applied to investigate the phases deposited on the surface of the interacted samples. The obtained results indicated a considerable removal of U from the aqueous medium mainly due to massive surface precipitation of amorphous UO{sub 2}-hydroxide phases forming a relatively thick ({mu}m-sized) coating on the carbonate substrate. The interaction of Th with dolomitic marble surface is also intense leading to a formation of an amorphous Th-hydroxide layer of similar thickness but of significantly lower elemental atomic proportion.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of Greek dolomitic marble surface interacted with uranium and thorium in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godelitsas, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Misaelides, P.

    2008-05-01

    The surface of a typical Greek (Thassian) dolomitic marble was studied after interaction with U- and Th-containing aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L, free-drift experiments for 1 week at atmospheric PCO2), using 12C-RBS and Laser μ-Raman spectroscopy. Powder-XRD and SEM-EDS were also applied to investigate the phases deposited on the surface of the interacted samples. The obtained results indicated a considerable removal of U from the aqueous medium mainly due to massive surface precipitation of amorphous UO2-hydroxide phases forming a relatively thick (μm-sized) coating on the carbonate substrate. The interaction of Th with dolomitic marble surface is also intense leading to a formation of an amorphous Th-hydroxide layer of similar thickness but of significantly lower elemental atomic proportion.

  14. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  15. Process of treating surfaces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Murao, A.; Kuwahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    Both higher corrosion resistance and paint adherence are given to films formed on the surfaces of metals by treating the surfaces with aqueous solutions of one or more materials selected from the group consisting of water soluble vinyl monomer or water soluble high polymer and then irradiating with ionizing radioactive rays on the nearly dried surface film. When a water soluble inorganic compound is mixed with the above mentioned aqueous solution, the film properties are greatly improved. The inorganic ionic material should contain a cation from the group consisting of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cr, Al, Fe, and Ni. Electron beams may be used. (U.S.)

  16. Effects of Crystallinity, Composition, and Texture on Hydrogen Solubility and Adsorption in Lunar Surface Materials and their Relevance to Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, M. D.; Hibbitts, C.; Orlando, T. M.; Poston, M.; Grieves, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Abundant spacecraft data now demonstrate the presence of features associated with H on the lunar surface. The origin of that lunar H, whether as OH or H2O, is some combination of endogenic (juvenile) sources in the interiors of planetary materials and those resulting from exogenic deposition such as from the solar wind or comets. The ability of mineral (rock) and glass surfaces to internally host and surficially adsorb H is a function of several interrelated variables -- composition, crystallinity, and texture -- all of which will have an effect on observed band depth in remote sensing measurements. Studies of terrestrial materials show that the ability of nominally-anhydrous minerals to host H is related to composition in ways that reflect partition coefficients for H between melt and mineral, variations in bond strengths, and defect densities. This is important because the ability of a mineral to adsorb water on its exterior surface (chemisorption) should be related to some of the same factors that govern 'solubility' of H in the interiors of different mineral groups and compositions. IR signatures of internal OH/H2O can easily be confused with those of adsorbed OH/H2O. No correlation between H solubility and surface adsorptivity is observed in pristine glasses, which generally have passivated bonds on the surface and are hydrophobic. However, on the Moon, glass 'matures' rapidly via micrometeorite bombardment, potentially exposing dangling bonds on the surface that provide sites for H to adsorb. Unlike glasses, crystalline materials provide both defect lattice sites and dangling bonds on freshly-fractured surfaces that may enhance H adsorption. For example, bonding on mineral surfaces ranges from hydrogen bonding at non-lattice oxygen atoms (electronegative sites) to chemisorption at electropositive surface sites, such as structural defects or unsatisfied cations. Moreover, glasses and different mineral species also have different optical absorption coefficients

  17. Surface characterisation of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber upon exposure to aqueous acidic solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, P.

    2006-01-01

    but significantly different with respect to molar mass and the presence of long chain branching. Both rubbers contained 5-ethylidene-2-norbomene (ENB) as diene. Solution cast films of pure EPDM samples were exposed in two different acidic solutions, viz. chromosulphuric (Cr (VI)/H2SO4) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4....... Furthermore, 20% Cr (VI)/H2SO4 also attacked the allylic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds of ENB resulting in more oxygenated species on the surface compared to 20% H2SO4 under identical conditions. Cr (VI) in the 20% Cr (VI)/H2SO4 was found to play an important role in alteration of surface chemistry. Studies...

  18. Temperature duality on Riemann surface and cosmological solutions for genus g = 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Wang Shunjin

    1999-01-01

    A bosonic string model at finite temperature on the gravitation g μν and the dilaton φ background field is examined. Moreover, the duality relation of energy momentum tensor on high genus Riemann surface is derived. At the same time, the temperature duality invariance for the action of string gas matter is proved in 4-D Robertson-Walker metric, the string cosmological solutions and temperature duality of the equations of motion for genus g = 1 and 2 are also investigated

  19. Solution of volume-surface integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...... with the analytical Mie series solution. Scattering by more complex metal-dielectric objects are also considered to compare the presented technique with other numerical methods....

  20. Salt effects on the air/solution interfacial properties of PEO-containing copolymers: equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and surface rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Sara; Mendoza, Alma J; Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2013-06-15

    Lithium cations are known to form complexes with the oxygen atoms of poly(oxyethylene) chains. The effect of Li(+) on the surface properties of three block-copolymers containing poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) have been studied. Two types of copolymers have been studied, a water soluble one of the pluronic family, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO, PPO being poly(propyleneoxyde), and two water insoluble ones: PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, PS being polystyrene. In the case of the pluronic the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the aqueous/air surface rheology have been measured, while for the two insoluble copolymers only the surface pressure and the surface rheology have been studied. In all the cases two different Li(+) concentrations have been used. As in the absence of lithium ions, the adsorption kinetics of pluronic solutions shows two processes, and becomes faster as [Li(+)] increases. The kinetics is not diffusion controlled. For a given pluronic concentration the equilibrium surface pressure increases with [Li(+)], and the isotherms show two surface phase transitions, though less marked than for [Li(+)]=0. A similar behavior was found for the equilibrium isotherms of PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO. The surface elasticity of these two copolymers was found to increase with [Li(+)] over the whole surface concentration and frequency ranges studied. A smaller effect was found in the case of the pluronic solutions. The results of the pluronic solutions were modeled using a recent theory that takes into account that the molecules can be adsorbed at the surface in two different states. The theory gives a good fit for the adsorption kinetics and a reasonably good prediction of the equilibrium isotherms for low and intermediate concentrations of pluronic. However, the theory is not able to reproduce the isotherm for [Li(+)]=0. Only a semi-quantitative prediction of the surface elasticity is obtained for [pluronic]≤1×10(-3) mM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Relationship between metal speciation in soil solution and metal adsorption at the root surface of ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalis, Erwin J J; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Town, Raewyn M; Unsworth, Emily R; van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2008-01-01

    The total metal content of the soil or total metal concentration in the soil solution is not always a good indicator for metal availability to plants. Therefore, several speciation techniques have been developed that measure a defined fraction of the total metal concentration in the soil solution. In this study the Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) was used to measure free metal ion concentrations in CaCl(2) extractions (to mimic the soil solution, and to work under standardized conditions) of 10 different soils, whereas diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and scanning chronopotentiometry (SCP) were used to measure the sum of free and labile metal concentrations in the CaCl(2) extracts. The DGT device was also exposed directly to the (wetted) soil (soil-DGT). The metal concentrations measured with the speciation techniques are related to the metal adsorption at the root surface of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), to be able to subsequently predict metal uptake. In most cases the metal adsorption related pH-dependently to the metal concentrations measured by DMT, SCP, and DGT in the CaCl(2) extract. However, the relationship between metal adsorption at the root surface and the metal concentrations measured by the soil-DGT was not-or only slightly-pH dependent. The correlations between metal adsorption at the root surface and metal speciation detected by different speciation techniques allow discussion about rate limiting steps in biouptake and the contribution of metal complexes to metal bioavailability.

  2. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022 (India); Methattel Raman, Shijeesh [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022 (India)

    2016-04-18

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  3. A procedure to create isoconcentration surfaces in low-chemical-partitioning, high-solute alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornbuckle, B.C.; Kapoor, M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2015-01-01

    A proximity histogram or proxigram is the prevailing technique of calculating 3D composition profiles of a second phase in atom probe tomography. The second phase in the reconstruction is delineated by creating an isoconcentration surface, i.e. the precipitate–matrix interface. The 3D composition profile is then calculated with respect to this user-defined isoconcentration surface. Hence, the selection of the correct isoconcentration surface is critical. In general, the preliminary selection of an isoconcentration value is guided by the visual observation of a chemically partitioned second phase. However, in low-chemical -partitioning systems, such a visual guide is absent. The lack of a priori composition information of the precipitate phase may further confound the issue. This paper presents a methodology of selecting an appropriate elemental species and subsequently obtaining an isoconcentration value to create an accurate isoconcentration surface that will act as the precipitate–matrix interface. We use the H-phase precipitate in the Ni–Ti–Hf shape memory alloy as our case study to illustrate the procedure. - Highlights: • A procedure for creating accurate isoconcentration surface for low-chemical-partitioning, high-solute alloys. • Determine the appropriate element to create the isosconcentration surface. • Subsequently identify the accurate isoconcentration value to create an isoconcentration surface.

  4. Conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto crystalline alpha-alumina surface in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenkun; Sun, Yazhou; Liu, Haitao; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dynamic conformational change process of oil contaminations adhered onto Al-terminated α-Al_2O_3 surface in aqueous solution is given. • Effect of water penetration on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminants is considered. • Change of driving forces leading to the conformational change of oil contaminants is described. - Abstract: Microscopic conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface in the aqueous solution was simulated by means of detailed fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The main driving forces of the conformation change process of the oil contaminants were explored. The simulation results indicate that with submerging of the contaminated α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface into the aqueous solution, the oil contaminants undertake an evident conformational change process. The dynamic process can be divided into several stages, including early penetration of water molecules, formation and widening of water channel, and generation of molecularly adsorbed hydration layers. Moreover, the oil contaminants on the α-Al_2O_3 surface are not fully removed from solid surface after a 10 ns relaxation, while a relatively stable oil/water/solid three-phase interface is gradually formed. Further, the residual oil contaminants are finally divided into several new ordered molecular adsorption layers. In addition, by systemically analyzing the driving forces for the conformational change of the oil contaminants, the penetration of water molecules is found to be the most important driving force. With penetrating of the water molecules, the dominating interactions controlling the conformational change of the oil contaminants have been changing over the whole simulation.

  5. A Comparative Study of Molecular Structure, pKa, Lipophilicity, Solubility, Absorption and Polar Surface Area of Some Antiplatelet Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Remko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical chemistry methods have been used to study the molecular properties of antiplatelet agents (ticlopidine, clopidogrel, prasugrel, elinogrel, ticagrelor and cangrelor and several thiol-containing active metabolites. The geometries and energies of most stable conformers of these drugs have been computed at the Becke3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level of density functional theory. Computed dissociation constants show that the active metabolites of prodrugs (ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel and drugs elinogrel and cangrelor are completely ionized at pH 7.4. Both ticagrelor and its active metabolite are present at pH = 7.4 in neutral undissociated form. The thienopyridine prodrugs ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel are lipophilic and insoluble in water. Their lipophilicity is very high (about 2.5–3.5 logP values. The polar surface area, with regard to the structurally-heterogeneous character of these antiplatelet drugs, is from very large interval of values of 3–255 Å2. Thienopyridine prodrugs, like ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel, with the lowest polar surface area (PSA values, exhibit the largest absorption. A high value of polar surface area (PSA of cangrelor (255 Å2 results in substantial worsening of the absorption in comparison with thienopyridine drugs.

  6. Interaction Mechanisms between Air Bubble and Molybdenite Surface: Impact of Solution Salinity and Polymer Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Jingyi; Yuan, Duowei; Shi, Chen; Cui, Xin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qi; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2017-03-07

    The surface characteristics of molybdenite (MoS 2 ) such as wettability and surface interactions have attracted much research interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as froth flotation. In this work, a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique was employed to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and molybdenite mineral surface before/after polymer (i.e., guar gum) adsorption treatment. The AFM imaging showed that the polymer coverage on the surface of molybdenite could achieve ∼5.6, ∼44.5, and ∼100% after conditioning in 1, 5, and 10 ppm polymer solution, respectively, which coincided with the polymer coverage results based on contact angle measurements. The electrolyte concentration and surface treatment by polymer adsorption were found to significantly affect bubble-mineral interaction and attachment. The experimental force results on bubble-molybdenite (without polymer treatment) agreed well with the calculations using a theoretical model based on the Reynolds lubrication theory and augmented Young-Laplace equation including the effect of disjoining pressure. The overall surface repulsion was enhanced when the NaCl concentration decreased from 100 to 1 mM, which inhibited the bubble-molybdenite attachment. After conditioning the molybdenite surface in 1 ppm polymer solution, it was more difficult for air bubbles to attach to the molybdenite surface due to the weakened hydrophobic interaction with a shorter decay length. Increasing the polymer concentration to 5 ppm effectively inhibited bubble attachment on mineral surface, which was mainly due to the much reduced hydrophobic interaction as well as the additional steric repulsion between the extended polymer chains and bubble surface. The results provide quantitative information on the interaction mechanism between air bubbles and molybdenite mineral surfaces on the nanoscale, with useful implications for the development of effective polymer

  7. Surface Passivation of CdZnTe Detector by Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral resolution of room temperature nuclear radiation detectors such as CdZnTe is usually limited by the presence of conducting surface species that increase the surface leakage current. Studies have shown that the leakage current can be reduced by proper surface preparation. In this study, we try to optimize the performance of CdZnTe detector by etching the detector with hydrogen peroxide solution as function of concentration and etching time. The passivation effect that hydrogen peroxide introduces have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) measurement on both parallel strips and metal-semiconductor-metal configurations. The improvements on the spectral response of Fe-55 and 241Am due to hydrogen peroxide treatment are presented and discussed.

  8. Silver deposition on stainless steel container surfaces in contact with disinfectant silver aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petala, M.; Tsiridis, V.; Mintsouli, I.; Pliatsikas, N.; Spanos, Th.; Rebeyre, P.; Darakas, E.; Patsalas, P.; Vourlias, G.; Kostoglou, M.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Karapantsios, Th.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver is one of the biocides of water consumed in the International Space Station. • Ionic silver is depleted from potable water when in contact with stainless steel (SS). • SEM and XPS analysis reveal a uniform silver deposition over the SS surface. • Silver deposits in its metallic form, in line with a galvanic deposition mechanism. • Evidence is provided that Cr and/ or Ni oxide builds-up on SS surfaces. - Abstract: Silver is the preservative used on the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prevent microbial proliferation within potable water supplies. Yet, in the frame of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) missions to ISS, silver depletion from water has been detected during ground transportation of this water to launch site, thereby indicating a degradation of water quality. This study investigates the silver loss from water when in contact with stainless steel surfaces. Experiments are conducted with several types of stainless steel surfaces being exposed to water containing 10 or 0.5 mg/L silver ions. Results show that silver deposits on stainless steel surfaces even when a passivation layer protects the metallic surface. The highest protection to silver deposition is offered by acid passivated and electropolished SS 316L. SEM and XPS experiments were carried out at several locations of the sample area that was in contact with the Ag solution and found similar morphological (SEM) and compositional (sputter-etch XPS) results. The results reveal that silver deposits uniformly across the wetted surface to a thickness larger than 3 nm. Moreover, evidence is provided that silver deposits in its metallic form on all stainless steel surfaces, in line with a galvanic deposition mechanism. Combination of ICP-MS and XPS results suggests a mechanism for Ag deposition/reduction with simultaneous substrate oxidation resulting in oxide growth at the exposed stainless steel surface.

  9. Silver deposition on stainless steel container surfaces in contact with disinfectant silver aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petala, M., E-mail: petala@civil.auth.gr [Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Tsiridis, V. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Mintsouli, I. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Pliatsikas, N. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Spanos, Th. [Department of Petroleum and Mechanical Engineering Sciences, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology, Kavala, 65404 (Greece); Rebeyre, P. [ESA/ESTEC, P.O.Box 299, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Darakas, E. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Patsalas, P.; Vourlias, G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Kostoglou, M.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Karapantsios, Th. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Silver is one of the biocides of water consumed in the International Space Station. • Ionic silver is depleted from potable water when in contact with stainless steel (SS). • SEM and XPS analysis reveal a uniform silver deposition over the SS surface. • Silver deposits in its metallic form, in line with a galvanic deposition mechanism. • Evidence is provided that Cr and/ or Ni oxide builds-up on SS surfaces. - Abstract: Silver is the preservative used on the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prevent microbial proliferation within potable water supplies. Yet, in the frame of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) missions to ISS, silver depletion from water has been detected during ground transportation of this water to launch site, thereby indicating a degradation of water quality. This study investigates the silver loss from water when in contact with stainless steel surfaces. Experiments are conducted with several types of stainless steel surfaces being exposed to water containing 10 or 0.5 mg/L silver ions. Results show that silver deposits on stainless steel surfaces even when a passivation layer protects the metallic surface. The highest protection to silver deposition is offered by acid passivated and electropolished SS 316L. SEM and XPS experiments were carried out at several locations of the sample area that was in contact with the Ag solution and found similar morphological (SEM) and compositional (sputter-etch XPS) results. The results reveal that silver deposits uniformly across the wetted surface to a thickness larger than 3 nm. Moreover, evidence is provided that silver deposits in its metallic form on all stainless steel surfaces, in line with a galvanic deposition mechanism. Combination of ICP-MS and XPS results suggests a mechanism for Ag deposition/reduction with simultaneous substrate oxidation resulting in oxide growth at the exposed stainless steel surface.

  10. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  11. A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks under combined end force and cross-thickness bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.

  12. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere

  13. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  14. An experimental study of flow boiling chf with porous surface coatings and surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, Mohammad Sohail

    2007-02-01

    The boiling crisis or critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon is an enormously studied topic of the boiling heat transfer. The great interest in the CHF is due to practical motives, since it is desirable to design an equipment (heat exchanger or boiler, etc) to operate at as high a heat flux as possible with optimum heat transfer rates but without the risk of physical burnout. This study consists of two parts of flow boiling CHF experiment: with porous surface coated tubes and by using surfactant solutions as working fluid. In first part, the effect of micro- and nano-porous inside surface coated vertical tubes on the CHF was determined for flow boiling of water in vertical round tubes at atmospheric pressure. CHF was measured for a smooth and three different coated tubes, at mass fluxes of 100∼300 kg/m 2 s and two inlet subcooling temperatures (50 .deg. C and 75 .deg. C). Greater CHF enhancement was found with microporous coatings. Al 2 O 3 microporous coatings with particle size <10 μm and coating thickness of 50 μm showed the best CHF enhancement. The maximum increase in the CHF was about 25% for microporous Al 2 O 3 . A wettability test was performed to study the physical mechanism of increase of CHF with microporous coated surfaces and contact angle was measured for smooth and coated surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were also performed across the coated tubes using the DP-cell apparatus. In second part, surfactant effect on the CHF was determined for water flow boiling at atmospheric pressure in a closed loop filled with solution of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O). The TSP is usually added to the containment sump water to adjust pH level during accident in nuclear power plants. The CHF was measured for four different surfactant solutions of water in vertical tubes, at different mass fluxes (100 ∼ 500 kg/m 2 s) and two inlet subcooling temperatures (50 .deg. C and 75 .deg. C). Surfactant solutions in the range of 0.05%∼0.2% at low mass

  15. Surface properties of magnetite in high temperature aqueous electrolyte solutions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidojkovic, Sonja M; Rakin, Marko P

    2017-07-01

    Deposits and scales formed on heat transfer surfaces in power plant water/steam circuits have a significant negative impact on plant reliability, availability and performance, causing tremendous economic consequences and subsequent increases in electricity cost. Consequently, the improvement of the understanding of deposition mechanisms on power generating surfaces is defined as a high priority in the power industry. The deposits consist principally of iron oxides, which are steel corrosion products and usually present in colloidal form. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is the predominant and most abundant compound found in water/steam cycles of all types of power plants. The crucial factor that governs the deposition process and influences the deposition rate of magnetite is the electrostatic interaction between the metal wall surfaces and the suspended colloidal particles. However, there is scarcity of data on magnetite surface properties at elevated temperatures due to difficulties in their experimental measurement. In this paper a generalized overview of existing experimental data on surface characteristics of magnetite at high temperatures is presented with particular emphasis on possible application in the power industry. A thorough analysis of experimental techniques, mathematical models and results has been performed and directions for future investigations have been considered. The state-of-the-art assessment showed that for the characterization of magnetite/aqueous electrolyte solution interface at high temperatures acid-base potentiometric titrations and electrophoresis were the most beneficial and dependable techniques which yielded results up to 290 and 200°C, respectively. Mass titrations provided data on magnetite surface charge up to 320°C, however, this technique is highly sensitive to the minor concentrations of impurities present on the surface of particle. Generally, fairly good correlation between the isoelectric point (pH iep ) and point of zero charge

  16. Topography evolution of rough-surface metallic substrates by solution deposition planarization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Linfei; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Hong, Zhiyong; Li, Yijie; Jin, Zhijian

    2018-01-01

    As an emerging technique for surface smoothing, solution deposition planarization (SDP) has recently drawn more attention on the fabrication of the second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes. In our work, a number of amorphous oxide layers were deposited on electro-polished or mirror-rolled metallic substrates by chemical solution route. Topography evolution of surface defects on these two types of metallic substrates was thoroughly investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was showed that root mean square roughness values (at 50 × 50 μm2 scanning scale) on both rough substrates reduced to ∼5 nm after coating with SDP-layer. The smoothing effect was mainly attributed to decrease of the depth at grain boundary grooving on the electro-polished metallic substrate. On the mirror-rolled metallic substrates, the amplitude and frequency of the height fluctuation perpendicular to the rolling direction were gradually reduced as depositing more numbers of SDP-layer. A high Jc value of 4.17 MA cm-2 (at 77 K, s.f.) was achieved on a full stack of YBCO/CeO2/IBAD-MgO/SDP-layer/C276 sample. This study enhanced understanding of the topography evolution on the surface defects covered by the SDP-layer, and demonstrated a low-cost route for fabricating IBAD-MgO based YBCO templates with a simplified architecture.

  17. Effect of surface charge of immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell monolayer on transport of charged solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Guanglei; Gil, Eun Seok; Lowe, Tao Lu; Fu, Bingmei M

    2010-04-01

    Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and maintenance of many BBB characteristics over repeated passages. To test whether the SGL of bEnd3 monolayer carries similar charge as that in the intact BBB and quantify this charge, which can be characterized by the SGL thickness (L(f)) and charge density (C(mf)), we measured the solute permeability of bEnd3 monolayer to neutral solutes and to solutes with similar size but opposite charges: negatively charged alpha-lactalbumin (-11) and positively charged ribonuclease (+3). Combining the measured permeability data with a transport model across the cell monolayer, we predicted the L(f) and the C(mf) of bEnd3 monolayer, which is approximately 160 nm and approximately 25 mEq/L, respectively. We also investigated whether orosomucoid, a plasma glycoprotein modulating the charge of the intact BBB, alters the charge of bEnd3 monolayer. We found that 1 mg/mL orosomucoid would increase SGL charge density of bEnd3 monolayer to approximately 2-fold of its control value.

  18. Analytical solution describing pesticide volatilization from soil affected by a change in surface condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution describing the fate and transport of pesticides applied to soils has been developed. Two pesticide application methods can be simulated: point-source applications, such as idealized shank or a hot-gas injection method, and a more realistic shank-source application method that includes a vertical pesticide distribution in the soil domain due to a soil fracture caused by a shank. The solutions allow determination of the volatilization rate and other information that could be important for understanding fumigant movement and in the development of regulatory permitting conditions. The solutions can be used to characterize differences in emissions relative to changes in the soil degradation rate, surface barrier conditions, application depth, and soil packing. In some cases, simple algebraic expressions are provided that can be used to obtain the total emissions and total soil degradation. The solutions provide a consistent methodology for determining the total emissions and can be used with other information, such as field and laboratory experimental data, to support the development of fumigant regulations. The uses of the models are illustrated by several examples.

  19. Study of surface potential contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities and alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaedi Muhammad; Rimin Sumantri; Farida Tusafariah; Djarwanti Rahayu Pipin Soedjarwo

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities that exist in their operations around the world in the form of radiological impacts of radiation exposure, contamination of surface and air contamination. Given the number of existing open source in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facility, then the possibility of surface contamination in the work area is quite high. For that to protect the safety and health of both workers, the public and the environment, then the licensee must conduct an inventory of some of the potential that could result in contamination of surfaces in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities. Several potential to cause surface contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities consist of loss of resources, the VAC system disorders, impaired production facilities, limited resources and lack of work discipline and radioactive waste handling activities. From the study of some potential, there are several alternative solutions that can be implemented by the licensee to address the contamination of the surface so as not to cause adverse radiological impacts for both radiation workers, the public or the environment. (author)

  20. Protection of copper surface with phytic acid against corrosion in chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Dunja; Pihlar, Boris; Ingrid, Milošev

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for copper in 3% sodium chloride. Phytic acid is a natural compound derived from plants, it is not toxic and can be considered as a green inhibitor. Electrochemical methods of linear polarization and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the electrochemical behaviour and evaluate the inhibition effectiveness. To obtain the optimal corrosion protection the following experimental conditions were investigated: effect of surface pre-treatment (abrasion and three procedures of surface roughening), pre-formation of the layer of phytic acid, time of immersion and concentration of phytic acid. To evaluate the surface pre-treatment procedures the surface roughness and contact angle were measured. Optimal conditions for formation of phytic layer were selected resulting in the inhibition effectiveness of nearly 80%. Morphology and composition of the layer were further studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The layer of phytic acid with thickness in the nanometer range homogeneously covers the copper surface. The obtained results show that this natural compound can be used as a mildly effective corrosion inhibitor for copper in chloride solution.

  1. Investigation of ALEGRA shock hydrocode algorithms using an exact free surface jet flow solution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Bradley Wright.; Robinson, Allen C

    2014-01-01

    Computational testing of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian shock physics code, ALEGRA, is presented using an exact solution that is very similar to a shaped charge jet flow. The solution is a steady, isentropic, subsonic free surface flow with significant compression and release and is provided as a steady state initial condition. There should be no shocks and no entropy production throughout the problem. The purpose of this test problem is to present a detailed and challenging computation in order to provide evidence for algorithmic strengths and weaknesses in ALEGRA which should be examined further. The results of this work are intended to be used to guide future algorithmic improvements in the spirit of test-driven development processes.

  2. An algorithm for analytical solution of basic problems featuring elastostatic bodies with cavities and surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Levina, L. V.; Novikova, O. S.; Shulmin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Herein we propose a methodology for structuring a full parametric analytical solution to problems featuring elastostatic media based on state-of-the-art computing facilities that support computerized algebra. The methodology includes: direct and reverse application of P-Theorem; methods of accounting for physical properties of media; accounting for variable geometrical parameters of bodies, parameters of boundary states, independent parameters of volume forces, and remote stress factors. An efficient tool to address the task is the sustainable method of boundary states originally designed for the purposes of computerized algebra and based on the isomorphism of Hilbertian spaces of internal states and boundary states of bodies. We performed full parametric solutions of basic problems featuring a ball with a nonconcentric spherical cavity, a ball with a near-surface flaw, and an unlimited medium with two spherical cavities.

  3. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  4. Weakly hydrated surfaces and the binding interactions of small biological solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John W; Tavagnacco, Letizia; Ehrlich, Laurent; Chen, Mo; Schnupf, Udo; Himmel, Michael E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  5. Growth of binary solid solution single crystals and calculation of melt surface displacement velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamaliyev, Z.A.; Tahirov, V.I.; Hasanov, Z.Y.; Quliyev, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    A binary solid solution single crystal growth method has been worked out. Cylinder feeding alloy with complex content distribution and truncated cone crucible are used. Second component distribution coefficient is more than unit. Content distribution along grown crystal is found by solving continuity equation. After reaching dynamic equilibrium state second component concentration in grown crystal is saturated the value of which is less than the average ona in the feeding alloy. Using the method Ge-Si perfect single crystals has been grown. Calculation method of melt surface displacement velocity has been offered as well

  6. Equilibrium solubility measurement of ionizable drugs – consensus recommendations for improving data quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses data quality in equilibrium solubility measurement in aqueous solution. Broadly discussed is the “gold standard” shake-flask (SF method used to measure equilibrium solubility of ionizable drug-like molecules as a function of pH. Many factors affecting the quality of the measurement are recognized. Case studies illustrating the analysis of both solution and solid state aspects of solubility measurement are presented. Coverage includes drug aggregation in solution (sub-micellar, micellar, complexation, use of mass spectrometry to assess aggregation in saturated solutions, solid state characterization (salts, polymorphs, cocrystals, polymorph creation by potentiometric method, solubility type (water, buffer, intrinsic, temperature, ionic strength, pH measurement, buffer issues, critical knowledge of the pKa, equilibration time (stirring and sedimentation, separating solid from saturated solution, solution handling and adsorption to untreated surfaces, solubility units, and tabulation/graphic presentation of reported data. The goal is to present cohesive recommendations that could lead to better assay design, to result in improved quality of measurements, and to impart a deeper understanding of the underlying solution chemistry in suspensions of drug solids.

  7. Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation (SMAGG) sponsored a workshop on surface modeling, grid generation, and related issues in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions at Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, May 9-11, 1995. The workshop provided a forum to identify industry needs, strengths, and weaknesses of the five grid technologies (patched structured, overset structured, Cartesian, unstructured, and hybrid), and to exchange thoughts about where each technology will be in 2 to 5 years. The workshop also provided opportunities for engineers and scientists to present new methods, approaches, and applications in SMAGG for CFD. This Conference Publication (CP) consists of papers on industry overview, NASA overview, five grid technologies, new methods/ approaches/applications, and software systems.

  8. GEOSURF: a computer program for modeling adsorption on mineral surfaces from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Nita; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    1998-11-01

    A new program, GEOSURF, has been developed for calculating aqueous and surface speciation consistent with the triple-layer model of surface complexation. GEOSURF is an extension of the original programs MINEQL, MICROQL and HYDRAQL. We present, here, the basic algorithm of GEOSURF along with a description of the new features implemented. GEOSURF is linked to internally consistent data bases for surface species (SURFK.DAT) and for aqueous species (AQSOL.DAT). SURFK.DAT contains properties of minerals such as site densities, and equilibrium constants for adsorption of aqueous protons and electrolyte ions on a variety of oxides and hydroxides. The Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers version of the extended Debye-Huckel Equation for 1:1 electrolytes is implemented for calculating aqueous activity coefficients. This permits the calculation of speciation at ionic strengths greater than 0.5 M. The activity of water is computed explicitly from the osmotic coefficient of the solution, and the total amount of electrolyte cation (or anion) is adjusted to satisfy the electroneutrality condition. Finally, the use of standard symbols for chemical species rather than species identification numbers is included to facilitate use of the program. One of the main limitations of GEOSURF is that aqueous and surface speciation can only be calculated at fixed pH and at fixed concentration of total adsorbate. Thus, the program cannot perform reaction-path calculations: it cannot determine whether or not a solution is over- or under-saturated with respect to one or more solid phases. To check the proper running of GEOSURF, we have compared results generated by GEOSURF with those from two other programs, HYDRAQL and EQ3. The Davies equation and the "bdot" equation, respectively, are used in the latter two programs for calculating aqueous activity coefficients. An example of the model fit to experimental data for rutile in 0.001 M-2.0 M NaNO 3 is included.

  9. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  10. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  11. Surface protection of mild steel in acidic chloride solution by 5-Nitro-8-Hydroxy Quinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ganapathi Sundaram

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of commercially available quinoline nucleus based pharmaceutically active compound 5-Nitro-8-Hydroxy Quinoline (NHQ against the corrosion of mild steel (MS in 1 M acidic chloride (HCl solution was investigated by chemical (weight loss – WL and electrochemical (Tafel polarization, Linear polarization and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. From all the four methods, it is inferred that the percentage of inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration from 50 to 300 ppm. The adsorption behavior of inhibitor obeyed through Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and predict that the process of inhibition is a spontaneous reaction. EIS technique exhibits one capacitive loop indicating that, the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Tafel polarization studies revealed that the investigated inhibitor is mixed type and the mode of adsorption is physical in nature. The surface morphologies were examined by FT-IR, SEM and EDX techniques. Theoretical quantum chemical calculations were performed to confirm the ability of NHQ to adsorb onto mild steel surface. Keywords: Acidic chloride solution, MS, NHQ, WL, SEM, FT-IR

  12. Global multiresolution models of surface wave propagation: comparing equivalently regularized Born and ray theoretical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Lapo

    2006-10-01

    I invert a large set of teleseismic phase-anomaly observations, to derive tomographic maps of fundamental-mode surface wave phase velocity, first via ray theory, then accounting for finite-frequency effects through scattering theory, in the far-field approximation and neglecting mode coupling. I make use of a multiple-resolution pixel parametrization which, in the assumption of sufficient data coverage, should be adequate to represent strongly oscillatory Fréchet kernels. The parametrization is finer over North America, a region particularly well covered by the data. For each surface-wave mode where phase-anomaly observations are available, I derive a wide spectrum of plausible, differently damped solutions; I then conduct a trade-off analysis, and select as optimal solution model the one associated with the point of maximum curvature on the trade-off curve. I repeat this exercise in both theoretical frameworks, to find that selected scattering and ray theoretical phase-velocity maps are coincident in pattern, and differ only slightly in amplitude.

  13. Effect of two storage solutions on surface topography of two root-end fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Parirokh, Masoud; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2009-12-01

    The effect of different storage solutions on surface topography of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and new experimental cement (NEC) as root-end fillings was investigated. Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped and obturated in a same manner. After root-end resection, 3-mm deep root-end cavities were ultrasonically prepared. Samples were randomly divided into four test groups (A1-A2-B1-B2, n = 6). Root-end cavities in groups A and B were filled with MTA and NEC, respectively, and were then stored in 100% humidity for 24 h. The samples of groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, immersed in normal saline (NS) and phosphate buffer saline solutions for 1 week. The samples were imaged under stereomicroscope before and after immersion and were then investigated and analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). Results showed significant difference among studied groups. Surface topography of all samples was altered by crystal formation and precipitation on root-end fillings except for group A1 (MTA-NS). SEM and EDXA results showed that the composition and structure of precipitated crystals were comparable with that of standard hydroxyapatite. It was concluded that biocompatibility, sealing ability, and cementogenic activity of MTA and probably NEC may be attributed to this fundamental bioactive reaction.

  14. Ascorbic Acid and BSA Protein in Solution and Films: Interaction and Surface Morphological Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael R. G. Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the study of the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA and bovine serum albumin (BSA in aqueous solution as well as in films (BSA/AA films prepared by the layer-by-layer technique. Regarding to solution studies, a hyperchromism (in the range of ultraviolet was found as a function of AA concentration, which suggested the formation of aggregates from AA and BSA. Binding constant, , determined for aggregates from BSA and AA was found to be about 102 M−1, which indicated low affinity of AA with BSA. For the BSA/AA films, it was also noted that the AA adsorption process and surface morphological structures depended on AA concentration. By changing the contact time between the AA and BSA, a hypochromism was revealed, which was associated to decrease of accessibility of solvent to tryptophan due to formation of aggregates. Furthermore, different morphological structures of aggregates were observed, which were attributed to the diffusion-limited aggregation. Since most of studies of interactions of drugs and proteins are performed in solution, the analysis of these processes by using films can be very valuable because this kind of system is able to employ several techniques of investigation in solid state.

  15. Regulating urban surface runoff through nature-based solutions - An assessment at the micro-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölch, Teresa; Henze, Lisa; Keilholz, Patrick; Pauleit, Stephan

    2017-08-01

    Urban development leads to changes of surface cover that disrupt the hydrological cycle in cities. In particular, impermeable surfaces and the removal of vegetation reduce the ability to intercept, store and infiltrate rainwater. Consequently, the volume of stormwater runoff and the risk of local flooding rises. This is further amplified by the anticipated effects of climate change leading to an increased frequency and intensity of heavy rain events. Hence, urban adaptation strategies are required to mitigate those impacts. A nature-based solution, more and more promoted in politics and academia, is urban green infrastructure as it contributes to the resilience of urban ecosystems by providing services to maintain or restore hydrological functions. However, this poses a challenge to urban planners in deciding upon effective adaptation measures as they often lack information on the performance of green infrastructure to moderate surface runoff. It remains unclear what type of green infrastructure (e.g. trees, green roofs), offers the highest potential to reduce discharge volumes and to what extent. Against this background, this study provides an approach to gather quantitative evidence on green infrastructure's regulation potential. We use a micro-scale scenario modelling approach of different variations of green cover under current and future climatic conditions. The scenarios are modelled with MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological simulation tool, and applied to a high density residential area of perimeter blocks in Munich, Germany. The results reveal that both trees and green roofs increase water storage capacities and hence reduce surface runoff, although the main contribution of trees lies in increasing interception and evapotranspiration, whereas green roofs allow for more retention through water storage in their substrate. With increasing precipitation intensities as projected under climate change their regulating potential decreases due to limited water

  16. Evaluation of the simultaneous effects of processing parameters on the iron and zinc solubility of infant sorghum porridge by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayodé, A P Polycarpe; Nout, Martinus J R; Bakker, Evert J; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2006-06-14

    The purpose of this study was to improve the micronutrient quality of indigenous African infant flour using traditional techniques available in the region. Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of duration of soaking, germination, and fermentation on phytate and phenolic compounds (PC), pH, viscosity, and the in vitro solubility (IVS) of iron and zinc in infant sorghum flour. The phytate and the PC concentrations of the flour were significantly modified as a result of the duration of germination and fermentation and their mutual interaction. These modifications were accompanied by a significant increase in % IVS Zn after 24 h of sprouting. Except for the interaction of soaking and fermentation, none of the processing parameters exerted a significant effect on the % IVS Fe. The viscosity of the porridge prepared with the flour decreased significantly with the duration of germination, making it possible to produce a porridge with high energy and nutrient density. The use of germination in combination with fermentation is recommended in the processing of cereals for infant feeding in developing countries.

  17. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.; Breward, C. J. W.; Gaffney, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical

  18. Exploratory studies on substitutions in the tetrahedrite-tennantite solid solution series Part III. The solubility of bismuth in tetrahedrite-tennantite containing iron and zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.M.; Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2003-01-01

    Bismuth-bearing tetrahedrite and termanite were synthesized from dry runs in evacuated silica glass tubes at 350 degreesC, 450 degreesC and 520 degreesC, and studied by means of microprobe analyses on polished sections and X-ray powder diffraction. Charges were prepared with two Zn or Fe atoms p.f.u......., with pure As, resp. Sb, or with As: Sb = 1: 1. They were prepared with one and two atoms of Bi p.f.u., respectively, at all three temperatures. Separate sets of non-stoichiometric compositions were prepared in order to examine the influence of high- and low sulfur fugacity, respectively, on the solubility...... of Bi in tetrahedrite/termantite. Our studies suggest that the solubility of Bi in tetrahedrite-termanite is 0.8 atom p.f.u. at 350 degreesC and I atom p.f.u. at 450 degreesC and 520 degreesC, independent of the Sb/As ratio. It increases with the increase in S fugacity and vice versa. The average...

  19. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  20. Montmorillonite surface properties and sorption characteristics for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijagbemi, Christianah Olakitan; Baek, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Su

    2009-01-01

    Surface properties of montmorillonite (MMT) and its adsorption characteristics for heavy metals have been investigated with nickel and copper as sorbate from aqueous solutions. Employing the potentiometric and mass titration techniques in batch experimental methods, the point of zero charge (PZC) and point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) of MMT edges at different ionic strengths present pH PZC and pH PZNPC to be 3.4 ± 0.2. A crossing point was observed for the proton adsorption vs. pH curves at different ionic strengths of KCl electrolyte and in investigating MMT remediation potentialities as sorbent for heavy metals polluted waters, the effects of heavy metal concentration, pH, MMT dosage, reaction time and temperature for Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ uptake were studied. The sorption of metal ions by MMT was pH dependent and the adsorption kinetics revealed sorption rate could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The data according to mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models confirmed diffusion of solutes inside the clay particles as the rate-controlling step and more important for the adsorption rate than the external mass transfer. Adsorption isotherms showed that the uptake of Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ could be described by the Langmuir model and from calculations on thermodynamic parameters, the positive ΔG o values at different temperatures suggest that the sorption of both metal ions were non-spontaneous. Change in enthalpy (ΔH o ) for Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ were 28.9 and 13.27 kJ/mol K respectively, hence an endothermic diffusion process, as ion uptake increased with increase in temperature. Values of ΔS o indicate low randomness at the solid/solution interface during the uptake of both Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ by MMT. Montmorillonite has a considerable potential for the removal of heavy metal cationic species from aqueous solution and wastewater.

  1. Stable, metastable and unstable solutions of a spin-1 Ising system based on the free energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskİin, Mustafa; Özgan, Şükrü

    1990-04-01

    Stable, metastable and unstable solutions of a spin-1 Ising model with bilinear and biquadratic interactions are found by using the free energy surfaces. The free energy expression is obtained in the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method. All these solutions are shown in the two-dimensional phase space, especially the unstable solutions which in some cases are difficult to illustrate in the two-dimensional phase space, found by Keskin et al. recently.

  2. Reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions has no effect on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schicht, Olivier; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals. Aqueous solutions containing 15.5% EDTA, 10% citric acid, or 18% 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) were prepared with and without 1% (wt/wt) polysorbate (Tween) 80 and 9% propylene glycol. Surface tension in these solutions was measured using the Wilhelmy method. Sixty-four extracted, single-rooted human teeth of similar length were instrumented and irrigated with a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and then randomly assigned (n = 8 per group) to receive a final one-minute rinse with 5 ml of test solutions, water, or the pure aqueous Tween/propylene glycol solution. Calcium concentration in eluates was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Incorporation of wetting agents resulted in a reduction of surface tension values by approximately 50% in all tested solutions. However, none of the solutions with reduced surface tension chelated more calcium from canals than their pure counterparts (p > 0.05).

  3. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori

    2012-10-01

    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  4. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Bessho, Takeshi [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kang, Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method.

  5. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan; Bessho, Takeshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method

  6. Effect of solubility parameter of solvents on electron beam induced graft-polymerization onto polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koji; Koshiishi, Kenji; Masuhara, Ken-ichi

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam induced graft-polymerization by the mutual irradiation technique of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAAc) blended with solvents, which have different solubility parameters δ, onto high density polyethylene films (PE) were investigated at high dose rates (25 Mrad per second). Graft-polymerization mechanisms were discussed on the basis of grafting rates, surface tensions, atomic rations on the surface by XPS, and SEM images of the grafted films. Grafting rates decreased with increasing δ of solvents, and grafting rates for MMA were larger than those for MAAc. Graft chain contents on the surface, which were evaluated in terms of surface tensions and atomic ratios on the surface, increased with increasing δ of solvents, and graft chain contents on the surface of MAAc grafted PE were higher than those of MMA grafted PE. It is assumed that mutual solubility of PE and solvents (monomer solutions), i.e., infiltration of monomer solutions into PE during graft-polymerization, influenced grafting rates and graft sites in films. In case of high mutual solubility, grafting rates were large and graft sites spread from the surface into bulk. On the other hand, in case of low mutual solubility, grafting rates were small and graft sites localized on the surface of films. (author)

  7. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth.

  9. A comparative study of the metastable equilibrium solubility behavior of high-crystallinity and low-crystallinity carbonated apatites using pH and solution strontium as independent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, D D; Bi, Y; Baig, A A; Otsuka, M; Higuchi, W I

    2005-09-01

    Using solution strontium and pH as independent variables, the metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) behavior of two carbonated apatite (CAP) samples has been examined, a high-crystallinity CAP (properties expected to be similar to dental enamel) and a low-crystallinity CAP (properties expected to be similar to bone mineral). CAP samples were prepared by precipitation/digestion: (CAP A: high-crystallinity, 1.3 wt% CO3, synthesized at 85 degrees C; CAP B: low-crystallinity, 6.4 wt% CO3, synthesized at 50 degrees C). Baseline MES distributions were determined in a series of 0.1 M acetate buffers containing only calcium and phosphate (no strontium) over a broad range of solution conditions. To assess the influence of strontium, MES profiles were determined in a similar fashion with 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the solution calcium being replaced on an equal molar basis by solution strontium. To determine the correct function governing CAP dissolution, ion activity products (IAPs) were calculated from the compositions of buffer solutions based on the hydroxyapatite template (Ca(10-n)Sr(n)(PO4)6(OH)2 (n = 0-10)) and the calcium/hydroxide deficient hydroxyapatite template (Ca(9-n)Sr(n)(HPO4)(PO4)5OH (n = 0-9)). (a) for CAP A, at high solution strontium/calcium ratios, the MES profiles were essentially superimposable when the solution IAPs were calculated using the stoichiometry of Ca6Sr4(PO4)6(OH)2 and for CAP B by a stoichiometry of Ca7Sr2(HPO4)(PO4)5OH; (b) for CAP A, at low strontium/calcium ratios, the stoichiometry yielding MES data superpositioning was found to be that of hydroxyapatite and for CAP B, that of calcium/hydroxide deficient hydroxyapatite. When other stoichiometries were assumed, good superpositioning of the data was not possible.

  10. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artifici...

  11. Investigation of extractive microbial transformation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingying; Qian, Chen; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Yang, Rude; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-01-01

    Extractive microbial transformation of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) in nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution was investigated by response surface methodology. Based on the Box-Behnken design, a mathematical model was developed for the predication of mutual interactions between benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose on L-PAC production. It indicated that the negative or positive effect of nonionic surfactant strongly depended on the substrate concentration. The model predicted that the optimal concentration of benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose was 1.2 ml, 15 g, and 2.76 g per 100 ml, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the maximum L-PAC production was 27.6 mM, which was verified by a time course of extractive microbial transformation. A discrete fed-batch process for verification of cell activity was also presented.

  12. Analytical Solution for Elliptical Cloaks Based on The Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the elliptical dielectric cylinder which is covered with FSS cloak is considered. Frequency selective surface cloak which Alu named it mantle cloak is one of the recent techniques for cloaking. In this method an appropriate FSS can act as cloaking device for suppressing  the scattering of object  in the desired frequency. With using this method the dimension of the cloaks is extremely reduced. By this proposed structure, the RCS of elliptical cylinder  is reduced about 10-20 dB and designed cloak has an appropriate performance.  The analytical solution for the wave in each layer is presented and with using simulation, the electric field and the scattering pattern has been drawn.

  13. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  14. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by adsorption on hydroxyapatite (HAp using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mourabet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of fluoride onto hydroxyapatite was conducted and the process parameters were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Hydroxyapatite has been characterized by using different physicochemical methods. In order to determine the effects of process parameters namely temperature (20–40 °C, initial solution pH (4–11, adsorbent dose (0.1–0.3 g and initial fluoride concentration (10–20 mg L−1 on fluoride uptake from aqueous solution, a three-level, four-factor, Box–Behnken design has been employed. The second order mathematical model was developed by regression analysis of the experimental data obtained from 29 batch runs. The optimum pH, temperature, adsorbent dose and initial concentration were found by desirability function to be 4.16, 39.02 °C, 0.28 g and 20 mg L−1, respectively. Fluoride removal was 86.34% at the optimum combination of process parameters. Dynamic adsorption data were applied to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. The time data fitted well to pseudo second order kinetic model. According to the correlation coefficients, the adsorption of fluoride on the hydroxyapatite was correlated well with the Langmuir and Freundlich models.

  15. The performance of a surface-applied corrosion inhibitor for the carbon steel in saturated Ca(OH)2 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Haibing; Li, Weihua; Ma, Fubin; Kong, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the performance of an amino alcohol based surface applied inhibitor was studied by the electrochemical techniques in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solutions. The surface morphology of the carbon steel was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the energy diffraction spectrum was also tested. Results showed that the inhibitor used in this work demonstrated obvious inhibition efficiency on the carbon steel in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solutions. The inhibition mechanism of the inhibitor lies in the quick adsorption of the active component on carbon steel surface

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of the solubility of CO2 in aqueous alkanolamine solutions using the extended UNIQUAC model Application to monoethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    The extended UNIQUAC model as proposed by Thomsen and Rasmussen [K. Thomsen, P. Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions. All the essential......-water systems in a wide range of temperature (-20-200 degrees C) were used. The application of the model to a large number of experimental data for representation of total pressure over the absorbent solutions (25-200 degrees C), correlation of the excess enthalpy and freezing point depression of the binary...

  17. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Ileana [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varvara, Simona, E-mail: svarvara@uab.ro [Department of Exact Sciences and Engineering, “1 Decembrie 1918” University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga St., 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Gaina, Luiza [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria, E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All four investigated antibacterial drugs act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surface. • In the presence of antibiotics, a 3RC electric circuit simulates the corrosion system. • The electrochemical results indicate as best inhibitors Doxy, followed by Strepto. • HOMO–LUMO energy gap increases in the order: Doxy > Strepto > Cipro > Amoxi. • The thin protective film on bronze is reinforced by the presence of the antibiotics. - Abstract: The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} and HOMO–LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

  18. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ileana; Varvara, Simona; Gaina, Luiza; Muresan, Liana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All four investigated antibacterial drugs act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surface. • In the presence of antibiotics, a 3RC electric circuit simulates the corrosion system. • The electrochemical results indicate as best inhibitors Doxy, followed by Strepto. • HOMO–LUMO energy gap increases in the order: Doxy > Strepto > Cipro > Amoxi. • The thin protective film on bronze is reinforced by the presence of the antibiotics. - Abstract: The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies E HOMO and E LUMO and HOMO–LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data

  19. Phytofilter - environmental friendly solution for purification of surface plate from urbanized territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkinova, O.; Shchuckin, I.

    2017-06-01

    Its proved, that phytofilters are environmental friendly solution of problem of purification of surface plate from urbanized territories. Phytofilters answer the nowadays purposes to systems of purification of land drainage. The main problem of it is restrictions, connecter with its use in the conditions of cold temperature. Manufactured a technology and mechanism, which provide a whole-year purification of surface plate and its storage. Experimentally stated optimal makeup of filtering load: peat, zeolite and sand in per cent of volume, which provides defined hydraulic characteristics. Stated sorbate and ion-selective volume of complex filtering load of ordered composition in dynamic conditions. Estimated dependences of exit concentrations of oil products and heavy metals on temperature by filtering through complex filtering load of ordered composition. Defined effectiveness of purification at phytofiltering installation. Fixed an influence of embryophytes on process of phytogeneration and capacity of filtering load. Recommended swamp iris, mace reed and reed grass. Manufactured phytofilter calculation methodology. Calculated economic effect from use of phytofiltration technology in comparison with traditional block-modular installations.

  20. Deciphering ligands' interaction with Cu and Cu2O nanocrystal surfaces by NMR solution tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaria, Arnaud; Cure, Jérémy; Piettre, Kilian; Coppel, Yannick; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Chaudret, Bruno; Fau, Pierre

    2015-01-12

    The hydrogenolysis of [Cu2{(iPrN)2(CCH3)}2] in the presence of hexadecylamine (HDA) or tetradecylphosphonic acid (TDPA) in toluene leads to 6-9 nm copper nanocrystals. Solution NMR spectroscopy has been used to describe the nanoparticle surface chemistry during the dynamic phenomenon of air oxidation. The ligands are organized as multilayered shells around the nanoparticles. The shell of ligands is controlled by both their intermolecular interactions and their bonding strength on the nanocrystals. Under ambient atmosphere, the oxidation rate of colloidal copper nanocrystals closely relies on the chemical nature of the employed ligands (base or acid). Primary amine molecules behave as soft ligands for Cu atoms, but are even more strongly coordinated on surface Cu(I) sites, thus allowing a very efficient corrosion protection of the copper core. On the contrary, the TDPA ligands lead to a rapid oxidation rate of Cu nanoparticles and eventually to the re-dissolution of Cu(II) species at the expense of the nanocrystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nucleation and growth of copper phthalocyanine aggregates deposited from solution on planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Fatemeh [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gojzewski, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.gojzewski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Riegler, Hans [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copper phthalocyanine deposited on planar surfaces by 3 solution process methods. • Aggregate morphology examined for coverage extending over 3 orders of magnitude. • Morphologies vary from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. • Nucleation and growth model explains the observed deposit morphologies. - Abstract: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is deposited on solid SiO{sub 2} surfaces by solvent evaporation. The deposited CuPc aggregates are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CuPc deposits were prepared by spin casting, dip coating, and spray deposition. Depending on the amount of deposited CuPc the aggregate morphology ranges from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. Each domain/layer consists of many parallel stacks of CuPc molecules with the square, plate-like molecules piled face-wise within each stack. The parallel stacks are attached sideways (i.e., edgewise attachment molecularly) to the substrate forming “nanoribbons” with uniform thickness of about 1 nm and varying width. The thickness reflects the length of a molecular edge, the width the number of stacks. A nucleation and growth model is presented that explains the observed aggregate and multilayer morphologies as result of the combination of nucleation, transport processes and a consequence of the anisotropic intermolecular interactions due to the shape of the CuPc molecule.

  2. Changes on iron electrode surface during hydrogen permeation in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modiano, S.; Carreno, J.A.V.; Fugivara, C.S.; Torresi, R.M.; Vivier, V.; Benedetti, A.V.; Mattos, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen interaction with oxide films grown on iron electrodes at open circuit potential (E oc ) and in the passive region (+0.30 V ECS ) was studied by chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results were obtained in deaerated 0.3 mol L -1 H 3 BO 3 + 0.075 mol L -1 Na 2 B 4 O 7 (BB, pH 8.4) solution before, during and after hydrogen permeation. The iron oxide film modification was also investigated by means of in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) before and during hydrogen permeation. The main conclusion was that the passive film is reduced during the hydrogen diffusion. The hydrogen permeation stabilizes the iron surface at a potential close to the thermodynamic water stability line where hydrogen evolution can occur. The stationary condition required for the determination of the permeation parameters cannot be easily attained on iron surface during hydrogen permeation. Moreover, additional attention must be paid when obtaining the transport parameters using the classical permeation cell

  3. Solution and surface chemistry of the Se(IV)-Fe(0) reactions: Effect of initial solution pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuefen; Ling, Lan; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2017-02-01

    Aspects of solution and solid-phase reactions between selenite (Se(IV)) and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated. Experimental results on the effects of initial solution pH, formation and evolution of nZVI corrosion products, and speciation of selenium in nZVI were presented. In general, the rate of Se(IV) removal decreases with increasing initial pH. The observed rate constants of Se(IV) removal decreased from 0.3530 to 0.0364 min -1 as pH increased from 4.0 to 10.0. Composition and morphology of nZVI corrosion products and selenium species were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results confirmed that Se(IV) was reduced to Se(0) and Se(-II) by nZVI. Lower solution pH favored further reduction of Se(0) to Se(-II). Amorphous FeOOH, magnetite/maghemite (Fe 3 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) and ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH) 2 ) were identified as the main corrosion products. Under alkaline conditions, the corrosion products were mainly of Fe(OH) 2 along with small amounts of Fe 3 O 4 , while nZVI in acidic solutions was oxidized to mostly Fe 3 O 4 and amorphous FeOOH. Furthermore, these corrosion products acted as intermediates for electron transfer and reactive/sorptive sites for Se(IV) adsorption and reduction, thus played a crucial role in the removal of aqueous Se(IV). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility and permeability of aceclofenac were compared with the hydroalcoholic solution of ... the use of lipid based systems such as micro- or .... carriers/vehicles for enhanced solubility and permeability ... modifications: A recent review.

  5. Adsorption of ibuprofen from aqueous solution on chemically surface-modified activated carbon cloths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Guedidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the performance of an activated carbon cloth for adsorption of ibuprofen. The cloth was oxidized by a NaOCl solution (0.13 mol L−1 or thermally treated under N2 (700 °C for 1 hour. The raw and modified cloths were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption measurement at 77 K, CO2 adsorption at 273 K, Boehm titrations, pHPZC measurements, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis, and by infrared spectroscopy. The NaOCl treatment increases the acidic sites, mostly creating phenolic and carboxylic groups and decreases both the specific surface area and slightly the micropore volume. However, the thermal treatment at 700 °C under N2 induced a slight increase in the BET specific surface area and yielded to the only increase in the carbonyl group content. Ibuprofen adsorption studies of kinetics and isotherms were carried out at pH = 3 and 7. The adsorption properties were correlated to the cloth porous textures, surface chemistry and pH conditions. The isotherms of adsorption were better reproduced by Langmuir–Freundlich models at 298, 313 and 328 K. The adsorption of ibuprofen on the studied activated carbon cloths at pH 3 was an endothermic process. The pore size distributions of all studied ibuprofen-loaded fabrics were determined by DFT method to investigate the accessible porosity of the adsorbate. Both treatments do not influence the kind of micropores where the adsorption of ibuprofen occurred.

  6. Effect of hydrogen bond formation/replacement on solubility characteristics, gastric permeation and pharmacokinetics of curcumin by application of powder solution technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of curcumin using the potential of liquisolid technology. Twelve drug-loaded liquisolid systems (LS-1 to LS-12 were prepared using different vehicles (PEG 200, PEG 400 and Tween 80 and curcumin concentrations in vehicle (40%, 50%, 60% and 70%, w/w. The carrier [microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH102] to coat (Aerosil® ratio was 20 in all formulations. The systems were screened for pre-compression properties before being compressed to liquisolid tablets (LT-1 to LT-12. Post compression tests and in vitro dissolution of LTs were conducted and the results compared with those obtained for a directly compressed tablet (DCT made of curcumin, MCC PH102 and Aerosil®. LTs exhibited higher cumulative drug release (CDR than the DCT and the optimum formulation, LT-9 (made using Tween 80, was studied by powder XRD, DSC, SEM and FTIR. Ex-vivo permeation of curcumin from LT-9 through goat gastrointestinal mucosa was significantly (P<0.05 enhanced and its oral bioavailability was increased 18.6-fold in New Zealand rabbits. In vitro cytotoxicity (IC50 of LT-9 towards NCL 87 cancer cells was 40.2 µmol/L substantiating its anticancer efficacy. Accelerated stability studies revealed insignificant effects of temperature and humidity on LT-9. In summary, solubility enhancement of curcumin in LTs produced significant improvements in its permeation and bioavailability.

  7. Possible Time-Dependent Effect of Ions and Hydrophilic Surfaces on the Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Nada; Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Bukovec, Peter; Zupancic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of mechanical and electrical treatment on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Solutions were treated mechanically by iteration of two steps: 1:100 dilution and vigorous shaking. These two processes were repeated until extremely dilute solutions were obtained. For electrical treatment the solutions were exposed to strong electrical impulses. Effects of mechanical (as well as electrical) treatment could not be demonstrated using electrical conductivity measurements. However, significantly higher conductivity than those of the freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions was found in all aged solutions except for those samples stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously observed weak gel-like behavior in water stored in closed flasks. We suggest that ions and contact with hydrophilic glass surfaces could be the determinative conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. PMID:22605965

  8. Equilibrium Total Pressure and CO2 Solubility in Binary and Ternary Aqueous Solutions of 2-(Diethylamino)ethanol (DEEA) and 3-(Methylamino)propylamine (MAPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Svendsen, Hallvard Fjøsne; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium total pressures were measured and equilibrium CO2 partial pressures were calculated from the measured total pressure data in binary and ternary aqueous solutions of 2-(diethylamino)ethanol (DEEA) and 3-(methylamino)propylamine (MAPA). The measurements were carried out in a commercially...... available calorimeter used as an equilibrium cell. The examined systems were the binary aqueous solutions of 5 M DEEA, 2 M MAPA, and 1 M MAPA and the ternary aqueous mixtures of 5 M DEEA + 2 M MAPA (5D2M) and 5 M DEEA + 1 M MAPA (5D1M), which gave liquid–liquid phase split upon CO2 absorption. The total...... pressures were measured and the CO2 partial pressures were calculated as a function of CO2 loading at three different temperatures 40 °C, 80 °C, and 120 °C. All experiments were reproduced with good repeatability. The measurements were carried out for 30 mass % MEA solutions to validate the experimental...

  9. In situ X-ray scattering studies of protein solution droplets drying on micro- and nanopatterned superhydrophobic PMMA surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Angelo; Gentile, Francesco; Mecarini, Federico; De Angelis, Francesco; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian

    2010-09-21

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces with contact angles of ∼170° and high optical and X-ray transparencies have been fabricated through the use of optical lithography and plasma etching. The surfaces contain either a microscale pattern of micropillars or a random nanofibrillar pattern. Nanoscale asperities on top of the micropillars closely resemble Nelumbo nucifera lotus leaves. The evolution of the contact angle of water and lysozyme solution droplets during evaporation was studied on the micro- and nanopatterned surfaces, showing in particular contact-line pinning for the protein solution droplet on the nanopatterned surface. The microstructural evolution of lysozyme solution droplets was studied on both types of surfaces in situ under nearly contact-free conditions by synchrotron radiation microbeam wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering revealing the increasing protein concentration and the onset of precipitation. The solid residuals show hollow sphere morphologies. Rastermicrodiffraction of the detached residuals suggests about a 1/3 volume fraction of ≥17 nm lysozyme nanocrystalline domains and about a 2/3 short-range-order volume fraction. About 5-fold larger nanocrystalline domains were observed at the attachment points of the sphere to the substrates, which is attributed to particle growth in a shear flow. Such surfaces represent nearly contact-free sample supports for studies of inorganic and organic solution droplets, which find applications in biochips.

  10. Determination of the constants of the solubility product of Ln(OH)3 and the effect of the chloride ions on the lanthanum hydrolysis, praseodymium and lutetium in aqueous solutions of ion force 2 Molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of lanthanum (III), praseodymium (III), and lutetium (III) was studied in 2 M NaClO 4 (aq) and 2 M NaCl (aq) at 303 K and free -CO 2 conditions. Solubility diagrams (p Ln(aq)-pC H ) were obtained by means of a radiochemical method. The pC H borderlines of saturation and unsaturation zones of the solutions and solubility product constants for Ln(OH) 3 were determined from these diagrams. The fitting of the solubility equation to the experimental values of p Ln(aq)-pC H diagrams allowed the calculation of the first hydrolysis and solubility product constants. Independently, the stability constants for the first species of hydrolysis were determined by means of pH titrations, the data were treated with the program SUPERQUAD and fitted to the mean ligand number equation. The stability constants for the species LnCl 2+ were as well calculated in 2M ionic strength and 303 K from the hydrolysis constant values obtained in both perchlorate and chloride media. The values obtained for La, Pr and Lu were: logK ps : 21.11 ± 0.09, 19.81 ± 0.11 and 18.10 ± 0.13 in 2M NaClO 4 ; logK ps : 22.22 ± 0.09, 21.45 ± 0.14 and 18.52 ± 0.29 in 2M NaCl; log β 1 : - 8.64 ± 0.02, - 8.37 ± 0.01 and - 7.95 ± 0.11 in 2M NaClO 4 ; log β 1 / : - 9.02 ± 0.11, - 8.75 ± 0.01 and - 8.12 ± 0.03 in 2M NaCl and the values for log β 1,Cl were - 0.0255, - 0.155 and - 0.758, respectively. (Author)

  11. Selectivity control of photosensitive structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions by changing the rate of surface recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, S A; Andreev, M Y; Lamkin, I A; Solomonov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of surface recombination on spectral sensitivity of structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions. Simulation of the effect for structures based on a p-n junction and a Schottky barrier was carried out. Photodetectors with different rates of surface recombination were fabricated by using different methods of preliminary treatment of the semiconductor surface. We experimentally demonstrated the possibility to control photodetector selectivity by altering the rate of surface recombination. The full width at half maximum was reduced by almost 4 times, while a relatively small decrease in sensitivity at the maximum was observed. (paper)

  12. Method for Predicting Solubilities of Solids in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvents, based on excess Henry's law constants. The basis is statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of solute/solvent infinite dilution activity coefficients. Suitable approximatio...

  13. Highly soluble [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) derivatives for high-performance, solution-processed organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Hideaki; Izawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Eigo; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Yui, Tatsuto

    2007-12-26

    2,7-Dialkyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes were tested as solution-processible molecular semiconductors. Thin films of the organic semiconductors deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates by spin coating have well-ordered structures as confirmed by XRD analysis. Evaluations of the devices under ambient conditions showed typical p-channel FET responses with the field-effect mobility higher than 1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 and Ion/Ioff of approximately 10(7).

  14. Magnetite solubility studies under simulated PWR primary-side conditions, using lithiated, hydrogenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, John; Morrison, Jonathan; Cooper, Christopher; Ponton, Clive; Connolly, Brian; Dickinson, Shirley; Henshaw, Jim

    2014-01-01

    As software for modelling dissolution, precipitation, and transport of metallic species and subsequent CRUD deposition within nuclear plant becomes more advanced, there is an increasing need for accurate and reliable thermodynamic data. The solubility behaviour of magnetite is an example of such data, and is central to any treatment of CRUD solubility due to the prevalence of magnetite and nickel ferrites in CRUD. Several workers have shown the most consistent solubility data comes from once-through flowing systems. However, despite a strong consensus between the results in acidic to mildly alkaline solutions, there is disagreement between the results at approximately pH 25C 9 and higher. A programme of experimental work is on-going at the University of Birmingham, focusing on solubility of metal oxides (e.g., magnetite) in conditions relevant to PWR primary coolant. One objective of this programme is to calculate thermodynamic constants from the data obtained. Magnetite solubility from 200 to 300°C, in lithiated, hydrogenated water of pH 25C 9–11 is being studied using a once-through rig constructed of 316L stainless steel. The feedwater is pumped at 100 bar pressure through a heated bed of magnetite granules, and the output solution is collected and analysed for iron and several other metals by ICP-MS. This paper presents results from preliminary tests without magnetite granules, in which the corroding surface of the rig itself was used as the sole source of soluble iron and of dissolved hydrogen. Levels of iron were generally within an order of magnitude of literature solubility values. Comparison of results at different flow rates and temperatures, in conjunction with conclusions drawn from the published literature, suggests that this is likely due to the presence of particulate matter in a greatly under-saturated solution, compensating for the low surface area of oxide in contact with the solution. (author)

  15. Study of solubility of some metal cyclohexane carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazov, A.N.; Amanov, K.B.; Trapeznikova, V.F.; Kul'maksimov, A.; Kolosova, N.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility of calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium, cabalt, copper and aluminium cyclohexane, carbonates (CHC) in water has been studied at 25 deg C. The salt solubility has been calculated according to the metal ion concentration in saturated solutions. It has been established, that the cobalt and rare earth cyclohexane carbonates are relatively very soluble in water and have solubility products of SP > 1x10 -5 . The solubility of CHC of multivalent metals increases with the decrease of pH values. Each salt has some ''limiting'' pH value of a solution, below which it decomposes completely and can not exist in a solution in the form of solid phase

  16. Serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis caused by non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax parasites using the soluble form of a Trypanozoon variant surface glycoprotein antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Pérez-Rojas, Yenis; Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Noda, José A; Chacín, Ronny; Parra, Nereida; Ron, Lenin; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Bubis, José

    2016-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that a 64-kDa antigen (p64) that was purified from the Venezuelan TeAp-N/D1 isolate of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) equiperdum corresponds to the soluble form of its predominant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), and exhibited cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax. The course of experimental acute infections of bovines with T. vivax were followed by measuring whole anti-p64 antibodies and specific anti-p64 IgG and IgM antibodies in animal sera by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of p64 to diagnose bovine trypanosomosis was also examined using 350 sera from healthy and T. vivax-infected cows living in a trypanosomosis-endemic and enzootic stable area, and 48 sera obtained during a trypanosomosis outbreak. Serological assays showed that ∼ 70-80% of the infected sera contained anti-p64 antibodies, based on the comparative immunodetection of the T. equiperdum clarified antigenic fraction used as a reference test. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian analysis for multiple testing estimated a sensitivity and specificity of 71.6% and 98.8%, respectively, for the indirect ELISA using p64 as antigen. An apparent prevalence of 37.7% for bovine trypanosomosis infection was also estimated with a Bayesian approach when the p64 ELISA test was used. Employing blood from acute infected cows, the indirect ELISA response against p64 was contrasted with the microhematocrit centrifuge method and analyses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers targeting the inter-specific length variation of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the 18S ribosomal gene. The efficiency of p64 for the detection of anti-trypanosome antibodies in acute infected bovines was also corroborated serologically by comparing its response to that of the Indonesian Trypanosoma evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 VSG, which possesses high specificity and sensitivity. As expected, PCR was the best

  17. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  18. Structure and adhesive properties of solid solution specimen surfaces based on bismuth tellurides after cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, M.G.; Rybina, L.N.; Dubrovina, A.N.; Abdinov, D.Sh.

    1988-01-01

    Structure and depth of broken layer, occuring at electroerosion cutting along ingot samples axis of Bi 2 Te 3 -Bi 2 Se 3 , Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 systems solid solutions (obtained by methods of directed crystallization and extrusion), and equilibrium contact angle θ, adhesion effort A and contact resistance r c of these crystals contacts with eutectic alloy of Bi-Sn system are investigated. Depth and structure of the broken layer were determined by means of stage-by-stage scouring-etching and X-ray investigation of cutting surface. It is shown, that etching during ∼50 c in large-block material eliminates polycrystalline layer, lattice bendings, resulting in Laue spots asterism, but does not remove their fragmentation and wash-out. Slots wash-out reduces, while fragmentation remains even after continuous etching. Etching with duration from ∼50 c up to 30-40 min practically does not change the character of polycrystalline samples diffraction pattern

  19. Direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions by surface-engineered nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2017-06-30

    Detecting biomarkers from complex sample solutions is the key objective of molecular diagnostics. Being able to do so in a simple approach that does not require laborious sample preparation, sophisticated equipment and trained staff is vital for point-of-care applications. Here, we report on the specific detection of the breast cancer biomarker sHER2 directly from serum and saliva samples by a nanorod-based homogeneous biosensing approach, which is easy to operate as it only requires mixing of the samples with the nanorod probes. By careful nanorod surface engineering and homogeneous assay design, we demonstrate that the formation of a protein corona around the nanoparticles does not limit the applicability of our detection method, but on the contrary enables us to conduct in-situ reference measurements, thus further strengthening the point-of-care applicability of our method. Making use of sandwich assays on top of the nanorods, we obtain a limit of detection of 110 pM and 470 pM in 10-fold diluted spiked saliva and serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, our results open up numerous applications in direct protein biomarker quantification, specifically in point-of-care settings where resources are limited and ease-of-use is of essence.

  20. Ray effects in the discrete-ordinate solution for surface radiation exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, B T [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, C Y [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-04-01

    A study of the application of the discrete-ordinate method (DOM) with remedy for the ray effects to the solution of surface radiation exchange is presented in this paper. The remedy for the ray effects is achieved by dividing the radiative intensity into the attenuated incident and the medium emitting components. To demonstrate the application of the technique, this work considers radiative heat transfer in a two-dimensional cylindrical enclosure filled with a nearly transparent medium. The results obtained by the present DOM are in excellent agreement with those by the radiosity/irradiation method. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs. [Deutsch] In der Arbeit wird ein Weg aufgezeigt, wie die Stoerstrahlungseffekte bei Anwendung der Methode der diskreten Ordinaten auf die Berechnung des Energietausches zwischen Oberflaechenstrahlern vermieden werden koennen. Dies laesst sich durch Aufspaltung der Strahlungsintensitaet in die abgeschwaechte einfallende und die vom Medium emittierte Komponente erreichen. Als Beispiel fuer die Anwendung dieses Verfahrens dient der Waermeaustausch durch Strahlung in einem zweidimensionalen zylindrischen Behaeltnis, das mit einem nahezu transparenten Medium befuellt ist. Die mit der modifizierten Methode erhaltenen Ergebnisse stimmen ausgezeichnet mit jenen nach dem klassischen Brutto-Verfahren ueberein. (orig.)

  1. Direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions by surface-engineered nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Schotter, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers from complex sample solutions is the key objective of molecular diagnostics. Being able to do so in a simple approach that does not require laborious sample preparation, sophisticated equipment and trained staff is vital for point-of-care applications. Here, we report on the specific detection of the breast cancer biomarker sHER2 directly from serum and saliva samples by a nanorod-based homogeneous biosensing approach, which is easy to operate as it only requires mixing of the samples with the nanorod probes. By careful nanorod surface engineering and homogeneous assay design, we demonstrate that the formation of a protein corona around the nanoparticles does not limit the applicability of our detection method, but on the contrary enables us to conduct in-situ reference measurements, thus further strengthening the point-of-care applicability of our method. Making use of sandwich assays on top of the nanorods, we obtain a limit of detection of 110 pM and 470 pM in 10-fold diluted spiked saliva and serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, our results open up numerous applications in direct protein biomarker quantification, specifically in point-of-care settings where resources are limited and ease-of-use is of essence.

  2. Durable protection of the surface of wood used outdoors: material constraints, problems and approaches to solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic durability of wooden structures is a major challenge for the use of this material in construction. Wood is used for its technical performances but also for its architectural qualities and its aesthetic perception. The premature aging of the wooden structures is detrimental because these disorders, even if they do not affect the strength of the structures, are mostly irremediable. The surface protection of wood is generally ensured by the use of a finish, whose essential role is to protect wood from climatic aggressions (water, solar radiation, oxygen, .... The secondary wood processing industry consists of a series of manufacturing and processing activities, each containing a portion of the added value of the product. The application of a finish on a wood-based work is usually the last and most visible step in this value chain.In outdoor use, the protection of the wood surface with transparent finishes is not yet sufficiently durable to be able to compete with materials used in industrial carpentry such as PVC or aluminum. Opaque finishes generally provide more durable protection but they mask the appearance of the wood sought by users.With the aim of positioning wood in this construction sector, research on transparent finishes has focused on the efficiency and improvement of the durability of the protection of the surface appearance of structures. Faced with climatic aggressions, the optimum conservation of a structure is not only linked to the performance of the finish but also to the characteristics of the wood material. In particular, in order to fulfill its protective function, the finish film must be able to follow the dimensional variations of the wood it covers without breaking and without detachment. In addition to the criteria for the effectiveness of finishes in the protection of structures, the environmental impact must be considered with increasing attention. Currently, more than 80% of composite or solid wood

  3. Reduction in Friction and Wear of Alumina Surfaces as Assisted with Surface-Adsorbing Polymers in Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the aqueous lubricating effects of various polymers for the sliding contacts of self-mated alumina surfaces in neutral aqueous environment. Given that isoelectric point (IEP) of alumina is ca. pH 9, polyanions can readily adsorb onto alumina surface at neutral pH via electros......We have investigated the aqueous lubricating effects of various polymers for the sliding contacts of self-mated alumina surfaces in neutral aqueous environment. Given that isoelectric point (IEP) of alumina is ca. pH 9, polyanions can readily adsorb onto alumina surface at neutral pH via...

  4. Continuous agglomerate model for identifying the solute- indifferent part of colloid nanoparticle's surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimov, A V; Aryslanova, E M; Chivilikhin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an explicit analytical model for the surface potential of a colloidal nano-agglomerate. The model predicts that when an agglomerate reaches a certain critical size, its surface potential becomes independent of the agglomerate radius. The model also provides a method for identifying and quantifying the solute-indifferent charge in nanocolloids, that allows to assess the stability of toxicologically significant parameters of the system. (paper)

  5. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology. Appendix C -- Finite Element Models Solution Database File, Appendix D -- Benchmark Finite Element Models Solution Database File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  6. Asymptotic stability of shear-flow solutions to incompressible viscous free boundary problems with and without surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Ian

    2018-04-01

    This paper concerns the dynamics of a layer of incompressible viscous fluid lying above a rigid plane and with an upper boundary given by a free surface. The fluid is subject to a constant external force with a horizontal component, which arises in modeling the motion of such a fluid down an inclined plane, after a coordinate change. We consider the problem both with and without surface tension for horizontally periodic flows. This problem gives rise to shear-flow equilibrium solutions, and the main thrust of this paper is to study the asymptotic stability of the equilibria in certain parameter regimes. We prove that there exists a parameter regime in which sufficiently small perturbations of the equilibrium at time t=0 give rise to global-in-time solutions that return to equilibrium exponentially in the case with surface tension and almost exponentially in the case without surface tension. We also establish a vanishing surface tension limit, which connects the solutions with and without surface tension.

  7. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows

  8. Solubilities of iron and nickel oxides under high temperature and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ke-Chon; Jung, Yong-Ju; Yeon, Jei-Won; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of primary coolant chemistry are to assure fuel and material integrity and to minimize out of core radiation fields. During the PWR operation, crud deposits are expected on the cladding, leading to cladding failure and raising the radioactivity. Such deposits come from the corrosion products of system surface. To achieve optimal conditions for primary coolant, basic researches on mass transfer, deposition and solubility of corrosion products are needed. The initial stage of crud formation could be the studies on the solubility of a structural material. It has been known that the solubility of metal oxides in boric acid under high temperature and high pressure condition depends on the pH and dissolved hydrogen. Thus, the effect of various pH on the solubility of metal oxide in boric acid solution was investigated in this work

  9. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimbe T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tejaswini Walimbe,1 Vidya Chelerkar,2 Purvi Bhagat,3 Abhijeet Joshi,4 Atul Raut4 1Walimbe Eye Clinic, 2PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Pune, 3Glaucoma Clinic, M and J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, 4Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, India Introduction: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK, included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT. BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2a, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. Patients and methods: A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. Results: At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (P<0.0001. Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI© score also decreased significantly to 12.06±13.40 and 7.06±10.75 at 28 and 56 days, respectively, versus baseline (18.09±18.61, P<0.0001. In addition, inferior corneal staining score decreased significantly to 0.53 from baseline (0.85, P=0.0033. A reduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08% treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes

  10. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  11. Desorption of 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene from Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact of Solution Chemistry and Surface Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Uddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strong affinity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs to environmental contaminants has raised serious concern that CNTs may function as a carrier of environmental pollutants and lead to contamination in places where the environmental pollutants are not expected. However, this concern will not be realized until the contaminants are desorbed from CNTs. It is well recognized that the desorption of environmental pollutants from pre-laden CNTs varies with the environmental conditions, such as the solution pH and ionic strength. However, comprehensive investigation on the influence of solution chemistry on the desorption process has not been carried out, even though numerous investigations have been conducted to investigate the impact of solution chemistry on the adsorption of environmental pollutants on CNTs. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength and surface functionalization on the desorption of preloaded 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs. The results suggested that higher pH, ionic strength and natural organic matter in solution generally led to higher desorption of 1,3,5-TCB from MWNTs. However, the extent of change varied at different values of the tested parameters (e.g., pH 7. In addition, the impact of these parameters varied with MWNTs possessing different surface functional groups, suggesting that surface functionalization could considerably alter the environmental behaviors and impact of MWNTs.

  12. Redox properties of phenosafranine at zeolite-modified electrodes-Effect of surface modification and solution pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easwaramoorthi, S.; Natarajan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Redox properties of cationic dye phenosafranine (3,7-diamino-5-phenylphenazenium chloride) (PS + ) were studied at zeolite-modified electrodes using Zeolite-Y and NaZSM-5. The peak current and peak potential of phenosafranine-adsorbed zeolite were found to be influenced by the pH of the electrolyte solution. Observation of a second redox couple is suggested to be due to formation of new species at low concentration from the reduced phenosafranine at the zeolite-modified electrodes. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the cavities of the zeolite or anchored on the external surface of the zeolite do not seem to affect the redox properties of adsorbed PS + . When the cyclic voltammograms are recorded immediately after the electrode is immersed into the solution, the redox potential of PS + is found to be sensitive to the nature of the zeolite surface. The peak potential shifts towards positive region under continuous cycles as the surface hydroxyl groups get protonated in acidic electrolyte solution thereby forcing the movement of dye molecules from the zeolite surface to the zeolite electrode solution interface. The electron transfer rate constants for the adsorbed dye at the electrode are calculated to be 2.5 ± 0.2 s -1 and 3.5 ± 0.2 s -1 for the zeolite-Y electrode and the ZSM-5 electrode, respectively by the Laviron equation

  13. In situ characterization of Ti-peroxy gel during formation on titanium surfaces in hydrogen peroxide containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyco, Julie J.; Gray, Jeremy J.; Ratto, Timothy V.; Orme, Christine A.; McKittrick, Joanna; Frangos, John

    2006-01-01

    Three possible functions of Ti-peroxy gel are: reduction of the inflammatory response through the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species; creation of a favorable surface for calcium phosphate nucleation; and as a transitional layer between the compliant surrounding tissue and the stiff titanium. Traditional surface characterization techniques operate in high vacuum environments that alter the actual sample-solution interface. Our studies used techniques that allowed samples to remain in solution and be observed over time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Raman spectroscopy were each used in situ to define kinetic and mechanical properties of Ti-peroxy gel as it formed over time on titanium during exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Our studies enabled us to monitor real-time changes in the native oxide layer on titanium in hydrogen peroxide containing solution, including the formation of a Ti-peroxy gel layer above the native oxide. Peaks attributed to Ti-peroxy gel were seen to emerge over the course of several hours using in situ Raman spectroscopy. Force-distance curves suggest a layer that thickens with time on the titanium sample surface. EIS data showed that changes in the surface layers could be monitored in solution over time

  14. Determination of Surface Tension of Surfactant Solutions through Capillary Rise Measurements: An Image-Processing Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck-Iriart, Cristia´n; De-Candia, Ariel; Rodriguez, Javier; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we described an image processing procedure for the measurement of surface tension of the air-liquid interface using isothermal capillary action. The experiment, designed for an undergraduate course, is based on the analysis of a series of solutions with diverse surfactant concentrations at different ionic strengths. The objective of…

  15. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walimbe, Tejaswini; Chelerkar, Vidya; Bhagat, Purvi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Raut, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT). BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2α, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs) associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds) to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (Preduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08%) treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes in vital signs or slit lamp examinations were observed. Results indicate that switching from BAK-containing latanoprost to BAK-free latanoprost resulted in significant improvements in TBUT, OSDI(©) score, and inferior corneal staining score, and measurable reductions in conjunctival hyperemia score. Furthermore, BAK-free latanoprost was well tolerated with only mild-to-moderate and self-limiting AEs. BAK-free latanoprost appears to be effective in protecting ocular surface integrity in glaucoma patients but further studies are needed to confirm this beneficial effect.

  16. The surface-active bio oil solution in sulfured copper mineral benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Brossard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active bio-oil (SABO solutions, prepared from vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil with a phenol-to-levoglucosan mass ratio of 4.8, was compared to pine-oil (PO as foaming agent in the process of flotation of sulfured copper minerals. With the aid of 2³ factorial designs, regression models were obtained for % Cu in flotation concentrate (L Cu and % Cu recovery (R, as functions of foaming agent-to-Cu mineral, collector-to-Cu mineral mass ratio and liquid-to-solid ratio (v/w. Experimental designs composed of a saturated design in its first half and a fold over design in its second half allowed to study the influence of flotation conditions on L Cu and R when SABO was the foaming agent. The factors selected were: particle size; pulp pH; flotation time; initial Cu content in the mineral (mineral type; liquid-to-solid ratio and finally SABO-to-mineral and collector-to-mineral mass ratio. Within the chosen experimental region only pulp pH affected significantly both responses. It is shown that high pulp pH, in the presence of minerals rich in Cu content leads to a significant increase in L Cu and R. Although SABO to mineral mass ratio is high compared to PO, it is considered that an optimization study on pulp pH should reduce this difference making SABO an attractive alternative to PO and a way to widen the field of applications of pyrolysis products.

  17. Use of response surface methodology for optimization of fluoride adsorption in an aqueous solution by Brushite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mourabet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Response surface methodology (RSM was employed for the removal of fluoride on Brushite and the process parameters were optimized. Four important process parameters including initial fluoride concentration (40–50 mg/L, pH (4–11, temperature (10–40 °C and B dose (0.05–0.15 g were optimized to obtain the best response of fluoride removal using the statistical Box–Behnken design. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Numerical optimization applying desirability function was used to identify the optimum conditions for maximum removal of fluoride. The optimum conditions were found to be initial concentration = 49.06 mg/L, initial solution pH = 5.36, adsorbent dose = 0.15 g and temperature = 31.96 °C. A confirmatory experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimization procedure and maximum fluoride removal of 88.78% was achieved under the optimized conditions. Several error analysis equations were used to measure the goodness-of-fit. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second order reaction. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models at different temperatures. The Langmuir model was found to be describing the data. The adsorption capacity from the Langmuir isotherm (QL was found to be 29.212, 35.952 and 36.260 mg/g at 298, 303, and 313 K respectively.

  18. ''Over the horizon'' SANS: Measurements on near-surface Poiseuille shear-induced ordering of dilute solutions of threadlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Kreke, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Although the behavior of a fluid under shear near a surface can be expected to be critically important to its drag and lubrication properties, most shear measurements to date have been of the bulk. This paper outlines the use of a specially developed Poiseuille shear cell at grazing incidence to measure the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal from the first few tens of microns in the interfacial region. The authors illustrate the technique with measurements made on the near-surface ordering in flow past a quartz surface of dilute surfactant solutions comprising highly extended self-assembling ''threadlike'' micelles

  19. Surface Analytical Study of CuInSe2 Treated in Cd-Containing Partial Electrolyte Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niles, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Junction formation in CuInSe2 (CIS) has been studied by exposing thin films and single-crystal samples to solutions containing NH4OH and CdSO4. The treated samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the amount and distribution of Cd deposited on the surface of the films. Cadmium is found to react with the surface for all the solution exposure times and temperatures studied. The reaction rapidly approaches the endpoint and remains relatively unchanged for subsequent solution exposure. Cadmium in-diffusion, as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, is obscured by topography effects in the thin-film samples and by ion-beam mixing and topography in the single-crystal sample

  20. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150 0 C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables

  1. Effects of geometric modulation and surface potential heterogeneity on electrokinetic flow and solute transport in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Subrata; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2018-04-01

    A numerical investigation is performed on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a surface-modulated microchannel to induce enhanced solute mixing. The channel wall is modulated by placing surface-mounted obstacles of trigonometric shape along which the surface potential is considered to be different from the surface potential of the homogeneous part of the wall. The characteristics of the electrokinetic flow are governed by the Laplace equation for the distribution of external electric potential; the Poisson equation for the distribution of induced electric potential; the Nernst-Planck equations for the distribution of ions; and the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow simultaneously. These nonlinear coupled set of governing equations are solved numerically by a control volume method over the staggered system. The influence of the geometric modulation of the surface, surface potential heterogeneity and the bulk ionic concentration on the EOF is analyzed. Vortical flow develops near a surface modulation, and it becomes stronger when the surface potential of the modulated region is in opposite sign to the surface potential of the homogeneous part of the channel walls. Vortical flow also depends on the Debye length when the Debye length is in the order of the channel height. Pressure drop along the channel length is higher for a ribbed wall channel compared to the grooved wall case. The pressure drop decreases with the increase in the amplitude for a grooved channel, but increases for a ribbed channel. The mixing index is quantified through the standard deviation of the solute distribution. Our results show that mixing index is higher for the ribbed channel compared to the grooved channel with heterogeneous surface potential. The increase in potential heterogeneity in the modulated region also increases the mixing index in both grooved and ribbed channels. However, the mixing performance, which is the ratio of the mixing index to pressure drop, reduces with the rise in

  2. Optical and electrical study of CdZnTe surfaces passivated by KOH and NH{sub 4}F solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zázvorka, J., E-mail: zazvorka.jakub@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Franc, J.; Statelov, M.; Pekárek, J.; Veis, M.; Moravec, P. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface of CdZnTe samples was passivated after chemical etching. • KOH and NH{sub 4}F solutions were used as passivation agents. • Growth of surface oxide after passivation is observed. • Surface oxide thickness was evaluated over time after chemical treatment. • Oxidation of the sample correlates with decreased leakage current. - Abstract: Performance of CdZnTe-based detectors is highly related to surface preparation. Mechanical polishing, chemical etching and passivation are routinely employed for this purpose. However, the relation between these processes and the detector performance in terms of underlying physical phenomena has not been fully explained. The dynamics and properties of CdZnTe surface oxide layers, created by passivation with KOH and NH4F/H2O2 solutions, were studied by optical ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thicknesses and growth rates of the surface oxide layers differed for each of the passivation methods. Leakage currents which influence the final spectral resolution of the detector were measured simultaneously with ellipsometry. Results of both optical and electrical investigation showed the same trends in the time evolution and correlated to each other. NH4F/H2O2 passivation showed to be a method which produces the most desirable properties of the surface oxide layer.

  3. Study on the surface reaction of LaNi{sub 5} alloy during discharge process in KOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Zuxian [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang Yifu [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: yang-y-f1@vip.sina.com; Jiang Fengshan [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shao Huixia [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2006-10-05

    A new method for studying surface reaction of LaNi{sub 5} absorbing alloy in KOH solution (pH 12) was established. It is based on tip-substrate voltammetry of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) where the tip faradic current is recorded while scanning the substrate potential. The Pt electrode is selected as tip electrode, and the Pt oxide formation-reduction is used as a pH-dependent reaction while the tip potential is held at a constant value. As substrate surface reactions proceed, the pH of solution can be changed, and then the tip faradic current is recorded. The mechanism of discharge process of LaNi{sub 5} alloy was analyzed by comparing the tip current (I {sub tip}) versus substrate potential (E {sub sub}) curve, which reflects the exchange of H{sup +} or OH{sup -} between the alloy surface and the solution, with the substrate current (I {sub sub}) versus substrate potential (E {sub sub}) curve, which reflects the exchange of electron on the LaNi{sub 5} alloy surface. The results showed that the OH{sup -} adsorption process is occurred before the electron transfer process during discharge process, and the adsorptive OH{sup -} helps the oxidation of adsorbed hydrogen atom on the alloy surface. A quantitative assessment for the maximum changes of pH during discharge process is also proposed, and the variation as large as 2.65 pH unit was detected.

  4. Study on the surface reaction of LaNi{sub 5} alloy during discharge process in KOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zuxian; Yang, Yifu; Jiang, Fengshan; Shao, Huixia [Wuhan University, Wuhan (China). Department of Chemistry

    2006-10-05

    A new method for studying surface reaction of LaNi{sub 5} absorbing alloy in KOH solution (pH 12) was established. It is based on tip-substrate voltammetry of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) where the tip faradic current is recorded while scanning the substrate potential. The Pt electrode is selected as tip electrode, and the Pt oxide formation-reduction is used as a pH-dependent reaction while the tip potential is held at a constant value. As substrate surface reactions proceed, the pH of solution can be changed, and then the tip faradic current is recorded. The mechanism of discharge process of LaNi{sub 5} alloy was analyzed by comparing the tip current (I{sub tip}) versus substrate potential (E{sub sub}) curve, which reflects the exchange of H{sup +} or OH{sup -} between the alloy surface and the solution, with the substrate current (I{sub sub}) versus substrate potential (E{sub sub}) curve, which reflects the exchange of electron on the LaNi{sub 5} alloy surface. The results showed that the OH{sup -} adsorption process is occurred before the electron transfer process during discharge process, and the adsorptive OH{sup -} helps the oxidation of adsorbed hydrogen atom on the alloy surface. A quantitative assessment for the maximum changes of pH during discharge process is also proposed, and the variation as large as 2.65 pH unit was detected. (author)

  5. Facile Deposition of Ultrafine Silver Particles on Silicon Surface Not Submerged in Precursor Solutions for Applications in Antireflective Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile deposition method, the ultrafine silver particles are successfully deposited on the Si surface that is not submerged in precursor solutions. The ultrafine silver particles have many advantages, such as quasiround shape, uniformity in size, monodisperse distribution, and reduction of agglomeration. The internal physical procedure in the deposition is also investigated. The results show that there are more particles on the rough Si surface due to the wetting effect of solid-liquid interface. The higher concentration of ethanol solvent can induce the increase of quantity and size of particles on Si surface not in solutions. The ultrafine particles can be used to prepare porous Si antireflective layer in solar cell applications.

  6. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  7. Accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces in water and sodium chloride solutions: Implications for coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, M.A.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved gases can preferentially accumulate at the hydrophobic solid-water interface as revealed by neutron reflectivity measurements. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine accumulation of dissolved gases at a hydrophobic surface in water and sodium chloride solutions. The solvent-exchange method was used to artificially form gaseous domains accumulated at the interface suitable for AFM imaging. Smooth graphite surfaces were used as model surfaces to minimize the secondary effect of surface roughness on the imaging. The concentration of NaCl up to 1 M was found to have a negligible influence on the geometry and population of pre-existing nanobubbles, nanopancakes and nanobubble-nanopancake composites. The implications of the findings on coal flotation in saline water are discussed in terms of attraction between hydrophobic surfaces in water, bubble-particle attachment and hydrophobic coagulation between particles.

  8. Water-compatible 'aspartame'-imprinted polymer grafted on silica surface for selective recognition in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Abhishek; Tarannum, Nazia

    2013-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers selective for aspartame have been prepared using N-[2-ammonium-ethyl-piperazinium) maleimidopropane sulfonate copolymer bearing zwitterionic centres along the backbone via a surface-confined grafting procedure. Aspartame, a dipeptide, is commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Polymerisation on the surface was propagated by means of Michael addition reaction on amino-grafted silica surface. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (aspartame) and the imprinted surface led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up aspartame from aqueous solution and certain pharmaceutical samples quantitatively. Hence, a facile, specific and selective technique using surface-grafted specific molecular contours developed for specific and selective uptake of aspartame in the presence of various interferrants, in different kinds of matrices is presented.

  9. Key factors influencing the stability of silane solution during long-term surface treatment on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Xiaochao; Chen, Minglu; Li, Lixin; Lin, Zhen; Xiang, Jun; Zhao, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The corrosion-resistance time of silane films decreases with increasing cycle numbers. •The morphology of silane films prepared from aged solution is inhomogeneous. •Introduction of contamination ions is one reason for the poor property of aged solution. •Consumption of silane is the other reason for the poor property of aged solution. •Fe 3+ accumulated is the key factor influencing the property of silane solution. -- Abstract: The mixtures of bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine and vinyltriacetoxysilane were used for surface treatment of carbon steel, aiming to investigate the factors influencing the stability of silane solution during long-term experiment from two aspects. One is the concentrations of contamination ions, and the other is mass of silane consumed per cycle which is calculated according to concentration of Si measured by silicon molybdenum blue photometry. The results indicate that the accumulation of contamination ions, especially Fe 3+ , is the main factor leading to the condensation between the Si–OH groups in silane solution, which is responsible for the downward stability of silane solution

  10. Examination and Manipulation of Protein Surface Charge in Solution with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Deborah S.; Van Ryswyk, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful tool for examining the charge of proteins in solution. The charge can be manipulated through choice of solvent and pH. Furthermore, solution-accessible, protonated lysine side chains can be specifically tagged with 18-crown-6 ether to form noncovalent adducts. Chemical derivatization…

  11. Surface and adsorptive properties of Moringa oleifera bark for removal of V(V) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnisi, Robert Londi; Ndibewu, Peter Papoh

    2017-11-04

    The bark of Moringa oleifera, a cheap and readily available natural biopolymeric resource material, found to significantly reduce coliform load and turbidity in contaminated water is investigated in this paper. Its surface and adsorptive properties are investigated to explore its adsorptive potential in removing V(V) from aqueous solutions. Surface properties were investigated using FTIR, HRSEM/EDS, IC, and BET-N 2 adsorption techniques. Adsorptive properties were investigated by optimizing adsorption parameters such as pH, temperature, initial metal concentration, and adsorbent dosage, using V(V) as an adsorbate. The adsorption-desorption isotherms are typical of type II with a H3 hysteresis loop and is characteristic of a largely macroporous material. Bottle ink pores are observed, which can provide good accessibility of the active sites, even though the internal BET surface area is typically low (1.79 g/m 2 ). Solution pH significantly influences the adsorptive potential of the material. The low surface area negatively impacts on the adsorption capacity, but is compensated for by the exchangeable anions (Cl - , F - , PO 4 3- , NO 3 - , and SO 4 2- ) and cations (Ca 2+ , K + , Mg 2+ , and Al 3+ ) at the surface and the accessibility of the active sites. Adsorption isotherm modeling show that the surface is largely heterogeneous with complex multiple sites and adsorption is not limited to monolayer.

  12. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  13. Key parameters of the sediment surface morphodynamics in an estuary - An assessment of model solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, D. M. R.; Boski, T.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale geomorphological evolution of an estuarine system was simulated by means of a hybrid estuarine sedimentation model (HESM) applied to the Guadiana Estuary, in Southwest Iberia. The model simulates the decadal-scale morphodynamics of the system under environmental forcing, using a set of analytical solutions to simplified equations of tidal wave propagation in shallow waters, constrained by empirical knowledge of estuarine sedimentary dynamics and topography. The key controlling parameters of the model are bed friction (f), current velocity power of the erosion rate function (N), and sea-level rise rate. An assessment of sensitivity of the simulated sediment surface elevation (SSE) change to these controlling parameters was performed. The model predicted the spatial differentiation of accretion and erosion, the latter especially marked in the mudflats within mean sea level and low tide level and accretion was mainly in a subtidal channel. The average SSE change mutually depended on both the friction coefficient and power of the current velocity. Analysis of the average annual SSE change suggests that the state of intertidal and subtidal compartments of the estuarine system vary differently according to the dominant processes (erosion and accretion). As the Guadiana estuarine system shows dominant erosional behaviour in the context of sea-level rise and sediment supply reduction after the closure of the Alqueva Dam, the most plausible sets of parameter values for the Guadiana Estuary are N = 1.8 and f = 0.8f0, or N = 2 and f = f0, where f0 is the empirically estimated value. For these sets of parameter values, the relative errors in SSE change did not exceed ±20% in 73% of simulation cells in the studied area. Such a limit of accuracy can be acceptable for an idealized modelling of coastal evolution in response to uncertain sea-level rise scenarios in the context of reduced sediment supply due to flow regulation. Therefore, the idealized but cost

  14. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA binds MBL and regulates the lectin pathway of complement in solution and on surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eParnov Reichhardt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR protein SALSA, also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin (SAG and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, is a 340 kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A (SP-D and SP-A and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan binding lectin (MBL as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit C. albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement regulatory function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid-phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL.

  15. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  16. Effect of ammonium-salt solutions on the surface properties of carbon fibers in electrochemical anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Xin, E-mail: qx3023@nimte.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory of Carbon Fiber Preparation Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang Xuefei; Ouyang Qin; Chen Yousi; Yan Qing [National Engineering Laboratory of Carbon Fiber Preparation Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The higher the concentration of OH{sup -} ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative reaction happened. - Abstract: The surfaces of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers were treated by an electrochemical anodic method. Three different kinds of ammonium-salt solutions namely NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} were respectively chosen as the electrolytes. The effect of these electrolytes on the surface structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment, and the root mean square roughness (RMS) of carbon fiber surface increased from 4.6 nm for untreated fibers to 13.5 nm for treated fibers in (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolytes. The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen atomic on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. The tensile strength of oxidized fibers had an obvious decrease, whereas the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) value of corresponding carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) increased in a large extent. The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions and electrochemical oxidation in (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolyte was of the most violence. The corresponding mechanism was also discussed and the result showed that the higher the concentration of OH{sup -} ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative

  17. Correlation of flow accelerated corrosion rate with iron solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Domae, M.; Yoneda, K.; Inada, F.; Ohira, T.; Hisamune, K.

    2011-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of the carbon steel is one of the most important subjects in the coolant systems of the power plants. FAC is influenced by the composition of the material, the flow condition, temperature, and the water chemistry conditions. It is considered that the solubility of iron (Fe) is the most important factor in the water chemistry parameters affecting FAC. In the present study, the effects of temperature and pH on the Fe solubility were evaluated in consideration of the hydrolysis reactions of the ferrous iron, the dissolution equilibria of Fe 3 O 4 , FeO, and Fe(OH) 2 , and the charge balance. The correlation between the Fe solubility and the FAC behavior was discussed. It has been suggested that the product of the Fe solubility equilibrated with Fe 3 O 4 and the mass transfer coefficient can explain the temperature and pH dependence of FAC. These results indicate the presence of the magnetite on the surface of the carbon steel. Diffusion of the Fe from the saturated layer to the bulk solution determines the FAC rate from the water chemistry aspect.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of the calcite/solution interface as a means to explore surface modifications induced by nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Sascha; Schmidt, Moritz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Surface Processes; Spijker, P. [Aalto Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Applied Physics; Voitchovsky, K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.

    2016-07-01

    The reactivity of calcite, one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust, is determined by the molecular details of its interface with the contacting solution. Recently, it has been found that trace concentrations of NaNO{sub 3} severely affect calcite's (104) surface and its reactivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveal density profiles of different ions near calcite's surface, with NO{sub 3}{sup -} able to reach closer to the surface than CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and in higher concentrations. Additionally, incorporation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} into the surface significantly disturbs the water structure at the interface.

  19. Ammonia volatilization from surface-applied nitrogen solution of urea and ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivellin, Paulo Cezar Ocheuze; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Lima Filho, Oscar Fontvo de; Tziboy, Edgar Alfredo Tzi; Oliveira Junior, Jovo Alberto de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino

    1996-08-01

    The urea is one of the fertilizers more utilized in modern agriculture. One of the problems in the urea utilization is the ammonium volatilization, resulting in low utilization of N-fertilizers by the plants.The objective of this study it was to evaluate and to compare in laboratories conditions , utilizing the 15 N technic the soil's ammonium lost by volatilization associated a superficial application of nitrogen corresponding doses like urea solution and urea and ammonium nitrates solution

  20. Reduced in vivo ocular surface toxicity with polyquad-preserved travoprost versus benzalkonium-preserved travoprost or latanoprost ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study used a validated acute in vivo model to compare a new formulation of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution(travoprost PQ), preserved with polyquaternium-1 (PQ), with commercially available formulations of benzalkonium-chloride(BAK)-preserved travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution(travoprost BAK) and BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005%ophthalmic solution (latanoprost BAK). Adult male New Zealand albino rabbits (n = 36) were randomly divided into 6 groups. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.001% PQ, 0.015% BAK, travoprost PQ, travoprost BAK or latanoprost BAK were applied onto rabbit eyes as 1 drop, for 15 times at 5-min intervals.The ocular surface reactions were investigated at hour 4 and day 1 using slitlamp examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for cornea, limbus and conjunctiva/conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue, conjunctival impression cytology and standard immunohistology in cryosections for detecting CD45+ infiltrating cells and MUC-5AC-labeled cells. PBS, PQ and travoprost PQ did not induce obvious irritation by clinical observation, changes in microstructures of the whole ocular surface as measured by IVCM analysis,inflammatory infiltration or cell damage as measured by impression cytology, altered levels of goblet cell counts or numerous CD45+ cells in the cornea. In contrast, all BAK-containing products induced diffuse conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis, abnormal changes in the ocular surface microstructure,significant total ocular surface toxicity scores,damaged epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased goblet cell density. Travoprost PQ did not elicitocular surface toxicity when administered to rabbit eyes.These results suggest a greater safety advantage for the ocular surface of patients receiving chronic glaucoma treatment with PQ-preserved drugs.

  1. Acid-base behavior of the gaspeite (NiCO3(s)) surface in NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Schott, Jacques

    2010-08-03

    Gaspeite is a low reactivity, rhombohedral carbonate mineral and a suitable surrogate to investigate the surface properties of other more ubiquitous carbonate minerals, such as calcite, in aqueous solutions. In this study, the acid-base properties of the gaspeite surface were investigated over a pH range of 5 to 10 in NaCl solutions (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M) at near ambient conditions (25 +/- 3 degrees C and 1 atm) by means of conventional acidimetric and alkalimetric titration techniques and microelectrophoresis. Over the entire experimental pH range, surface protonation and electrokinetic mobility are strongly affected by the background electrolyte, leading to a significant decrease of the pH of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) and the pH of isoelectric point (pH(iep)) at increasing NaCl concentrations. This challenges the conventional idea that carbonate mineral surfaces are chemically inert to background electrolyte ions. Multiple sets of surface complexation reactions (i.e., ionization and ion adsorption) were formulated within the framework of three electrostatic models (CCM, BSM, and TLM) and their ability to simulate proton adsorption and electrokinetic data was evaluated. A one-site, 3-pK, constant capacitance surface complexation model (SCM) reproduces the proton adsorption data at all ionic strengths and qualitatively predicts the electrokinetic behavior of gaspeite suspensions. Nevertheless, the strong ionic strength dependence exhibited by the optimized SCM parameters reveals that the influence of the background electrolyte on the surface reactivity of gaspeite is not fully accounted for by conventional electrostatic and surface complexation models and suggests that future refinements to the underlying theories are warranted.

  2. Functional and structural mapping of human cerebral cortex: solutions are in the surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Joshi, S.; Miller, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex is notorious for the depth and irregularity of its convolutions and for its variability from one individual to the next. These complexities of cortical geography have been a chronic impediment to studies of functional specialization in the cortex. In this report, we discuss ways to compensate for the convolutions by using a combination of strategies whose common denominator involves explicit reconstructions of the cortical surface. Surface-based visualization involves reconstructing cortical surfaces and displaying them, along with associated experimental data, in various complementary formats (including three-dimensional native configurations, two-dimensional slices, extensively smoothed surfaces, ellipsoidal representations, and cortical flat maps). Generating these representations for the cortex of the Visible Man leads to a surface-based atlas that has important advantages over conventional stereotaxic atlases as a substrate for displaying and analyzing large amounts of experimental data. We illustrate this by showing the relationship between functionally specialized regions and topographically organized areas in human visual cortex. Surface-based warping allows data to be mapped from individual hemispheres to a surface-based atlas while respecting surface topology, improving registration of identifiable landmarks, and minimizing unwanted distortions. Surface-based warping also can aid in comparisons between species, which we illustrate by warping a macaque flat map to match the shape of a human flat map. Collectively, these approaches will allow more refined analyses of commonalities as well as individual differences in the functional organization of primate cerebral cortex.

  3. Effect of hydrogen charging on the stability of SAE 10B22 steel surface in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modiano, S.; Carreno, J.A.; Fugivara, C.S.; Benedetti, A.V.; Mattos, O.R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen charging into a quenched and tempered boron steel membrane electrode (SAE 10B22) was studied using borate buffer (pH 8.4) and NaOH solutions (pH 12.7), with or without the addition of 0.01 M EDTA. At the hydrogen input side, hydrogen charging influenced cyclic voltammograms increasing the anodic charge of iron(II) hydroxide formation, and decreasing the donor density of passive films. These results suggest that the hydrogen ingress caused instability of metallic surface, increasing the surface area activity

  4. Surface Corrosion and Microstructure Degradation of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles in Sulfate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuman Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydration products of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement are different from those of Portland cement. The degradation of CSA cement subjected to wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution was studied in this paper. The surface corrosion was recorded and the microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Cl− have an effect on the stability of ettringite. In the initial period of sulfate attack, salt crystallization is the main factor leading to the degradation of CSA cement specimens. The decomposition and the carbonation of ettringite will cause long-term degradation of CSA cement specimens under wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution. The surface spalling and microstructure degradation increase significantly with the increase of wet-dry cycles, sulfate concentration, and water to cement ratio. Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride reduce the degradation when the concentration of sulfate ions is a constant value.

  5. Molecular theory for nuclear magnetic relaxation in protein solutions and tissue; Surface diffusion and free-volume analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmich, R; Nusser, W; Gneiting, T [Ulm Universitaet (Federal Republic of Germany). Sektion Kernresonanzspektroskopie

    1990-04-01

    A model theory is presented explaining a series of striking phenomena observed with nuclear magnetic relaxation in protein systems such as solutions or tissue. The frequency, concentration and temperature dependences of proton or deuteron relaxation times of protein solutions and tissue are explained. It is concluded that the translational diffusion of water molecules along the rugged surfaces of proteins and, to a minor degree, protein backbone fluctuations are crucial processes. The rate limiting factor of macromolecular tumbling is assumed to be given by the free water content in a certain analogy to the free-volume model of Cohen ad Turnbull. There are two characteristic water mass fractions indicating the saturation of the hydration shells and the onset of protein tumbling. A closed and relatively simple set of relaxation formulas is presented. The potentially fractal nature of the diffusion of water molecules on the protein surface is discussed. (author). 43 refs.; 4 figs.

  6. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy

  7. Ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) removal from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiri, Amin; Ahmad, Zakiah; Tajuddin, Ramlah Mohd; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Gholami, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Water pollution is a global problem. During current study, ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) were removed from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland. In current investigation, distilled water was polluted with four contaminants including ammonia, phosphate, copper (Cu), and phenol. Response surface methodology and central composite design were applied to optimize pollutant removal during treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW). Contact time (12 to 80 h) and initial pollutant concentration (20 to 85 mg/L) were selected as independent factors; some upper and lower ranges were also monitored for accuracy. In SSFCW, water hyacinth transplanted in two substrate layers, namely zeolite and cockle shell. SSFCW removed 87.7, 81.4, 74.7, and 54.9% of ammonia, phosphate, Cu, and phenol, respectively, at optimum contact time (64.5 h) and initial pollutant concentration (69.2 mg/L). Aqueous solution was moved to a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) after treating via SSFCW at optimum conditions. In SFCW, Typha was transplanted to a fixed powdered substrate layer, including bentonite, zeolite, and cockle shell. SFCW could develop performance of this combined system and could improve elimination efficacy of the four contaminants to 99.99%. So this combined CW showed a good performance in removing pollutants. Graphical abstract Wetlands arrangement for treating aqueous solution in current study.

  8. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2012-07-06

    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. Modification of surface of zirconium diphosphate in solution; Modificacion de la superficie del difosfato de circonio en solucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N.; Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Barrera D, C. E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Simoni, E. [Universite de Paris-Sud-XI, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Bat 100, 91406 Orsay (France)], e-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The hydration process of ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, forms active places in the surface of material that depend on the time and of nature of means in that it is immersed. The objective of this work is to study the influence that affect the active places of ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} for the action of poly carboxylic acid solutions during the hydration process. The experimentation was realized hydrating the ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} with solutions of sodium perchlorate, citric acid/sodium perchlorate and oxalic acid/sodium perchlorate during 24 hours, subsequently it is evaluated if some change exists in active places density formed by area unit. The organic acids action also modifies the acidity constants of surface, evaluated by means of titration acid-base technique. With these results the distribution diagrams of amphoteric species were modeled for each studied system. The results of this study phase showed that places density of hydrated material with NaClO{sub 4} was of 5.3 s/nm{sup 2}, with citric acid 13.7 s/nm{sup 2} and oxalic acid 7.3 s/nm{sup 2}. We can conclude that when solutions are used with organic acids a significant change takes place in the acidity constants and of the species distribution in surface that are discussed along this work. (Auth0008.

  10. Influence of solvent polarization and non-uniform ion size on electrostatic properties between charged surfaces in an electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jun-Sik

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study electrostatic properties between two similar or oppositely charged surfaces immersed in an electrolyte solution by using the mean-field approach accounting for solvent polarization and non-uniform size effects. Applying a free energy formalism accounting for unequal ion sizes and orientational ordering of water dipoles, we derive coupled and self-consistent equations to calculate electrostatic properties between charged surfaces. Electrostatic properties for similarly charged surfaces depend on the counterion size but not on the coion size. Moreover, electrostatic potential and osmotic pressure between similarly charged surfaces are found to be increased with increasing counterion size. On the other hand, the corresponding ones between oppositely charged surfaces are related to both sizes of positive and negative ions. For oppositely charged surfaces, the electrostatic potential, number density of solvent molecules, and relative permittivity of an electrolyte having unequal ion sizes are not symmetric about the centerline between the charged surfaces. For either case, the consideration of solvent polarization results in a decrease in the electrostatic potential and the osmotic pressure compared to the case without the effect.

  11. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  12. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-01-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in vitro.

  13. Effect of Surface Precipitate on the Crevice Corrosion in HYBRID and Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Jung, J. Y.; Won, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Park, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the crevice corrosion for Inconel-600 and 304SS in OA solution according to the change in pH. The evaluation of the crevice corrosion with the chemical thermodynamic analysis identified the effect of the residual chemicals such as iron-oxalate and nickeloxalate to the crevice corrosion behavior. Test results were compared with those of HYBRID (HYdrizine Base Reductive metal Ion Decontamination). The crevice corrosion properties of 304 SS and Inconel-600 in HYBRID and oxalic acid solution were evaluated. In case of oxalic acid solution, the corrosion rate on 304SS was rapidly increased with a pH decrease of around 2, but there was no increase in the corrosion rate on Inconel-600

  14. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  15. Origins of the Non-DLVO Force between Glass Surfaces in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Joshua J.; Rabinovich, Yakov I.; Moudgil, Brij M.

    2001-05-15

    Direct measurement of surface forces has revealed that silica surfaces seem to have a short-range repulsion that is not accounted for in classical DLVO theory. The two leading hypotheses for the origin of the non-DLVO force are (i) structuring of water at the silica interface or (ii) water penetration into the surface resulting in a gel layer. In this article, the interaction of silica surfaces will be reviewed from the perspective of the non-DLVO force origin. In an attempt to more accurately describe the behavior of silica and glass surfaces, alternative models of how surfaces with gel layers should interact are proposed. It is suggested that a lessened van der Waals attraction originating from a thin gel layer may explain both the additional stability and the coagulation behavior of silica. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the existence of the non-DLVO force which is likely to have a major influence on the adsorption of polymers and surfactants used to modify the silica surface for practical applications in the ceramic, mineral, and microelectronic industries. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Optimization of simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of water-soluble and fat-soluble characteristic constituents from Forsythiae Fructus Using response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Wang, Di; Yang, Qi; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-07-01

    The compounds (+)-pinoresinol-β-glucoside (1) forsythiaside, (2) phillyrin (3) and phillygenin (4) were elucidated to be the characteristic constituents for quality control of Forsythiae Fructus extract by chromatographic fingerprint in 2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia due to their numerous important pharmacological actions. It is of great interest to extract these medicinally active constituents from Forsythiae Fructus simultaneously. In this study, a new ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of biological components 1-4 in Forsythiae Fructus. The quantitative effects of extraction time, ratio of liquid to solid, extraction temperature, and methanol concentration on yield of these four important biological constituents from Forsythiae Fructus were investigated using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design. The compounds 1-4 extracted by UAE were quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detect (HPLC-PAD), and overall desirability (OD), the geometric mean of the contents of four major biological components, was used as a marker to evaluate the extraction efficiency. By solving the regression equation and analyzing 3-D plots, the optimum condition was at extraction temperature 70°C, time 60 min, ratio of liquid to solid 20, and methanol concentration 76.6%. Under these conditions, extraction yields of compounds 1-4 were 2.92 mg/g, 52.10 mg/g, 0.90 mg/g and 0.57 mg/g, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted OD values. In order to achieve a similar yield as UAE, soxhlet extraction required at least 6 h and maceration extraction required much longer time of 24 h. Established UAE method has been successfully applied to sample preparation for the quality control of Forsythiae Fructus. Additionally, a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to the structural confirmation of analytes from the complex matrices acquired by UAE

  17. Optimization of simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of water-soluble and fat-soluble characteristic constituents from Forsythiae Fructus Using response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Wang, Di; Yang, Qi; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Background: The compounds (+)-pinoresinol-β-glucoside (1) forsythiaside, (2) phillyrin (3) and phillygenin (4) were elucidated to be the characteristic constituents for quality control of Forsythiae Fructus extract by chromatographic fingerprint in 2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia due to their numerous important pharmacological actions. It is of great interest to extract these medicinally active constituents from Forsythiae Fructus simultaneously. Materials and Methods: In this study, a new ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of biological components 1-4 in Forsythiae Fructus. The quantitative effects of extraction time, ratio of liquid to solid, extraction temperature, and methanol concentration on yield of these four important biological constituents from Forsythiae Fructus were investigated using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design. The compounds 1-4 extracted by UAE were quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detect (HPLC-PAD), and overall desirability (OD), the geometric mean of the contents of four major biological components, was used as a marker to evaluate the extraction efficiency. Results: By solving the regression equation and analyzing 3-D plots, the optimum condition was at extraction temperature 70°C, time 60 min, ratio of liquid to solid 20, and methanol concentration 76.6%. Under these conditions, extraction yields of compounds 1-4 were 2.92 mg/g, 52.10 mg/g, 0.90 mg/g and 0.57 mg/g, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted OD values. In order to achieve a similar yield as UAE, soxhlet extraction required at least 6 h and maceration extraction required much longer time of 24 h. Established UAE method has been successfully applied to sample preparation for the quality control of Forsythiae Fructus. Additionally, a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to the structural confirmation of analytes

  18. Analytical Solutions for the Surface States of Bi1-xSbx (0 ≤ x ≲ 0.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseya, Yuki; Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the surface state (SS) of an extended Wolff Hamiltonian, which is a common Hamiltonian for strongly spin-orbit coupled systems, are obtained both for semi-infinite and finite-thickness boundary conditions. For the semi-infinite system, there are two types of SS solutions: (I-a) linearly crossing SSs in the direct bulk band gap, and (I-b) SSs with linear dispersions entering the bulk conduction or valence bands away from the band edge. For the finite-thickness system, a gap opens in the SS of solution I-a. Numerical solutions for the SS are also obtained based on the tight-binding model of Liu and Allen [https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.52.1566" xlink:type="simple">Phys. Rev. B 52, 1566 (1995)] for Bi1-xSbx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1). A perfect correspondence between the analytic and numerical solutions is obtained around the \\bar{M} point including their thickness dependence. This is the first time that the character of the SS numerically obtained is identified with the help of analytical solutions. The size of the gap for I-a SS can be larger than that of bulk band gap even for a "thick" films ( ≲ 200 bilayers ≃ 80 nm) of pure bismuth. Consequently, in such a film of Bi1-xSbx, there is no apparent change in the SSs through the band inversion at x ≃ 0.04, even though the nature of the SS is changed from solution I-a to I-b. Based on our theoretical results, the experimental results on the SS of Bi1-xSbx (0 ≤ x ≲ 0.1) are discussed.

  19. Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline - and nonocrystalline niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.T.; Silva, J.R.G. da

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline and monocrystalline niobium was measured in the range 400 0 C to 1000 0 C at one atmosphere hydrogen partial pressure. The experimental technique consists of saturation of the solvent metal with hydrogen, followed by quenching and analysis of the solid solution. It is presented solubility curves versus reciprocal of the absolute doping temperature, associated with their thermodynamical equation. (Author) [pt

  20. Anomalous Quasiparticle Reflection from the Surface of a ^{3}He-^{4}He Dilute Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroki; Kim, Kitak; Sato, Daisuke; Kono, Kimitoshi; Choi, Hyoungsoon; Monarkha, Yuriy P

    2017-11-10

    A free surface of a dilute ^{3}He-^{4}He liquid mixture is a unique system where two Fermi liquids with distinct dimensions coexist: a three-dimensional (3D) ^{3}He Fermi liquid in the bulk and a two-dimensional (2D) ^{3}He Fermi liquid at the surface. To investigate a novel effect generated by the interaction between the two Fermi liquids, the mobility of a Wigner crystal of electrons formed on the free surface of the mixture is studied. An anomalous enhancement of the mobility, compared with the case where the 3D and 2D systems do not interact with each other, is observed. The enhancement is explained by the nontrivial reflection of 3D quasiparticles from the surface covered with the 2D ^{3}He system.

  1. Relationship between metal speciation in soil solution and metal adsorption at the root surface of ryegrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, E.J.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Town, R.M.; Unsworth, E.R.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Received for publication October 12, 2007. The total metal content of the soil or total metal concentration in the soil solution is not always a good indicator for metal availability to plants. Therefore, several speciation techniques have been developed that measure a defined fraction of the total

  2. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  3. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B.J.; Gorla, R.S. Reddy; Abbasi, F.M.; Shehzad, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases. - Highlights: • Hydromagnetic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface is examined. • Cu, Al 2 O3 and TiO 2 types nanoparticles are taken into account. • Numerical solutions have been computed and addressed. • The values of skin-friction and Nusselt number are presented.

  4. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanthesh, B., E-mail: bmanths@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, AIMS Institutes, Peenya, 560058 Bangalore (India); Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Gireesha, B.J., E-mail: bjgireesu@rediffmail.com [Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gorla, R.S. Reddy, E-mail: r.gorla@csuohio.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases. - Highlights: • Hydromagnetic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface is examined. • Cu, Al{sub 2}O3 and TiO{sub 2} types nanoparticles are taken into account. • Numerical solutions have been computed and addressed. • The values of skin-friction and Nusselt number are presented.

  5. Quantum theory of atom-surface scattering: exact solutions and evaluation of approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiroli, C.; Levi, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article a hard corrugated surface was proposed as a simple model for atom-surface scattering. The problem was not solved exactly, however, but several alternative approximations were considered. Since these three similar, but inequivalent, approximations were proposed, the problem arose to evaluate these approximations in order to choose between them. In the present letter some exact calculations are presented which make this choice rationally possible. (Auth.)

  6. Surface properties of aqueous amino acid solutions II. Leucine-leucine hydrochloride and leucine-sodium leucinate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matubayasi, Norihiro; Matsuyama, Shohei; Akizuki, Ryosuke

    2005-08-15

    To understand the distinction between the effects of zwitterionic, anionic, and cationic l-leucine upon adsorption and lateral interactions at air/water surface, the surface tensions of aqueous solutions of l-leucine-l-leucine hydrochloride and l-leucine-sodium l-leucinate mixtures were measured as a function of concentration and composition at 25 degrees C. The surface activity decreases in the order l-leucine >l-leucine hydrochloride > sodium l-leucinate. Both l-leucine hydrochloride and sodium l-leucinate form gaseous adsorbed films through the experimentally accessible concentration range, while the adsorbed film of zwitterionic l-leucine shows a transition between gaseous and expanded film.

  7. A Facile All-Solution-Processed Surface with High Water Contact Angle and High Water Adhesive Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Hu, Wei; Liang, Xiao; Zou, Cheng; Li, Fasheng; Zhang, Lanying; Chen, Feiwu; Yang, Huai

    2017-07-12

    A series of sticky superhydrophobicity surfaces with high water contact angle and high water adhesive force is facilely prepared via an all-solution-processed method based on polymerization-induced phase separation between liquid crystals (LCs) and epoxy resin, which produces layers of epoxy microspheres (EMSs) with nanofolds on the surface of a substrate. The morphologies and size distributions of EMSs are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Results reveal that the obtained EMS coated-surface exhibits high apparent contact angle of 152.0° and high water adhesive force up to 117.6 μN. By varying the composition of the sample or preparing conditions, the sizes of the produced EMSs can be artificially regulated and, thus, control the wetting properties and water adhesive behaviors. Also, the sticky superhydrophobic surface exhibits excellent chemical stability, as well as long-term durability. Water droplet transportation experiments further prove that the as-made surface can be effectively used as a mechanical hand for water transportation applications. Based on this, it is believed that the simple method proposed in this paper will pave a new way for producing a sticky superhydrophobic surface and obtain a wide range of use.

  8. Surface modeling and chemical solution deposition of SrO(SrTiO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschornak, M.; Gemming, S.; Gutmann, E.; Weissbach, T.; Stoecker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Riedl, T.; Traenkner, M.; Gemming, T.; Meyer, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium titanate (STO) is a preferred substrate material for functional oxide growth, whose surface properties can be adjusted through the presence of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. Here, density functional theory (DFT) is used to model the (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n RP phases. Relaxed surface structures, electronic properties and stability relations have been determined. In contrast to pure STO, the near-surface SrO-OSr stacking fault can be employed to control surface roughness by adjusting SrO and TiO 2 surface rumpling, to stabilize SrO termination in an SrO-rich surrounding or to increase the band gap in the case of TiO 2 termination. RP thin films have been epitaxially grown on (0 0 1) STO substrates by chemical solution deposition. In agreement with DFT results, the fraction of particular RP phases n = 1-3 changes with varying heating rate and molar ratio Sr:Ti. This is discussed in terms of bulk formation energy.

  9. Surface Modification of Solution-Processed ZrO2 Films through Double Coating for Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Lee, Hyeonju; Park, Jaehoon

    2018-03-01

    We report the modification of surface properties of solution-processed zirconium oxide (ZrO2) dielectric films achieved by using double-coating process. It is proven that the surface properties of the ZrO2 film are modified through the double-coating process; the surface roughness decreases and the surface energy increases. The present surface modification of the ZrO2 film contributes to an increase in grain size of the pentacene film, thereby increasing the field-effect mobility and decreasing the threshold voltage of the pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) having the ZrO2 gate dielectric. Herein, the molecular orientation of pentacene film is also studied based on the results of contact angle and X-ray diffraction measurements. Pentacene molecules on the double-coated ZrO2 film are found to be more tilted than those on the single-coated ZrO2 film, which is attributed to the surface modification of the ZrO2 film. However, no significant differences are observed in insulating properties between the single-and the double-coated ZrO2 dielectric films. Consequently, the characteristic improvements of the pentacene TFTs with the double-coated ZrO2 gate dielectric film can be understood through the increase in pentacene grain size and the reduction in grain boundary density.

  10. Screening hydroxyapatite for cadmium and lead immobilization in aqueous solution and contaminated soil: The role of surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Guo, Xisheng; Ye, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used to immobilize many cationic metals in water and soils. The specific reason why an increase in the surface area of HAP enhances cadmium (Cd) uptake, but has no effect on lead (Pb) uptake, is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the factors causing the differences in sorption behavior between Cd and Pb by evaluating HAPs with different surface areas. We synthesized HAPs with two different surface areas, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy, and then evaluated them as sorbents for Cd and Pb removal by testing in single and binary systems. The sorption capacity of large surface area HAP (1.85mmol/g) for Cd in the single-metal system was higher than that of small surface area HAP (0.64mmol/g), but there were no differences between single- and binary-metal solutions containing Pb. After the Cd experiments, the HAP retained a stable structure and intact morphology, which promotes the accessibility of reactive sites for Cd. However, a newly formed precipitate covered the surface and blocked the channels in the presence of Pb, which reduced the number of potential adsorption sites on HAP for Cd and Pb. Remediation experiments using Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil produced similar results to the solution tests. These results indicate that alterations of the structure and morphology during the reaction is an important factor influencing metal sorption to HAP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs

  12. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO2(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO 2 (cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg -1 . These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO 2 (am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO 2 (am) converts to HfO 2 (cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO 2 (cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO 2 (lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO 2 (cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log 10 K 0 values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO 2 (lcr)[HfO 2 (lcr) + 2H 2 O ↔ Hf 4+ + 4OH - ]. The log 10 of the solubility product of HfO 2 (cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  14. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO{sub 2}(cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Kitamura, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO{sub 2}(cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg{sup -1}. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO{sub 2}(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO{sub 2}(am) converts to HfO{sub 2}(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO{sub 2}(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO{sub 2}(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO{sub 2}(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log{sub 10} K{sup 0} values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(lcr)[HfO{sub 2}(lcr) + 2H{sub 2}O ↔ Hf{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -}]. The log{sub 10} of the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  15. Travelling wave solutions for a surface wave equation in fluid mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a non-linear wave equation arising in fluid mechanics. The exact traveling wave solutions of this equation are given by using G'/G-expansion method. This process can be reduced to solve a system of determining equations, which is large and difficult. To reduce this process, we used Wu elimination method. Example shows that this method is effective.

  16. Adsorption of cadmium by activated carbon cloth: influence of surface oxidation and solution pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Mendez, J R; Streat, M

    2002-03-01

    The surface of activated carbon cloth (ACC), based on polyacrylonitrile fibre as a precursor, was oxidised using nitric acid, ozone and electrochemical oxidation to enhance cadmium ion exchange capacity. Modified adsorbents were physically and chemically characterised by pH titration, direct titration, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, surface area and porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. BET surface area decreased after oxidation, however, the total ion exchange capacity increased by a factor of approximately 3.5 compared to the commercial as-received ACC. A very significant increase in cadmium uptake, by a factor of 13, was observed for the electrochemically oxidised ACC. Equilibrium sorption isotherms were determined at pH 4, 5 and 6 and these showed that cadmium uptake increased with increasing pH. There was clear evidence of physical damage to ozone-oxidised fibre, however, acid and electrochemically oxidised samples were completely stable.

  17. Near-field solubility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Experimental determinations of the solubilities of americium, plutonium, neptunium, protactinium, thorium, radium, lead, tin, palladium and zirconium are reported. These elements have radioactive isotopes of concern in assessments of radioactive waste disposal. All measurements were made under the highly alkaline conditions typical of the near field of a radioactive waste repository which uses cementitious materials for many of the immobilisation matrices, the backfill and the engineered structures. Low redox potentials, typical of those resulting from the corrosion of iron and steel, were simulated for those elements having more than one accessible oxidation state. The dissolved concentrations of the elements were defined using ultrafiltration. In addition, the corrosion of iron and stainless steel was shown to generate low redox potentials in solution and the solubility of iron(II) at high pH was measured and found to be sufficient for it to act as a redox buffer with respect to neptunium and plutonium. (author)

  18. Long-range attractive forces extending from the alumina’s nanolayer surface in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Kaledin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide-hydroxide nanolayer with a thickness of approximately 1.2 nm is electroadhesively deposited onto silicious support material with large surface area of about 50 m2/g, forming a highly electropositive composite of boehmite nanolayer in the form of monocrystalline oxide/hydroxide (α-Al2O3·H2O on the second electronegative solid. The composite can be viewed as a sphere with a rough surface and charge density of approximately 0.08 C/m2. This creates a significant electric field with negligible screening (ka ≪ 1 in the region close to the surface of the nanocomposite. This field attracts nano- and micron-sized particles from as far as 200 μm in a few seconds, many orders of magnitude greater than conventional Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO theory, which predicts only nanometer-scale effects arising from the presence of the surface. The strong electric field on the surface is then able to retain small particles such as viruses, atomically thin sheets of graphene oxide, RNA, DNA, proteins, dyes as well as heavy metals such as cobalt, arsenic, and lead. Alumina’s nanolayer surface can be further functionalized by adding other sub-micron or nano-sized particles to target a specific contaminant. An example is shown where alumina nanolayer is coated with nano-sized iron monohydrate to yield an arsenic sorbent that shows high sorption capacity.

  19. Solubility of helium in mercury for bubbling technology of the spallation neutron mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Naoe, T.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The pitting damage of mercury target container that originates in the pressure wave excited by the proton beam incidence becomes a large problem to reach the high-power neutron source in JSNS and SNS. The lifetime of mercury container is decreased remarkably by the pitting damage. As one of solutions, the pressure wave is mitigated by injecting the helium micro bubbles in mercury. In order to inject the helium micro bubbles into mercury, it is important to understand the characteristic of micro bubbles in mercury. The solubility of mercury-helium system is a key factor to decide bubbling conditions, because the disappearance behavior, i.e. the lifetime of micro bubbles, depends on the solubility. In addition, the bubble generation method is affected by it. Moreover, the experimental data related to the solubility of helium in mercury hardly exist. In this work, the solubility was obtained experimentally by measuring precisely the pressure drop of the gas that is facing to mercury surface. The pressure drop was attributed to the helium dissolution into mercury. Based on the measured solubility, the lifetime of micro bubbles and the method of the bubble generation is estimated using the solubility data.

  20. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    for particle and surface scattering calculations and the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) absorbing boundary conditions for truncation of the FDTD grid. We show that the FDTD approach has a significant potential for studying the light scattering by cloud, dust, and biological particles. The applications...

  1. Preparation and recognition of surface molecularly imprinted core-shell microbeads for protein in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Yan Changling; Gao Shuyan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a surface molecular imprinting technique was reported for preparing core-shell microbeads of protein imprinting, and bovine hemoglobin or bovine serum albumin were used as model proteins for studying the imprinted core-shell microbeads. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was polymerized onto the surface of polystyrene microbead in the presence of the protein templates to create protein-imprinted core-shell microbeads. The various samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The effect of pH on rebinding of the template hemoglobin, the specific binding and selective recognition were studied for the imprinted microbeads. The results show that the bovine hemoglobin-imprinted core-shell microbeads were successfully created. The shell was a sort of imprinted thin films with porous structure and larger surface areas. The imprinted microbeads have good selectivity for templates and high stability. Due to the recognition sites locating at or closing to the surface, these imprinted microbeads have good property of mass-transport. Unfortunately, the imprint technology was not successfully applied to imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  2. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodong, Dai [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia); Zou, Linda [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA5095 (Australia); Zifeng, Yan [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Millikan, Mary [Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia)

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO{sub 2} particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  3. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaodong; Zou, Linda; Yan Zifeng; Millikan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N 2 adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO 2 particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  4. Structural changes and molecular interactions of hydrophobin SC3 in solution and on a hydrophobic surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Vocht, M.L. de; Poolman, B.; Robillard, G.T.; Wang, [No Value; Jonge, J. de

    2002-01-01

    The hydrophobin SC3 belongs to a class of small proteins functioning in the growth and development of fungi. Its unique amphipathic property and remarkable surface activity make it interesting not only for biological studies but also for medical and industrial applications. Biophysical studies have

  5. Probing Earth’s conductivity structure beneath oceans by scalar geomagnetic data: autonomous surface vehicle solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, Alexey; Matzka, Jürgen; Poedjono, Benny

    2016-01-01

    to the conductivity structure beneath the ocean. We conclude that the sensitivity, depending on the bathymetry gradient, is typically largest near the coast offshore. We show that such sea-surface marine induction surveys can be performed with the Wave Glider, an easy-to-deploy, autonomous, energy-harvesting floating...

  6. Preparation and recognition of surface molecularly imprinted core-shell microbeads for protein in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan, E-mail: yanlu2001@sohu.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, 46 Jlanshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Yan Changling; Gao Shuyan [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, 46 Jlanshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, a surface molecular imprinting technique was reported for preparing core-shell microbeads of protein imprinting, and bovine hemoglobin or bovine serum albumin were used as model proteins for studying the imprinted core-shell microbeads. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was polymerized onto the surface of polystyrene microbead in the presence of the protein templates to create protein-imprinted core-shell microbeads. The various samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The effect of pH on rebinding of the template hemoglobin, the specific binding and selective recognition were studied for the imprinted microbeads. The results show that the bovine hemoglobin-imprinted core-shell microbeads were successfully created. The shell was a sort of imprinted thin films with porous structure and larger surface areas. The imprinted microbeads have good selectivity for templates and high stability. Due to the recognition sites locating at or closing to the surface, these imprinted microbeads have good property of mass-transport. Unfortunately, the imprint technology was not successfully applied to imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  7. The application of surface science in the solution of aircraft materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is now a tendency for both commercial and military aircraft to be maintained and operated for several decades. Indeed some of our front-line defence aircraft have programme withdrawal lives approaching half a century. This places significant demands on the materials used in engines and airframes. The properties and performance of the materials can degrade with time leading to an increase in the importance of repair and maintenance technologies. As most materials problems start at a surface or an interface, it is not surprising that surface sensitive tools are used to resolve many degradation problems. In some cases, the resolution of problems can lead to life-enhancing improvements for the aircraft. This paper will examine some of the practical issues in the use of surface analytical tools for the examination and resolution of practical aircraft problems. Illustrations will be drawn from the application of surface analysis in the areas of corrosion, fracture and adhesive bonding. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  8. Spontaneous Structuration of Hydrophobic Polymer Surfaces in Contact with Salt Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sîretanu, Igor; Saadaoui, Hassan; Chapel, Jean Paul; Drummond, Carlos; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Juan; Drummond, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It has been described in previous chapters how spontaneous instabilities related to interfacial phenomena can be used to produce controlled patterns on polymer surfaces. Strategies of polymer patterning assisted by dewetting or water drop condensation were described. In this chapter we present a

  9. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models: influence of disinfectant solutions and alginate impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Borsato, Thaís Teixeira; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Gonini, Alcides; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models obtained from molds disinfected with 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to models produced using molds which were not disinfected, with 3 alginate materials (Cavex ColorChange, Hydrogum 5 and Jeltrate Plus). The molds were prepared over matrix containing 20-, 50-, and 75-µm lines, performed under pressure with perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following gelation and either disinfected (using one of the solutions by spraying followed by storage in closed jars for 15 min) or not disinfected. The samples were divided into 12 groups (n=5). Molds were filled with dental gypsum Durone IV and 1 h after the start of the stone mixing the models were separated from the tray. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy were evaluated using optical microscopy on the 50-µm line with 25 mm in length, in accordance with the ISO 1563 standard. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjected to ANOVA. The 50 µm-line was completely reproduced by all alginate impression materials regardless of the disinfection procedure. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values of dimensional accuracy in combinations between disinfectant procedure and alginate impression material (p=0.2130) or for independent factors. The disinfectant solutions and alginate materials used in this study are no factors of choice regarding the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models.

  10. Solution of the Helmholtz-Poincare Wave Equation using the coupled boundary integral equations and optimal surface eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werby, M.F.; Broadhead, M.K.; Strayer, M.R.; Bottcher, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Helmholtz-Poincarf Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWECs. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can be obtained in matrix form by expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a bi-orthogonal expansion of the Green's function. However some freedom in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways so long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermitian operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented

  11. Fitness function and nonunique solutions in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting: crosserror between surface roughness and mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Sormunen, J; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    Nonunique solutions of the x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting problem were studied by modelling layer structures with neural networks and designing a fitness function to handle the nonidealities of measurements. Modelled atomic-layer-deposited aluminium oxide film structures were used in the simulations to calculate XRR curves based on Parratt's formalism. This approach reduced the dimensionality of the parameter space and allowed the use of fitness landscapes in the study of nonunique solutions. Fitness landscapes, where the height in a map represents the fitness value as a function of the process parameters, revealed tracks where the local fitness optima lie. The tracks were projected on the physical parameter space thus allowing the construction of the crosserror equation between weakly determined parameters, i.e. between the mass density and the surface roughness of a layer. The equation gives the minimum error for the other parameters which is a consequence of the nonuniqueness of the solution if noise is present. Furthermore, the existence of a possible unique solution in a certain parameter range was found to be dependent on the layer thickness and the signal-to-noise ratio

  12. Comparative study of hydro soluble polymers solutions and surfactants aiming the polymer-rock interactions in consolidated sandstone; Estudo comparativo de solucoes de polimeros hidrossoluveis e tensoativos visando as interacoes polimero-rocha em arenito consolidado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, Adriano Cesar M.; Marcelino, Cleuton Pereira; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R.; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

    2004-07-01

    The polyacrylamide is one of the main polymers used in the petroleum industry. Among its properties, stands out the capacity to alter the permeability of the rock to water. However, the polyacrylamide presents some limitations, such as low tolerance to the presence of salts, what can promote its precipitation resulting in low oil recovery efficiency. The application of the polymer in emulsion can promote a larger stability, due to the presence of a surfactant, which has the capacity to modify the interfacial tension and to form a film between the phases of the emulsion. Thereby, the injection of a polymer emulsion can promote an increase of oil recovery. In this work, a preliminary study of the effect of a anionic surfactant (SDS) and polyacrylamides (anionic and neutral) on the surface tension and rheology is presented in aqueous solutions contend salt (NaCl). The results showed surface tension of the mixtures had been remained constant and low (around 32 mN/m), independent of the polymer concentration. A viscosity reduction was observed at polymeric solutions as much in presence of salt, as in presence of the surfactant. Both the samples showed a pseudo plastic behavior. (author)

  13. A time effect in the early stages of a surface oxidation of a Pt(111 plane in alkaline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. LOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A time effect in the early stages of surface oxidation of a Pt(111 plane in 0.1 M NaOH solution was studied by examining the reduction parts of the j/E profile recorded after holding the potential for various times at several values at the end of anodic-going sweeps. The processes associated with the two peaks, which appear in the anodic part of the voltammogram, are assigned to the early stages of a surface oxidation. Two OHad states are suggested based on the existence of reversibly or weakly bound OHad species and irreversibly or strongly bound OHad species. The reversibly bound OHad species are involved in the “normal” structure of the butterfly peak, while the irreversibly adsorbed OHad species can be obtained only by the slow diffusion of a part of the initially electrosorbed OH species from sites with low to sites with higher binding energies. The irreversibly reduced OHad species cannot be completely removed from the surface causing, therefore, some permanent transformation of the initial state of the surface. This kind of species was not detected in the area of the second oxidation peak. The phenomena observed in the reduction part of the j/E profile induced by a time effect in the second peak could be associated with a place-exchange mechanism between oxygen containing species, whatever they are, and the platinum surface.

  14. The solubility of iron sulfides and their role in mass transport in Girdler-Sulfide heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.H.; Wallace, G.; Campbell, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The solubilities of several iron sulfides, mackinawite FeSsub((1-x)), troilite FeS, pyrrhotite Fesub((1-x))S (monoclinic and hexagonal), and pyrite FeS 2 have been determined in aqueous H 2 S solution at 0.1 MPa and 1.8 MPa H 2 S pressures between 25 deg and 125 deg C. The dependence of solubility on the pH of the medium has also been studied. It is concluded that since mackinawite is the most soluble of the iron sulfides, and has the highest dissolution rate and the steepest decline in solubility with temperature, its prolonged formation during plant operation should be avoided to minimize iron transport from lower to higher temperature areas in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants. This can be achieved by a preconditioning of carbon steel surfaces to convert mackinawite to pyrrhotite and pyrite

  15. How cocrystals of weakly basic drugs and acidic coformers might modulate solubility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuminek, G; Rodríguez-Hornedo, N; Siedler, S; Rocha, H V A; Cuffini, S L; Cardoso, S G

    2016-04-30

    Cocrystals of a weakly basic drug (nevirapine) with acidic coformers are shown to alter the solubility dependence on pH, and to exhibit a pHmax above which a less soluble cocrystal becomes more soluble than the drug. The cocrystal solubility advantage can be dialed up or down by solution pH.

  16. An approximate analytical solution for describing surface runoff and sediment transport over hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wang, Quanjiu; Lin, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Soil and water loss from farmland causes land degradation and water pollution, thus continued efforts are needed to establish mathematical model for quantitative analysis of relevant processes and mechanisms. In this study, an approximate analytical solution has been developed for overland flow model and sediment transport model, offering a simple and effective means to predict overland flow and erosion under natural rainfall conditions. In the overland flow model, the flow regime was considered to be transitional with the value of parameter β (in the kinematic wave model) approximately two. The change rate of unit discharge with distance was assumed to be constant and equal to the runoff rate at the outlet of the plane. The excess rainfall was considered to be constant under uniform rainfall conditions. The overland flow model developed can be further applied to natural rainfall conditions by treating excess rainfall intensity as constant over a small time interval. For the sediment model, the recommended values of the runoff erosion calibration constant (cr) and the splash erosion calibration constant (cf) have been given in this study so that it is easier to use the model. These recommended values are 0.15 and 0.12, respectively. Comparisons with observed results were carried out to validate the proposed analytical solution. The results showed that the approximate analytical solution developed in this paper closely matches the observed data, thus providing an alternative method of predicting runoff generation and sediment yield, and offering a more convenient method of analyzing the quantitative relationships between variables. Furthermore, the model developed in this study can be used as a theoretical basis for developing runoff and erosion control methods.

  17. Induced alignment of a solution-cast discotic hexabenzocoronene derivative for electronic devices investigated by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2003-01-01

    A surface X-ray diffraction study is presented showing that highly ordered and uniaxially aligned hexa(3,7-dimethyl-octanyl)hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC-C8,2) films can be fabricated by crystallization from solution onto friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) layers. Three...... crystalline HBC-C8,2 majority phases result. In all three phases, the HBC-C8,2 molecules self-organize into columns which are uniaxially aligned along the direction defined by the PTFE macromolecules of the substrate. The three phases are quite similar, the major difference being their orientation...

  18. Synthesis and Surface Activity of Cationic Amino Acid-Based Surfactants in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Katarzyna E

    2017-01-01

    I studied the possibility of using amino acid-based surfactants as emulsifiers at the same time as preservatives. Fourteen lipopeptides were synthesized employing a solid phase peptide synthesis procedure. All compounds were designed to be positively charged from +1 to +4 and acylated with fatty acid chain-palmitic and miristic. The surface activity of the obtained lipopeptides was tested using a semi-automatic tensiometer to calculate parameters describing the behavior of lipopeptides in the air/water interface. Such parameters as CMC, surface tension at the CMC point ( σ CMC ), effectiveness ( π CMC ), and efficiency (pC20) were measured. Emulsifying properties of all lipopeptides were also examined. The studies reveal that the surface active properties of synthesized compounds strongly depend on the length of alkyl chains as well as on the composition of amino acid polar heads. The critical micelle concentration decreases with increasing alkyl chain length of lipopeptides with the same polar head. The effectiveness and efficiency decrease when the number of amino acids in the polar head increases. All lipopeptides established a very weak emulsification power and created unstable water/Miglyol 812 and water/paraffin oil emulsions. Results suggest that lipopeptides cannot be used as emulsifiers; nonetheless, it is possible to use them as auxiliary surfactants with disinfectant properties in combination with more potent emulsifiers.

  19. An efficient solution to the decoherence enhanced trivial crossing problem in surface hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xin; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Linjun

    2018-03-01

    We provide an in-depth investigation of the time interval convergence when both trivial crossing and decoherence corrections are applied to Tully's fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) algorithm. Using one force-based and one energy-based decoherence strategies as examples, we show decoherence corrections intrinsically enhance the trivial crossing problem. We propose a restricted decoherence (RD) strategy and incorporate it into the self-consistent (SC) fewest switches surface hopping algorithm [L. Wang and O. V. Prezhdo, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 713 (2014)]. The resulting SC-FSSH-RD approach is applied to general Hamiltonians with different electronic couplings and electron-phonon couplings to mimic charge transport in tens to hundreds of molecules. In all cases, SC-FSSH-RD allows us to use a large time interval of 0.1 fs for convergence and the simulation time is reduced by over one order of magnitude. Both the band and hopping mechanisms of charge transport have been captured perfectly. SC-FSSH-RD makes surface hops in the adiabatic representation and can be implemented in both diabatic and locally diabatic representations for wave function propagation. SC-FSSH-RD can potentially describe general nonadiabatic dynamics of electrons and excitons in organics and other materials.

  20. Evaluation of absorbed doses at the interface solid surfaces - tritiated water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia

    2003-01-01

    Studies concerning the isotopic exchange H/D/T in the system elemental hydrogen -- water and in the presence of platinum metals on hydrophobic supports as catalysts were carried out at ICSI (Institute of Cryogenics and Isotope Separations) - Rm. Valcea, Romania. Due to the very low energy of β-radiation emitted by tritium, the direct measurements of dose absorbed by the isotopic exchange catalyst using classical methods is practically impossible. For this purpose an evaluation model was developed. The volume of tritiated water which can irradiate the catalyst was represented by a hemisphere with the radius equal to the maximal rate of β-radiation emitted by tritium. The catalyst surface is represented by a circle with a 0.2 μm radius and the same centre as the circle of the hemisphere secant plane. Flow rate of absorbed dose is calculated with the relation: d (1/100)(Φ·E m /m), where d = dose flow rate, in rad/s, Φ total radiation flux interacting with the catalyst surface, expressed in erg and m = catalyst weight, in grams. Total flux of available radiation, Φ, was determined as a function of three parameters: a) total flow of tritium β-radiation emitted in the hemisphere of tritiated water, dependent on the volume and radioactive concentration; b) emission coefficient in the direction of the catalyst surface; c) attenuation coefficient (due to self-absorption) of the tritium β-radiation in the tritiated water body. (authors)

  1. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  2. Surface controlled dissolution rates of gypsum in aqueous solutions exhibit nonlinear dissolution kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Alexander A.; Vosbeck, Katrin; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The effective dissolution rates of gypsum are determined by mixed kinetics, where the rate constants of dissolution at the surface and the transport constant of molecular diffusion of dissolved material are similar. To obtain the surface reaction rate law it is necessary to know the transport constant. We have determined the surface rate law for monocrystalline selenite by using a rotating disc set-up, where the transport coefficients are well known. As a result, up to a calcium concentration of 0.6 · ceq, we find a nearly linear rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, where cs is the total calcium concentration at the surface and ceq the equilibrium concentration with respect to gypsum, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2, and ksl = 1.1 · 10 -4 mmol cm -2 s -1 ± 15%. We also employed batch-experiments for selenite, alabaster and gypsum rock samples. The result of these experiments were interpreted by using a transport constant determined by NaCl dissolution experiments under similar physical conditions. The batch experiments reveal a dissolution rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, ksl = 1.3 · 10 -4 mmol · cm -2 s -1, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2 for c ≤ 0.94 · ceq. Close to equilibrium a nonlinear rate law, Rs = ks2 (1- cs/ ceq) n2, is observed, where ks2 is in the order of 10 mmol · cm -2 s -1 and n2 ≈ 4.5. The experimentally observed gypsum dissolution rates from the batch experiments could be accurately fitted, with only minor variations of the surface reaction constant obtained from the rotating disk experiment and the transport coefficient from the NaCl dissolution batch experiment. Batch experiments on pure synthetic gypsum, reveal a linear rate law up to equilibrium. This indicates inhibition of dissolution in natural samples close to equilibrium, as is known also for calcite minerals.

  3. Boundary layers of aqueous surfactant and block copolymer solutions against hydrophobic and hydrophilic solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, Roland; Schemmel, Sebastian; Shi Hongwei; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer of aqueous surfactants and amphiphilic triblock copolymers against flat solid surfaces of different degrees of hydrophobicity was investigated by neutron reflectometry (NR), grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Solid substrates of different hydrophobicities were prepared by appropriate surface treatment or by coating silicon wafers with polymer films of different chemical natures. For substrates coated with thin films (20-30 nm) of deuterated poly(styrene) (water contact angle θ w ∼ 90), neutron reflectivity measurements on the polymer/water interface revealed a water depleted liquid boundary layer of 2-3 nm thickness and a density about 90% of the bulk water density. No pronounced depletion layer was found at the interface of water against a less hydrophobic polyelectrolyte coating (θ w ∼ 63). It is believed that the observed depletion layer at the hydrophobic polymer/water interface is a precursor of the nanobubbles which have been observed by AFM at this interface. Decoration of the polymer coatings by adsorbed layers of nonionic C m E n surfactants improves their wettability by the aqueous phase at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Here, GISANS experiments conducted on the system SiO 2 /C 8 E 4 /D 2 O reveal that there is no preferred lateral organization of the C 8 E 4 adsorption layers. For amphiphilic triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) it is found that under equilibrium conditions they form solvent-swollen brushes both at the air/water and the solid/water interface. In the latter case, the brushes transform to uniform, dense layers after extensive rinsing with water and subsequent solvent evaporation. The primary adsorption layers maintain properties of the precursor brushes. In particular, their thickness scales with the number of ethylene oxide units (EO) of the block copolymer. In the case of dip-coating without

  4. Solubility constraints affecting the migration of selenium through the cementitious backfill of a geological disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M., E-mail: m.felipe-sotelo@lboro.ac.uk; Hinchliff, J.; Evans, N.D.M.; Read, D.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The availability of Ca controls the concentration of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} in solution. • Cellulose degradation products increase the solubility of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at alkaline pH. • Selenite diffuses faster through the backfill NRVB than through fly ash cements. - Abstract: This work presents the study of the solubility of selenium under cementitious conditions and its diffusion, as SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, through monolithic cement samples. The solubility studies were carried out under alkaline conditions similar to those anticipated in the near-field of a cement-based repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Experiments were conducted in NaOH solution, 95%-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2}, water equilibrated with a potential backfill material (Nirex reference vault backfill, NRVB) and in solutions containing cellulose degradation products, with and without reducing agents. The highest selenium concentrations were found in NaOH solution. In the calcium-containing solutions, analysis of the precipitates suggests that the solubility controlling phase is Ca{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, which appears as euhedral rhombic crystals. The presence of cellulose degradation products caused an increase in selenium concentration, possibly due to competitive complexation, thereby, limiting the amount of calcium available for precipitation. Iron coupons had a minor effect on selenium solubility in contrast to Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}, suggesting that effective reduction of Se(IV) occurs only at E{sub h} values below −300 mV. Radial through-diffusion experiments on NRVB and in a fly ash cement showed no evidence of selenium breakthrough after one year. However, autoradiography of the exposed surfaces indicated that some migration had occurred and that selenium was more mobile in the higher porosity backfill than in the fly ash cement.

  5. Electrical double layer structure at the gallium metals in a methanol solution of a surface-inactive electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emets, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of double electric layer on Ga-, In-Ga- and Tl-Ga-electrodes in methanol solutions of surface-inactive electrolyte has been studied. It is shown that in the absence of chemisorption interaction between metal and solvent, the distance of the nearest approach of methanol dipoles to the surface of Ga-, In-Ga- and Tl-Ga-electrodes is practically the same. Accordingly, the specificity of the metals contact with solvent is reduced solely to their chemisorption interaction. In the zero charge area and for negative charges the chemisorption interaction with methanol molecules increases in the sequence Tl-Ga< In-Ga< Ga. The growth correlates both with the metals acceptor ability towards electron, which is characterized by the work of metal electron escape to vacuum, and donor ability of the solvent characterized by its donor number

  6. Characterization of interference thin films grown on stainless steel surface by alternate pulse current in a sulphochromic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Rabelo Junqueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize thin interference films grown on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel for decorative purposes. Films were grown in a sulphochromic solution at room temperature by an alternating pulse current method. The morphology and chemical state of the elements in the films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES, and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR. Depth-sensing indentation (DSI experiments and wear abrasion tests were employed to assess the mechanical resistance of the films. The coloration process resulted in porous thin films which increased the surface roughness of the substrate. The interference films mainly consisted of hydrated chromium oxide containing iron. Increasing film thickness produced different colors and affected the mechanical properties of the coating-substrate system. Thicker films, such as those producing gold and green colors, were softer but more abrasion resistant.

  7. Oxidation of nitride films in aqueous solution: Correlation between surface analysis and electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; Alias, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    Ac impedance and dc polarization tests of 304 stainless steels coated by cathodic arc plasma deposition (CAPD) titanium nitride and zirconium nitride were conducted in aqueous chloride solution. Cyclic polarization data suggested passive films were formed over the nitride coatings which are most likely hydrated titanium oxide and zirconium oxides. ESCA analysis of fresh samples and samples exposed during impedance tests indicated a layer rich in oxygen over the ZrN coating after exposure but not over TiN coating. Chemical shifts in the Zr 3d 5/2 core electrons indicate transformation from ZrN to its oxide; the shifts in Ti 2P 3/2 did not support the change from TiN to its oxide. The influence of these shifts on corrosion protection is documented

  8. Hydrothermal solubility of uraninite. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.A.; Pohl, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the solubility of UO 2 from 100 to 300 0 C under 500 bars H 2 , in NaCl solutions at pH from 1 to 8 do not agree with solubilities calculated using existing thermodynamic databases. For pH 2 (hyd) has precipitated and is controlling solubility. For pH > 8, solubilities at all temperatures are much lower than predicted, suggesting that the U(OH)/sub delta/ - complex is much weaker than predicted. Extrapolated to 25 0 C, high pH solubility agrees within experimental error with the upper limit suggested by Ryan and Rai (1983). In the pH range 2 to 6, solubilities are up to three orders of magnitude lower than predicted for temperatures exceeding 200 0 C and up to two orders higher than predicted at lower temperatures. pH dependence in this region is negligible suggesting that U(OH) 4 (aq) predominates, thus the stability of this species is higher than presently estimated at low temperatures, but the enthalpy of solution is smaller. A low maximum observed near pH approx. =3 is presently unexplained. 40 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Problems and Possible Solutions Concerning Radiocarbon Dating of Surface Marine Sediments, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Domack, Eugene W.; Cunningham, Wendy L.; Leventer, Amy; Licht, Kathy J.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; DeMaster, David J.; Jennings, Anne E.

    1999-09-01

    Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) dates on the acid-insoluble fraction from 38 core tops from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, are used to address these questions: (1) What are the apparent ages of sediments at or close to the present sediment/water interface? (2) Is there a statistically significant pattern to the spatial distribution of core top ages? and (3) Is there a "correction factor" that can be applied to these age determinations to obtain the best possible Holocene (downcore) chronologies? Ages of core top sediments range from 2000 to 21,000 14C yr B.P. Some "old" core top dates are from piston cores and probably represent the loss of sediment during the coring process, but some core top samples >6000 14C yr B.P. may represent little or no Holocene deposition. Four possible sources of variability in dates ≤6000 14C yr B.P. (n = 28) are associated with (1) different sample preparation methods, (2) different sediment recovery systems, (3) different geographic regions, and (4) within-sample lateral age variability. Statistical analysis on an a posteriori design indicates that geographic area is the major cause of variability; there is a difference in mean surface sediment age of nearly 2000 yr between sites in the western Ross Sea and sites east of Ross Bank in south-central Ross Sea. The systematic variability in surface age between areas may be attributed to: (a) variable sediment accumulation rates (SAR) (surface age is inversely related to SAR), (b) differences in the percentage of reworked (dead) carbon between each area, and/or (c) differences in the CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  10. Potential dependence of surface crystal structure of iron passive films in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Santosa, Arifin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Kurata, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The effect of passivation potential on surface crystal structure, apparent thickness and passivity of oxide films formed on pure iron prepared by plasma sputter deposition was investigated. The crystallinity was improved with passivation potential and the width of atomically flat terraces was expanded to 6 nm when passivating at 750 mV for 15 min, as observed by ex situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) after aging in air (<30% RH). Apparent thickness and passivity are linearly dependent on passivation potential. The former weakly depends on passivation duration, the latter strongly depends on passivation duration. This is well explained by the correlation between crystal structure and passivity

  11. Probing the surface of aqueous surfactant-perfume mixed solutions during perfume evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Penfold, J; Thomas, RK; Bradbury, R; Tucker, I; Petkov, JT; Jones, CW; Webster, JRP

    2017-01-01

    The rate of release or evaporation of perfume molecules from surfaces is a key factor in determining the impact of the perfume in a range of applications relating to home and personal care products. For mixtures of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate and the model perfume linalool the rate of change of adsorption with time due to forced air flow over a fixed headspace was evaluated using neutron reflectivity over a period of up to ∼250 min. The measurements were made in the limit of ...

  12. A space-charge treatment of the increased concentration of reactive species at the surface of a ceria solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurhelle, Alexander F.; Souza, Roger A. de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Tong, Xiaorui; Mebane, David S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Klein, Andreas [Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-11-13

    A space-charge theory applicable to concentrated solid solutions (Poisson-Cahn theory) was applied to describe quantitatively as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure published data obtained by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the concentration of Ce{sup 3+} (the reactive species) at the surface of the oxide catalyst Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}. In contrast to previous theoretical treatments, these calculations clearly indicate that the surface is positively charged and compensated by an attendant negative space-charge zone. The high space-charge potential that develops at the surface (>0.8 V) is demonstrated to be hardly detectable by XPS measurements because of the short extent of the space-charge layer. This approach emphasizes the need to take into account defect interactions and to allow deviations from local charge neutrality when considering the surfaces of oxide catalysts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Improved GaSb surfaces using a (NH4)2S/(NH4)2S04 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murape, D.M.; Eassa, N.; Nyamhere, C.; Neethling, J.H.; Betz, R.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H.C.; Botha, J.R.; Venter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk (1 0 0) n-GaSb surfaces have been treated with a sulphur based solution ((NH 4 ) 2 S/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) to which sulphur has been added, not previously reported for the passivation of GaSb surfaces. Au/n-GaSb Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on the treated material show significant improvement compared to that of the similar SBDs on the as-received material as evidenced by the lower ideality factor (n), higher barrier height (φ b ) and lower contact resistance obtained. Additionally, the reverse leakage current, although not saturating, has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude at −0.2 V. The sample surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The native oxide, Sb–O, present on the as-received material is effectively removed on treating with ([(NH 4 ) 2 S/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ]+S) and (NH 4 ) 2 S. Analysis of the as-received surface by XPS, prior to and after argon sputtering, suggests that the native oxide layer is ≤8.5 nm.

  14. Surface properties of anatase TiO2 nanowire films grown from a fluoride-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Anta, Juan A; Morales-Flórez, Víctor

    2013-06-03

    Controlling the surface chemistry of nucleating seeds during wet-chemical synthesis allows for the preparation of morphologically well-defined nanostructures. Synthesis conditions play a key role in the surface properties, which directly affect the functional properties of the material. Therefore, it is important to establish post-synthesis treatments to facilitate the optimization of surface properties with respect to a specific application, without losing the morphological peculiarity of the nanostructure. We studied the surface properties of highly crystalline and porous anatase TiO2 nanowire (NW) electrodes, grown by chemical-bath deposition in fluoride-containing solutions, using a combined electrochemical and spectroscopic approach. As-deposited films showed low capacity for catechol adsorption and a poor photoelectrocatalytic activity for water oxidation. Mild thermal annealing at 200 °C resulted in a significant improvement of the electrode photoelectrocatalytic activity, whereas the bulk properties of the NWs (crystal structure, band-gap energy) remained unchanged. Enhancement of the functional properties of the material is discussed on the basis of adsorption capacity and electronic properties. The temperature-induced decrease of recombination centers, along with the concomitant increase of adsorption and reaction sites upon thermal annealing are called to be responsible for such improved performance. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Methyl Red from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Treated Banana Pseudo stem Fibers Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaida Rahayu Yet; Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The effect of adsorbent dose, pH and contact times on the removal of Methyl Red (MR) from aqueous solution by using agriculture waste (NaOH treated banana pseudo stem fibers) were studied. The influence of these parameters on the removal of Methyl Red was examined by using a response surface method (RSM). The experiment was conducted by combining three parameters: adsorbent dose (500-1500 mg/L), pH (2-8) dan contact time (5-75 minutes ). The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Design Expert Version 8.0.4 (Stat Ease, USA) was used for designing the experiments. Results showed that the optimum conditions for removal of Methyl Red from an aqueous solution (100 mg/L) were as follows: adsorbent dose (1417.70 mg/L), pH (2.08) and contact time (42.94 minutes) with the value of a coefficient of determination, R2 is 98.98 %. Meanwhile, the second-order polynomial equation indicates that pH and contact times mostly affect the removal of Methyl Red. (author)

  17. Oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX47 fuel subjected to water radiolysis: Solution chemistry and surface characterization by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegou, C., E-mail: christophe.jegou@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Marcoule Reasearch Center, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Caraballo, R.; De Bonfils, J.; Broudic, V.; Peuget, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Marcoule Reasearch Center, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Vercouter, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Saclay Reasearch Center, B.P. 11, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Roudil, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Marcoule Reasearch Center, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms of oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX fuel (MIMAS TU2 (registered) ) subjected to water radiolysis were investigated experimentally by leaching spent MOX47 fuel samples in pure water at 25 deg. C under different oxidizing conditions (with and without external gamma irradiation); the leached surfaces were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The highly oxidizing conditions resulting from external gamma irradiation significantly increased the concentration of plutonium (Pu(V)) and uranium (U(VI)) compared with a benchmark experiment (without external irradiation). The oxidation behavior of the plutonium-enriched aggregates differed significantly from that of the UO{sub 2} matrix after several months of leaching in water under gamma irradiation. The plutonium in the aggregates appears to limit fuel oxidation. The only secondary phases formed and identified to date by Raman spectroscopy are uranium peroxides that generally precipitate on the surface of the UO{sub 2} grains. Concerning the behavior of plutonium, solution analysis results appear to be compatible with a conventional explanation based on an equilibrium with a Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} phase. The fission product release - considered as a general indicator of matrix alteration - from MOX47 fuel also increases under external gamma irradiation and a change in the leaching mode is observed. Diffusive leaching was clearly identified, coinciding with the rapid onset of steady-state actinide concentrations in the bulk solution.

  18. Sequential growth in solution of NiFe Prussian blue coordination network nano-layers on Si(100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricard, Simon; Costa-Coquelard, Claire; Volatron, Florence; Fleury, Benoit; Huc, Vincent; Mallah, Talal; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; David, Christophe; Miserque, Frederic; Jegou, Pascale; Palacin, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the elaboration of Coordination Networks (CoNet) on surfaces at the nano-scale remains a challenge. One suitable technique is the Sequential Growth in Solution (SGS), which has the advantage to be simple, cheap and fast. We addressed two issues in this article: i) the controlled synthesis of ultra thin films of CoNet (thickness lower than 10 nm), and ii) the investigation of the influence of the precursors' concentration on the growth process. Si(100) was used because it is possible to prepare atomically flat Si-H surfaces, which is necessary for the growth of ultrathin films. We used, as a model system, the sequential reactions of K 4 [Fe(II)(CN) 6 ] and [Ni(II)(H 2 O) 6 ]Cl 2 that occur by the substitution of the water molecules in the coordination sphere of Ni(II) by the nitrogen atoms of ferrocyanide. We demonstrated that the nature of the deposited film depends mainly on the relative concentration of the anchoring sites versus the precursors' solution. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transformed Infra Red (ATR-FTIR), X-ray reflectivity, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the steps of the growth process. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of the Simultaneous Effects of Processing Parameters on the Iron and Zinc Solubility of Infant Sorghum Porridge by Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the micronutrient quality of indigenous African infant flour using traditional techniques available in the region. Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of duration of soaking, germination, and fermentation on phytate and phenolic

  20. In situ photoelectrochemistry and Raman spectroscopic characterization on the surface oxide film of nickel electrode in 30 wt.% KOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Junmin; Yang Yong; Lin Zugeng

    2006-01-01

    The oxide films of nickel electrode formed in 30 wt.% KOH solution under potentiodynamic conditions were characterized by means of electrochemical, in situ PhotoElectrochemistry Measurement (PEM) and Confocal Microprobe Raman spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that a composite oxide film was produced on nickel electrode, in which aroused cathodic or anodic photocurrent depending upon polarization potentials. The cathodic photocurrent at -0.8 V was raised from the amorphous film containing nickel hydroxide and nickel monoxide, and mainly attributed to the formation of NiO through the separation of the cavity and electron when laser light irradiates nickel electrode. With the potential increasing to more positive values, Ni 3 O 4 and high-valence nickel oxides with the structure of NiO 2 were formed successively. The composite film formed in positive potential aroused anodic photocurrent from 0.33 V. The anodic photocurrent was attributed the formation of oxygen through the cavity reaction with hydroxyl on solution interface. In addition, it is demonstrated that the reduction resultants of high-valence nickel oxides were amorphous, and the oxide film could not be reduced completely. A stable oxide film could be gradually formed on the surface of nickel electrode with the cycling and aging in 30 wt.% KOH solution

  1. An experimental study of the solubility of molybdenum in H2O and KCl-H2O solutions from 500 ºC to 800 ºC, and 150 to 300 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas; Mavrogenes, John [Australian National University

    2008-04-22

    The solubility of molybdenum (Mo) was determined at temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa in KCl-H2O and pure H2O solutions in cold-seal experiments. The solutions were trapped as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz at experimental conditions, and analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICPMS). Mo solubilities of 1.6 wt% in the case of KCl-bearing aqueous solutions and up to 0.8 wt% in pure H2O were found. Mo solubility is temperature dependent, but not pressure dependent over the investigated range, and correlates positively with salinity (KCl concentration). Molar ratios of ~1 for Mo/Cl and Mo/K are derived based on our data. In combination with results of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy of individual fluid inclusions, it is suggested that Mo-oxo-chloride complexes are present at high salinity (>20 wt% KCl) and ion pairs at moderate to low salinity (<11 wt% KCl) in KCl-H2O aqueous solutions. Similarly, in the pure H2O experiments molybdic acid is the dominant species in aqueous solution. The results of these hydrothermal Mo experiments fit with earlier studies conducted at lower temperatures and indicate that high Mo concentrations can be transported in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the Mo concentration in aqueous fluids seems not to be the limiting factor for ore formation, whereas precipitation processes and the availability of sulfur appear to be the main controlling factors in the formation of molybdenite (MoS2).

  2. Two-Dimensional Free Energy Surfaces for Electron Transfer Reactions in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Murata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Change in intermolecular distance between electron donor (D and acceptor (A can induce intermolecular electron transfer (ET even in nonpolar solvent, where solvent orientational polarization is absent. This was shown by making simple calculations of the energies of the initial and final states of ET. In the case of polar solvent, the free energies are functions of both D-A distance and solvent orientational polarization. On the basis of 2-dimensional free energy surfaces, the relation of Marcus ET and exciplex formation is discussed. The transient effect in fluorescence quenching was measured for several D-A pairs in a nonpolar solvent. The results were analyzed by assuming a distance dependence of the ET rate that is consistent with the above model.

  3. AFM and SFG studies of pHEMA-based hydrogel contact lens surfaces in saline solution: adhesion, friction, and the presence of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Han; Opdahl, Aric; Marmo, Chris; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2002-04-01

    The surfaces of two types of soft contact lenses neutral and ionic hydrogels--were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. AFM measurements in saline solution showed that the presence of ionic functional groups at the surface lowered the friction and adhesion to a hydrophobic polystyrene tip. This was attributed to the specific interactions of water and the molecular orientation of hydrogel chains at the surface. Friction and adhesion behavior also revealed the presence of domains of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the lens surface. SFG showed that the lens surface became partially dehydrated upon exposure to air. On this partially dehydrated lens surface, the non-crosslinked domains exhibited low friction and adhesion in AFM. Fully hydrated in saline solution, the non-crosslinked domains extended more than tens of nanometers into solution and were mobile.

  4. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  5. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.

  6. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one

  7. A mathematical model for soil solute transfer into surface runoff as influenced by rainfall detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Wang, Quanjiu; Wu, Laosheng; Zhao, Guangxu; Liu, Yanli; Zhang, Pengyu

    2016-07-01

    Nutrients transport is a main source of water pollution. Several models describing transport of soil nutrients such as potassium, phosphate and nitrate in runoff water have been developed. The objectives of this research were to describe the nutrients transport processes by considering the effect of rainfall detachment, and to evaluate the factors that have greatest influence on nutrients transport into runoff. In this study, an existing mass-conservation equation and rainfall detachment process were combined and augmented to predict runoff of nutrients in surface water in a Loess Plateau soil in Northwestern Yangling, China. The mixing depth is a function of time as a result of rainfall impact, not a constant as described in previous models. The new model was tested using two different sub-models of complete-mixing and incomplete-mixing. The complete-mixing model is more popular to use for its simplicity. It captured the runoff trends of those high adsorption nutrients, and of nutrients transport along steep slopes. While the incomplete-mixing model predicted well for the highest observed concentrations of the test nutrients. Parameters inversely estimated by the models were applied to simulate nutrients transport, results suggested that both models can be adopted to describe nutrients transport in runoff under the impact of rainfall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy spectrum of surface electrons over a {sup 3}He – {sup 4}He solution with a spatially non-uniform distribution of the light isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezsmolnyy, Ya.Yu.; Sokolova, E.S.; Sokolov, S.S. [B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Prospekt Nauky, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Studart, Nelson [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, via Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 Säo Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    The energy gap between the ground and first excited energy levels of surface electrons deposited over a dilute {sup 3}He - {sup 4}He solution is evaluated. Two spatial distributions of {sup 3}He atoms near the free surface solution are considered. One consists of a thin though macroscopic {sup 3}He film and in the other the {sup 3}He concentration varies continuously from the surface inside the liquid. The energy gap is calculated as a function of the parameters of the {sup 3}He spatial distribution for these distributions. It is shown that the energy gap dependence on the distribution parameters allows using measurements of intersubband transitions of the surface electrons to determine the {sup 3}He concentration distribution and, in principle, the nature of the spatial distribution of the light isotope near the surface of the solution.

  9. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  10. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  11. [Optimization of benzalkonium chloride concentration in 0.0015% tafluprost ophthalmic solution from the points of ocular surface safety and preservative efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Hiroyuki; Takaoka-Shichijo, Yuko; Nakamura, Masatsugu; Kimura, Akio

    2010-06-01

    Optimization of benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride: BAK) concentration as preservative in 0.0015% tafluprost ophthalmic solution (Tapros 0.0015% ophthalmic solution), an anti-glaucoma medicine, was examined from the points of ocular surface safety and preservative efficacy. BAKC(12), which is dodecyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and BAKmix, which is the mixture of dodecyl, tetradecyl and hexadecyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride were used in this study. The effects of BAKC(12) concentrations and the BAK types, BAKC(12) and BAKmix, in tafluprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface safety were evaluated using the in vitro SV 40-immobilized human corneal epithelium cell line (HCE-T). Following treatments of Tafluprost ophthalmic solutions with BAKC(12), its concentration dependency was observed on cell viability of HCE-T. The cell viability of HCE-T after treatment of these solutions with 0.001% to 0.003% BAKC(12) for 5 minutes were the same level as that after treatment of the solution without BAK. Tafluprost ophthalmic solution with 0.01% BAKC(12) was safer for the ocular surface than the same solution with 0.01% BAKmix. Preservatives-effectiveness tests of tafluprost ophthalmic solutions with various concentrations of BAKC(12) were performed according to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP), and solutions with more than 0.0005% BAKC(12) conformed to JP criteria. It was concluded that 0.0005% to 0.003% of BAKC(12) in tafluprost ophthalmic solution was optimal, namely, well-balanced from the points of ocular surface safety and preservative efficacy.

  12. The effect of surface depletion on the work function of arc-melted dilute solution tungsten-iridium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, L.A.; Bosch, D.R.; Jacobson, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements of thermionic electrode materials have emphasized the need for substantial improvements in microstructural stability, strength, and creep resistance at service temperature in excess of 2,500K. The present work extends an earlier study of the effective work function trends of a series of dilute solution tungsten, iridium alloys with iridium contents of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Since the lifetime of candidate electrode materials is an important consideration, the present work attempts to evaluate the repeatability of the work function trends in these alloys. The effective work function was obtained from measurements of the current emitted from the electrode surface under UHV conditions in the temperature range of 1,800-2,500K using a Vacuum Emission Vehicle (VEV). The data generated in this work have been compared with data obtained in earlier studies performed on these alloys. It was found that the magnitude of the effective work function of these alloys was affected by changes in the subsurface iridium concentration. Furthermore, these alloys exhibited a dependence of the work function on temperature, after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. Such a temperature dependence can be explained by diffusion-controlled changes in the coverage of an iridium monolayer on the surface. It is proposed that the significant difference in effective work function trends obtained after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures is a direct consequence of changes in the coverage of an iridium-rich monolayer on the electrode surface. The constitution of such a surface layer, however, would be governed by composition changes in the subsurface regions of the electrode caused thermally-activated transport processes

  13. Highly aqueous soluble CaF2:Ce/Tb nanocrystals: effect of surface functionalization on structural, optical band gap, and photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A; Parchur, Abdul K; Kumar, Brijesh; Rai, S B

    2016-12-01

    The design of nanostructured materials with highly stable water-dispersion and luminescence efficiency is an important concern in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. In this paper, we described the synthesis and distinct surface modification on the morphological structure and optical (optical absorption, band gap energy, excitation, emission, decay time, etc.) properties of highly crystalline water-dispersible CaF 2 :Ce/Tb nanocrystals (core-nanocrystals). The epitaxial growth of inert CaF 2 and silica shell, respectively, on their surface forming as CaF 2 :Ce/Tb@CaF 2 (core/shell) and CaF 2 :Ce/Tb@CaF 2 @SiO 2 (core/shell/SiO 2 ) nanoarchitecture. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope image shows that the nanocrystals were in irregular spherical phase, highly crystalline (~20 nm) with narrow size distribution. The core/shell nanocrystals confirm that the surface coating is responsible in the change of symmetrical nanostructure, which was determined from the band gap energy and luminescent properties. It was found that an inert inorganic shell formation effectively enhances the luminescence efficiency and silica shell makes the nanocrystals highly water-dispersible. In addition, Ce 3+ /Tb 3+ -co-doped CaF 2 nanocrystals show efficient energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ ion and strong green luminescence of Tb 3+ ion at 541 nm( 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ). Luminescence decay curves of core and core/shell nanocrystals were fitted using mono and biexponential equations, and R 2 regression coefficient criteria were used to discriminate the goodness of the fitted model. The lifetime values for the core/shell nanocrystals are higher than core-nanocrystals. Considering the high stable water-dispersion and intensive luminescence emission in the visible region, these luminescent core/shell nanocrystals could be potential candidates for luminescent bio-imaging, optical bio-probe, displays, staining, and multianalyte optical sensing. A newly designed CaF 2 :Ce

  14. Synthesis of LiBOB Fine Powder to Increase Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Marti Wigayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium bis (oxalate borate or LiBOB compound has captured interest of researchers, because it is potentially viable to be used as electrolyte salt in lithium-ion battery system. This compound is easy to synthesize and considered to be more environmentally friendly compared to conventional electrolyte salt because LiBOB does not contain halogen element. This research focused on the synthesis of LiBOB fine powder, which main purpose is improving LiBOB salt solubility in liquid electrolyte solution. This will aid the ion transfer between electrodes which in turn will increase the electrolyte performance. Solid state reaction was employed in this experiment. Synthesis of LiBOB compound was performed by reacting oxalic acid dihydrate, lithium hydroxide monohydrate, and boric acid. The resulting powder was then processed into fine powder using ball milling technique with varying milling time (0, 6, 10, and 13 hour. Microstructure of the sample was then analyzed to obtain information regarding phase formation, functional groups, grain surface morphology, surface area, pore volume, solubility, and ionic conductivity. The analysis shown that LiBOB and LiBOB hydrate phase was formed during the reaction, there was no changed in existing phase during milling process, crystallinity index was shifted to lower value but there was no difference in functional groups. Highest value in surface area was found to be 83.11 m2/g, with pore volume of 1.21311e+02 A at 10 hours milling. Smaller powder size resulted in higher solubility, unfortunately the ionic conductivity was found to be decreased.

  15. Preparation of Atomically Flat Si(111)-H Surfaces in Aqueous Ammonium Fluoride Solutions Investigated by Using Electrochemical, In Situ EC-STM and ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Eun; Oh, Mi Kyung; Min, Nam Ki; Paek, Se Hwan; Hong, Suk In; Lee, Chi-Woo J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical, in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM), and attenuated total reflectance-FTIR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic methods were employed to investigate the preparation of atomically flat Si(111)-H surface in ammonium fluoride solutions. Electrochemical properties of atomically flat Si(111)-H surface were characterized by anodic oxidation and cathodic hydrogen evolution with the open circuit potential (OCP) of ca. .0.4 V in concentrated ammonium fluoride solutions. As soon as the natural oxide-covered Si(111) electrode was immersed in fluoride solutions, OCP quickly shifted to near .1 V, which was more negative than the flat band potential of silicon surface, indicating that the surface silicon oxide had to be dissolved into the solution. OCP changed to become less negative as the oxide layer was being removed from the silicon surface. In situ EC-STM data showed that the surface was changed from the initial oxide covered silicon to atomically rough hydrogen-terminated surface and then to atomically flat hydrogen terminated surface as the OCP moved toward less negative potentials. The atomically flat Si(111)-H structure was confirmed by in situ EC-STM and ATR-FTIR data. The dependence of atomically flat Si(111)-H terrace on mis-cut angle was investigated by STM, and the results agreed with those anticipated by calculation. Further, the stability of Si(111)-H was checked by STM in ambient laboratory conditions

  16. Definition and coding of surface catchment areas: problems and solutions; Ausgrenzung und Verschluesselung oberirdischer Einzugsgebiete: Probleme und Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Mehl, D. [biota - Institut fuer Oekologische Forschung und Planung GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Klitzsch, S. [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guestrow (Germany). Abt. Wasser und Boden

    2000-12-01

    Due to certain hydrographic situations there are some difficulties in application of the LAWA-directive 'Coding of catchment areas and streams'. In this paper, solutions are shown by means of examples from the federal state of Mecklenburg-Pomerania. Priorities of streams influenced by lakes and the Baltic Sea, branched and linked streams, urban streams and catchment areas without surface run-off were discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung der LAWA-Richtlinie zur Gebietsbezeichnung und Verschluesselung von Fliessgewaessern stoesst bei Vorliegen bestimmter hydrographischer Konstellationen auf Schwierigkeiten. Anhand von Fallbeispielen aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern werden Loesungswege zur entsprechenden Problembehandlung aufgezeigt. Wesentliche Schwerpunkte sind daher durchflossene Seen, verzweigte und vernetzte Fliessgewaesser, Fliessgewaesser im staedtischen Bereich, die Problematik der Binnenentwaesserungsgebiete sowie Gewaesser im Ostseerueckstau. (orig.)

  17. Localized solid-state amorphization at grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline Al solid solution subjected to surface mechanical attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Tao, N [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hong, Y [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, J [LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000, Troyes (France); Lu, K [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2005-11-21

    Using high-resolution electron microscopy, localized solid-state amorphization (SSA) was observed in a nanocrystalline (NC) Al solid solution (weight per cent 4.2 Cu, 0.3 Mn, the rest being Al) subjected to a surface mechanical attrition treatment. It was found that the deformation-induced SSA may occur at the grain boundary (GB) where either the high density dislocations or dislocation complexes are present. It is suggested that lattice instability due to elastic distortion within the dislocation core region plays a significant role in the initiation of the localized SSA at defective sites. Meanwhile, the GB of severely deformed NC grains exhibits a continuously varying atomic structure in such a way that while most of the GB is ordered but reveals corrugated configurations, localized amorphization may occur along the same GB.

  18. Influence of Surface Pretreatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Cold-Sprayed Nickel Coatings in Acidic Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Zorawski, Wojciech; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna; Makrenek, Medard; Goral, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion resistance of the cold-sprayed nickel coatings deposited on the Ni surface (substrate) without and with abrasive grit-blasting treatment of the substrate was investigated. The corundum powder with different grain sizes was used. The corrosive environment contained an acidic chloride solution. The mechanism of the corrosion of nickel was suggested and discussed. Corrosion electrochemical parameters were determined by electrochemical methods. The corrosion effect of a nickel coating depends on the grain size used to prepare the substrate. The nickel coating after the medium grit-blasting treatment of the substrate was found to be the most corrosion resistant. However, the smallest resistance on the corrosion effect should be attributed to the nickel coating on the substrate after the coarse grit-blasting treatment.

  19. [Adsorption characteristics of proteins on membrane surface and effect of protein solution environment on permeation behavior of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Qun; Xu, Li; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Li, Bo; Pan, Yong-Lan; Yao, Wei-Wei; Fu, Ting-Ming; Guo, Li-Wei

    2017-10-01

    In order to explore the adsorption characteristics of proteins on the membrane surface and the effect of protein solution environment on the permeation behavior of berberine, berberine and proteins were used as the research object to prepare simulated solution. Low field NMR, static adsorption experiment and membrane separation experiment were used to study the interaction between the proteins and ceramic membrane or between the proteins and berberine. The static adsorption capacity of proteins, membrane relative flux, rejection rate of proteins, transmittance rate of berberine and the adsorption rate of proteins and berberine were used as the evaluation index. Meanwhile, the membrane resistance distribution, the particle size distribution and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) were determined to investigate the adsorption characteristics of proteins on ceramic membrane and the effect on membrane separation process of berberine. The results showed that the ceramic membrane could adsorb the proteins and the adsorption model was consistent with Langmuir adsorption model. In simulating the membrane separation process, proteins were the main factor to cause membrane fouling. However, when the concentration of proteins was 1 g•L⁻¹, the proteins had no significant effect on membrane separation process of berberine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Response surface modeling of boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using different adsorption agents: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçivi, Pelin; Saygılı, Gülhayat Nasün

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a different method was applied for boron removal by using vermiculite as the adsorbent. Vermiculite, which was used in the experiments, was not modified with adsorption agents before boron adsorption using a separate process. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Gallic acid (GA) were used as adsorption agents for vermiculite by maintaining the solid/liquid ratio at 12.5 g/L. HDTMA/GA concentration, contact time, pH, initial boron concentration, inert electrolyte and temperature effects on boron adsorption were analyzed. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design model combined with response surface method (RSM) was employed to examine and optimize process variables for boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using HDTMA and GA. Solution pH (2-12), temperature (25-60 °C) and initial boron concentration (50-8,000 mg/L) were chosen as independent variables and coded x 1 , x 2 and x 3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1). Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of variables and their interactions with 95% confidence limit (α = 0.05). According to the regression coefficients, a second-order empirical equation was evaluated between the adsorption capacity (q i ) and the coded variables tested (x i ). Optimum values of the variables were also evaluated for maximum boron adsorption by vermiculite-HDTMA (HDTMA-Verm) and vermiculite-GA (GA-Verm).

  1. Simultaneous surface coating and chemical activation of the Li-rich solid solution lithium rechargeable cathode and its improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yingqiang; Ming, Jun; Zhuo, Linhai; Yu, Yancun; Zhao, Fengyu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, highly dispersive spherical Li-rich solid solution (Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 ) particles are successfully synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Then these particles are treated with aluminum nitrates ethanol solution at 80 °C. The treatment can extract lithium (Li 2 O) from the Li 2 MnO 3 component in the composite of Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 . Simultaneously, a thin layer of Al 2 O 3 can be precipitated on the surface of the electrode particles via direct thermal decomposition of aluminum nitrates. After treatment, the first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the electrode increases from 72.1% to 93.6%, meanwhile it shows a superior cycling stability at 100 mA g −1 with a discharge capacity of around 220 mAh g −1 and retention of 92.5% after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that of the pristine electrode (83.2%). Even at a high current density of 2 A g −1 (10 C), th