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Sample records for solute rejection sequence

  1. Peripheral blood transcriptome sequencing reveals rejection-relevant genes in long-term heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Xiao, Xue; Jia, Yixin; Wu, Weili; Liu, Licheng; Jiang, Jun; Zhu, Baoli; Meng, Xu; Chen, Weijun

    2013-10-03

    Peripheral blood-based gene expression patterns have been investigated as biomarkers to monitor the immune system and rule out rejection after heart transplantation. Recent advances in the high-throughput deep sequencing (HTS) technologies provide new leads in transcriptome analysis. By performing Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, we analyzed gene expression profiles of PBMCs from 6 quiescent (grade 0) and 6 rejection (grade 2R&3R) heart transplant recipients at more than 6 months after transplantation. Subsequently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out in an independent validation cohort of 47 individuals from three rejection groups (ISHLT, grade 0,1R, 2R&3R). Through DGE sequencing and qPCR validation, 10 genes were identified as informative genes for detection of cardiac transplant rejection. A further clustering analysis showed that the 10 genes were not only effective for distinguishing patients with acute cardiac allograft rejection, but also informative for discriminating patients with renal allograft rejection based on both blood and biopsy samples. Moreover, PPI network analysis revealed that the 10 genes were connected to each other within a short interaction distance. We proposed a 10-gene signature for heart transplant patients at high-risk of developing severe rejection, which was found to be effective as well in other organ transplant. Moreover, we supposed that these genes function systematically as biomarkers in long-time allograft rejection. Further validation in broad transplant population would be required before the non-invasive biomarkers can be generally utilized to predict the risk of transplant rejection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. 205.57-7 Section 205.57-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205...

  3. Digital pile-up rejection for plutonium experiments with solution-grown stilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, M.M., E-mail: mmbourne@umich.edu; Clarke, S.D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu; Paff, M., E-mail: mpaff@umich.edu; DiFulvio, A., E-mail: difulvio@umich.edu; Norsworthy, M., E-mail: marknors@umich.edu; Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu

    2017-01-11

    A solution-grown stilbene detector was used in several experiments with plutonium samples including plutonium oxide, mixed oxide, and plutonium metal samples. Neutrons from different reactions and plutonium isotopes are accompanied by numerous gamma rays especially by the 59-keV gamma ray of {sup 241}Am. Identifying neutrons correctly is important for nuclear nonproliferation applications and makes neutron/gamma discrimination and pile-up rejection necessary. Each experimental dataset is presented with and without pile-up filtering using a previously developed algorithm. The experiments were simulated using MCNPX-PoliMi, a Monte Carlo code designed to accurately model scintillation detector response. Collision output from MCNPX-PoliMi was processed using the specialized MPPost post-processing code to convert neutron energy depositions event-by-event into light pulses. The model was compared to experimental data after pulse-shape discrimination identified waveforms as gamma ray or neutron interactions. We show that the use of the digital pile-up rejection algorithm allows for accurate neutron counting with stilbene to within 2% even when not using lead shielding.

  4. High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindal, R.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment

  5. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Sarp, Sarper; Park, Y. G.; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-07-17

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and surveillance of rejection reactions after heart transplant by means of a sequence of MRI of 'black blood' type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, N.; Escanye, J.M.; Marwan, N.S.; Marie, P.Y.; Perlot, P.; Angioi, M.; Walker, P.; Quiri, N.; Arsena, T.; Hassan, N.; Villemot, J.P.; Mattei, S.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A.

    1997-01-01

    A echocardiography and a MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) investigation were achieved at 3 months to 7 years after heart transplant in 61 patients among whose 35 were suspected of rejection and 32 have had a myocardial biopsy. The myocardial (T 2 ) transversal relaxation time was determined by using an inversion-recovery/spin-echo upon a magnet of 0.5 T. The rejection diagnosis criteria by echography was compared with that of a anomalistic high value of T 2 : 1. the MRI was positive but the echography not in 5 cases, all having positive biopsies; 2. the echography was positive but the MRI was not in 10 cases among which all the biopsies were negative; 3. the MRI and the echography gave concordant results in 46 cases (7 positives and 39 negatives) among which an agreement with the biopsy results was observed in 91% (20/22) of cases. The 12 patients having a positive MRI have had a new examination at 2 to 15 days after the anti-rejection treatment; the T 2 values got normalized. In conclusion, the determination of the myocardial T 2 by means of a 'black blood' MRI sequence appears to be superior to an echocardiography in detecting the rejections after heart transplant and could be utilised to evaluate the efficiency of anti-rejection treatment

  8. Monitoring pharmacologically induced immunosuppression by immune repertoire sequencing to detect acute allograft rejection in heart transplant patients: a proof-of-concept diagnostic accuracy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vollmers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It remains difficult to predict and to measure the efficacy of pharmacological immunosuppression. We hypothesized that measuring the B-cell repertoire would enable assessment of the overall level of immunosuppression after heart transplantation.In this proof-of-concept study, we implemented a molecular-barcode-based immune repertoire sequencing assay that sensitively and accurately measures the isotype and clonal composition of the circulating B cell repertoire. We used this assay to measure the temporal response of the B cell repertoire to immunosuppression after heart transplantation. We selected a subset of 12 participants from a larger prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01985412 that is ongoing at Stanford Medical Center and for which enrollment started in March 2010. This subset of 12 participants was selected to represent post-heart-transplant events, with and without acute rejection (six participants with moderate-to-severe rejection and six without. We analyzed 130 samples from these patients, with an average follow-up period of 15 mo. Immune repertoire sequencing enables the measurement of a patient's net state of immunosuppression (correlation with tacrolimus level, r = -0.867, 95% CI -0.968 to -0.523, p = 0.0014, as well as the diagnosis of acute allograft rejection, which is preceded by increased immune activity with a sensitivity of 71.4% (95% CI 30.3% to 94.9% and a specificity of 82.0% (95% CI 72.1% to 89.1% (cell-free donor-derived DNA as noninvasive gold standard. To illustrate the potential of immune repertoire sequencing to monitor atypical post-transplant trajectories, we analyzed two more patients, one with chronic infections and one with amyloidosis. A larger, prospective study will be needed to validate the power of immune repertoire sequencing to predict rejection events, as this proof-of-concept study is limited to a small number of patients who were selected based on several criteria including the

  9. The Pizza Problem: A Solution with Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kathryn G.; Mast, Caleb J.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of coaching and assessing. A preservice middle school teacher's unique solution to the Pizza problem was not what the professor expected. The student's solution strategy, based on sequences and a reinvention of Pascal's triangle, is explained in detail. (Contains 8 figures.)

  10. Ultrafiltration of protein solutions; the role of protein association in rejection and osmotic pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.B.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Smolders, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The monomer-dimer equilibrium of the protein β-lactoglobulin under neutral conditions appears to influence the rejection and the osmotic pressure build-up, both phenomena closely related to ultrafiltration. Rejection measurements indicate different rejections for the β-lactoglobulin monomers and

  11. Variable Structure Disturbance Rejection Control for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems with State and Control Delays via Optimal Sliding Mode Surface Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of variable structure control for nonlinear systems with uncertainty and time delays under persistent disturbance by using the optimal sliding mode surface approach. Through functional transformation, the original time-delay system is transformed into a delay-free one. The approximating sequence method is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal sliding mode surface problem which is reduced to a linear two-point boundary value problem of approximating sequences. The optimal sliding mode surface is obtained from the convergent solutions by solving a Riccati equation, a Sylvester equation, and the state and adjoint vector differential equations of approximating sequences. Then, the variable structure disturbance rejection control is presented by adopting an exponential trending law, where the state and control memory terms are designed to compensate the state and control delays, a feedforward control term is designed to reject the disturbance, and an adjoint compensator is designed to compensate the effects generated by the nonlinearity and the uncertainty. Furthermore, an observer is constructed to make the feedforward term physically realizable, and thus the dynamical observer-based dynamical variable structure disturbance rejection control law is produced. Finally, simulations are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the presented controller and the simplicity of the proposed approach.

  12. Exploiting Reject Option in Classification for Social Discrimination Control

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2017-09-29

    Social discrimination is said to occur when an unfavorable decision for an individual is influenced by her membership to certain protected groups such as females and minority ethnic groups. Such discriminatory decisions often exist in historical data. Despite recent works in discrimination-aware data mining, there remains the need for robust, yet easily usable, methods for discrimination control. In this paper, we utilize reject option in classification, a general decision theoretic framework for handling instances whose labels are uncertain, for modeling and controlling discriminatory decisions. Specifically, this framework permits a formal treatment of the intuition that instances close to the decision boundary are more likely to be discriminated in a dataset. Based on this framework, we present three different solutions for discrimination-aware classification. The first solution invokes probabilistic rejection in single or multiple probabilistic classifiers while the second solution relies upon ensemble rejection in classifier ensembles. The third solution integrates one of the first two solutions with situation testing which is a procedure commonly used in the court of law. All solutions are easy to use and provide strong justifications for the decisions. We evaluate our solutions extensively on four real-world datasets and compare their performances with previously proposed discrimination-aware classifiers. The results demonstrate the superiority of our solutions in terms of both performance and flexibility of applicability. In particular, our solutions are effective at removing illegal discrimination from the predictions.

  13. The convergence of the order sequence and the solution function sequence on fractional partial differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyaman, E.; Parmikanti, K.; Chaerani, D.; Asefan; Irianingsih, I.

    2018-03-01

    One of the application of fractional ordinary differential equation is related to the viscoelasticity, i.e., a correlation between the viscosity of fluids and the elasticity of solids. If the solution function develops into function with two or more variables, then its differential equation must be changed into fractional partial differential equation. As the preliminary study for two variables viscoelasticity problem, this paper discusses about convergence analysis of function sequence which is the solution of the homogenous fractional partial differential equation. The method used to solve the problem is Homotopy Analysis Method. The results show that if given two real number sequences (αn) and (βn) which converge to α and β respectively, then the solution function sequences of fractional partial differential equation with order (αn, βn) will also converge to the solution function of fractional partial differential equation with order (α, β).

  14. Synthesis of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine oxalate from rejected liquid rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaogang; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    The rejected liquid propellant unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) was converted to UDMH oxalate, which has commercial value. The UDMH oxalate structure and stability were investigated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicate that UDMH oxalate has good thermal and aqueous solution stability, a melting point of 144 °C, an initial decomposition temperature of 180 °C, and a peak wavelength of UV in aqueous solution at λ = 204 nm. This disposal method of rejected UDMH is highly efficient and environmentally safe.

  15. A small asparagine-rich protein required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, B; Mou, B; Canevascini, S; Bernatzky, R

    1999-11-09

    Although S-locus RNases (S-RNases) determine the specificity of pollen rejection in self-incompatible (SI) solanaceous plants, they alone are not sufficient to cause S-allele-specific pollen rejection. To identify non-S-RNase sequences that are required for pollen rejection, a Nicotiana alata cDNA library was screened by differential hybridization. One clone, designated HT, hybridized strongly to RNA from N. alata styles but not to RNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a species known to lack one or more factors necessary for S-allele-specific pollen rejection. Sequence analysis revealed a 101-residue ORF including a putative secretion signal and an asparagine-rich domain near the C terminus. RNA blot analysis showed that the HT-transcript accumulates in the stigma and style before anthesis. The timing of HT-expression lags slightly behind S(C10)-RNase in SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10) and is well correlated with the onset of S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the style. An antisense-HT construct was prepared to test for a role in pollen rejection. Transformed (N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(C10)) hybrids with reduced levels of HT-protein continued to express S(C10)-RNase but failed to reject S(C10)-pollen. Control hybrids expressing both S(C10)-RNase and HT-protein showed a normal S-allele-specific pollen rejection response. We conclude that HT-protein is directly implicated in pollen rejection.

  16. STUDY OF SOLUTION REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ON EFFICIENCY OF INTEGER SEQUENCES PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Potapov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods based on genetic programming for the problem solution of integer sequences extrapolation are the subjects for study in the paper. In order to check the hypothesis about the influence of language expression of program representation on the prediction effectiveness, the genetic programming method based on several limited languages for recurrent sequences has been developed. On the single sequence sample the implemented method with the use of more complete language has shown results, significantly better than the results of one of the current methods represented in literature based on artificial neural networks. Analysis of experimental comparison results for the realized method with the usage of different languages has shown that language extension increases the difficulty of consistent patterns search in languages, available for prediction in a simpler language though it makes new sequence classes accessible for prediction. This effect can be reduced but not eliminated completely at language extension by the constructions, which make solutions more compact. Carried out researches have drawn to the conclusion that alone the choice of an adequate language for solution representation is not enough for the full problem solution of integer sequences prediction (and, all the more, universal prediction problem. However, practically applied methods can be received by the usage of genetic programming.

  17. Crosslinked cellulose thin film composite nanofiltration membranes with zero salt rejection

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2015-05-14

    We report a new synthetic route of fabricating regenerated cellulose nanofiltration membranes. The membranes are composite membranes with a thin selective layer of cellulose, which was prepared by regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (a hydrophobic cellulose derivative) film followed by crosslinking. Filtration experiments using mixtures of sugar and sodium chloride showed that solutes above 300 Da were highly rejected whereas practically no rejection was observed for NaCl. This is a big advantage for a complete desalination as the existing commercial nanofiltration membranes typically exhibit NaCl rejection in the range of 30–60%. Membranes with zero NaCl rejection are required for recovery and purification applications in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N

    2005-01-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups. (fourth seminar to the memory of d.n. klyshko)

  19. Rejection Sensitivity Moderates the Impact of Rejection on Self-Concept Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayduk, Özlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people’s SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed. PMID:19713567

  20. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Amy, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  3. Linear active disturbance rejection-based load frequency control concerning high penetration of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanmei; Bai, Yan; Huang, Congzhi; Du, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A disturbance rejection solution to the load frequency control issue is proposed. • Several power systems with wind energy conversation system have been tested. • A tuning algorithm of the controller parameters was proposed. • The performance of the proposed approach is better than traditional controllers. - Abstract: A new grid load frequency control approach is proposed for the doubly fed induction generator based wind power plants. The load frequency control issue in a power system is undergoing fundamental changes due to the rapidly growing amount of wind energy conversation system, and concentrating on maintaining generation-load balance and disturbance rejection. The prominent feature of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach is that the total disturbance can be estimated and then eliminated in real time. And thus, it is a feasible solution to deal with the load frequency control issue. In this paper, the application of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach in the load frequency control issue for a complex power system with wind energy conversation system based on doubly fed induction generator is investigated. The load frequency control issue is formulated as a decentralized multi-objective optimization control problem, the solution to which is solved by the hybrid particle swarm optimization technique. To show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, the robust performance testing based on Monte-Carlo approach is carried out. The performance superiority of the system with the proposed linear active disturbance rejection control approach over that with the traditional proportional integral and fuzzy-proportional integral-based controllers is validated by the simulation results

  4. The stylar 120 kDa glycoprotein is required for S-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, C Nathan; Kent, Lia; McClure, Bruce A

    2005-09-01

    S-RNase participates in at least three mechanisms of pollen rejection. It functions in S-specific pollen rejection (self-incompatibility) and in at least two distinct interspecific mechanisms of pollen rejection in Nicotiana. S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of pollen from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia also require additional stylar proteins. Transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein, 120 kDa glycoprotein (120K) and pistil extensin-like protein III (PELP III) are stylar glycoproteins that bind S-RNase in vitro and are also known to interact with pollen. Here we tested whether these glycoproteins have a direct role in pollen rejection. 120K shows the most polymorphism in size between Nicotiana species. Larger 120K-like proteins are often correlated with S-specific pollen rejection. Sequencing results suggest that the polymorphism primarily reflects differences in glycosylation, although indels also occur in the predicted polypeptides. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we suppressed expression of 120K to determine if it is required for S-specific pollen rejection. Transgenic SC N. plumbaginifolia x SI Nicotiana alata (S105S105 or SC10SC10) hybrids with no detectable 120K were unable to perform S-specific pollen rejection. Thus, 120K has a direct role in S-specific pollen rejection. However, suppression of 120K had no effect on rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. In contrast, suppression of HT-B, a factor previously implicated in S-specific pollen rejection, disrupts rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. Thus, S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen are mechanistically distinct, because they require different non-S-RNase factors.

  5. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lung allograft rejection in the rat. I. Accelerated rejection caused by graft lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prop, J.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    To find out to what extent rejection of lungs differs from that of other organs, functional rejection of lung allografts was studied in five combinations of inbred rat strains. Rejection could be monitored accurately by perfusion scintigraphy, and equally well by chest roentgenography. The rejection of lung grafts was found to proceed remarkably fast, when compared with heart grafts, in combinations with strong RT1-incompatibilities. This accelerated rejection pattern could be converted into rejection at a normal pace by pretreatment of the donor with 10 Gy roentgen irradiation one day before transplantation. Donor pretreatment depleted the lung graft's bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of lymphocytes. When grafts were depleted of all other passenger cells as well--by retransplantation from a cyclosporine-treated intermediate host--they showed an even more reduced immunogenicity, probably because of the loss of donor-type dendritic cells. These results indicate that lymphocytes from the BALT of lung grafts are capable of accelerating the rejection response

  7. Reject analysis: A comparison of radiographer and radiologist perceptions of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential differences in perceptions of image quality between radiographers and radiologists in a large UK hospital and the subsequent impact this has on image rejection. Image rejection, while sometimes necessary, often leads to an increased radiation dose to the patient due to the need to repeat. Moreover, this translates into increased waiting times, departmental costs, and lower patient satisfaction. Adopting a mixed methods approach, this paper first seeks to quantify the differences in radiographer and radiologist perceptions and second establish the underlying causes of such differences through a quantitative and qualitative investigation respectively. Using a standardized psychometric scale of a GP lateral knee, the study reveals significant differences in the perceptions of quality and rejection rates between radiographers and radiologists driven by a conflict in the evaluation criteria used. The study has significant implications for improving departmental performance and proposes a potential solution for reducing reject rates and image repeats. - Highlights: • Significant differences are found to exist in perceptions of image quality. • Differences in perceptions of image quality directly influence reject rates. • Radiographers judge images on technical criteria. • Radiologists judge images on diagnostic criteria. • Results suggest better communication could reduce reject rates.

  8. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  9. Auto-validating von Neumann rejection sampling from small phylogenetic tree spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic inference one is interested in obtaining samples from the posterior distribution over the tree space on the basis of some observed DNA sequence data. One of the simplest sampling methods is the rejection sampler due to von Neumann. Here we introduce an auto-validating version of the rejection sampler, via interval analysis, to rigorously draw samples from posterior distributions over small phylogenetic tree spaces. Results The posterior samples from the auto-validating sampler are used to rigorously (i estimate posterior probabilities for different rooted topologies based on mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee and gorilla, (ii conduct a non-parametric test of rate variation between protein-coding and tRNA-coding sites from three primates and (iii obtain a posterior estimate of the human-neanderthal divergence time. Conclusion This solves the open problem of rigorously drawing independent and identically distributed samples from the posterior distribution over rooted and unrooted small tree spaces (3 or 4 taxa based on any multiply-aligned sequence data.

  10. ADAPTIVE METHODS FOR STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS VIA NATURAL EMBEDDINGS AND REJECTION SAMPLING WITH MEMORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackauckas, Christopher; Nie, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive time-stepping with high-order embedded Runge-Kutta pairs and rejection sampling provides efficient approaches for solving differential equations. While many such methods exist for solving deterministic systems, little progress has been made for stochastic variants. One challenge in developing adaptive methods for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is the construction of embedded schemes with direct error estimates. We present a new class of embedded stochastic Runge-Kutta (SRK) methods with strong order 1.5 which have a natural embedding of strong order 1.0 methods. This allows for the derivation of an error estimate which requires no additional function evaluations. Next we derive a general method to reject the time steps without losing information about the future Brownian path termed Rejection Sampling with Memory (RSwM). This method utilizes a stack data structure to do rejection sampling, costing only a few floating point calculations. We show numerically that the methods generate statistically-correct and tolerance-controlled solutions. Lastly, we show that this form of adaptivity can be applied to systems of equations, and demonstrate that it solves a stiff biological model 12.28x faster than common fixed timestep algorithms. Our approach only requires the solution to a bridging problem and thus lends itself to natural generalizations beyond SDEs.

  11. How to Manage Rejected Scientific Papers? UNAIS as Final Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Before publication, biomedical papers might undergo a very complex process, from journal selection, authors' motivations for submissions, modifications, and final publication or refusal. UNAIS (Unpublished Articles In Science) is an online repository in which authors can publish previously rejected scientific articles or articles that have never been submitted for publication. At UNAIS, authors can also publish the reasons behind the refusals to publication. UNAIS is more than an e-journal: it is a scientific drop box in which scientists can find indicative and negative results, as well as ideas that can inspire others. UNAIS's goal is also to help students and scientists who want to learn how to write scientific articles. UNAIS' aim is to exchange and promote knowledge. Have a look on www.unais.net.

  12. Multi-objective ACO algorithms to minimise the makespan and the total rejection cost on BPMs with arbitrary job weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhao-hong; Pei, Ming-li; Leung, Joseph Y.-T.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the batch-scheduling problem with rejection on parallel machines with non-identical job sizes and arbitrary job-rejected weights. If a job is rejected, the corresponding penalty has to be paid. Our objective is to minimise the makespan of the processed jobs and the total rejection cost of the rejected jobs. Based on the selected multi-objective optimisation approaches, two problems, P1 and P2, are considered. In P1, the two objectives are linearly combined into one single objective. In P2, the two objectives are simultaneously minimised and the Pareto non-dominated solution set is to be found. Based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO), two algorithms, called LACO and PACO, are proposed to address the two problems, respectively. Two different objective-oriented pheromone matrices and heuristic information are designed. Additionally, a local optimisation algorithm is adopted to improve the solution quality. Finally, simulated experiments are conducted, and the comparative results verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms, especially on large-scale instances.

  13. Understanding Rejection between First-and-Second-Grade Elementary Students through Reasons Expressed by Rejecters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bacete, Francisco J; Carrero Planes, Virginia E; Marande Perrin, Ghislaine; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to obtain the views of young children regarding their reasons for rejecting a peer. Method: To achieve this goal, we conducted a qualitative study in the context of theory building research using an analysis methodology based on Grounded Theory. The collected information was extracted through semi-structured individual interviews from a sample of 853 children aged 6 from 13 urban public schools in Spain. Results: The children provided 3,009 rejection nominations and 2,934 reasons for disliking the rejected peers. Seven reason categories emerged from the analysis. Four categories refer to behaviors of the rejected children that have a cost for individual peers or peer group such as: direct aggression, disturbance of wellbeing, problematic social and school behaviors and dominance behaviors. A further two categories refer to the identities arising from the preferences and choices of rejected and rejecter children and their peers: personal identity expressed through preferences and disliking, and social identity expressed through outgroup prejudices. The "no-behavior or no-choice" reasons were covered by one category, unfamiliarity. In addition, three context categories were found indicating the participants (interpersonal-group), the impact (low-high), and the subjectivity (subjective-objective) of the reason. Conclusion: This study provides researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive taxonomy of reasons for rejection that contributes to enrich the theoretical knowledge and improve interventions for preventing and reducing peer rejection.

  14. Image rejects/retakes-radiographic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaler, D.; Hofmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5%. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted

  15. Image rejects/retakes--radiographic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaler, D; Hofmann, B

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5 %. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter-subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted.

  16. ‘Healthy’ identities? : Revisiting rejection-identification and rejection-disidentification models among voluntary and forced immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobowik, Magdalena; Martinovic, Borja; Basabe, Nekane; Barsties, Lisa S.; Wachter, Gusta

    2017-01-01

    Rejection-identification and rejection-disidentification models propose that low-status groups identify with their in-group and disidentify with a high-status out-group in response to rejection by the latter. Our research tests these two models simultaneously among multiple groups of foreign-born

  17. On generalized fixed sequence procedures for controlling the FWER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhiying; Guo, Wenge; Lynch, Gavin

    2015-12-30

    Testing a sequence of pre-ordered hypotheses to decide which of these can be rejected or accepted while controlling the familywise error rate (FWER) is of importance in many scientific studies such as clinical trials. In this paper, we first introduce a generalized fixed sequence procedure whose critical values are defined by using a function of the numbers of rejections and acceptances, and which allows follow-up hypotheses to be tested even if some earlier hypotheses are not rejected. We then construct the least favorable configuration for this generalized fixed sequence procedure and present a sufficient condition for the FWER control under arbitrary dependence. Based on the condition, we develop three new generalized fixed sequence procedures controlling the FWER under arbitrary dependence. We also prove that each generalized fixed sequence procedure can be described as a specific closed testing procedure. Through simulation studies and a clinical trial example, we compare the power performance of these proposed procedures with those of the existing FWER controlling procedures. Finally, when the pairwise joint distributions of the true null p-values are known, we further improve these procedures by incorporating pairwise correlation information while maintaining the control of the FWER. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaochuan; Lin, Haotian; Huang, Chulong; Chen, Wan; Xiang, Wu; Geng, Yu; Chen, Weirong

    2015-11-12

    Fingolimod (FTY720), a novel class of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, has received special interest among ophthalmologists, particularly given that oral administration of FTY720 has proven to effectively treat corneal graft rejection in animal models. However, no studies have examined the performance of FTY720 as an ophthalmic solution in reducing corneal rejection in high-risk corneal rejection models, and the stability and ocular irritation profile of FTY720 ophthalmic solution are also unknown. Thus, we developed 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and evaluated their chemical stabilities under various storage conditions with high- performance liquid chromatography. To investigate the ocular irritancy of the FTY720 ophthalmic solution, New Zealand albino rabbits were subjected to the Draize test. Furthermore, classic, well-established rat allogenic penetrating keratoplasty models were used to investigate the anti-rejection efficacy of the tested FTY720 ophthalmic solutions. We found that the non-irritating 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solution could prolong corneal allograft survival in rats with significant efficacy for about one month. Furthermore, no significant concentration changes occurred in any of the types of FTY720 ophthalmic solutions within three months. These results revealed crucial profiles of FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and warrant further investigation and optimization of FTY720 in the anti-rejection therapy after keratoplasty.

  19. Study of reaction sequences for formation of solid solution: 0,48 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a low concentration of ions forming the perovskite structure PZT (Pb2+, Zr4+ et Ti4+) by other ions (Zn2+, Cr3+ et Sb+5 in our study) alters the reaction sequences training of the solid solution PZT and especially the formation of intermediate phase. Keywords: PZT / Calcination / TGA / DTA / RX / Piezoelectric Ceramics ...

  20. Rejection of Tetracycline and Oxytetracycline in Water by a Nanofiltration Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Sun, Xiuli; Wang, Qing; Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Junyu

    2010-11-01

    The removal of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane was studied using synthetic solutions. The effects of operation parameters (recovery and flux), feed concentration and salinity on the rejection of tetracyclines and their adsorption on membranes were investigated. TC was observed to show a high adsorptive affinity for the membrane. Almost 80% of TC and 70% of OTC were adsorbed on the membrane surface after stirring for 2000 min and over 50% of them had been adsorbed just 120 min after stir. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were observed for TC and OTC with NF membrane. Rejection ratio of OTC by NF was slightly higher than that of TC.

  1. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  2. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, H.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  3. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, G.J.; Paterson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  4. Measurement of solute proton spin-lattice relaxation times in water using the 1,3,3,1 sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.S.; Mole, P.A.; Coulson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the N-CH3 proton resonances of phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in water solutions were obtained using the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. These T1 values were equivalent to those obtained in D 2 O and water using either the conventional inversion-recovery experiment or the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. Thus, the 1,3,3,1 sequence of proton NMR can provide an independent means along with phosphorous NMR for assess PCr and for the study of the creatine kinase reaction (PCr + ADP in equilibrium ATP + Cr) in aqueous solutions and perhaps in biological preparations

  5. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection

  6. Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaochuan Liu; Haotian Lin; Chulong Huang; Wan Chen; Wu Xiang; Yu Geng; Weirong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), a novel class of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, has received special interest among ophthalmologists, particularly given that oral administration of FTY720 has proven to effectively treat corneal graft rejection in animal models. However, no studies have examined the performance of FTY720 as an ophthalmic solution in reducing corneal rejection in high-risk corneal rejection models, and the stability and ocular irritation profile of FTY720 ophthalmic solution...

  7. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  8. Polonium-210 assay using a background-rejecting extractive liquid-scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, C.N.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure which combines solvent extraction with alpha liquid scintillation spectrometry. Pulse shape discrimination electronics are used to reject beta and gamma pulses and to lower the background count to acceptable levels. Concentration of 210 Po and separation from interferring elements are accomplished using a H 3 Po 4 -HCl solution with TOPO combined with a scintillor in toluene

  9. A Mechanistic Study of Arsenic (III) Rejection by Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tasuma

    2009-01-01

    Reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) membranes are capable to provide an effective barrier for a wide range of contaminants (including disinfection by-products precursors) in a single treatment step. However, solute rejection mechanisms by RO/NF membranes are not well understood. The lack of mechanistic information arises from experimental…

  10. MR imaging of renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.; Helenon, O.; Legendre, C.; Chichie, J.F.; Di Stefano, D.; Kreis, H.; Moreau, J.F.; Hopital Necker, 75 - Paris

    1991-01-01

    The results of 62 consecutive MR examinations were correlated with the subsequent clinical course and histologic results. Twenty-six cases of rejection showed a marked diminution of cortico-medullary differentiation (CMD). The renal parenchymal vascular pattern and visibility of renal sinus fat were not markedly altered in rejection and there was no difference between normal and rejected allograft shape. The ability of MR imaging to diagnose renal transplant rejection is only based on CMD, which, however, is non-specific. In 2 cases of severe rejection, T2 weighted images showed an abnormal signal intensity of the cortex due to renal infarction. Our preliminary results in 8 patients with Gd-DOTA injection showed 2 cases with necrosis seen as areas with absent contrast enhancement. This technique seems to be promising in the detection of perfusion defects. (orig.)

  11. Appendix: a solution hybridization assay to detect radioactive globin messenger RNA nucleotide sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J

    1976-09-15

    In view of the sensitivity and specificity of the solution hybridization assay for unlabeled globin mRNA a similar technique has been devised to detect radioactive globin mRNA sequences with unlabeled globin cDNA. Several properties of the hybridization reaction are presented since RNA kinetic experiments reported recently depend on the validity of this assay. Data on hybridization analysis of (/sup 3/H)RNA from mouse fetal liver or erythroleukemia cell cytoplasm are presented. These data indicate that the excess cDNA solution assay for radioactive globin mRNA detection is specific for globin mRNA sequences. It can be performed rapidly and is highly reproducible from experiment. It is at least 500-fold less sensitive than the assay for unlabeled globin mRNA, due to the RNAase backgrounds of 0.05 to 0.15 %. However, this limitation has not affected kinetic experiments with non-dividing fetal liver erythroid cells, which synthesize relatively large quantities of globin mRNA.

  12. Rejection of organic micro-pollutants from water by a tubular, hydrophilic pervaporative membrane designed for irrigation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, May N; Templeton, Michael R; Bond, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The links between chemical properties, including those relating to molecular size, solubility, hydrophobicity and vapour pressure, and rejection of model aromatic micro-pollutants by a tubular, hydrophilic polymer pervaporation membrane designed for irrigation applications were investigated. Open air experiments were conducted at room temperature for individual solutions of fluorene, naphthalene, phenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-diethylbenzene and 2-phenoxyethanol. Percentage rejection generally increased with increased molecular size for the model micro-pollutants (47-86%). Molecular weight and log Kow had the strongest positive relationships with rejection, as demonstrated by respective correlation coefficients of r = 0.898 and 0.824. Rejection was also strongly negatively correlated with aqueous solubility and H-bond δ. However, properties which relate to vapour phase concentrations of the micro-pollutants were not well correlated with rejection. Thus, physicochemical separation processes, rather than vapour pressure, drive removal of aromatic contaminants by the investigated pervaporation tube. This expanded knowledge could be utilized in considering practical applications of pervaporative irrigation systems for treating organic-contaminated waters such as oilfield-produced waters.

  13. Ion separation from dilute electrolyte solutions by nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.

    2000-03-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a pressure-driven process which is considered potential for the separation of ionic species selectively from solutions containing mixture of electrolyte solutes. The lower operating pressure requirement of NF than reverse osmosis (RO) makes the earlier potentially economical. In the separation of ions, many authors believed that there are membranes with characteristic fixed surface charge and that the mechanism of separation of ions is by the differences in valences of the ions. In this study, experiments involving dilute single-solute and multiple-solute electrolyte solutions were performed using three different NF membranes. Permeate fluxes and ion rejections of the different species of ions in samples of permeate solutions were measured at varied conditions. The mechanism of separation in NF was determined based on the analysis of the trends and behavior of ion rejection relative to the solution temperature, pressure, type of solute, feed concentration and feed solution pH. The results of the experiments show that there is no evidence of the presence of fixed surface charge on the NF membranes. Ion separation was made possible by the combination of sieve effect and ion-hydration effect. Ions having higher hydration numbers showed higher ion rejection than those having lower hydration numbers. A method to determine the effective membrane pore size of NF membranes using hydrodynamic model was proposed. The proposed method is based on the assumptions that the membrane is neutral and that the separation is based on sieving effect. (Author)

  14. The significance of parenchymal changes of acute cellular rejection in predicting chronic liver graft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, ASH; van den Heuvel, MC; van den Berg, AP; Slooff, NJH; de Jong, KP; Poppema, S

    2002-01-01

    Background. Chronic rejection (CR) in liver allografts shows a rapid onset and progressive course, leading to graft failure within the first year after transplantation. Most cases are preceded by episodes of acute cellular rejection (AR), but histological features predictive for the transition

  15. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  16. Proteomic profiling of renal allograft rejection in serum using magnetic bead-based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Weiguo; Huang, Liling; Dai, Yong; Chen, Jiejing; Yan, Qiang; Huang, He

    2010-12-01

    Proteomics is one of the emerging techniques for biomarker discovery. Biomarkers can be used for early noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and treatment efficacy evaluation. In the present study, the well-established research systems of ClinProt Micro solution incorporated unique magnetic bead sample preparation technology, which, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have become very successful in bioinformatics due to its outstanding performance and reproducibility for discovery disease-related biomarker. We collected fasting blood samples from patients with biopsy-confirmed acute renal allograft rejection (n = 12), chronic rejection (n = 12), stable graft function (n = 12) and also from healthy volunteers (n = 13) to study serum peptidome patterns. Specimens were purified with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography and analyzed with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The results indicated that 18 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of acute renal allograft rejection, and 6 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of chronic rejection. A Quick Classifier Algorithm was used to set up the classification models for acute and chronic renal allograft rejection. The algorithm models recognize 82.64% of acute rejection and 98.96% of chronic rejection episodes, respectively. We were able to identify serum protein fingerprints in small sample sizes of recipients with renal allograft rejection and establish the models for diagnosis of renal allograft rejection. This preliminary study demonstrated that proteomics is an emerging tool for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection and helps us to better understand the pathogenesis of disease process.

  17. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  18. Statistical modelling of the interplay between solute shape and rejection in porous membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Pinelo, Manuel; Brøns, Morten

    2012-01-01

    ellipsoid was approximately equal to the radius of the pores, in case the spherical size of the particle was smaller than the membrane pore. Furthermore, for spherical particles larger than the pore, such a maximum was found to occur after the smaller of the radii was smaller than the pore radius. Either...... for spherical particles bigger or smaller than the pore radius, K was monotonically decreasing towards zero as the particles became more elongated. When relating the values of K to the friction model, the maximal rejection coefficient was found to reach a characteristic minimum when changing shape. The results...

  19. Controlling the rejection of protein during membrane filtration by adding selected polyelectrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Ferrer Roca, Carme; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions among the charged groups on proteins and/or between proteins and other solutes significantly affect the aggregation/deposition phenomena that induce fouling and decrease permeate flux during membrane purification of proteins. Such interactions can be turned...... help enhance the performance of membrane filtration for fractionation/purification of a target protein by significantly reducing fouling and modifying rejection/selectivity.......) changing the pH, on the permeate flux and membrane transmission of bovin serum albumina (BSA) through a PVDF membrane. The addition of PS-co-AA to the feed solution resulted in significant increases of the BSA transmission at pH 7.4 as compared to the transmission of a pure BSA solution (1g...

  20. MicroRNA-10b downregulation mediates acute rejection of renal allografts by derepressing BCL2L11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoyou [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Dong, Changgui [Institute of Molecular Ecology and Evolution, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jiang, Zhengyao [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Wu, William K.K. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Matthew T.V. [Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Jie [Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Li, Haibin; Qin, Ke [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China); Sun, Xuyong, E-mail: sunxuyong0528@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplantation Medicine Department of Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou Military Region, Institute of Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China)

    2015-04-10

    Kidney transplantation is the major therapeutic option for end-stage kidney diseases. However, acute rejection could cause allograft loss in some of these patients. Emerging evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is implicated in acute allograft rejection. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA expression in normal and acutely rejected kidney allografts. Among 75 identified dysregulated miRNAs, miR-10b was the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in rejected allografts. Transfecting miR-10b inhibitor into human renal glomerular endothelial cells recapitulated key features of acute allograft rejection, including endothelial cell apoptosis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2) and chemotaxis of macrophages whereas transfection of miR-10b mimics had opposite effects. Downregulation of miR-10b directly derepressed the expression of BCL2L11 (an apoptosis inducer) as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, miR-10b downregulation mediates many aspects of disease pathogenicity of acute kidney allograft rejection. Restoring miR-10b expression in glomerular endothelial cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce acute renal allograft loss. - Highlights: • miR-10b was the most downregulated microRNAs in acutely rejected renal allografts. • miR-10b downregulation triggered glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis. • miR-10b downregulation induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • miR-10b downregulation derepressed its pro-apoptotic target BCL2L11.

  1. MicroRNA-10b downregulation mediates acute rejection of renal allografts by derepressing BCL2L11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoyou; Dong, Changgui; Jiang, Zhengyao; Wu, William K.K.; Chan, Matthew T.V.; Zhang, Jie; Li, Haibin; Qin, Ke; Sun, Xuyong

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the major therapeutic option for end-stage kidney diseases. However, acute rejection could cause allograft loss in some of these patients. Emerging evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is implicated in acute allograft rejection. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA expression in normal and acutely rejected kidney allografts. Among 75 identified dysregulated miRNAs, miR-10b was the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in rejected allografts. Transfecting miR-10b inhibitor into human renal glomerular endothelial cells recapitulated key features of acute allograft rejection, including endothelial cell apoptosis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2) and chemotaxis of macrophages whereas transfection of miR-10b mimics had opposite effects. Downregulation of miR-10b directly derepressed the expression of BCL2L11 (an apoptosis inducer) as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, miR-10b downregulation mediates many aspects of disease pathogenicity of acute kidney allograft rejection. Restoring miR-10b expression in glomerular endothelial cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce acute renal allograft loss. - Highlights: • miR-10b was the most downregulated microRNAs in acutely rejected renal allografts. • miR-10b downregulation triggered glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis. • miR-10b downregulation induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • miR-10b downregulation derepressed its pro-apoptotic target BCL2L11

  2. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  3. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  4. Giardia telomeric sequence d(TAGGG)4 forms two intramolecular G-quadruplexes in K+ solution: effect of loop length and sequence on the folding topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lanying; Lim, Kah Wai; Bouaziz, Serge; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2009-11-25

    Recently, it has been shown that in K(+) solution the human telomeric sequence d[TAGGG(TTAGGG)(3)] forms a (3 + 1) intramolecular G-quadruplex, while the Bombyx mori telomeric sequence d[TAGG(TTAGG)(3)], which differs from the human counterpart only by one G deletion in each repeat, forms a chair-type intramolecular G-quadruplex, indicating an effect of G-tract length on the folding topology of G-quadruplexes. To explore the effect of loop length and sequence on the folding topology of G-quadruplexes, here we examine the structure of the four-repeat Giardia telomeric sequence d[TAGGG(TAGGG)(3)], which differs from the human counterpart only by one T deletion within the non-G linker in each repeat. We show by NMR that this sequence forms two different intramolecular G-quadruplexes in K(+) solution. The first one is a novel basket-type antiparallel-stranded G-quadruplex containing two G-tetrads, a G x (A-G) triad, and two A x T base pairs; the three loops are consecutively edgewise-diagonal-edgewise. The second one is a propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex involving three G-tetrads; the three loops are all double-chain-reversal. Recurrence of several structural elements in the observed structures suggests a "cut and paste" principle for the design and prediction of G-quadruplex topologies, for which different elements could be extracted from one G-quadruplex and inserted into another.

  5. Risk of renal allograft rejection following angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideman, M.; Claes, G.; Nilson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 173 immediately functioning primary kidney transplants, correlation between angiography and renal allograft rejection was studied during the first 14 days. It was found that rejection was more frequent in kidneys undergoing angiography than in those not undergoing angiography. It was also found that in kidneys undergoing angiography an overwhelming number of the rejections started the day after angiography. These differences in rejection frequency could not be explained by differences in HLA matching or the origin of the kidneys. These findings suggest a possible connection indicating that the angiography might elicit an acute rejection episode. A possible mechanism for starting this reaction might be activation of the complement system which was found in 50 percent of the patients undergoing angiography in peripheral blood and in 100 percent when studied in vitro

  6. 111-Indium-labelled platelets for diagnosis of acute kidney transplant rejection and monitoring of prostacyclin anti-rejection treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leithner, C.; Pohanka, E.; Schwarz, M.; Sinzinger, H.; Syre, G.

    1984-01-01

    33 patients were examined daily under a gamma camera after weekly injections of 111-In-labelled autologous platelets over a period of at least 4 weeks after transplantation. A group of 33 patients with long-term stable and well-functioning grafts served as controls. By means of a computerized recording technique, platelet trapping in the graft was measured and expressed as platelet-uptake index (PUI). The method worked well for the early diagnosis of acute rejection signified by an increase in PUI, accompanied by a shortening of platelet half life (t/2). 6 patients suffering from acute rejection received infusions of prostacyclin in addition to conventional high-dose methylprednisolone therapy. In 4 cases the PUI decreased again and an improvement in graft function was observed. Prostacyclin infusion treatment was applied also in 12 patients with histologically-proven chronic transplant rejection. Decreased platelet consumption by the graft and a temporary improvement in transplant function were achieved. We suggest that prostacyclin could enrich the possibilities of anti-rejection treatment by providing a tool for the suppression of platelet trapping in the graft. The platelet scan served as a useful method for the early detection of acute rejection, as well as the monitoring of prostacyclin anti-rejection treatment. (Autor)

  7. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma

    2018-07-01

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  8. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  9. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  10. Characteristics of separation of carnitine and metal ions in cheese whey model solution by loose reverse osmosis membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Echizen, H.; Xing, X.; Yamamoto, S.; Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    Aiming at recovering carnitine from cheese whey by using loose reverse osmosis membranes, rejection characteristics of several components in the whey were examined by using model solutions. An electroneutral membrane was found to be most effective for the separation. The rejection of carnitine was above 0.95 independent of the pH of solutions, while monovalent metal ions showed low rejections of 0.1-0.3. On the other hand, the rejections of divalent metal ions deceased with increase of the pH, and reached a minimum of about 0.5. As a result, mono-and divalent metal ions could be removed simultaneously by adjusting the pH of the feed solutions. To clarify the effect of pH on the rejection the permeate of MgCl2 aqueous solution was examined. The rejections of MgCl2 were greatly affected by the pH and showed the same tendency as the mixed station. The effect of the pH on permeation of electrolyte was considered to be caused mainly by the adsorption of ions on the membrane. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Reject/repeat analysis and the effect prior film viewing has on a department's reject/repeat rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.A.; Hogg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving cost-effectiveness within the NHS is an old initiative but one that has again been highlighted by recent government policies (The New NHS-Modern and Dependable, Stationary Office, London, 1997). It has been reiterated that it is the responsibility of individual Trusts to devise means to provide such a service. Reject/repeat analyses have long been the primary tool used to assess the cost-effectiveness of radiography departments (Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology, WHO, Geneva, 1982). This research paper examines an in-house initiative (viewing patients' previous films) commonly employed in other Health Trusts in order to reduce departmental repeat/reject rates. Method: Three hundred orthopaedic patients with hip, knee and ankle prostheses were included in a reject/repeat analysis. The aim was to investigate whether or not viewing patient's previous relevant radiographs would be advantageous to the practicing radiographer. This was done through an audit cycle consisting of two audit periods each lasting for 3 months. The primary audit period recorded the baseline repeat/reject rate, with the secondary audit period recording the repeat/reject rate under an experimental condition of viewing the relevant radiographs. Results: The baseline audit revealed repeat rates of 33% in orthopaedic patients with hip, knee and ankle prostheses. The availability of prior film viewing to the radiographer reduced this repeat rate to 10.6%. Conclusion: Prior film viewing dramatically reduced the department's repeat/reject rate by 22.4%. This provides scope for significant patient dose reductions as well as reducing departmental film expenses. This is an underestimated initiative and should be used appropriately in routine clinical practice

  12. Cell-Free DNA and Active Rejection in Kidney Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Roy D; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Poggio, Emilio D; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Langone, Anthony J; Sood, Puneet; Matas, Arthur J; Mehta, Shikha; Mannon, Roslyn B; Sharfuddin, Asif; Fischbach, Bernard; Narayanan, Mohanram; Jordan, Stanley C; Cohen, David; Weir, Matthew R; Hiller, David; Prasad, Preethi; Woodward, Robert N; Grskovic, Marica; Sninsky, John J; Yee, James P; Brennan, Daniel C

    2017-07-01

    Histologic analysis of the allograft biopsy specimen is the standard method used to differentiate rejection from other injury in kidney transplants. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a noninvasive test of allograft injury that may enable more frequent, quantitative, and safer assessment of allograft rejection and injury status. To investigate this possibility, we prospectively collected blood specimens at scheduled intervals and at the time of clinically indicated biopsies. In 102 kidney recipients, we measured plasma levels of dd-cfDNA and correlated the levels with allograft rejection status ascertained by histology in 107 biopsy specimens. The dd-cfDNA level discriminated between biopsy specimens showing any rejection (T cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]) and controls (no rejection histologically), P rejection at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 61% and 84%, respectively. The AUC for discriminating ABMR from samples without ABMR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97). Positive and negative predictive values for ABMR at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 44% and 96%, respectively. Median dd-cfDNA was 2.9% (ABMR), 1.2% (T cell-mediated types ≥IB), 0.2% (T cell-mediated type IA), and 0.3% in controls ( P =0.05 for T cell-mediated rejection types ≥IB versus controls). Thus, dd-cfDNA may be used to assess allograft rejection and injury; dd-cfDNA levels rejection (T cell-mediated type ≥IB or ABMR) and levels >1% indicate a probability of active rejection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  14. Understanding maladaptive responses to rejection: Aggression with an audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Amber; Layton, Rebekah L; Freeman, Nicholas; Muraven, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Logically, responding aggressively to rejection is maladaptive because one is unlikely to seek a relationship with an aggressor. We predict that when concealed, the illogical aggressive response to rejection is more likely, whereas when the rejected individuals' aggressive responses are perceived as public, the aggressive acts may be reduced. Participants were rejected by others (Experiment 1) or were either accepted or rejected during an online ball-tossing game (Experiment 2) and were then given an opportunity to aggress publicly or privately. Across experiments, when the opportunity to aggress was made public, rejected participants exhibited less aggressive behavior. When concerned about the perception of their public aggressive responses by others, rejected individuals' aggressive responses diminished compared with those whose actions were private. Crucially, this extended to aggression visible only to neutral others, suggesting that effects cannot solely be due to fear of retribution.

  15. Predicting outcome of acute kidney transplant rejection using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekers, Niels Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney transplant rejection is an important risk factors for adverse graft outcome. Once diagnosed, it remains difficult to predict the risk of graft loss and the response to anti-rejection treatment. The aim of this thesis was to identify biomarkers during acute rejection, which predict the

  16. The Neural Basis of Recollection Rejection: Increases in Hippocampal-Prefrontal Connectivity in the Absence of a Shared Recall-to-Reject and Target Recollection Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Caitlin R; Dennis, Nancy A

    2016-08-01

    Recollection rejection or "recall-to-reject" is a mechanism that has been posited to help maintain accurate memory by preventing the occurrence of false memories. Recollection rejection occurs when the presentation of a new item during recognition triggers recall of an associated target, a mismatch in features between the new and old items is registered, and the lure is correctly rejected. Critically, this characterization of recollection rejection involves a recall signal that is conceptually similar to recollection as elicited by a target. However, previous neuroimaging studies have not evaluated the extent to which recollection rejection and target recollection rely on a common neural signal but have instead focused on recollection rejection as a postretrieval monitoring process. This study utilized a false memory paradigm in conjunction with an adapted remember-know-new response paradigm that separated "new" responses based on recollection rejection from those that were based on a lack of familiarity with the item. This procedure allowed for parallel recollection rejection and target recollection contrasts to be computed. Results revealed that, contrary to predictions from theoretical and behavioral literature, there was virtually no evidence of a common retrieval mechanism supporting recollection rejection and target recollection. Instead of the typical target recollection network, recollection rejection recruited a network of lateral prefrontal and bilateral parietal regions that is consistent with the retrieval monitoring network identified in previous neuroimaging studies of recollection rejection. However, a functional connectivity analysis revealed a component of the frontoparietal rejection network that showed increased coupling with the right hippocampus during recollection rejection responses. As such, we demonstrate a possible link between PFC monitoring network and basic retrieval mechanisms within the hippocampus that was not revealed with

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  18. Stomaching rejection: Self-compassion and self-esteem moderate the impact of daily social rejection on restrictive eating behaviours among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Janine B; Stock, Michelle L; Howe, George W

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined whether having high self-esteem or a self-compassionate perspective help mitigate the impact of daily social rejection on negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. Following a baseline survey assessing self-esteem and self-compassion, 121 college women completed online daily diaries for one week. Negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. On days when women reported more rejection, they also reported higher restrictive eating behaviours and greater negative affect. Effects were moderated by self-esteem and self-compassion, such that the lower participants were in self-esteem or self-compassion, the stronger the positive relation between rejection and negative affect and restrictive eating. However, only the common humanity/isolation dimension of self-compassion significantly moderated daily effects of rejection when controlling for self-esteem. Mediated moderation results reveal different mechanisms by which self-esteem and self-compassion buffer against rejections' effects on affect and restrictive eating. Self-compassion and self-esteem influence the complex impact that social rejection has on affect and restrictive eating. More than other dimensions of self-compassion or self-esteem, remembering one's common humanity can result in a healthier response to social rejection.

  19. Determination of pore diameter from rejection measurements with a mixture of oligosaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Gomez, Heriberto; Rogel-Hernandez, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California-Tijuana, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria, Tijuana, BC (Mexico); Lin, Shui Wai [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion del Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Apdo. Postal 1166, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    This paper present a method to determine pore diameters and effective transport through membranes using a mixture of oligosaccharides. The results are compared with the Maxwell-Stefan equations. The partition coefficients of the solutes are a function of the pore diameter according to the Ferry equation. Thus, with the pore diameter as the only unknown parameter, rejection is described and the pore diameter is obtained by a Marquardt-Levenberg optimization procedure. (orig.)

  20. Laughter as a social rejection cue: Influence of prior explicit experience of social rejection on cardiac signs of "freezing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Helmut K; Reiter-Scheidl, Katharina; Aydin, Nilüfer; Perchtold, Corinna M; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Papousek, Ilona

    2018-06-01

    The study aimed at investigating the immediate cardiac effect of the sudden perception of other people's laughter after experimentally manipulating healthy participants' proneness to experience laughter as a cue of social threat. We expected that participants would show cardiac signs of freezing (i.e., sustained heart rate deceleration immediately after perception of the laughter) after prior social rejection but not or less so after prior acceptance, due to an increased bias to perceive the ambiguous social signal as a cue of social threat and rejection after rejection had been primed. Contrary to expectations, the perception of other people's laughter elicited a decelerative (freezing) response regardless of whether it was preceded by the experience of social rejection or acceptance. The response was prolonged in participants who had been accepted beforehand compared to those who had been rejected. The findings indicate that, given a relevant social context, other people's laughter can be a powerful cue of social threat and rejection also in healthy individuals. Prolonged heart rate deceleration after an ambiguous social signal may facilitate the processing of significant social information in the socially threatening situation. The study adds to the literature rendering the course of the immediate transient heart rate response a useful tool in social rejection research. Additionally, the findings suggested that in some cases the further progress of transient heart rate changes in more extended time-windows (about 30 s) may provide additional relevant information about the processing of social cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy

  2. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  3. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3 months...

  4. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality

  5. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-10-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality.

  6. Specimen rejection in laboratory medicine: Necessary for patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Zeliha Gunnur; Pinar, Asli; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The emergency laboratory in Hacettepe University Hospitals receives specimens from emergency departments (EDs), inpatient services and intensive care units (ICUs). The samples are accepted according to the rejection criteria of the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the sample rejection ratios according to the types of pre-preanalytical errors and collection areas. The samples sent to the emergency laboratory were recorded during 12 months between January to December, 2013 in which 453,171 samples were received and 27,067 specimens were rejected. Rejection ratios was 2.5% for biochemistry tests, 3.2% for complete blood count (CBC), 9.8% for blood gases, 9.2% for urine analysis, 13.3% for coagulation tests, 12.8% for therapeutic drug monitoring, 3.5% for cardiac markers and 12% for hormone tests. The most frequent rejection reasons were fibrin clots (28%) and inadequate volume (9%) for biochemical tests. Clotted samples (35%) and inadequate volume (13%) were the major causes for coagulation tests, blood gas analyses and CBC. The ratio of rejected specimens was higher in the EDs (40%) compared to ICUs (30%) and inpatient services (28%). The highest rejection ratio was observed in neurology ICU (14%) among the ICUs and internal medicine inpatient service (10%) within inpatient clinics. We detected an overall specimen rejection rate of 6% in emergency laboratory. By documentation of rejected samples and periodic training of healthcare personnel, we expect to decrease sample rejection ratios below 2%, improve total quality management of the emergency laboratory and promote patient safety.

  7. Corneal allograft rejection: Risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Harminder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. Several host factors have been identified as conferring a "high risk" status to the host. These include: more than two quadrant vascularisation, with associated lymphatics, which augment the afferent and efferent arc of the immune response; herpes simplex keratitis; uveitis; silicone oil keratopathy; previous failed (rejected grafts; "hot eyes"; young recipient age; and multiple surgical procedures at the time of grafting. Large grafts, by virtue of being closer to the host limbus, with its complement of vessels and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells, also are more susceptible to rejection. The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. Just as rejection is mediated by active immune mediated events, the lack of rejection (tolerance is also sustained by active immune regulatory mechanisms. The anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID and probably, conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT induced mucosal tolerance, besides others, play an important role. Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. Topical steroids are the mainstay of graft rejection management. In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506 are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection.

  8. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products

  9. Diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Fraser, C.D.; Hutchins, G.M.; Baumgartner, W.A.; Reitz, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Serial MR images and endomyocardial biopsy specimens of heterotopic cervical cardiac allotransplants were obtained in six dogs during 2 weeks of immunosuppression followed by 1 week without such therapy. A surface coil and gated spin-echo technique were used. Myocardial intensity (MI) measurements and histopathologic interpretations were performed independently. All six dogs showed a decrease in MI between their first and second MR studies, while showing no rejection. One dog had no rejection and died; in five dogs studies gated to every other beat showed progressive increase in MI that correlated significantly with increasing rejection, though absolute MI values did not correlated with a specific biopsy score. Severe rejection also caused overt increase in myocardial mass. The MI in the early postoperative period may reflect reperfusion injury. Absolute intensity values cannot predict rejection. Serial studies in transplant patients may prove clinically useful

  10. ERROR VS REJECTION CURVE FOR THE PERCEPTRON

    OpenAIRE

    PARRONDO, JMR; VAN DEN BROECK, Christian

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the generalization error epsilon for a perceptron J, trained by a teacher perceptron T, on input patterns S that form a fixed angle arccos (J.S) with the student. We show that the error is reduced from a power law to an exponentially fast decay by rejecting input patterns that lie within a given neighbourhood of the decision boundary J.S = 0. On the other hand, the error vs. rejection curve epsilon(rho), where rho is the fraction of rejected patterns, is shown to be independent ...

  11. Rejection of Bromide and Bromate Ions by a Ceramic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H; Masten, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of pH and the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on bromate (BrO(3) (-)) and bromide (Br(-)) rejection by a ceramic membrane were investigated. Rejection of both ions increased with pH. At pH 8, the rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) was 68% and 63%, respectively. Donnan exclusion appears to play an important role in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). In the presence of CaCl(2), rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) ions was greatly reduced, confirming the importance of electrostatic interactions in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). The effect of Ca(2+) is so pronounced that in most natural waters, rejection of both BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) by the membrane would be extremely small.

  12. A Proposed Solution to the Scholarly Communications Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzle, Chad

    2005-01-01

    After reviewing the history and parameters of the scholarly communications crisis, particularly in regard to skyrocketing prices for journals in the natural sciences, the author reviews and rejects previously attempted solutions. He then employs the principles of game theory in proposing a new solution to the crisis.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Rejecting and Autonomy-Restrictive Parenting, Rejection Sensitivity, and Socioemotional Symptoms in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Susan L; Gembeck, Melanie J Zimmer; Rudolph, Julia; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-08-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) has been defined as the tendency to readily perceive and overreact to interpersonal rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test key propositions of RS theory, namely that rejecting experiences in relationships with parents are antecedents of early adolescents' future RS and symptomatology. We also expanded this to consider autonomy-restrictive parenting, given the importance of autonomy in early adolescence. Participants were 601 early adolescents (age 9 to 13 years old, 51% boys) from three schools in Australia. Students completed questionnaires at school about parent and peer relationships, RS, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at two times with a 14-month lag between assessments. Parents also reported on adolescents' difficulties at Time 1 (T1). It was anticipated that more experience of parental rejection, coercion, and psychological control would be associated with adolescents' escalating RS and symptoms over time, even after accounting for peer victimisation, and that RS would mediate associations between parenting and symptoms. Structural equation modelling supported these hypotheses. Parent coercion was associated with adolescents' increasing symptoms of social anxiety and RS over time, and parent psychological control was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Indirect effects via RS were also found, with parent rejection and psychological control linked to higher T1 RS, which was then associated with increasing loneliness and RS. Lastly, in a separate model, peer victimisation and RS, but not parenting practices, were positively associated with concurrent parent reports of adolescents' difficulties.

  14. Review: The transcripts associated with organ allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Philip F; Venner, Jeffery M; Madill-Thomsen, Katelynn S; Einecke, Gunilla; Parkes, Michael D; Hidalgo, Luis G; Famulski, Konrad S

    2018-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms operating in human organ transplant rejection are best inferred from the mRNAs expressed in biopsies because the corresponding proteins often have low expression and short half-lives, while small non-coding RNAs lack specificity. Associations should be characterized in a population that rigorously identifies T cell-mediated (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). This is best achieved in kidney transplant biopsies, but the results are generalizable to heart, lung, or liver transplants. Associations can be universal (all rejection), TCMR-selective, or ABMR-selective, with universal being strongest and ABMR-selective weakest. Top universal transcripts are IFNG-inducible (eg, CXCL11 IDO1, WARS) or shared by effector T cells (ETCs) and NK cells (eg, KLRD1, CCL4). TCMR-selective transcripts are expressed in activated ETCs (eg, CTLA4, IFNG), activated (eg, ADAMDEC1), or IFNG-induced macrophages (eg, ANKRD22). ABMR-selective transcripts are expressed in NK cells (eg, FGFBP2, GNLY) and endothelial cells (eg, ROBO4, DARC). Transcript associations are highly reproducible between biopsy sets when the same rejection definitions, case mix, algorithm, and technology are applied, but exact ranks will vary. Previously published rejection-associated transcripts resemble universal and TCMR-selective transcripts due to incomplete representation of ABMR. Rejection-associated transcripts are never completely rejection-specific because they are shared with the stereotyped response-to-injury and innate immunity. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart

  16. Comparison of Sociometrically High Visibility Rejected and Low Visibility Rejected Children on Teacher, Parent, and Self-Rating Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbor, Jonelle C.

    The study looked at differences between groups of children identified as high visibility rejected (HVR) and low visibility rejected (LVR) on a sociometric measure with 952 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Questionnaires were analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative nominations from peers received by each child. HVR…

  17. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Bonioszczuk, J.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Isaacs, S.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Uys, C.J.; Barnard, C.N.; Fraser, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning of the donor left ventricle using technetium-99m-labelled red cells was used to monitor acute rejection after heterotopic heart transplantation and compared with histopathological evidence of rejection obtained at examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen. The ejection fraction and end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes were calculated at each examination; an equation was derived from these data to predict the degree of acute rejection, using histopathological examination of endomyocardial biopsy specimens as criteria of the presence and severity of rejection. A highly significant multiple correlation between radionuclide scanning parameters and endomyocardial biopsy was found. The advantages of non-invasive radionuclide scanning over the invasive procedure of endomyocardial biopsy are discussed

  18. Donor-specific rejection: Clinical and scan correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Mehta, R.C.; Perlman, S.B.; Servilla, K.; Sollinger, H.W.; Deierhoi, M.H.; Belzer, F.O.

    1986-01-01

    All 470 scans on 132 consecutive renal transplantation patients were reviewed. Scan patterns identified included acute tubular necrosis and conventional rejection. A new pattern, donor specific rejection (DSR), was identified in 24 of 42 patients on the living related donor specific transfusion (DST) protocol. This was characterized by good perfusion and extraction but significant renal stasis of tracer. This pattern was unique to the DST recipients and improved with antirejection therapy. The clinical features (incidence, temporal onset) and severity (duration, serum creatinines) are compared in these patient populations. DSR occurs more frequently than conventional rejection but is a milder process

  19. Allorecognition pathways in transplant rejection and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason M; Bolton, Eleanor M; Bradley, J Andrew; Pettigrew, Gavin J

    2013-10-27

    With the advent of cellular therapies, it has become clear that the success of future therapies in prolonging allograft survival will require an intimate understanding of the allorecognition pathways and effector mechanisms that are responsible for chronic rejection and late graft loss.Here, we consider current understanding of T-cell allorecognition pathways and discuss the most likely mechanisms by which these pathways collaborate with other effector mechanisms to cause allograft rejection. We also consider how this knowledge may inform development of future strategies to prevent allograft rejection.Although both direct and indirect pathway CD4 T cells appear active immediately after transplantation, it has emerged that indirect pathway CD4 T cells are likely to be the dominant alloreactive T-cell population late after transplantation. Their ability to provide help for generating long-lived alloantibody is likely one of the main mechanisms responsible for the progression of allograft vasculopathy and chronic rejection.Recent work has suggested that regulatory T cells may be an effective cellular therapy in transplantation. Given the above, adoptive therapy with CD4 regulatory T cells with indirect allospecificity is a rational first choice in attempting to attenuate the development and progression of chronic rejection; those with additional properties that enable inhibition of germinal center alloantibody responses hold particular appeal.

  20. Graft rejection after hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masmas, T.N.; Petersen, S.L.; Madsen, H.O.

    2008-01-01

    over time. The storage temperature of the apheresis products was identified as a risk factor for rejection. Storage of the apheresis products at 5 degrees C diminished the risk of rejection. Low donor T cell chimerism at Day +14 significantly increased the risk of rejection. Seven patients were...

  1. FOURTH SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N.

    2005-08-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups.

  2. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  3. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-01-01

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of ‘free’ money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game...

  4. Constructing and sampling directed graphs with given degree sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Del Genio, C I; Bassler, K E; Toroczkai, Z

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between the components of complex networks are often directed. Proper modeling of such systems frequently requires the construction of ensembles of digraphs with a given sequence of in- and out-degrees. As the number of simple labeled graphs with a given degree sequence is typically very large even for short sequences, sampling methods are needed for statistical studies. Currently, there are two main classes of methods that generate samples. One of the existing methods first generates a restricted class of graphs and then uses a Markov chain Monte-Carlo algorithm based on edge swaps to generate other realizations. As the mixing time of this process is still unknown, the independence of the samples is not well controlled. The other class of methods is based on the configuration model that may lead to unacceptably many sample rejections due to self-loops and multiple edges. Here we present an algorithm that can directly construct all possible realizations of a given bi-degree sequence by simple digraphs. Our method is rejection-free, guarantees the independence of the constructed samples and provides their weight. The weights can then be used to compute statistical averages of network observables as if they were obtained from uniformly distributed sampling or from any other chosen distribution. (paper)

  5. Limited resources of genome sequencing in developing countries: Challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Helmy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences between countries in national income, growth, human development and many other factors are used to classify countries into developed and developing countries. There are several classification systems that use different sets of measures and criteria. The most common classifications are the United Nations (UN and the World Bank (WB systems. The UN classification system uses the UN Human Development Index (HDI, an indicator that uses statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita for countries' classification. While the WB system uses gross national income (GNI per capita that is calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. According to the UN and WB classification systems, there are 151 and 134 developing countries, respectively, with 89% overlap between the two systems. Developing countries have limited human development, and limited expenditure in education and research, among several other limitations. The biggest challenge facing genomic researchers and clinicians is limited resources. As a result, genomic tools, specifically genome sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming indispensable, are not widely available. In this report, we explore the current status of sequencing technologies in developing countries, describe the associated challenges and emphasize potential solutions.

  6. The role of CD8+ T cells during allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bueno

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation can be considered as replacement therapy for patients with end-stage organ failure. The percent of one-year allograft survival has increased due, among other factors, to a better understanding of the rejection process and new immunosuppressive drugs. Immunosuppressive therapy used in transplantation prevents activation and proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes, although not fully preventing chronic rejection. Recognition by recipient T cells of alloantigens expressed by donor tissues initiates immune destruction of allogeneic transplants. However, there is controversy concerning the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to allograft rejection. Some animal models indicate that there is an absolute requirement for CD4+ T cells in allogeneic rejection, whereas in others CD4-depleted mice reject certain types of allografts. Moreover, there is evidence that CD8+ T cells are more resistant to immunotherapy and tolerance induction protocols. An intense focal infiltration of mainly CD8+CTLA4+ T lymphocytes during kidney rejection has been described in patients. This suggests that CD8+ T cells could escape from immunosuppression and participate in the rejection process. Our group is primarily interested in the immune mechanisms involved in allograft rejection. Thus, we believe that a better understanding of the role of CD8+ T cells in allograft rejection could indicate new targets for immunotherapy in transplantation. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to focus on the role of the CD8+ T cell population in the rejection of allogeneic tissue.

  7. Ranked solutions to a class of combinatorial optimizations - with applications in mass spectrometry based peptide sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Timothy; Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    Typical combinatorial optimizations are NP-hard; however, for a particular class of cost functions the corresponding combinatorial optimizations can be solved in polynomial time. This suggests a way to efficiently find approximate solutions - - find a transformation that makes the cost function as similar as possible to that of the solvable class. After keeping many high-ranking solutions using the approximate cost function, one may then re-assess these solutions with the full cost function to find the best approximate solution. Under this approach, it is important to be able to assess the quality of the solutions obtained, e.g., by finding the true ranking of kth best approximate solution when all possible solutions are considered exhaustively. To tackle this statistical issue, we provide a systematic method starting with a scaling function generated from the fininte number of high- ranking solutions followed by a convergent iterative mapping. This method, useful in a variant of the directed paths in random media problem proposed here, can also provide a statistical significance assessment for one of the most important proteomic tasks - - peptide sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry data.

  8. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy

  10. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author)

  11. Novel Non-Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatched Variants Improve the Ability to Predict Antibody-Mediated Rejection Risk in Kidney Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pineda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transplant rejection is the critical clinical end-point limiting indefinite survival after histocompatibility antigen (HLA mismatched organ transplantation. The predominant cause of late graft loss is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR, a process whereby injury to the organ is caused by donor-specific antibodies, which bind to HLA and non-HLA (nHLA antigens. AMR is incompletely diagnosed as donor/recipient (D/R matching is only limited to the HLA locus and critical nHLA immunogenic antigens remain to be identified. We have developed an integrative computational approach leveraging D/R exome sequencing and gene expression to predict clinical post-transplant outcome. We performed a rigorous statistical analysis of 28 highly annotated D/R kidney transplant pairs with biopsy-confirmed clinical outcomes of rejection [either AMR or T-cell-mediated rejection (CMR] and no-rejection (NoRej, identifying a significantly higher number of mismatched nHLA variants in AMR (ANOVA—p-value = 0.02. Using Fisher’s exact test, we identified 123 variants associated mainly with risk of AMR (p-value < 0.001. In addition, we applied a machine-learning technique to circumvent the issue of statistical power and we found a subset of 65 variants using random forest, that are predictive of post-tx AMR showing a very low error rate. These variants are functionally relevant to the rejection process in the kidney and AMR as they relate to genes and/or expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs that are enriched in genes expressed in kidney and vascular endothelium and underlie the immunobiology of graft rejection. In addition to current D/R HLA mismatch evaluation, additional mismatch nHLA D/R variants will enhance the stratification of post-tx AMR risk even before engraftment of the organ. This innovative study design is applicable in all solid organ transplants, where the impact of mitigating AMR on graft survival may be greater, with considerable benefits on

  12. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  13. Eosinophil count, allergies, and rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Kate S; Albers, Erin; Kemna, Mariska; Law, Sabrina; Law, Yuk

    2015-08-01

    Allograft rejection and long-term immunosuppression remain significant challenges in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatric recipients are known to have fewer rejection episodes and to develop more allergic conditions than adults. A T-helper 2 cell dominant phenotype, manifested clinically by allergies and an elevated eosinophil count, may be associated with immunologic quiescence in transplant recipients. This study assessed whether the longitudinal eosinophil count and an allergic phenotype were associated with freedom from rejection. This single-center, longitudinal, observational study included 86 heart transplant patients monitored from 1994 to 2011. Post-transplant biannual complete blood counts, allergic conditions, and clinical characteristics related to rejection risk were examined. At least 1 episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurred in 38 patients (44%), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred in 11 (13%), and 49 patients (57%) were diagnosed with an allergic condition. Patients with ACR or AMR had a lower eosinophil count compared with non-rejectors (p = 0.011 and p = 0.022, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, the presence of panel reactive antibodies to human leukocyte antigen I (p = 0.014) and the median eosinophil count (p = 0.011) were the only independent covariates associated with AMR. Eosinophil count (p = 0.010) and female sex (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors for ACR. Allergic conditions or young age at transplant were not protective from rejection. This study demonstrates a novel association between a high eosinophil count and freedom from rejection. Identifying a biomarker for low rejection risk may allow a reduction in immunosuppression. Further investigation into the role of the T-helper 2 cell phenotype and eosinophils in rejection quiescence is warranted. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Complement and hyper acute rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rabia Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has been a major development in clinical medicine but its success has been marred by the immune system′s capacity to respond to "non-self" cells and tissues. A full molecular understanding of this mechanism and the myriad triggers for immune rejection is yet to be elucidated. Consequently, immunosuppressive drugs remain the mainstay of post-transplant ma-nagement; however, these interventions have side effects such as increased incidence of cancer, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, susceptibility to infection if not managed appro-priately and the inconvenience to the patient of lifelong treatment. Novel therapeutic approaches based on molecular understanding of immunological processes are thus needed in this field. The notion that factors influencing successful transplants might be of use as therapeutic approaches is both scientifically and medically appealing. Recent developments in the understanding of successful transplants are expected to provide new opportunities for safer transplantation. This article reviews the present understanding of the molecular basis of rejection and the role of complement in this process as well as the possibility of generating "intelligent" therapy that better target crucial components of hyper-acute rejections.

  15. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references

  16. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  17. Investigations of Heat Recovery in Different Refrigeration System Solutions in Supermarkets. Effsys2 project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawalha, Same; Chen, Yang

    2010-07-01

    Supermarkets are intensive energy consumers with constantly increasing number of installations. About 50 % of the energy consumption in the supermarket is absorbed by the refrigeration system to cover the cooling demands. Simultaneously, heating is needed in the supermarket where the rejected heat from the refrigeration system is usually higher than the needs. It is an interesting possibility to utilize the rejected heat from the refrigeration system to cover the heating needs in supermarkets. The objective of this project is to investigate the heat recovery performance of the new refrigeration system solutions in supermarket applications. The focus is on environmentally friendly systems with natural working fluids, mainly CO{sub 2} trans-critical systems. The project analyzes the temperature levels and capacities of rejected heat from different system solutions and investigates its matching with the heating needs in supermarkets. Using simulation tools this project also aims at defining the system solution/s which has good energy efficiency for simultaneous cooling and heat recovery.

  18. THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER BIOPSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed histological examination of 80 liver allograft biopsies, the diagnosis of acute rejection was proved in 34 cases. Histological changes in liver biopsies in different grades of acute rejection were estimated according to Banff classification 1995, 1997 and were compared with current literature data. The article deals with the question of morphological value of grading acute rejection on early and late, also we analyze changes in treat- ment tactics after morphological verification of liver allograft acute rejection

  19. Non-clairvoyant weighted flow time scheduling with rejection penalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2012-01-01

    is defined as the weighted flow time of the job plus the penalty if it is rejected before completion. Previous work on minimizing the total user cost focused on the clairvoyant single-processor setting [BBC+03,CLL11] and has produced O(1)-competitive online algorithm for jobs with arbitrary weights...... algorithm has to decide job rejection and determine the order and speed of job execution. It is interesting to study the tradeoff between the above-mentioned user cost and energy. This paper gives two O(1)-competitive non-clairvoyant algorithms for minimizing the user cost plus energy on a single processor......This paper initiates the study of online scheduling with rejection penalty in the non-clairvoyant setting, i.e., the size (processing time) of a job is not assumed to be known at its release time. In the rejection penalty model, jobs can be rejected with a penalty, and the user cost of a job...

  20. Rechazo y retrasplante corneal Corneal rejection and re-transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel O Mokey Castellanos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una investigación observacional análítica retrospectiva, sobre los transplantes corneales efectuados en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras. Rechazaron 76 pacientes, que se compararon con un control de 89 pacientes, que en un período similar no tuvieron rechazo. El queratocono fue la afección corneal que predominó. El primer lugar en los rechazos correspondió a queratoherpes (43,5 %. El menor índice de rechazo fue para el queratocono (8,8 %. Se analizó la multiplicidad de rechazos; y fue frecuente que se presentara un solo rechazo, aunque sí hubo congruencia entre el número de rechazos y la necesidad de retrasplantes. Se encontró que los resultados de la conducta médica o quirúrgica se relacionaban con la causa. Se calcula un índice de supervivencia (Kaplan-Meier, que concluye que en los primeros dos años existe menos posibilidad de aparición de rechazoAn retrospective observational analytical research was conducted on corneal transplants performed at Ophthalmological Service in “Hermanos Ameijeiras” hospital . Seventy six patients had graft rejection and were compared to a control group of 89 patients that did not present rejection in the same period of time. Keratoconus was the prevailing corneal problem. The highest rejection rate corresponded to keratoherpes (43,5% whereas the lowest rate was for keratoconus (8,8%. Multiplicity of rejections was analyzed and it was found that mostly one graft rejection occured, but number of rejections was associated with the need of re-transplantation. It was found that the results of medical or surgical performance were related to the cause of graft rejection. A survival index (Kaplan-Meier was estimated, which showed that occurence of graf rejection is less probable in the first two years

  1. Apoptosis of acinar cells in pancreas allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, J. G.; Wever, P. C.; Laterveer, J. C.; Bruijn, J. A.; van der Woude, F. J.; ten Berge, I. J.; Daha, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently it has been recognized that apoptosis of target cells may occur during liver and kidney allograft rejection and is probably induced by infiltrating cells. Pancreas rejection is also characterized by a cellular infiltrate, however, the occurrence of apoptosis has not been

  2. Mammographic image reject rate analysis and cause – A National Maltese Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercieca, N.; Portelli, J.L.; Jadva-Patel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Mammography is used as a first-line investigation in the detection of breast cancer and imaging is required to be of optimal quality and achieved without adverse effects on the health of individuals. Repeated images come at a cost in terms of radiation dose, discomfort to clients and unnecessary financial burdens. No studies investigating mammography quality in Malta had been previously undertaken. Hence, this research aimed to investigate whether mammography is being performed at an acceptable level, through the investigation of reject rates. Quantitative methodology was used to collect data from eight participating mammography units, which were utilising screen film (SFM), computed radiography (CR) and direct digital mammography (DDM). Data relating to the total number of images performed, rejects and causes was prospectively collected over two weeks, resulting in a sample of 2291 images. All units were also asked to answer a questionnaire which provided other data that could be used for analysis. The national mammography reject rate was found to be 2.62%; within the 3% acceptable range. Individual rates' analysis revealed unacceptably high or low reject rates in some units. Positioning was the main reject cause. No significant difference in rejection was found between different types of mammography units or radiographers' experience. Alternatively, radiographers' qualifications, employment conditions and use of rejection criteria were proven to affect reject rates. Whilst on a national level, images are being rejected at an acceptable rate, individual units revealed suboptimal rates; at the cost of extra radiation, added discomfort and financial burden. - Highlights: • The national reject rate complied with the European Guidelines. • Reject rates in different units were found to vary. • Positioning was the commonest cause for repeats. • The equipment used and radiographers' experience did not affect reject rates. • Qualifications

  3. Rejection or selection: influence of framing in investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-02-01

    According to prospect theory, reflection effects result in preferences for risk-averse choices in gain situations and risk-seeking choices in loss situations. However, relevant literature in regard to decision making has suggested that positive information receives more weight in a selection task, whereas negative information receives more weight in a rejection task. The present study examined whether the nature of a decision task (selection vs rejection) would moderate the reflection effects. Undergraduates (47 men, 49 women; M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.1), selected according to specific screening criteria, participated in an experimental study. Typical reflection effects were observed in both selection and rejection task conditions. More importantly, negative information (i.e., the information about probable loss in risky choice of gain situations and the information about certain loss in cautious choice of loss situations) provided in the context of a rejection task received more weight and resulted in more frequent endorsements of the cautious choice in gain situations and of the risky choice in loss situations. Hence, the findings suggest that a decision context characterized by rejection may expand the reflection effects and thereby provide important information about situations in which investment decisions occur in a context characterized by rejection.

  4. Indium-labeled platelet uptake in rejecting renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, S.T.; Buckels, J.; Hawker, R.J.; Smith, N.; Barnes, A.D.; McCollum, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake of 111 In autologous platelets in transplanted kidneys was measured in 16 patients shortly after operation. Each patient was then observed for two years. When transplant radioactivity had increased, despite treatment for acute rejection, the kidney was ultimately lost because of rejection

  5. Efficient and exact sampling of simple graphs with given arbitrary degree sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charo I Del Genio

    Full Text Available Uniform sampling from graphical realizations of a given degree sequence is a fundamental component in simulation-based measurements of network observables, with applications ranging from epidemics, through social networks to Internet modeling. Existing graph sampling methods are either link-swap based (Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithms or stub-matching based (the Configuration Model. Both types are ill-controlled, with typically unknown mixing times for link-swap methods and uncontrolled rejections for the Configuration Model. Here we propose an efficient, polynomial time algorithm that generates statistically independent graph samples with a given, arbitrary, degree sequence. The algorithm provides a weight associated with each sample, allowing the observable to be measured either uniformly over the graph ensemble, or, alternatively, with a desired distribution. Unlike other algorithms, this method always produces a sample, without back-tracking or rejections. Using a central limit theorem-based reasoning, we argue, that for large , and for degree sequences admitting many realizations, the sample weights are expected to have a lognormal distribution. As examples, we apply our algorithm to generate networks with degree sequences drawn from power-law distributions and from binomial distributions.

  6. Perceived childhood paternal acceptance-rejection among adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Alvi, T.; Zeeshan, A.; Nadeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the childhood perceptual difference of paternal acceptance-rejection between those having psychological disorders and non-clinical population during adulthood. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Karwan-e-Hayat, Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Keamari, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to August 2011. Methodology: To test our hypotheses, 69 participants were selected from Karwan-e-Hayat Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Karachi on the basis of purposive sampling technique and 79 from Karachi city on the basis of convenient sampling technique. To measure their perceived paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood, Adult Parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire (PARQ)/control: father-short form (Urdu translation) was administered. The statistical analysis of data was done with the predictive analytics software (PASW). Results: One hundred and forty eight (78 males and 70 females) participants with mean age of 31.28 +- 9.54 years were included. Out of them 69 (40 males and 29 females) were clinical cases of depression, mania and psychosis with mean age of 33.26 +- 9.51 years. Seventy nine (38 males and 41 females) were normal individuals with mean age of 29.54 +- 9.29 years of the demographics corresponding to the clinical population. Independent t-test revealed a significant difference in perceived childhood father acceptance-rejection between clinical and non-clinical population (p < 0.05) and significant gender difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The studied clinical population and male participants perceived to be more rejected by their father during their childhood than non-clinical population and female participants. (author)

  7. Rejection of Organic Micropollutants by Clean and Fouled Nanofiltration Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rejection of organic micropollutants, including three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and three phthalic acid esters (PAEs, by clean and fouled nanofiltration membranes was investigated in the present study. The rejection of organic micropollutants by clean NF90 membranes varied from 87.9 to more than 99.9%, while that of NF270 membranes ranged from 32.1 to 92.3%. Clear time-dependence was observed for the rejection of hydrophobic micropollutants, which was attributed to the adsorption of micropollutants on the membrane. Fouling with humic acid had a negligible influence on the rejection of organic micropollutants by NF90 membranes, while considerable effects were observed with NF270 membranes, which are significantly looser than NF90 membranes. The observed enhancement in the rejection of organic micropollutants by fouled NF270 membranes was attributed to pore blocking, which was a dominating fouling mechanism for loose NF membranes. Changes in the ionic strength (from 10 to 20 mM reduced micropollutant rejection by both fouled NF membranes, especially for the rejection of dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate by NF270 membranes (from 65.8 to 25.0% for dimethyl phthalate and 75.6 to 33.3% for diethyl phthalate.

  8. Outside advantage: can social rejection fuel creative thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sharon H; Vincent, Lynne C; Goncalo, Jack A

    2013-08-01

    Eminently creative people working in fields as disparate as physics and literature refer to the experience of social rejection as fuel for creativity. Yet, the evidence of this relationship is anecdotal, and the psychological process that might explain it is as yet unknown. We theorize that the experience of social rejection may indeed stimulate creativity but only for individuals with an independent self-concept. In 3 studies, we show that individuals who hold an independent self-concept performed more creatively after social rejection relative to inclusion. We also show that this boost in creativity is mediated by a differentiation mind-set, or salient feelings of being different from others. Future research might investigate how the self-concept--for example, various cultural orientations-may shape responses to social rejection by mitigating some of the negative consequences of exclusion and potentially even motivating creative exploration. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of Rejection by Analyzing Ventricular Late Potentials in Heart Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Nogueira Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart transplant rejection originates slow and fragmented conduction. Signal-averaged ECG (SAECG is a stratification method in the risk of rejection. Objective: To develop a risk score for rejection, using SAECG variables. Methods: We studied 28 transplant patients. First, we divided the sample into two groups based on the occurrence of acute rejection (5 with rejection and 23 without. In a second phase, we divided the sample considering the existence or not of rejection in at least one biopsy performed on the follow-up period (rejection pm1: 18 with rejection and 10 without. Results: On conventional ECG, the presence of fibrosis was the only criterion associated with acute rejection (OR = 19; 95% CI = 1.65-218.47; p = 0.02. Considering the rejection pm1, an association was found with the SAECG variables, mainly with RMS40 (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99; p = 0.03 and LAS40 (OR = 1.06; 95% IC = 1.01-1.11; p = 0.03. We formulated a risk score including those variables, and evaluated its discriminative performance in our sample. The presence of fibrosis with increasing of LAS40 and decreasing of RMS40 showed a good ability to distinguish between patients with and without rejection (AUC = 0.82; p < 0.01, assuming a cutoff point of sensitivity = 83.3% and specificity = 60%. Conclusion: The SAECG distinguished between patients with and without rejection. The usefulness of the proposed risk score must be demonstrated in larger follow-up studies.

  10. Fate of Manuscripts Rejected From the Red Journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Yang, George; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.; Bennett, Katherine Egan; Grace, Calley; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate characteristics associated with higher rates of acceptance for original manuscripts submitted for publication to the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (IJROBP) and describe the fate of rejected manuscripts. Methods and Materials: Manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP from May 1, 2010, to August 31, 2010, and May 1, 2012, to August 31, 2012, were evaluated for author demographics and acceptance status. A PubMed search was performed for each IJROBP-rejected manuscript to ascertain whether the manuscript was ultimately published elsewhere. The Impact Factor of the accepting journal and the number of citations of the published manuscript were also collected. Results: Of the 500 included manuscripts, 172 (34.4%) were accepted and 328 (65.6%) were rejected. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates according to gender or degree of the submitting author, but there were significant differences seen based on the submitting author's country, rank, and h-index. On multivariate analysis, earlier year submitted (P<.0001) and higher author h-index (P=.006) remained significantly associated with acceptance into the IJROBP. Two hundred thirty-five IJROBP-rejected manuscripts (71.7%) were ultimately published in a PubMed-listed journal as of July 2014. There were no significant differences in any submitting author characteristics. Journals accepting IJROBP-rejected manuscripts had a lower median [interquartile range] 2013 impact factor compared with the IJROBP (2.45 [1.53-3.71] vs 4.176). The IJROBP-rejected manuscripts ultimately published elsewhere had a lower median [interquartile range] number of citations (1 [0-4] vs 6 [2-11]; P<.001), which persisted on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP is approximately one-third, and approximately 70% of rejected manuscripts are ultimately published in other PubMed-listed journals, but these ultimate

  11. Action against Kruemmel rejected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In its verdict dated September 2nd, 1976 - 10 A 211/74 -, the administrative court of Schleswig-Holstein at Schleswig has rejected with costs the action of a plaintiff resident in Hessen concerning the contestation of the 2nd partial licence for the erection of a nuclear power station at Kruemmel near Hamburg. The verdict is not subject to appeal. Furthermore, the administrative court of Schleswig-Holstein at Schleswig, in its verdict dated September 2nd, 1976 - 10 A 214/74 - has rejected with costs the actions of eight plaintiffs living in Hamburg and surroundings, concerning the contestation of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd partial licence for the erection of a nuclear power station at Kruemmel near Hamburg. An appeal against this verdict has been lodged at the higher administrative court at Lueneburg. The main gounds for the two judgments are given in full text. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Multiquadrant Subtenon Triamcinolone Injection for Acute Corneal Graft Rejection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunali Goyal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of reversal of an acute corneal graft rejection following multiquadrant subtenon triamcinolone injection. Case Presentation: A 19-year-old woman who had acute corneal graft rejection failed to show resolution of the graft rejection after standard treatment with systemic, intravenous, and topical steroids. The graft rejection, however, responded to injection of triamcinolone in multiple subtenon quadrants. Conclusions: For corneal graft rejection, multiquadrant subtenon triamcinolone injections may be a safe adjunct to systemic treatment.

  13. A protocol for arguing about rejections in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Henry; van Veenen, J.; Parsons, S; Maudet, N; Moraitis, P; Rahwan,

    2006-01-01

    One form of argument-based negotiation is when agents argue about why an offer was rejected. If an agent can state a reason for a rejection of an offer, the negotiation process may become more efficient since the other agent can take this reason into account when making new offers. Also, if a reason

  14. Prosthesis rejection in acquired major upper-limb amputees: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Lesjø, Ingrid Marie; Franklin, Rosemary Joy; Garfelt, Beate; Skjeldal, Ola Hunsbeth; Magnus, Per

    2012-07-01

    To estimate the rates of primary and secondary prosthesis rejection in acquired major upper-limb amputees (ULAs), to describe the most frequently reported reasons for rejection and to estimate the influence of background factors on the risk of rejection. Cross-sectional study analysing population-based questionnaire data (n = 224). Effects were analysed by logistic regression analyses and Cox regression analyses. Primary prosthesis rejection was found in 4.5% whereas 13.4% had discontinued prosthesis use. The main reasons reported for primary non-wear were a perceived lack of need and discrepancies between perceived need and the prostheses available. The main reasons reported for secondary prosthesis rejection were dissatisfaction with prosthetic comfort, function and control. Primary prosthesis rejection was more likely in ULAs amputated at high age and in ULAs with proximal amputations. Secondary prosthesis rejection was more likely in proximal ULAs and in women. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of rejection in proximal ULAs, elderly ULAs and in women. Emphasising individual needs will probably facilitate successful prosthetic fitting. Improved prosthesis quality and individualised prosthetic training may increase long-term prosthesis use. Further studies of the effect of prosthetic training and of the reasons for rejection of different prosthetic types are suggested.

  15. Brain Region-Dependent Rejection of Neural Precursor Cell Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Fainstein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of CNS as an immune-privileged site has been challenged by the occurrence of immune surveillance and allogeneic graft rejection in the brain. Here we examined whether the immune response to allogeneic neural grafts is determined by the site of implantation in the CNS. Dramatic regional differences were observed between immune responses to allogeneic neural precursor/stem cell (NPC grafts in the striatum vs. the hippocampus. Striatal grafts were heavily infiltrated with IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells and completely rejected. In contrast, hippocampal grafts exhibited milder IBA-1+ cell infiltration, were not penetrated efficiently by CD3+ cells, and survived efficiently for at least 2 months. To evaluate whether the hippocampal protective effect is universal, astrocytes were then transplanted. Allogeneic astrocyte grafts elicited a vigorous rejection process from the hippocampus. CD200, a major immune-inhibitory signal, plays an important role in protecting grafts from rejection. Indeed, CD200 knock out NPC grafts were rejected more efficiently than wild type NPCs from the striatum. However, lack of CD200 expression did not elicit NPC graft rejection from the hippocampus. In conclusion, the hippocampus has partial immune-privilege properties that are restricted to NPCs and are CD200-independent. The unique hippocampal milieu may be protective for allogeneic NPC grafts, through host-graft interactions enabling sustained immune-regulatory properties of transplanted NPCs. These findings have implications for providing adequate immunosuppression in clinical translation of cell therapy.

  16. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  17. The arcuate artery in renal transplants: An insensitive indicator of rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntire, J.N.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.; Flanigan, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed 65 duplex US examinations in 28 patients within 2 years of transplantation. During this time 15 episodes of rejection were diagnosed by US and confirmed clinically. Of the remaining 50 examinations, 14 showed negligible or absent diastolic flow (suggesting rejection) in the arcuate arteries with normal diastolic flow in the main renal, segmental, and interlobar branches. No other criteria for rejection were present in these patients. It is concluded that the arcuate artery is an insensitive indicator of transplant rejection

  18. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Preventing Allograft Rejection by Targeting Immune Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Fang Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon antigen recognition and co-stimulation, T lymphocytes upregulate the metabolic machinery necessary to proliferate and sustain effector function. This metabolic reprogramming in T cells regulates T cell activation and differentiation but is not just a consequence of antigen recognition. Although such metabolic reprogramming promotes the differentiation and function of T effector cells, the differentiation of regulatory T cells employs different metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of glycolysis and glutamine metabolism might prevent graft rejection by inhibiting effector generation and function and promoting regulatory T cell generation. We devised an anti-rejection regimen involving the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG, the anti-type II diabetes drug metformin, and the inhibitor of glutamine metabolism 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON. Using this triple-drug regimen, we were able to prevent or delay graft rejection in fully mismatched skin and heart allograft transplantation models.

  20. Phenomenology’s Rejects: Religion after Derrida’s Denegations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Jason W.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Religion, as well as any individuals’ volitionally chosen ‟worldview,” generally get conceived solely in affirmative terms of value. ‟Religion” has been conceptualized almost solely on the terms of axiology: as the experience of ‟the greatest” holiness (Otto, the purely valuable sacred (Eliade; the most ‟ultimate concern” (Tillich; the symbols accepted to order life (Geertz, or the binding of oneself to deep value (Müller. Yet there are limitations of such axiomatic thinking, limitations that can be exemplified through an interpretation of Derrida’s ‟globolatinization,” which he described as a system of thought that promotes a universalism of pseudo or petit-valuations, and punishes those resistant and inflexible to them in the name of toleration. This essay investigates what happens when this ‟axiomatic” register (i.e. a reduction to a set of values gets displaced in order to conceptualize religion also in terms of the nonvaluable or ‟rejected.” Rejection entails the paradox that what is rejected often speaks to a deeper reality of what in fact is desired. Thus, what we reject usually says infinitely more about us than what we claim to value and affirm. This essay interprets Derrida’s essay ‟How to Avoid Speaking: Denials” alongside his ‟Faith and Knowledge” in order to offer a Derridean conception of religion on the terms of a rejection that amounts to a double-affirmation or de-negation.

  1. Friendship quantity and quality as predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Šeboková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines friendship quality and quantity as unique predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the unique contributions of friendship quality and quantity differ in adolescent boys and girls. Rejection sensitivity is conceptualized as the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive and intensively react to social rejection. That is why rejection sensitivity is considered to be a cognitive-affective mechanism which leads to increase of internalizing problems in children and adolescents (loneliness, social anxiety, depression.... Friendship variables have been found to predict the level of internalizing problems in adolescents. Little to no research, however, has examined friendship quality and quantity as predictors of level of rejection sensitivity. Participants in this study were 184 students (98 girls and 86 boys, aged from 13 to 16 (M=13.83, SD=1. Adolescents completed measures assessing number of their friends, quality of best friendship (self-report questionnaire Friendship qualities scale, Bukowski, Hoza, Boivin, 1994 and rejection sensitivity (self-report questionnaire Rejection sensitivity scale, Downey, Feldman, 1996. Regression analysis indicated that friendship features (companionship, balance, help, security, closeness, friendship quantity and overall friendship quality are significant unique predictors of sensitivity rejection in adolescents with. Results suggest that adolescents with higher number of and higher quality friendships have lower concerns about the possibility and expectation of rejection, which can lead to minimizing the risk of development of internalizing problems. However, only a small proportion of variance was accounted for in rejection sensitivity by the friendship variables (small to medium effect size. This suggests that different kind of peer relationships (peer acceptance, popularity, peer victimization make unique, differential

  2. Explaining the paradoxical rejection-aggression link: the mediating effects of hostile intent attributions, anger, and decreases in state self-esteem on peer rejection-induced aggression in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Thomaes, Sander; Kamphuis, Jan H; Bushman, Brad J; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Telch, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    People are strongly motivated to feel accepted by others. Yet when faced with acute peer rejection they often aggress against the very peers they desire acceptance from, which may lead to further rejection. The present experiment tests three potential mediators of aggressive responses to acute peer rejection in the critical developmental stage of early adolescence. Participants (N=185, M(age)=11.5 years) completed personal profiles that were allegedly evaluated online by peers. After receiving negative or neutral peer feedback, participants could aggress against the same peers who had evaluated them. Rejected participants attributed more hostile intent to the peers, were angrier, showed a greater reduction in state self-esteem, and were more aggressive. Mediational analyses showed that hostile intent attributions mediated the acute peer rejection-aggression relationship, whereas increases in anger and decreases in state self-esteem did not. Thus, acute peer rejection evokes hostile intent attributions that, in turn, lead to aggressive reactions. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  3. Insights from computational modeling in inflammation and acute rejection in limb transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Wolfram

    Full Text Available Acute skin rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA is the major obstacle for wider adoption in clinical practice. This study utilized computational modeling to identify biomarkers for diagnosis and targets for treatment of skin rejection. Protein levels of 14 inflammatory mediators in skin and muscle biopsies from syngeneic grafts [n = 10], allogeneic transplants without immunosuppression [n = 10] and allografts treated with tacrolimus [n = 10] were assessed by multiplexed analysis technology. Hierarchical Clustering Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, Random Forest Classification and Multinomial Logistic Regression models were used to segregate experimental groups. Based on Random Forest Classification, Multinomial Logistic Regression and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis models, IL-4, TNF-α and IL-12p70 were the best predictors of skin rejection and identified rejection well in advance of histopathological alterations. TNF-α and IL-12p70 were the best predictors of muscle rejection and also preceded histopathological alterations. Principal Component Analysis identified IL-1α, IL-18, IL-1β, and IL-4 as principal drivers of transplant rejection. Thus, inflammatory patterns associated with rejection are specific for the individual tissue and may be superior for early detection and targeted treatment of rejection.

  4. Acute antibody-mediated rejection in pancreas and kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Hanneke de

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, acute rejection after kidney, simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPKT), and islets of Langerhans transplantation was addressed. The focus is on acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after transplantation and on a potential strategy using cellular immune modulation to prevent acute

  5. Effects of feed solution chemistry on low pressure reverse osmosis filtration of cesium and strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shiyuan, E-mail: dingshiyuan@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang, Yu, E-mail: yangyu@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Haiou, E-mail: huanghaiou@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Liu, Hengchen, E-mail: 799599501@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Hou, Li-an, E-mail: houlian678@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Xi’an High-Tech Institute, No. 2, Tongxin Street, Baqiao District, Xi’an 710025 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • A low pressure spiral wound RO membrane can reject Cs and Sr efficiently. • The rejection of Cs and Sr is dependent on feed pH and co-existing ions. • Donnan exclusion and electrostatic interaction govern the rejection of Cs and Sr. • The differences of filtration mechanism were influenced by the size of ions. • Sr could strengthen the irreversible membrane fouling resistance with HA. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the removal mechanisms of radionuclides by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes under conditions relevant to full-scale water treatment. For this purpose, the effects of feed solution chemistry on the removal of Cs and Sr by a low pressure RO system was investigated by systematically varying membrane surface charge, ionic composition, and organic matter concentrations. The results showed that the effects of solution chemistry on the filtration of Cs and Sr were related to their hydrated ionic radius, resulting in the predominance of the Donnan’s effect and electrostatic interactions, respectively. Consequently, the rejection of Cs increased more pronouncedly than Sr with the increases of feed concentration. Due to the Donnan’s effect, different anions decreased the rejection of Cs to different extents in accordance to the order of anions’ radii as SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > Cl{sup −} > NO{sub 3}{sup −} > F{sup −}. The variations in Sr rejection were influenced by the electrostatic interactions between Sr{sup 2+} and the membrane. In addition, humic acid (HA) lowered the rejection of Cs and caused significant membrane flux decline, but did not change the rejection of Sr. Sr also aggravated HA fouling of the membrane.

  6. Study of the sodalite Bayer synthesis process from reject of kaolin of the Amazon region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, A.A.B.; Neves, R.F.; Angelica, R.S.; Pöllmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an application for the kaolin rejects from Amazonia through the synthesis of sodalite, in addition, the series of sodalites was synthesized with the same conditions of the Bayer process to understand and control their formation when necessary. These tailings are generated by companies located in the state of Para and are mainly composed of kaolinite, thus forming an excellent starting material for the production of zeolites. The synthesis process was carried out in autoclaves and two synthesis temperatures, 150 and 200 deg C, were evaluated, the same ones used in the Bayer process. The anions used in the reaction mixture to obtain the sodalite series were: carbonate chloride and sulfate, and NaOH solution was used as the sodium source. Sodalite was produced in all the synthesis conditions, showing that through the kaolin rejects from the Amazon it was possible to study the sodalite synthesis process.

  7. Redox-Dependent Inflammation in Islet Transplantation Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie M. Barra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in the progressive destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells inside the islets of Langerhans. The loss of this vital population leaves patients with a lifelong dependency on exogenous insulin and puts them at risk for life-threatening complications. One method being investigated to help restore insulin independence in these patients is islet cell transplantation. However, challenges associated with transplant rejection and islet viability have prevented long-term β-cell function. Redox signaling and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by recipient immune cells and transplanted islets themselves are key players in graft rejection. Therefore, dissipation of ROS generation is a viable intervention that can protect transplanted islets from immune-mediated destruction. Here, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of redox signaling and ROS synthesis during graft rejection as well as new strategies being tested for their efficacy in redox modulation during islet cell transplantation.

  8. Redox-Dependent Inflammation in Islet Transplantation Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Jessie M.; Tse, Hubert M.

    2018-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in the progressive destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells inside the islets of Langerhans. The loss of this vital population leaves patients with a lifelong dependency on exogenous insulin and puts them at risk for life-threatening complications. One method being investigated to help restore insulin independence in these patients is islet cell transplantation. However, challenges associated with transplant rejection and islet viability have prevented long-term β-cell function. Redox signaling and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by recipient immune cells and transplanted islets themselves are key players in graft rejection. Therefore, dissipation of ROS generation is a viable intervention that can protect transplanted islets from immune-mediated destruction. Here, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of redox signaling and ROS synthesis during graft rejection as well as new strategies being tested for their efficacy in redox modulation during islet cell transplantation. PMID:29740396

  9. The existence and global attractivity of almost periodic sequence solution of discrete-time neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenkun; Wang Xinghua; Gao Feng

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we discuss discrete-time analogue of a continuous-time cellular neural network. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique almost periodic sequence solution which is globally attractive. Our results demonstrate dynamics of the formulated discrete-time analogue as mathematical models for the continuous-time cellular neural network in almost periodic case. Finally, a computer simulation illustrates the suitability of our discrete-time analogue as numerical algorithms in simulating the continuous-time cellular neural network conveniently

  10. Anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, social withdrawal, and retribution in high and low ambiguous situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew

    2013-02-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) is a tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection. Our objective was to examine whether anxious and angry RS have specific associations with negative social reactions, and whether responses are intensified in situations of high rejection ambiguity. In two studies, youth (N = 464 and N = 371) reported their RS and anticipated responses to social scenarios. In Study 1, all scenarios portrayed overt rejection events. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to conditions portraying overt or ambiguous rejection. Greater rejection expectation was associated with more negative reactions to rejection. Moreover, as expected, anxiety about rejection was uniquely associated with withdrawal, and anger about rejection was uniquely associated with retribution (i.e., reactive aggression). In the second study, RS persons responded more negatively than others to both overt and high ambiguous rejections, but retribution was intensified among participants high in rejection expectation when rejection was ambiguous, and withdrawal was intensified among participants high in anxious RS in overt rejection situations. Consistent with the revised RS model, there are different patterns of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors in response to high and low ambiguous rejection events, which are heightened in youth sensitive to rejection. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Antigen-Specificity of T Cell Infiltrates in Biopsies With T Cell-Mediated Rejection and BK Polyomavirus Viremia: Analysis by Next Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, G; Huang, Y; Huang, Y; Lyu, Z; Lesniak, D; Randhawa, P

    2016-11-01

    This study interrogates the antigen-specificity of inflammatory infiltrates in renal biopsies with BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) viremia (BKPyVM) with or without allograft nephropathy (BKPyVN). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from five healthy HLA-A0101 subjects were stimulated by peptides derived from the BKPYV proteome or polymorphic regions of HLA. Next generation sequencing of the T cell-receptor complementary DNA was performed on peptide-stimulated PBMC and 23 biopsies with T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) or BKPyVN. Biopsies from patients with BKPyVM or BKVPyVN contained 7.7732 times more alloreactive than virus-reactive clones. Biopsies with TCMR also contained BKPyV-specific clones, presumably a manifestation of heterologous immunity. The mean cumulative T cell clonal frequency was 0.1378 for alloreactive clones and 0.0375 for BKPyV-reactive clones. Samples with BKPyVN and TCMR clustered separately in dendrograms of V-family and J-gene utilization patterns. Dendrograms also revealed that V-gene, J-gene, and D-gene usage patterns were a function of HLA type. In conclusion, biopsies with BKPyVN contain abundant allospecific clones that exceed the number of virus-reactive clones. The T cell component of tissue injury in viral nephropathy appears to be mediated primarily by an "innocent bystander" mechanism in which the principal element is secondary T cell influx triggered by both antiviral and anti-HLA immunity. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Associations between rejection sensitivity and mental health outcomes : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, S.; Assink, M.; Cipriani, A.; Lin, K.

    2017-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity is a personality disposition characterized by oversensitivity to social rejection. Using a three-level meta-analytic model, 75 studies were reviewed that examined associations between rejection sensitivity and five mental health outcomes: depression, anxiety, loneliness,

  13. Behavioral and Personality Predictors of Acceptance and Rejection in University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    Full Text Available Abstract: Acceptance and rejection in the group are related to both personality characteristics and social skills and most studies focus on children instead of college students. The objective of this study was to investigate whether acceptance and rejection would be more associated with personality tendencies, specifically socialization or social skills. We collected data from 187 college students attending the Physical Education (67% and Psychology (32% courses. The instruments were the sociometric test, the Factorial Scale of Socialization and the Social Skills Inventory. A moderating effect of gender in the relationship between assertiveness and acceptance and rejection to go out on college was observed. Social skills were better predictors of acceptance and social rejection in the university group.

  14. Radiation therapy treatment of acute refractory renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, J.; Thisted, R.A.; Woodle, E.S.; Thistlethwaite, J.R.; Powers, C.; Haraf, D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the use of radiotherapy to preserve the renal graft in patients with recurrent graft rejection that failed to respond to medical treatment and identify risk factors to predict the probability of graft loss. Material and Methods: Between June 1989 and December 1995, 53 renal graft recipients were treated at our institution after experiencing several episodes of rejection. Rejection was defined as an unexplained, consecutive, daily rise in serum creatinine. Each episode was confirmed with renal biopsy. Patients who experienced rejection were initially treated with solu medrol bolus and prednisone. Patients with steroid-resistant or recurrent rejection received OKT3, polyclonal antilymphocyte antibody, FK506, or mycophenolate mofetil. Those who failed to respond to medical treatment were referred for radiotherapy. Treatment consisted of a dose of 600 cGy given in 3 or 4 fractions using 6 MV photons, AP or AP/PA. All patients underwent ultrasound kidney localization; a 2 cm margin was given around the kidney. Results: Median follow-up from the date of transplant to the last follow-up was 22 months (range 1-83 months), the median time from the date of transplant to the initiation of radiotherapy was 3 months, and the median time from the initiation of radiotherapy to the last follow up was 10 months (range 0.1 to 64 months). Of these 34 men and 19 women, median age of 3), Ninety-one percent were cadaveric transplant recipients., human leukocyte antigen matching on HLA-A and HLA-B (zero antigens in 26 patients/one or two shared antigens in 27 patients), HLA-DR locus (zero antigens in 34 patients/one or two shared antigens in 19 patients), transplant panel-reactive antibodies at transplantation (median PRA-Curr of 3% and median PRA-Max of 8%), number of acute rejection episodes, interval from the date of the transplant to the first rejection (median 1 month, range 5 days to 68 months), serum creatinine levels at the time of the first

  15. 15 CFR 700.13 - Acceptance and rejection of rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order and transmit the acceptance or rejection in writing (hard copy), or in electronic format, within... rejection, pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in writing (hard copy) or electronic format...

  16. Selection of G-quadruplex folding topology with LNA-modified human telomeric sequences in K+ solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan, Devranjan; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    G-rich nucleic acid oligomers can form G-quadruplexes built by G-tetrads stacked upon each other. Depending on the nucleotide sequence, G-quadruplexes fold mainly with two topologies: parallel, in which all G-tracts are oriented parallel to each other, or antiparallel, in which one or more G......-tracts are oriented antiparallel to the other G-tracts. In the former topology, all glycosidic bond angles conform to anti conformations, while in the latter topology they adopt both syn and anti conformations. It is of interest to understand the molecular forces that govern G-quadruplex folding. Here, we approach...... this problem by examining the impact of LNA (locked nucleic acid) modifications on the folding topology of the dimeric model system of the human telomere sequence. In solution, this DNA G-quadruplex forms a mixture of G-quadruplexes with antiparallel and parallel topologies. Using CD and NMR spectroscopies, we...

  17. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... nonresponsive an individual bid that is not in compliance with the Government's bid acceptance time, since...

  18. Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits. ... The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Family and community rejection and a Congolese led mediation intervention to reintegrate rejected survivors of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Tosha, Maphie; Ramazani, Paul; Safari, Octave; Bachunguye, Richard; Zahiga, Isaya; Iragi, Aline; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to describe the multiple and inter-related health, economic, and social reasons for rejection and to provide an example of a Congolese-led family mediation program to reintegrate survivors into their families. We conducted this study in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and included two focus group discussions and twenty-seven interviews. Rejection extends beyond physical dislocation to include economic and social aspects. Family mediation is a process requiring knowledge of traditions and norms. Understanding the context of rejection and supporting promising local reintegration efforts will likely improve health, economic, and social outcomes for the survivor, her family, and her community.

  20. Refusals and Rejections: Designing Messages to Serve Multiple Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Mimako; O'Keefe, Barbara J.

    1994-01-01

    Tests a rational model of the elaboration of themes found in rejection messages, using Japanese and American participants. Finds partial support for the initial rational model but notes two key revisions: identifies two new themes in rejection messages and suggests substantial differences in the way Americans and Japanese elaborate themes to serve…

  1. Experimental Verification of a Harmonic-Rejection Mixing Concept using Blind Interference Canceling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moseley, N.A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents the first practical experiments on a harmonic rejection downconverter, which offers up to 75 dB of harmonic rejection, without an RF filter. The downconverter uses a two-stage approach; the first stage is an analog multipath/ multi-phase harmonic rejection mixer followed

  2. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  3. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10 5 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10 6 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10 4 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated

  4. Band rejection filter for measurement of electron cyclotron emission during electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Makoto; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Kubo, Shin; Idei, Hiroshi.

    1996-05-01

    For the measurement of electron cyclotron emission from the high temperature plasma, a band rejection filter in the range of 40-60 GHz is designed to reject the 53.2 GHz signal with large amplitude from the gyrotron for the purpose of plasma electron heating. The filter developed with ten sets of three quarters-wavelength coupled by TE 111 mode of tunable resonant cavity has rejection of 50 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz. The modified model of Tschebysheff type for the prediction of rejection is proposed. It is confirmed that the measured rejection as a function of frequency agrees well with the experimental results for small coupling hole, and also clarified that the rejection ratio increases for the large coupling hole. (author)

  5. Delayed allogeneic skin graft rejection in CD26-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangli; Zhang, Kai; Daniel, Peter; Wisbrun, Natali; Fuchs, Hendrik; Fan, Hua

    2018-03-23

    Organ transplantation is an effective therapeutic tool for treating many terminal diseases. However, one of the biggest challenges of transplantation is determining how to achieve the long-term survival of the allogeneic or xenogeneic transplant by, for example, preventing transplant rejection. In the current study, CD26 gene-knockout mice were used to investigate the potential role of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPPIV) in allogeneic skin graft rejection by tail-skin transplantation. Compared with wild-type (CD26 +/+ ) counterparts, CD26 -/- mice showed reduced necrosis of grafts and delayed graft rejection after skin transplantation. Concentrations of serum IgG, including its subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a, were significantly reduced in CD26 -/- mice during graft rejection. Moreover, after allogeneic skin transplantation, the secretion levels of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-13 were significantly reduced, whereas the level of the cytokine IL-10 was increased in the serum of CD26 -/- mice compared with that in the serum of CD26 +/+ mice. Additionally, the concentration of IL-17 in serum and the percentage of cells secreting IL-17 in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (MPBLs) were both significantly lower, while the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was significantly higher in MPBLs of CD26 -/- mice than in those of CD26 +/+ mice. Furthermore, a lower percentage of CD8 + T cells in MPBLs and fewer infiltrated macrophages and T cells in graft tissues of CD26 -/- mice were detected during graft rejection. These results indicate that CD26 is involved in allogeneic skin graft rejection and provides another hint that CD26 deficiency leads to less rejection due to lower activation and proliferation of host immune cells.

  6. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF REJECTION AFTER SIMULTANEOUS PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yang; Yong-feng Liu; Shu-rong Liu; Gang Wu; Jia-lin Zhang; Yi-man Meng; Shao-wei Shong; Gui-chen Li

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore methods of preventing and reversing rejection after simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) tran splantation. Methods Seventeen patients underwent SPK transplantation from September 1999 to September 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Immunosuppression was achieved by a triple drug regimen consisting of cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofteil (MMF), and steroids. Three patients were treated with anti-CD3 monoclone antibody (OKT3, 5 mg· d-1) for induction therapy for a mean period of 5-7 days. One patients received IL-2 receptor antibodies (daclizumab) in a dose of 1 mg· kg-1 on the day of transplant and the 5th day posttransplant. One patient was treated with both OKT3 and daclizumab for induction. Results No primary non-functionality of either kidney or pancreas occurred in this series of transplantations. Function of all the kidney grafts recovered within 2 to 4 days after transplantation. The level of serum creatinine was 94 ± 11 μmol/L on the 7th day posttransplant. One patient experienced the accelerated rejection, resulting in the resection of the pancreas and kidney grafts because of the failure of conservative therapy. The incidence of the first rejection episodes at 3 months was 47.1% (8/17). Only the kidney was involved in 35.3% (6/17); and both the pancreas and kidney were involved in 11.8% (2/17). All these patients received a high-dose pulse of methylprednisone (0.5 g·d-1) for 3 days. OKT3 (0.5 mg·d-1) was administered for 7-10 days in two patients with both renal and pancreas rejection. All the grafts were successfully rescued. Conclusion Rejection, particularly acute rejection, is the major cause influencing graft function in SPK transplantation. Monitoring renal function and pancreas exocrine secretion, and reasonable application of immunosuppressants play important roles in the diagnosis and treatment of rejection.

  7. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-01-01

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  8. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I., E-mail: roxana.both@aut.utcluj.ro [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. T-regulatory cells in chronic rejection versus stable grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wedaie, Fatima; Farid, Eman; Tabbara, Khaled; El-Agroudy, Amgad E; Al-Ghareeb, Sumaya M

    2015-04-01

    Studying regulatory T cells in kidney allograft acceptance versus chronic rejection may help in the understanding of more mechanisms of immune tolerance and, in the future, may enable clinicians to induce immune tolerance and decrease the use of immunosuppressive drugs. The aim of the current study was to evaluate regulatory T cells in kidney transplant patients with stable graft versus transplant with biopsy-proven chronic rejection. The 3 groups that were studied included: kidney transplanted patients with no rejection episodes (n = 43); transplanted patients with biopsy-proven renal rejection (n = 27); and healthy age-matched nontransplanted individuals as controls (n = 42).The percentage of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) in blood was determined by flow cytometry. The regulatory T cell percentage was significantly lower in chronic rejection patients than control or stable graft groups. No significant difference was observed in regulatory T cell percentage between the stable graft and control groups. In the stable graft group, patients on rapamycin had a significantly higher regulatory T cell percentage than patients on cyclosporine. No effect of donor type, infection, or duration after transplant was observed on regulatory T cell percentage. The results of the current study are consistent with previous studies addressing the function of regulatory T cells in inducing immunotolerance after kidney transplant. Considering the established role of regulatory T cells in graft maintenance and our observation of high regulatory T cell percentage in patients receiving rapamycin than cyclosporine, we recommend including rapamycin when possible in immunosuppressive protocols. The findings from the current study on the chronic rejection group support ongoing research of having treatment with regulatory T cells, which may constitute a novel, efficient antirejection therapy in the future.

  10. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected if...

  11. Compensatory deficits following rejection: the role of social anxiety in disrupting affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Michael A; Maner, Jon K; DeWall, Nathan; Schmidt, Norman B

    2009-01-01

    Managing perceived or actual social rejection is an important facet of meeting basic needs for affiliation. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by significant distress and debilitation relating to affiliation and recent work suggests higher levels of social anxiety symptoms may adversely affect responses to social rejection. This study examined emotional and behavioral responding to a social rejection stressor to explore whether social anxiety moderates the effects of social rejection on prosocial compensatory behaviors. Individuals (N=37) evaluated on social anxiety symptoms were assigned to either a social rejection condition or control condition. Consistent with expectation, rejection promoted renewed interest in connecting with sources of positive social interaction among participants low in social anxiety. Participants with higher levels of social anxiety, however, failed to react to rejection in a positive or prosocial manner and exhibited some evidence of negative social responses. Such differential compensatory responding could have important implications for the genesis, maintenance, and treatment of SAD.

  12. Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

    1984-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes

  13. Information about radiographic films rejects of dental x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cezimbra, M.R.; Bernarsiuk, M.E.; Bauer V, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualify and quantify the number of dental x-ray films rejected in a Porto Alegre clinic. As we analyzed the captured data, it was concluded that, our of 1066 peri-apical films, we had a total percentage of 4.5% in relation to the total of the exams made. This 4.5% consists of the following rejects: placement, patient movement, technical errors, diaphragm, too much clarity in the result, double exposure, prolongation, shortness, darkened for not have been shot, superposed film. Because of that, the rejection, due to the bad placement of the film, is the one with the larger percentage value, i.e., 1.22% of the 4.5%. With the knowledge of the types of rejects and their causes, it was possible to correct some sources of systematic errors minimizing the repetition of the exams, saving costs, time and diminishing the ionizing radiation exposure for the patient, odontologist and his technical staff, which will be proved. (authors). 4 refs., 1 tab

  14. Application of Minicircle Technology of Self-Reproducing Synthetic Protein Drugs in Preventing Skin Allograft Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Woo; Kim, Young Kyun; Park, Narae; Jin, Long; Jin, Jian; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Yang, Chul Woo

    2015-07-30

    Recently, it has been reported that minicircle vectors could allow the expression of transgenes using the protein synthesis system of the host. Here, we tested a novel strategy to permit the production of synthetic biologics using minicircle technology and evaluated their feasibility as a therapeutic tool in a skin allograft model. We engineered vectors to carry cassette sequences for tocilizumab [anti-soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) antibody] and/or etanercept [tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2)-Fc fusion protein], and then isolated minicircle vectors from the parent vectors. We verified the production of proteins from minicircles and their duration in HEK293T cells and mice. We also evaluated whether these proteins were expressed at levels sufficient to ameliorate skin allograft rejection in mice. Each minicircle transfected into cells was detectable for at least 30 days. In mice, the drugs were mainly expressed in the liver and were detectable for at least 10 days after a single injection. These drugs were also detected in the blood. Treatment of mice with minicircles prolonged skin allograft survival, which was accompanied by a reduction of the number of interferon-γ+ or interleukin-17+ lymphocytes and an induction of forkhead box P3 expression. These findings suggest that blocking of sIL-6R and/or TNF-α using minicircles encoding tocilizumab and/or etanercept was functionally active and relevant for preventing acute allograft rejection. Self-reproducing synthetic protein drugs produced using minicircle technology are potentially powerful tools for preventing acute rejection in transplantation.

  15. Failure to diagnose cardiac treatment rejection with Tc99m-PYP images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Goris, M.L.; Mason, J.W.; Reitz, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of diagnosing transplant rejection using Tc-99m-PYP imaging was examined in 12 cardiac transplant recipients. Two patients were studied on two occasions. The presence or absence of active rejection was established by endomyocardial biopsy. The intensity and pattern of myocardial uptake of the tracer did not differ significantly in the two patients studied at the time of rejection compared to the remainder. It is concluded that a single Tc-99m-PYP study cannot be used to diagnose cardiac transplant rejection

  16. Acute Hepatic Allograft Rejection in Pediatric Recipients: Effective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S M; Shahramian, I; Afshari, M; Bahmanyar, M; Ataollahi, M; Sargazi, A

    2018-01-01

    Acute cellular rejection (ACR), a reversible process, can affect the graft survival. To evaluate the relation between ACR and clinical factors in recipients of allograft liver transplantation. 47 recipients of liver were consecutively enrolled in a retrospective study. Their information were retrieved from their medical records and analyzed. Of the 47 recipients, 38 (81%) experienced acute rejection during 24 months of the transplantation. None of the studied factors for occurring transplant rejection, i.e ., blood groups, sex, age, familial history of disease, receiving drugs and blood products, type of donor, Child score, and Child class, was not found to be significant. During a limited follow-up period, we did not find any association between ACR and suspected risk factors.

  17. Study of Background Rejection Systems for the IXO Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Philippe; Limousin, O.; Tatischeff, V.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific performances of the IXO mission will necessitate a very low detector background level. This will imply thorough background simulations, and efficient background rejection systems. It necessitates also a very good knowledge of the detectors to be shielded. In APC, Paris, and CEA, Saclay, we got experience on these activities by conceiving and optimising in parallel the high energy detector and the active and passive background rejection system of the Simbol-X mission. Considering that this work may be naturally extended to other X-ray missions, we have initiated with CNES a R&D project on the study of background rejection systems mainly in view the IXO project. We will detail this activity in the poster.

  18. Sensitivity of scintigraphy with 111In-lymphocytes for detection of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, S.B.; Eisen, H.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Bolman, R.M. III

    1988-01-01

    We recently demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasive detection of cardiac allograft rejection after administration of indium-111-labeled lymphocytes. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique, as well as its value for delineating the severity of rejection, we studied 16 dogs with heterotopic thoracic cardiac allografts. Five animals were evaluated while exposed to immunosuppressive agents. Animals were scanned sequentially after administration of 100-400 microCi of indium-111-labeled autologous lymphocytes. Myocardial lymphocyte infiltration was expressed as the indium excess (IE), defined as the ratio of indium activity of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood. Scintigraphic results were compared with characteristics of simultaneously obtained endomyocardial biopsies. Among 17 biopsy documented episodes of rejection, 16 were detected scintigraphically. Among 18 biopsies with no evidence of rejection, scintigraphy was uniformly negative. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy were 94 and 100%, respectively. Biopsies graded as showing no rejection were associated with an IE of 0.3 +/- 0.5 (+/- SD); those graded as mild, 2.8 +/- 1.7; those as moderate, 10.7 +/- 7.2; and those graded as indicative of severe rejection, 14.2 +/- 4.5. Thus, scintigraphy with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes sensitively and specifically detects cardiac allograft rejection and delineates the intensity of the rejection process. It should be useful clinically for assessing potential allograft rejection noninvasively

  19. Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  20. Increase of peripheral Th17 lymphocytes during acute cellular rejection in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Li, Li-Xin; Han, Dong-Dong; Kou, Jian-Tao; Li, Ping; He, Qiang

    2012-12-15

    Although many human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases were previously considered to be mediated by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, the recently described Th17 cells play dominant roles in several of these diseases. We and others speculated that allograft rejection after organ transplantation may also involve Th17 cells. Episodes of acute rejection occur in 30% of liver transplants. This study aimed to determine the frequency of circulating Th17 cells in patients who had received liver transplants for benign end-stage liver disease and to identify any association between acute rejection episodes and levels of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood. A prospective study compared Th17 cells from 76 consecutive benign end-stage liver disease patients who had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation from 2007 to 2011 with those from 20 age-matched healthy individuals. Peripheral blood samples were collected at different time points within one year after transplant. Blood samples and liver biopsies were also collected at the diagnosis of acute rejection. Percentages of circulating CD4+IL-17+ cells were measured by flow cytometry. The transplant patients were classified into two groups: a rejection group consisting of 17 patients who had an episode of acute rejection, and a non-rejection group comprising the remaining 59 patients with no acute rejection episodes. Percentages of circulating Th17 cells were compared between the two groups and controls. The levels of circulating CD4+IL-17+ T cells in the rejection group were higher during acute rejection than those in the non-rejection group (2.56+/-0.43% versus 1.79+/-0.44%, Pblood was positively correlated with the rejection activity index (r=0.79, P=0.0002). Circulating Th17 cells may be useful as a surrogate marker for predicting acute rejection in liver transplant recipients.

  1. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  2. Pharmacologic strategies in the prevention and treatment of corneal transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-06-01

    Corneal transplantation remains one of the most successful organ transplantation procedures in humans. The unique structure of the cornea, with its absence of blood vessels and corneal lymphatic, allows the survival of corneal allograft. Recent advances in sutures, storage media, microsurgical instrumentation, and new pharmacological strategies have greatly improved the success of corneal transplantation and the prevention of corneal allograft rejection. Our strategies in the management and prevention of corneal graft rejection can modify and improve the survival of corneal allografts. Preoperative evaluation, understanding the risk factors, and management of ocular surface disorders may greatly improve the survival of the corneal transplant. Early recognition of corneal allograft rejection and aggressive treatment may improve the survival of the corneal graft. Furthermore, patients who undergo corneal transplantation should be maintained under close ophthalmic surveillance and patients should be informed to report immediately whenever symptoms of corneal graft rejection occur. The mainstay of therapy is topical corticosteroids. In severe cases, periocular, intravenous, and oral corticosteroids therapy can be rendered. New therapeutic modalities such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, daclizumab, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide, rapamycin, and others may prove to be of help in the prevention and treatment of corneal graft rejection. Early recognition of corneal graft rejection and prompt treatment are mandatory for the successful survival of the corneal allograft.

  3. Endothelial cell chimerism associated with graft rejection after human lung transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak , Philippe; Murata , Hideyuki; Meignin , Véronique; Groussard , Odile; Fournier , Michel; Socié , Gérard; Mal , Hervé; Janin , Anne

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Endotheliitis is a major sign of graft rejection. Recipient-derived endothelial cells found in two series of liver and kidney transplants were related to graft rejection. Here, we assessed the presence and the number of chimeric endothelial cells in lung transplants, and their relation with graft rejection. In six males grafted with female lungs out of 193 lung transplantations, endothelial chimerism was studied by combined XY-fluorescent in situ hybridization with CD3...

  4. Retention measurements of nanofiltration membranes with electrolyte solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.M.M.; Peeters, J.M.M.; Boom, J.P.; Boom, J.P.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Strathmann, H.

    1998-01-01

    Retention measurements with single salt solutions of CaCl2, NaCl and Na2SO4 revealed that the rejection mechanism of commercial polymeric nanofiltration membranes investigated in this study may be divided into two categories: 1. Membranes for which Donnan exclusion seems to play an important role.

  5. Line-up member similarity influences the effectiveness of a salient rejection option for eyewitnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Bruer, Kaila C.; Fitzgerald, Ryan J.; Therrien, Natalie M.; Price, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Visually salient line-up rejection options have not been systematically studied with adult eyewitnesses. We explored the impact of using a non-verbal, salient rejection option on adults' identification accuracy for line-ups containing low- or high-similarity fillers. The non-verbal, salient rejection option had minimal impact on accuracy in low-similarity line-ups, but in high-similarity line-ups its inclusion increased correct rejections for target-absent line-ups as well as incorrect reject...

  6. Analysis of Turbine Load Rejection for APR1400 using SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Turbine Load Rejection event is one of the Performance Related Design Basis Event (PRDBE) that can be stabilized using plant control systems without any safety system actuation. The initiation of the event is turbine load rejection from 100% to 5% in 0.019 seconds. The NSSS control systems of APR1400 is composed of the Power Control System (PCS) and the Process-Component Control System (P-CCS). The PCS includes Reactor Regulating System (RRS), Reactor Power Cutback System (RPCS) and Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The P-CCS includes the Pressurizer Pressure Control System (PPCS), the Pressurizer Level Control System (PLCS), the Feedwater Control System (FWCS) and the Steam Bypass Control System (SBCS). Turbine load rejection results in the increase of secondary pressure due to sudden blocking of steam flow to turbine. Then the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) cooling through steam generators is decreased rapidly and the RCS temperature will be increased. Turbine load rejection is a typical event to test NSSS control systems since it requires the automatic response of all major NSSS control systems. It is shown that the NSSS control systems of APR1400 have the capability to stabilize the plant without any safety system actuation for turbine load rejection event. This analysis results show that SPACE code has the capability to analyze the turbine load rejection event. However, further validation is necessary for other PRDBEs such as Two Main Feedwater Pumps Trip, Turbine Load Step Change and Turbine Load Ramp Down (5%/min) to verify the capability of SPACE for the full range of performance analyses.

  7. Analysis of Turbine Load Rejection for APR1400 using SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Turbine Load Rejection event is one of the Performance Related Design Basis Event (PRDBE) that can be stabilized using plant control systems without any safety system actuation. The initiation of the event is turbine load rejection from 100% to 5% in 0.019 seconds. The NSSS control systems of APR1400 is composed of the Power Control System (PCS) and the Process-Component Control System (P-CCS). The PCS includes Reactor Regulating System (RRS), Reactor Power Cutback System (RPCS) and Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The P-CCS includes the Pressurizer Pressure Control System (PPCS), the Pressurizer Level Control System (PLCS), the Feedwater Control System (FWCS) and the Steam Bypass Control System (SBCS). Turbine load rejection results in the increase of secondary pressure due to sudden blocking of steam flow to turbine. Then the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) cooling through steam generators is decreased rapidly and the RCS temperature will be increased. Turbine load rejection is a typical event to test NSSS control systems since it requires the automatic response of all major NSSS control systems. It is shown that the NSSS control systems of APR1400 have the capability to stabilize the plant without any safety system actuation for turbine load rejection event. This analysis results show that SPACE code has the capability to analyze the turbine load rejection event. However, further validation is necessary for other PRDBEs such as Two Main Feedwater Pumps Trip, Turbine Load Step Change and Turbine Load Ramp Down (5%/min) to verify the capability of SPACE for the full range of performance analyses

  8. Perception of Parental Acceptance and Rejection among Swedish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Michio

    1987-01-01

    Results of administering the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Personality Assessment Questionnaires to 71 Swedish university students showed significant relationships between various forms of parental rejection in childhood and negative personality assessment of the self as an adult. Females showed more dependence and emotional instability than…

  9. EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder and depression following rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Levy, Kenneth N; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Hallquist, Michael N

    2014-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share numerous features, including dysphoric affect, irritability, suicidality, and a heightened sensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection. However, these disorders are associated with divergent profiles of reactivity to rejection: Individuals with MDD are more likely to respond with withdrawal and isolation, and those with BPD appear to respond with increased approach behaviors and greater hostility. Potential mechanisms underlying these divergent patterns of response have not been elaborated. The goal of the present study was to assess whether prefrontal cortical asymmetry is associated with these behavioral profiles. EEG alpha activity was recorded at baseline and after individuals with BPD, MDD and healthy controls (HCs) participated in a rejection task. Although no differences were found at baseline, results demonstrated that following rejection, individuals with BPD showed greater left cortical activation, consistent with approach motivation, whereas those with MDD showed greater right cortical activation, consistent with withdrawal motivation. HCs evidenced a more balanced cortical profile, as hypothesized. Although BPD and MDD are highly comorbid, are easily confused, and are phenomenologically similar in a number of ways, individuals with these two disorders respond in very different ways to perceived rejection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  10. [B-type natriuretic peptide assessment in the diagnosis of rejection after pediatric heart transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos, Cristina de; Azeka, Estela; Kajita, Luis; Benvenutti, Luis; Strunz, Célia Cassaro; Branco, Klébia Castello; Riso, Arlindo Almeida; Tanamati, Carla; Jatene, Marcelo; Barbero-Marcial, Miguel

    2009-03-01

    Rejection is one of the major causes of mortality following pediatric heart transplant. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been studied as a method for the diagnosis of acute rejection, especially in adult patients undergoing heart transplant. To correlate serum BNP levels with acute rejection as diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy in patients of the pediatric heart transplant group. A total of 50 BNP samples were collected from 33 children in the postoperative period of heart transplant, and data on age, gender, skin color, blood group, immune panel, follow-up time after transplant, functional class, immunosuppressive regimen used and number of rejections were analyzed. Thirty three children with median age of 10.13 years were analyzed; of these, 54% were females and 78% were Caucasians. BNP levels were determined at a mean time from transplant of 4.25 years. Nine episodes of rejection were diagnosed in eight patients (27%) by means of endomyocardial biopsy; of these, three were grade 3A, five were grade 2, and one had humoral rejection. At the moment of biopsy, most patients were asymptomatic. The mean serum BNP level was 77.18 pg/ml, with 144.22 pg/ml in the group with rejection and 62.46 pg/ml in the group without rejection, with p = 0.02. Asymptomatic children can present acute rejection in the postoperative period of heart transplant. Serum BNP levels show a statistically significant difference in the group with rejection and thus can be an additional method in the diagnosis of cardiac rejection.

  11. Quick regional centroid moment tensor solutions for the Emilia 2012 (northern Italy seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pondrelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, a seismic sequence struck the Emilia region (northern Italy. The mainshock, of Ml 5.9, occurred on May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC. This was preceded by a smaller Ml 4.1 foreshock some hours before (23:13 UTC on May 19, 2012 and followed by more than 2,500 earthquakes in the magnitude range from Ml 0.7 to 5.2. In addition, on May 29, 2012, three further strong earthquakes occurred, all with magnitude Ml ≥5.2: a Ml 5.8 earthquake in the morning (07:00 UTC, followed by two events within just 5 min of each other, one at 10:55 UTC (Ml 5.3 and the second at 11:00 UTC (Ml 5.2. For all of the Ml ≥4.0 earthquakes in Italy and for all of the Ml ≥4.5 in the Mediterranean area, an automatic procedure for the computation of a regional centroid moment tensor (RCMT is triggered by an email alert. Within 1 h of the event, a manually revised quick RCMT (QRCMT can be published on the website if the solution is considered stable. In particular, for the Emilia seismic sequence, 13 QRCMTs were determined and for three of them, those with M >5.5, the automatically computed QRCMTs fitted the criteria for publication without manual revision. Using this seismic sequence as a test, we can then identify the magnitude threshold for automatic publication of our QRCMTs.

  12. Rejection of class I MHC-deficient haemopoietic cells by irradiated MHC-matched mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bix, M.; Nanshih Liao; Raulet, D.; Zijlstra, M.; Loring, J.; Jaenisch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiated MHC-heterozygous mice often reject bone marrow cells transplanted from one of the homozygous parental strains, a phenomenon ('hybrid resistance') that appears to violate the laws of transplantation. Rejection of parental and allogeneic marrow cells also differs from conventional T cell-mediated rejection mechanisms as it is effected by NK1.1 + cells. To account for the unusual specificity of bone marrow rejection, it has been proposed that NK1.1 + cells destroy marrow cells that fail to express the full complement of self MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules. We show here that NK1.1 + cells in normal mice reject haemopoietic transplants from mice that are deficient for normal cell-surface MHC-I expression because of a targeted mutation in the β 2 -microglobulin gene. These findings demonstrate that deficient expression of MHC-I molecules renders marrow cells susceptible to rejection. (author)

  13. Social exclusion in middle childhood: rejection events, slow-wave neural activity, and ostracism distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Michael J; Wu, Jia; Molfese, Peter J; Mayes, Linda C

    2010-01-01

    This study examined neural activity with event-related potentials (ERPs) in middle childhood during a computer-simulated ball-toss game, Cyberball. After experiencing fair play initially, children were ultimately excluded by the other players. We focused specifically on “not my turn” events within fair play and rejection events within social exclusion. Dense-array ERPs revealed that rejection events are perceived rapidly. Condition differences (“not my turn” vs. rejection) were evident in a posterior ERP peaking at 420 ms consistent, with a larger P3 effect for rejection events indicating that in middle childhood rejection events are differentiated in <500 ms. Condition differences were evident for slow-wave activity (500-900 ms) in the medial frontal cortical region and the posterior occipital-parietal region, with rejection events more negative frontally and more positive posteriorly. Distress from the rejection experience was associated with a more negative frontal slow wave and a larger late positive slow wave, but only for rejection events. Source modeling with Geosouce software suggested that slow-wave neural activity in cortical regions previously identified in functional imaging studies of ostracism, including subgenual cortex, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and insula, was greater for rejection events vs. “not my turn” events. © 2010 Psychology Press

  14. Modeling of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds: a statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Amy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Carbontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide by NF (Filmtec, Saehan and RO (Filmtec, Saehan, Toray, Koch membranes were studied. Chloroform presented the lowest rejection due to small molar volume, equivalent width and length. Diclofenac and Primidone showed high rejections related to high molar volume and length. Dichloroacetic acid and Trichloroacetic acid presented good rejections caused by charge exclusion instead of steric hindrance mechanism influencing rejection. Bromoform and Trichloroethene showed low rejections due to small length and equivalent width. Carbontetrabromide, Perchloroethene and Carbontetrachloride with higher equivalent width than BF and TCE presented better rejections. A qualitative analysis of variables using Principal Component Analysis was successfully implemented for reduction of physical-chemical compound properties that influence membrane rejection of PhACs and organic compounds. Properties such as dipole moment, molar volume, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, molecular length and equivalent width were found to be important descriptors for simulation of membrane rejection. For membranes used in the experiments, we may conclude that charge repulsion was an important mechanism of rejection for ionic compounds. After analysis with Multiple Linear Regression, we also may conclude that membrane rejection of neutral compounds was well predicted by molar volume, length, equivalent width, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and dipole moment. Molecular weight was a poor descriptor variable for rejection modelling. We were able to provide acceptable statistical significance for important results.

  15. A model of acute renal allograft rejection in outbred Yorkshire piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Randi; Wang, Youli; Fang, Xuexiu; Winn, Matt; Ghaffari, Arina; Ho, Chak-Sum; Helman, Sandra; Jajosky, Ryan; Kleven, Daniel; Stanley Nahman, N; Merchen, Todd D

    2017-06-01

    Pigs represent a desirable animal model for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation with inbred Yucatan miniature swine (YMS) the most commonly studied strain due to well defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genotypes. However, limitations to YMS may include cost and availability. Outbred Yorkshire pigs are widely available and significantly cheaper than YMS. Recent advances in SLA genotyping have allowed its application to outbred strains. On this basis, we theorized that Yorkshire pigs would be a viable alternative to YMS for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation. To address this question, we performed auto (Auto) and allotransplants (Allo) in 24 Yorkshire pigs, and assessed SLA genotypes and acute rejection after 72h. At sacrifice, and when compared to autotransplants, allotransplants had significant elevations in serum creatinine (8.4±1.3 vs 2.8±2.0mg/dL for Allo vs autotransplants, respectively) and BUN (61±9 vs 19.2±15mg/dL for Allo vs autotransplants, respectively). Warm ischemia times between the two groups did not differ (24±2.3 vs 26.4±1.4min for Auto vs Allo, respectively). There were 16 distinct SLA haplotypes identified from pigs undergoing allotransplantion, no matched donor-recipient pairs, and all allografts demonstrated rejection. Type IIA cellular rejection (Banff) was the most common. One allograft demonstrated hyperacute rejection due a blood group incompatibility. Histologically, the expression of regulatory Tcells and dendritic cells was increased in allografts. These data suggest that Yorkshire pigs may be a useful model for the study of acute rejection in experimental kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Soluble CD30 and HLA antibodies as potential risk factors for kidney transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavcev, Antonij; Lácha, Jiri; Honsová, Eva; Sajdlová, Helena; Lodererová, Alena; Vitko, Stefan; Skibová, Jelena; Striz, Ilja

    2005-06-01

    Recent literary data suggest that high pre- and post-transplant serum levels of the soluble CD30 (sCD30) molecule may be a risk factor for acute rejection and worse prognosis of the transplanted kidney. The aim of our study was to correlate the concentrations of sCD30 and the presence of HLA antibodies as defined by flow cytometry and ELISA with the clinical course and graft prognosis after transplantation. One hundred and seventeen kidney transplant patients were included into the study. The incidence of rejection episodes, graft function and graft survival for up to 1 year post-transplant were evaluated. Soluble CD30 levels before transplantation were virtually the same in patients who experienced rejection and in non-rejecting patients. In both patient groups, a significant decrease of sCD30 was detected 2 weeks after transplantation (104.4 U/ml before vs. 37.0 U/ml post-transplant, P sCD30 between rejecting and non-rejecting patients. Patients without rejection had lower sCD30 values (31.2 U/ml post-transplant) compared to patients who experienced rejection episodes (62.9 U/ml), P antigens and elevated concentrations of sCD30 shortly after transplantation were associated with increased risk for acute rejection in the first post-transplant year. Measurement of soluble CD30 after transplantation, taken into consideration with the presence of HLA class II antibodies, might be helpful for evaluating the potential risk for acute rejection.

  17. Labor market position after a rejection of a disability pension application: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija; Liukko, Jyri

    2017-08-17

    To study labor market positions of rejected disability pension applicants and to examine which characteristics predict ending up in these positions after the rejection. Nationwide Finnish register data was used to describe employment, unemployment and disability pension trajectories of rejected applicants (n = 5740) from four years before to four years after the rejection. Demographic, occupational and health-related determinants of labor market position after the rejection were examined among those employed and not employed at the time of the rejection. The proportion of the employed steeply decreased and that of unemployed increased before the rejection of a disability pension application. Four years after the rejection, 30% of the rejected applicants were employed, 24% were unemployed and 30% received disability pension. Employment at the time of the rejection, younger age, shorter unemployment history, public sector employment and milder work disability increased future employment. Manual work, public sector employment and previous long-term unemployment predicted future unemployment. Apart from higher age, associations with receiving disability pension were relatively weak. For many rejected disability pension applicants return to work is challenging. Special efforts should be targeted to support the remaining work ability and to promote employment opportunities of the rejected applicants. Implications for Rehabilitation Employment, unemployment and receiving disability pension were equally common labor market positions four years after the rejection. Rejected DP applicants with unemployment history need special efforts to increase their employability. As a disability pension application, even if rejected, clearly indicates some degree of work ability problems, rehabilitation should be targeted at this time point to support employment.

  18. Kin Rejection: Social Signals, Neural Response and Perceived Distress During Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Herrera, Tania A.; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L.; White, Lars O.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Across species, kin bond together to promote survival. We sought to understand the dyadic effect of exclusion by kin (as opposed to non-kin strangers) on brain activity of the mother and her child and their subjective distress. To this end, we probed mother-child relationships with a computerized ball-toss game Cyberball. When excluded by one another, rather than by a stranger, both mothers and children exhibited a significantly pronounced frontal P2. Moreover, upon kin-rejection versus stranger-rejection, both mothers and children showed incremented left frontal positive slow waves for rejection events. Children reported more distress upon exclusion than their own mothers. Similar to past work, relatively augmented negative frontal slow wave activity predicted greater self-reported ostracism distress. This effect, generalized to the P2, was limited to mother or child- rejection by kin, with comparable magnitude of effect across kin identity (mothers vs. children). For both mothers and children, the frontal P2 peak was significantly pronounced for kin-rejection versus stranger rejection. Taken together, our results document the rapid categorization of social signals as kin-relevant and the specificity of early and late neural markers for predicting felt ostracism. PMID:24909389

  19. Sociocultural Influence and Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E.; DiRaddo, Ann Marie; Calogero, Rachel M.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of parents, peers, and the media in predicting college students' Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity (Appearance-RS)--the degree to which individuals anxiously expect to be rejected based on their physical appearance. Given that women are socialized to be more appearance-focused than men, women were…

  20. The Impact of an Electronic Ordering System on Blood Bank Specimen Rejection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Stefanie K; Shirazi, Maryam; Wu-Gall, Charlotte; Stotler, Brie A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact that an electronic ordering system has on the rate of rejection of blood type and screen testing samples and the impact on the number of ABO blood-type discrepancies over a 4-year period. An electronic ordering system was implemented in May 2011. Rejection rates along with reasons for rejection were tracked between January 2010 and December 2013. A total of 40,104 blood samples were received during this period, of which 706 (1.8%) were rejected for the following reasons: 382 (54.0%) unsigned samples, 235 (33.0%) mislabeled samples, 57 (8.0%) unsigned requisitions, 18 (2.5%) incorrect tubes, and 14 (1.9%) ABO discrepancies. Of the samples, 2.5% were rejected in the year prior to implementing the electronic ordering system compared with 1.2% in the year following implementation ( P  blood sample rejection. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny

  2. Resilience and rejection sensitivity mediate long-term outcomes of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Violetta K; Vögele, Claus

    2016-11-01

    Increasing divorce rates leave more and more children to deal with the separation of their parents. Recent research suggests that children of divorced parents more often experience psychological and physical symptoms than children of non-divorced parents. The processes that mediate the relationship between parental divorce and ill-health, however, are still elusive. This study investigated the mediating role of psychological factors such as resilience and rejection sensitivity on the long-term consequences of parental divorce in young adults. One hundred and ninety-nine participants (mean age 22.3 years) completed an online survey, including measures of mental health, childhood trauma, resilience, and rejection sensitivity. Participants with divorced parents (33 %) reported increased levels of psychological symptoms, childhood trauma, rejection sensitivity, and lower levels of resilience. The association between parental divorce and mental health was fully mediated by resilience, rejection sensitivity, and childhood trauma. The mediation model explained up to 44 % of the total variance in mental health symptoms. Resilience and rejection sensitivity are crucial factors for successful coping with the experience of parental separation. Prevention programs that help to boost children's resilience might help to reduce the long-term effects of parental divorce on their attachment style (e.g., rejection sensitivity), thereby improving their mental health on the long run. Furthermore, the results call for parental awareness and counseling to target and reduce the observed increased level of childhood trauma. Limitations concern the cross-sectional and retrospective design of the study.

  3. Role of Soluble ST2 as a Marker for Rejection after Heart Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Choi, Jin-Oh; Ju, Eun-Seon; Lee, Yoo-Jung; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2016-11-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy is obligatory during the first year after heart transplant (HTx) for the surveillance of acute rejection. Previous attempts using cardiac biomarkers for the detection of rejection failed to show enough evidence to substitute endomyocardial biopsy. Therefore, this study sought the possibility of using soluble ST2 (sST2), a novel cardiovascular marker, as a surrogate marker for acute allograft rejection after HTx. A total of 494 blood samples acquired at the time of endomyocardial biopsy were analyzed in 67 HTx cases from September 2006 to August 2014. Significant rejection was defined as International Society of Heart and Lung Transplant (ISHLT) score ≥2R and humoral rejection accompanied by hemodynamic instability. Twenty cases of HTx with 22 blood samples showed significant rejection in endomyocardial biopsy at 4.0 (2.0-9.0) months after HTx. The level of sST2 showed positive correlation with cardiac troponin I, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (all prejection) (p=0.003). However, when we studied within-subject effects of sST2 using a mixed model, the sST2 level according to the predefined time point was not different according to the presence of significant rejection (p for interaction=0.94). Although sST2 is known as a promising predictor for cardiovascular events, its role in HTx patients to predict acute allograft rejection seems to be limited.

  4. Evaluation of renal allograft rejection by Doppler sonography and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, H.V.; Nelson, R.C.; Murphy, F.B.; Baumgartner, B.R.; Bourke, E.; Delaney, V.B.; Whelchel, J.B.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively studies the efficacy of Doppler sonography and MR imaging in evaluating renal allografts, with specific attention to transplant rejection. Based on study findings, we were unable to make a statement with respect to the appearance or accuracy of diagnosing cyclosporin toxicity or acute tubular necrosis by either modality due to concomitant rejection in the few patients so afflicted. Moreover, the ability to predict and diagnose the presence or absence of allograft rejection was not affected by different serum creatinine values. Most important, however, Doppler sonography was shown to be superior to MR imaging in evaluating for allograft rejection, as evidenced by its higher sensitivity (100% vs. 71%), specificity (88% vs. 75%), and accuracy (96% vs. 73%). Thus, because of its low cost and ease of accessibility, Doppler sonography should become the primary modality for renal transplant screening

  5. RETENTION OF HUMIC ACID FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANE AND INFLUENCE OF SOLUTION CHEMISTRY ON MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zazouli, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Gholami, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Younesian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to investigate the rejection efficiency of salt and hydrophobic fraction of natural organic matter, to study the flux decline behavior with a spiral wound nanofiltration membrane, and also to survey the influence of water chemistry on membrane performance. Experiments were conducted using a cross flow pilot-scale membrane unit with a full circulation mode. Humic acid was used as hydrophobic organic matter and NaCl as background electrolyte. Results showed that flux reduction increased with increasing ionic strength and humic acid concentration, and with lower pH. The rejection efficiency of organic and salt decreased with the decrease in pH and increase in ionic strength, because of osmotic pressure increase, leading to permeate flux decline and decrease in salt rejection. In addition, the improved salt rejection was likely due to Donnan exclusion by humic material close to membrane surfaces. The average rejection efficiency of humic acid and salt ranged between 91.2%-95.25% and 63.6%-80%, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon concentration was less than 0.57mg/L in permeate for all experiments. With increasing organic concentration, the charge of the membrane surface has become more negative due to the adsorption of organic foulants on the membrane surface, and thus increased the electrostatic repulsion. However, the increasing surface charge had the potential to result in a larger molecular weight cut-off of a fouled membrane due to membrane swelling which can lead to lower rejection solutes. Therefore, results of this study indicated that membrane fouling may significantly affect the rejection of organic and ion solute.

  6. Gene-Based Multiclass Cancer Diagnosis with Class-Selective Rejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, Nisrine; Grall-Maës, Edith; Beauseroy, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Supervised learning of microarray data is receiving much attention in recent years. Multiclass cancer diagnosis, based on selected gene profiles, are used as adjunct of clinical diagnosis. However, supervised diagnosis may hinder patient care, add expense or confound a result. To avoid this misleading, a multiclass cancer diagnosis with class-selective rejection is proposed. It rejects some patients from one, some, or all classes in order to ensure a higher reliability while reducing time and expense costs. Moreover, this classifier takes into account asymmetric penalties dependant on each class and on each wrong or partially correct decision. It is based on ν-1-SVM coupled with its regularization path and minimizes a general loss function defined in the class-selective rejection scheme. The state of art multiclass algorithms can be considered as a particular case of the proposed algorithm where the number of decisions is given by the classes and the loss function is defined by the Bayesian risk. Two experiments are carried out in the Bayesian and the class selective rejection frameworks. Five genes selected datasets are used to assess the performance of the proposed method. Results are discussed and accuracies are compared with those computed by the Naive Bayes, Nearest Neighbor, Linear Perceptron, Multilayer Perceptron, and Support Vector Machines classifiers. PMID:19584932

  7. Hybrid pulse pile-up rejection system as applied to Rutherford backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, R.A.; Wildnauer, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of pulse on pulse pile-up and noise limited pile-up rejectors are considered in detail for Rutherford backscattering spectra. The forms of these spectra allow the distortions from pile-up and the residual pile-up after rejection to be understood via a simple model. Extended calculations allow us to predict the effects quite accurately. A new pile-up rejection system is described. The ''linear'' rejection method is implemented with peak stretchers and advantageously combined with an event counting rejector to provide a versatile high performance system

  8. Crosslinked cellulose thin film composite nanofiltration membranes with zero salt rejection

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-01

    advantage for a complete desalination as the existing commercial nanofiltration membranes typically exhibit NaCl rejection in the range of 30–60%. Membranes with zero NaCl rejection are required for recovery and purification applications in food, chemical

  9. Research on rejection performance of reverse osmosis to nickel in simulated radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Wang Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    In order to reveal the rejection performance of the reverse osmosis applied in the radioactive wastewater treatment, treatment experiments were carried out on a pilot reverse osmosis equipment using wastewater containing nickel nuclide. Results showed that the rejection ratio of reverse osmosis to nickel was almost not affected by the operation pressure and the ratio of reclaiming, and had no direct relation with the salt rejection ratio. The ratio of nickel rejection reached 95% in the experiment condition and could meet the requirement on the disposal of radioactive wastewater produced by nuclear powered installations. (authors)

  10. Research on rejection performance of reverse osmosis to cobalt in simulated radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Tian Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the rejection performance of the reverse osmosis applied in the radioactive wastewater treatment, treatment experiments were carried out on a pilot reverse osmosis equipment using wastewater containing cobalt nuclide. Results showed that the rejection ratio of reverse osmosis to cobalt was almost not affected by the operation pressure and the ratio of reclaiming, and had no direct relation with the salt rejection ratio. The ratio of cobalt rejection reached 90% in the experiment condition and could meet the requirement on the disposal of radioactive wastewater produced by nuclear powered installations. (authors)

  11. Effectiveness of a social relations intervention program for aggressive and nonaggressive, rejected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, J E; Coie, J D; Underwood, M K; Terry, R

    1993-12-01

    A sample of 52 Black aggressive, rejected and nonaggressive, rejected children were randomly assigned to receive a social relations intervention or to be in a nonintervention control group. The school-based intervention for fourth-grade children focused on positive social skill training and cognitive-behavioral strategies to promote deliberate, nonimpulsive problem solving. At both the post-treatment and the 1-year follow-up assessments, the social relations intervention was found to be effective only with the aggressive, rejected children. Implications for the importance of assessing subtypes of rejected children are discussed.

  12. 18 CFR 35.5 - Rejection of material submitted for filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejection of material submitted for filing. 35.5 Section 35.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... that fails to comply with this Part may be rejected by the Director of the Office of Energy Market...

  13. Prostanoids modulate inflammation and alloimmune responses during graft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection of a transplanted organ is characterized by intense inflammation within the graft. Yet, for many years transplant researchers have overlooked the role of classic mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and thromboxane (prostanoids in alloimmune responses. It has been demonstrated that local production of prostanoids within the allograft is increased during an episode of acute rejection and that these molecules are able to interfere with graft function by modulating vascular tone, capillary permeability, and platelet aggregation. Experimental data also suggest that prostanoids may participate in alloimmune responses by directly modulating T lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell function. In the present paper, we provide a brief overview of the alloimmune response, of prostanoid biology, and discuss the available evidence for the role of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 in graft rejection.

  14. Self-esteem moderates neuroendocrine and psychological responses to interpersonal rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Máire B; Collins, Nancy L

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated self-esteem as a moderator of psychological and physiological responses to interpersonal rejection and tested an integrative model detailing the mechanisms by which self-esteem may influence cognitive, affective, and physiological responses. Seventy-eight participants experienced an ambiguous interpersonal rejection (or no rejection) from an opposite sex partner in the context of an online dating interaction. Salivary cortisol was assessed at 5 times, and self-reported cognitive and affective responses were assessed. Compared with those with high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem responded to rejection by appraising themselves more negatively, making more self-blaming attributions, exhibiting greater cortisol reactivity, and derogating the rejector. Path analysis indicated that the link between low self-esteem and increased cortisol reactivity was mediated by self-blame attributions; cortisol reactivity, in turn, mediated the link between low self-esteem and increased partner derogation. Discussion centers on the role of self-esteem as part of a broader psychobiological system for regulating and responding to social threat and on implications for health outcomes.

  15. Acute Hepatic Allograft Rejection in Pediatric Recipients: Independent Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, S. M.; Shahramian, I.; Afshari, M.; Bahmanyar, M.; Ataollahi, M.; Sargazi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) has a reversible effect on graft and its survival. Objective: To evaluate the relation between ACR and clinical factors in recipients of liver transplant allografts. Methods: 47 consecutive liver recipients were retrospectively studied. Their data were extracted from records and analyzed. Results: 38 (81%) of the 47 recipients experienced ACR during a 24-month follow-up. The rate of rejection was associated with none of the studied factors—recipient’...

  16. PID Based on Attractive Ellipsoid Method for Dynamic Uncertain and External Disturbances Rejection in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Patricio Ordaz Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis for LNDS (Lagrangian nonlinear dynamical systems with dynamic uncertain using a PID controller with external disturbances rejection based on attractive ellipsoid methods, since the PID-CT (proportional integral derivative computed torque compensator has been used for the nonlinear trajectory tracking of an LNDS, when there are external perturbations and system uncertainties. The global system convergence of the trivial solution has not been proved. In this sense, we propose an approach to find the gains of the nonlinear PID-CT controller to guarantee the boundedness of the trivial solution by means of the concept of the UUB (uniform-ultimately bounded stability. In order to show the effectiveness of the methodology proposed, we applied it in a real 2-DoF robot system.

  17. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  18. Positive integer solutions of certain diophantine equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BIJAN KUMAR PATEL

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... integer solutions. They also found all the positive integer solutions of the given equations in terms of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Another interesting number sequence which is closely related to the sequence of. Fibonacci numbers is the sequence of balancing numbers. In 1999, Behera et al. [1] intro-.

  19. The role of conspiracist ideation and worldviews in predicting rejection of science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lewandowsky

    Full Text Available Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a "hoax."We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science.Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators.

  20. Development of an alternative process for recovery of uranium from rejected plates in the manufacture of MTR type fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Gonzalez, Jocelyn Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the recovery of enriched uranium in U 235 , from fuel plates rejected during the fuel elements manufacturing process for the La Reina Nuclear Studies Center, RECH-1, CCHEN. The plates have an aluminum based alloy coating, AISI-SAE 6061, with U 3 Si 2 powder distributed evenly inside and dispersed in an aluminum matrix. The high cost of enriched uranium means that it must be recovered from plates rejected in the production process because of non-compliance with the plate specifications, and also because some of them undergo destructive testing, to measure the aluminum coating's thickness on each side of the plate. The thickness of the uranium nucleus is measured as well and the size of the defects on the ends of the plate such as 'dog bone' and 'fish tail', that is, for the purposes of quality control. The first step in the process is carried out by dissolving the aluminum in a hot solution of NaOH in order to release the uranium silicide powder that is insoluble in the soda. A second step involves dissolving the uranium silicide in a hot HNO 3 solution, followed by washing and filtering, and then extracting the SX and analyzing its behavior during this stage. During the process 98.9% of the uranium is recovered together with a solution that is enough for the SX process given the experiences that were carried out in the extraction stage

  1. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection

  2. Reward, addiction, and emotion regulation systems associated with rejection in love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L; Aron, Arthur; Strong, Greg; Mashek, Debra

    2010-07-01

    Romantic rejection causes a profound sense of loss and negative affect. It can induce clinical depression and in extreme cases lead to suicide and/or homicide. To begin to identify the neural systems associated with this natural loss state, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 10 women and 5 men who had recently been rejected by a partner but reported they were still intensely "in love." Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their rejecting beloved and a photograph of a familiar, individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Their responses while looking at their rejecter included love, despair, good, and bad memories, and wondering why this happened. Activation specific to the image of the beloved occurred in areas associated with gains and losses, craving and emotion regulation and included the ventral tegmental area (VTA) bilaterally, ventral striatum, medial and lateral orbitofrontal/prefrontal cortex, and cingulate gyrus. Compared with data from happily-in-love individuals, the regional VTA activation suggests that mesolimbic reward/survival systems are involved in romantic passion regardless of whether one is happily or unhappily in love. Forebrain activations associated with motivational relevance, gain/loss, cocaine craving, addiction, and emotion regulation suggest that higher-order systems subject to experience and learning also may mediate the rejection reaction. The results show activation of reward systems, previously identified by monetary stimuli, in a natural, endogenous, negative emotion state. Activation of areas involved in cocaine addiction may help explain the obsessive behaviors associated with rejection in love.

  3. Parental alignments and rejection: an empirical study of alienation in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R

    2003-01-01

    This study of family relationships after divorce examined the frequency and extent of child-parent alignments and correlates of children's rejection of a parent, these being basic components of the controversial idea of "parental alienation syndrome." The sample consisted of 215 children from the family courts and general community two to three years after parental separation. The findings indicate that children's attitudes toward their parents range from positive to negative, with relatively few being extremely aligned or rejecting. Rejection of a parent has multiple determinants, with both the aligned and rejected parents contributing to the problem, in addition to vulnerabilities within children themselves.

  4. Perceived parental acceptance/rejection, some family characteristics and conduct disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Jelena; Nešić, Milkica; Stanković, Miodrag; Zikić, Olivera

    2014-10-01

    Conduct disorder is characterized by repetitive and persistent presence of dissocial, aggressive and defiant behavioral patterns, thus represents important public issue with comprehensive and far-reaching consequences both for the individual and society. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic family characteristics and the prominence of parental acceptance/rejection dimensions in groups of adolescents with and without conduct disorder, as well as to examine the connection between parental acceptance/rejection dimensions and externalizing symptoms in the group of adolescents with conduct disorder. This research was conducted on 134 adolescents, aged 15 to 18, using the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ child), Youth Self-Report (YSR), and a questionnaire constructed for the purpose of this survey. The results showed that the number of adolescents with conduct disorder coming from divorced families was significandy higher than from complete families (44.8% vs 13.4%, respectively; p disorders compared to the controls (31.3% vs 8.9%; respectively; p = 0.001). The perceived rejection dimension and the total index of maternal acceptance/rejection were significantly higher in adolescents with conduct disorder than in those with no such disorder (132.30 ± 38.05 vs 93.91 ± 26.29 respectively; p conduct disorder and severe perceived maternal and paternal rejection showed a significantly higher average score on the subscale of externalizing symptoms (14.55 ± 4.45 and 13.27 + 5.05) compared to adolescents with conduct disorder and lower total index of parental acceptance/rejection (8.32 ± 5.05 and 8.28 ± 5.08). The results suggest that adolescents with conduct disorder perceive their parents as more rejecting and less warm and supportive compared to adolescents without conduct disorder. The perception of significant and severe parental rejection was associated with a significantly higher averaged score on the subscale

  5. CARDIAC TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND NON-INVASIVE COMON CAROTID ARTERY WALL FUNCTIONAL INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of early or recurrent heart transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, Susan P.; Salter, Merle M.; Kirklin, James K.; Bourge, Robert C.; Naftel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Recurrent acute cardiac allograft rejection is an important cause of repeat hospitalization and a major mode of mortality, particularly during the 6 months immediately following transplant. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown experimentally to induce a state of partial tolerance when administered prior to transplantation. Anecdotal reports of clinical experience have also suggested efficacy of TLI in treatment of recurrent cardiac rejection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TLI for treatment of early or recurrent heart transplant rejection. Materials and Methods: Between January 1990 and June 1992, 49 patients postallograft cardiac transplant were given courses of TLI for treatment of early or recurrent rejection after conventional therapy with Methylprednisolone, antithymocyte globulin, OKT3, and methotrexate. Two patients failed to complete their therapy and were not evaluated. Two other patients received a second TLI course, making a total of 49 courses delivered. Indications for TLI were early rejection (n = 5), recurrent rejection (n = 38), and recurrent rejection with vasculitis (n = 6). The dose goal of the TLI protocol was 8 Gy in 10 fractions given twice weekly. Three separate fields were used to encompass all major lymph node-bearing areas. The actual mean dose was 7 Gy (range 2.4-8.4 Gy), and the duration of treatment was 8 to 106 days. These variations were secondary to leukopenia or thrombocytopenia. Results: The mean posttransplant follow-up is 15 ± 1.2 months (maximum 27 months). Among patients initiating TLI within 1 month posttransplant (n = 15), the rejection frequency decreased from 1.83 episodes/patient/month pre-TLI to 0.13 episodes/patient/month post-TLI (p < 0.0001). For those who began TLI 1-3 months after transplant (n = 21), rejection decreased from 1.43 to 0.10 episodes/patient/month (p < 0.0001). When TLI was started more than 3 months posttransplant (n = 11), the pre-TLI and post

  7. Evaluation of posttransplantation soluble CD30 for diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzl, Steffen; Opelz, Gerhard; Daniel, Volker; Wiesel, Manfred; Süsal, Caner

    2003-02-15

    Posttransplantation measurement of soluble CD30 (sCD30) may be useful for identifying kidney graft recipients at risk of impending graft rejection in the early posttransplantation period. We measured plasma sCD30 levels and evaluated the levels in relation to the diagnosis of rejection. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that on posttransplantation days 3 to 5, sCD30 allowed a differentiation of recipients who subsequently developed acute allograft rejection (n=25) from recipients with an uncomplicated course (n=20, Pacute tubular necrosis in the absence of rejection (n=11, P=0.001) (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.85, specificity 91%, sensitivity 72%). sCD30 measured on posttransplantation days 3 to 5 offers a noninvasive means for differentiating patients with impending acute allograft rejection from patients with an uncomplicated course or with acute tubular necrosis.

  8. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rish, Daniel [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Luo, Tengfei, E-mail: tluo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Center for Sustainable Energy at Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ∼98%–99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards.

  9. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rish, Daniel; Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ∼98%–99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards

  10. Rejection Sensitivity Mediates the Relationship between Social Anxiety and Body Dysmorphic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Angela; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy; Cook, Courtney; Wilhelm, Sabine; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns. To test our hypothesis that rejection sensitivity mediates the link between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns, we administered self-report questionnaires to 209 student volunteers. Consistent with our prediction, rejection sensitivity partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and body dysmorphic concerns. The implications of the overlap between these constructs are discussed. PMID:21741203

  11. The Role of Tissue-Resident Donor T Cells in Rejection of Clinical Face Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    cells contribute to VCA rejection, and that pathogenic T cells (both donor and recipient-derived) are detectable in blood during rejection to serve as...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0760 TITLE: The role of tissue-resident donor T cells in rejection of clinical face transplants PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE The role of tissue-resident donor T cells in rejection of clinical face transplants 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1

  12. Does contrast between eggshell ground and spot coloration affect egg rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainson, Miri; Hauber, Mark E; López, Analía V; Grim, Tomáš; Hanley, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Obligate avian brood parasitic species impose the costs of incubating foreign eggs and raising young upon their unrelated hosts. The most common host defence is the rejection of parasitic eggs from the nest. Both egg colours and spot patterns influence egg rejection decisions in many host species, yet no studies have explicitly examined the role of variation in spot coloration. We studied the American robin Turdus migratorius, a blue-green unspotted egg-laying host of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, a brood parasite that lays non-mimetic spotted eggs. We examined host responses to model eggs with variable spot coloration against a constant robin-mimetic ground colour to identify patterns of rejection associated with perceived contrast between spot and ground colours. By using avian visual modelling, we found that robins were more likely to reject eggs whose spots had greater chromatic (hue) but not achromatic (brightness) contrast. Therefore, egg rejection decision rules in the American robin may depend on the colour contrast between parasite eggshell spot and host ground coloration. Our study also suggests that egg recognition in relation to spot coloration, like ground colour recognition, is tuned to the natural variation of avian eggshell spot colours but not to unnatural spot colours.

  13. Lymphocele: a possible relationship with acute cellular rejection in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Silva Lipay

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The incidence of lymphocele after renal transplantation varies between 0.6 and 18% of cases, and many factors have been associated to its etiology. Cellular rejection of the kidney allograft has been described as a possible causal factor of lymphocele. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible relationship between lymphocele and acute cellular rejection. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A referral hospital center. SAMPLE: 170 patients submitted to kidney transplantation from March 1992 to January 1997. A standard technique for renal transplantation was used. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients that developed lymphocele, 16 presented at least one episode of acute cell rejection (84%, and were treated with methylprednisolone. The relation between lymphocele and rejection was statistically significant (p = 0.04. Treatment of lymphocele consisted of peritoneal marsupialization in 3 patients (15.3%, percutaneous drainage in 7 (36.8%, laparascopic marsupialization in 2 (10.5%, and conservative treatment in 7 patients (36.8%. Evolution was favorable in 15 patients (78.9%, 1 patient (5.3% died due to a cause unrelated to lymphocele, and 3 (15.8% lost the graft due to immunological factors. The average follow-up period was 24.5 months. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of acute cell rejection in patients with lymphocele suggests a possible causal relationship between both conditions.

  14. Ex Vivo Model of Human Penile Transplantation and Rejection: Implications for Erectile Tissue Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Nikolai A; Matsui, Hotaka; Lough, Denver M; Miller, Devin; Harris, Kelly; Kates, Max; Liu, Xiaopu; Billups, Kevin; Redett, Richard; Burnett, Arthur L; Brandacher, Gerald; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2017-04-01

    Penile transplantation is a potential treatment option for severe penile tissue loss. Models of human penile rejection are lacking. Evaluate effects of rejection and immunosuppression on cavernous tissue using a novel ex vivo mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model. Cavernous tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 patients undergoing penile prosthesis operations and PBMCs from a healthy volunteer were obtained. Ex vivo MLRs were prepared by culturing cavernous tissue for 48h in media alone, in media with autologous PBMCs, or in media with allogenic PBMCs to simulate control, autotransplant, and allogenic transplant conditions with or without 1μM cyclosporine A (CsA) or 20nM tacrolimus (FK506) treatment. Rejection was characterized by PBMC flow cytometry and gene expression transplant array. Cavernous tissues were evaluated by histomorphology and myography to assess contraction and relaxation. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and unpaired Student t test. Flow cytometry and tissue array demonstrated allogenic PBMC activation consistent with rejection. Rejection impaired cavernous tissue physiology and was associated with cellular infiltration and apoptosis. CsA prevented rejection but did not improve tissue relaxation. CsA treatment impaired relaxation in tissues cultured without PBMCs compared with media and FK506. Study limitations included the use of penile tissue with erectile dysfunction and lack of cross-matching data. This model could be used to investigate the effects of penile rejection and immunosuppression. Additional studies are needed to optimize immunosuppression to prevent rejection and maximize corporal tissue physiology. This report describes a novel ex vivo model of human penile transplantation rejection. Tissue rejection impaired erectile tissue physiology. This report suggests that cyclosporin A might hinder corporal physiology and that other immunosuppressant agents, such as FK506, might be better suited

  15. Removal of uranium from ammonium nitrate solution by nanofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Runci; Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Dept. of Radiochemistry

    2017-07-01

    Two types of nanofiltration membranes were tested to remove uranium dissolved in ammonium nitrate solution, and the influence of operating parameters as transmembrane pressure, tangential velocity and feed temperature was investigated. Experimental results showed NF270 membrane can reject more than 96% uranium and allow most (90% min) ammonium nitrate solution passed by, and with a permeate flux of 60 L/(m{sup 2}.h). Nanofiltration seems to be a promising technology for the removal of uranium and recovery of ammonium nitrate simultaneously.

  16. Problematic Social Situations for Peer-Rejected Students in the First Year of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Martín-Antón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the social situations that are problematic for peer-rejected students in the first year of elementary school. For this purpose, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children (TOPS, Dodge et al., 1985 in 169 rejected pupils, identified from a sample of 1457 first-grade students (ages 5-7 enrolled in 62 classrooms of elementary school. For each rejected student, another student of average sociometric status of the same gender was selected at random from the same classroom (naverage = 169. The model for the rejected students showed a good fit, and was also invariant in the group of average students. Four types of situations were identified in which rejected students have significantly more difficulties than average students. They are, in descending order: (a respect for authority and rules, (b being disadvantaged, (c prosocial and empathic behavior, and (d response to own success. Rejected boys have more problems in situations of prosociability and empathy than girls. The implications concerning the design of specific programs to prevent and reduce early childhood rejection in the classroom are discussed.

  17. Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.

  18. Explaining the paradoxical rejection-aggression link: the mediating effects of hostile intent attributions, anger, and decreases in state self-esteem on peer rejection-induced aggression in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, A.; Thomaes, S.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Bushman, B.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Telch, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are strongly motivated to feel accepted by others. Yet when faced with acute peer rejection they often aggress against the very peers they desire acceptance from, which may lead to further rejection. The present experiment tests three potential mediators of aggressive responses to acute peer

  19. Explaining the paradoxical rejection-aggression link: The mediating effects of hostile intent attributions, anger, and decreases in state self-esteem on peer rejection-induced aggression in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, A.H.A.; Thomaes, S.C.E.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Bushman, B. J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Telch, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are strongly motivated to feel accepted by others. Yet when faced with acute peer rejection they often aggress against the very peers they desire acceptance from, which may lead to further rejection. The present experiment tests three potential mediators of aggressive responses to acute peer

  20. CD16+ Monocytes and Skewed Macrophage Polarization toward M2 Type Hallmark Heart Transplant Acute Cellular Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Thierry P P; Caliskan, Kadir; Kraaij, Marina D; Constantinescu, Alina A; Manintveld, Olivier C; Leenen, Pieter J M; von der Thüsen, Jan H; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C; Baan, Carla C; Rowshani, Ajda T

    2017-01-01

    During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during rejection. Here, we aimed to define and correlate monocyte-macrophage endomyocardial tissue profiles obtained at rejection and time points prior to rejection, with corresponding serial blood samples in 25 heart transplant recipients experiencing acute cellular rejection. Additionally, 33 healthy individuals served as control. Using histology, immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scan microscopy, and digital imaging expression of CD14, CD16, CD56, CD68, CD80, and CD163 were explored to define monocyte and macrophage tissue profiles during rejection. Fibrosis was investigated using Sirius Red stainings of rejection, non-rejection, and 1-year biopsies. Expression of co-stimulatory and migration-related molecules on circulating monocytes, and production potential for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied using flow cytometry. At tissue level, striking CD16+ monocyte infiltration was observed during rejection ( p  rejection compared to barely present CD68+CD80+ M1 macrophages. Rejection was associated with severe fibrosis in 1-year biopsies ( p  rejection status, decreased frequencies of circulating CD16+ monocytes were found in patients compared to healthy individuals. Rejection was reflected by significantly increased CD54 and HLA-DR expression on CD16+ monocytes with retained cytokine production potential. CD16+ monocytes and M2 macrophages hallmark the correlates of heart transplant acute cellular rejection on tissue level and seem to be associated with fibrosis in the long term.

  1. Peer Rejection and Internalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Peer Victimization in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Aslan, Özge

    2018-05-23

    The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization. Relational victimization indirectly affected the association between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of victimization behaviors on the relationship among peer rejection, victimization, and internalizing behaviors.

  2. PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays, L. VARIETAS BISI-2 PADA PASIR REJECT DAN PASIR ASLI DI PANTAI TRISIK KULONPROGO (The Growth of Maize Crop (Zea mays L. BISI-2 Variety on Rejected and non Rejected Sand at Pantai Trisik Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ekowati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Lahan pasir di pesisir Kabupaten Kulon Progo yang sekarang ditanami berbagai komoditi pertanian seperti cabe, semangka, jagung akan ditambang untuk diekstrak mineral besinya. Rencananya setelah diekstrak mineral besinya, pasir sisa (pasir reject akan dikembalikan sebagai material reklamasi untuk dapat ditanami kembali. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan media tanam berupa pasir reject dan pasir asli serta dosis pupuk kandang dan pupuk NPK pada pertumbuhan tanaman jagung (Zea mays L. varietas BISI-2 di Pantai Trisik Kulon Progo. Dosis pupuk yang diberikan ialah 0 Kg pupuk kandang dan 0 g NPK (kontrol; 0 Kg pupuk kandang dan 75 g NPK; 2,5 Kg pupuk kandang dan 0 g NPK; 1,25 Kg pupuk kandang dan 112,5 g NPK; 2,5 Kg pupuk kandang dan 75 g pupuk NPK; dan 3,75 Kg pupuk kandang dan 37,5 g NPK. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini adalah tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, berat kering tajuk, waktu berbunga, jumlah tongkol, berat tongkol, panjang tongkol, dan diameter tongkol. Data yang diperoleh diuji dengan analisis variansi (Anava dan uji lanjut dengan Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata tinggi, jumlah daun, berat kering tajuk, jumlah tongkol, berat tongkol, panjang tongkol dan diameter tongkol tanaman jagung pada pasir reject lebih tinggi daripada pasir asli sedangkan rerata waktu berbunga tanaman jagung pada pasir reject lebih lama daripada pasir asli. Selain itu, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman jagung paling optimal diperoleh pada dosis 1,25 Kg pupuk kandang dan 112,5 g pupuk NPK sedangkan pertumbuhan generatif tanaman jagung paling optimal diperoleh pada dosis 3,75 Kg pupuk kandang dan 37,5 g pupuk NPK.   ABSTRACT Sand in the coastal District of Kulon Progo land which is now planted with various agricultural commodities such as pepper, watermelon, corn, will be mined to extract its iron minerals. In the mining plan, after the iron

  3. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  4. Mutual best friendship involvement, best friends' rejection sensitivity, and psychological maladaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Thomas, Katelyn K; Norman, Kelly E; Spencer, Sarah V

    2011-05-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to experiences of possible rejection. RS is a clear risk factor for psychological maladaptation during early adolescence. However, there is growing evidence of significant heterogeneity in the psychological correlates of RS. To investigate when RS poses the greatest psychological risk during early adolescence, this study examines mutual best friendship involvement (or lack thereof) and the best friends' RS as potential moderators of the associations between RS and psychological difficulties. Participants were 150 7th grade students (58 boys; M age = 13.05 years) who nominated their best friends, and reported on their RS, social anxiety, and self-esteem. Results from a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that mutual best friendship involvement and best friends' RS were both significant moderators when fear of negative evaluation (a type of social anxiety) served as the dependent variable. The association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was stronger for adolescents without mutual best friends than adolescents with mutual best friends. In addition, the association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was the strongest for adolescents whose best friends were highly rejection sensitive (relative to adolescents whose best friends were moderately or low in RS). Findings highlight the importance of considering best friendships in studies of RS and strongly suggest that, although having mutual best friendships may be protective for rejection sensitive adolescents, having a rejection sensitive best friend may exacerbate difficulties. The significance of friends in the lives of rejection sensitive adolescents is discussed as well as possible applied implications of the findings and study limitations.

  5. Immune function surveillance: association with rejection, infection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikal, N M; Bader, F M; Martins, T B; Pavlov, I Y; Wilson, A R; Barakat, M; Stehlik, J; Kfoury, A G; Gilbert, E M; Delgado, J C; Hill, H R

    2013-01-01

    Rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and infection are significant causes of mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Assessing the immune status of a particular patient remains challenging. Although endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and angiography are effective for the identification of rejection and CAV, respectively, these are expensive, invasive, and may have numerous complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune function and assess its utility in predicting rejection, CAV, and infection in heart transplantation recipients. We prospectively obtained samples at the time of routine EMB and when clinically indicated for measurement of the ImmuKnow assay (IM), 12 cytokines and soluble CD30 (sCD30). EMB specimens were evaluated for acute cellular rejection, and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). CAV was diagnosed by the development of angiographic coronary artery disease. Infectious episodes occurring during the next 30 days after testing were identified by the presence of positive bacterial or fungal cultures and/or viremia that prompted treatment with antimicrobials. We collected 162 samples from 56 cardiac transplant recipients. There were 31 infection episodes, 7 AMR, and 4 CAV cases. The average IM value was significantly lower during infection, (P = .04). Soluble CD30 concentrations showed significantly positive correlation with infection episodes, (P = .001). Significant positive correlation was observed between interleukin-5(IL-5) and AMR episodes (P = .008). Tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-8 showed significant positive correlation with CAV (P = .001). Immune function monitoring appears promising in predicting rejection, CAV, and infection in cardiac transplantation recipients. This approach may help in more individualized immunosuppression and it may also minimize unnecessary EMBs and cardiac angiographies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Drugs in development for prophylaxis of rejection in kidney-transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders ML

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marion Lee Sanders,1 Anthony James Langone2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for individuals with end-stage renal disease. Individuals who undergo transplantation must chronically be maintained on an immunosuppression regimen for rejection prophylaxis to help ensure graft survival. Current rejection prophylaxis consists of using a combination of calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, antimetabolite agents, and/or corticosteroids. These agents have collectively improved the short-term outcomes of renal transplantation, but improvements in late/chronic graft loss and recipient survival have lagged significantly behind challenging the field of transplantation to develop novel prophylactic agents. There have been several clinical trials conducted within the last 5 years in an attempt to bring such novel agents to the commercial market. These trials have resulted in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of extended-release tacrolimus, as well as belatacept, which has the potential to replace calcineurin inhibitors for rejection prophylaxis. Other trials have focused on the development of novel calcineurin inhibitors (voclosporin, costimulation blockade (ASKP1240 and alefacept, kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib and sotrastaurin, and inhibitors of leukocyte migration (efalizumab. While these later agents have not been FDA-approved for use in transplantation, they remain noteworthy, as these agents explore pathways not previously targeted for allograft-rejection prophylaxis. The purpose of this review was to consolidate available clinical trial data with regard to the recent developments in rejection prophylaxis in kidney transplantation. Keywords: rejection, prophylaxis, immunosuppression

  7. EEG Asymmetry in Borderline Personality Disorder and Depression Following Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Beeney, Joseph E.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Hallquist, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share numerous features including dysphoric affect, irritability, suicidality, and a heightened sensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection. However, these disorders are associated with divergent profiles of reactivity to rejection; individuals with MDD are more likely to respond with withdrawal and isolation, and those with BPD appear to respond with increased approach behaviors and greater hostility. Potential me...

  8. A Pilot Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Acute Liver Allograft Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Zhenwen; Wang, Ying; Xu, Rounan; Sun, Yanling; Zhang, Min; Yu, Xi; Wang, Hongbo; Meng, Lingzhan; Su, Haibin; Jin, Lei; Wang, Fu‐Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute allograft rejection remains common after liver transplantation despite modern immunosuppressive agents. In addition, the long‐term side effects of these regimens, including opportunistic infections, are challenging. This study evaluated the safety and clinical feasibility of umbilical cord‐derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC‐MSC) therapy in liver transplant patients with acute graft rejection. Twenty‐seven liver allograft recipients with acute rejection were randomly assigned int...

  9. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism.

  10. Marginality and Social Rejection in Amiri Baraka's Slave Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hammad Abed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marginality and social rejection are the most influential matters exploited by Baraka to intentionally criticize the American society.  More often than not, these two matters have become the scenes of major or minor acts of humiliation and dehumanization that threaten to violate the ethical rules of living. This paper aims at investigating the impact of marginality and social rejection on a number of black characters in Baraka's Slave Ship who are brought to America to be sold as commodities. It is divided into two sections and conclusion. Section one deals with Amiri Baraka’s dramatic thought and experience of marginality within the American society. The textual analysis of Slave Ship is investigated in section two. The significance of the study lies in its textual exploration of the impact of marginality and social rejection in subverting the American dream of democracy, freedom, and equality in Baraka’s Slave Ship.

  11. Reviewing the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated rejection and renal graft pathology after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Kunio; Takeda, Asami; Otsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keiji; Gotoh, Norihiko; Narumi, Shunji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2016-07-01

    The clinicopathological context of rejection after kidney transplantation was well recognized. Banff conferences greatly contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis and to establish the pathologic criteria of rejection after kidney transplantation. The most important current problem of renal transplantation is de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) production leading chronic rejection and graft loss. Microvascular inflammation is considered as a reliable pathological marker for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the presence of DSA. Electron microscopic study allowed us to evaluate early changes in peritubular capillaries in T-lymphocyte mediated rejection and transition to antibody-mediated rejection. Severe endothelial injuries with edema and activated lymphocyte invaded into subendothelial space with early multi-layering of peritubular capillary basement membrane suggest T-lymphocyte mediated rejection induce an unbounded chain of antibody-mediated rejection. The risk factors of AMR after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are important issues. Anti-ABO blood type antibody titre of IgG excess 32-fold before transplant operation is the only predictable factor for acute AMR. Characteristics of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAAMR) are one of the most important problems. Light microscopic findings and C4d stain of peritubular capillary and glomerular capillary are useful diagnostic criteria of CAAMR. Microvascular inflammation, double contour of glomerular capillary and thickening of peritubular capillary basement are good predictive factors of the presence of de novo DSA. C4d stain of linear glomerular capillary is a more sensitive marker for CAAMR than positive C4d of peritubular capillary. Early and sensitive diagnostic attempts of diagnosing CAAMR are pivotal to prevent chronic graft failure. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. On the conditions of exponential stability in active disturbance rejection control based on singular perturbation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, S.; Gao, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Stability of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is analysed in the presence of unknown, nonlinear, and time-varying dynamics. In the framework of singular perturbations, the closed-loop error dynamics are semi-decoupled into a relatively slow subsystem (the feedback loop) and a relatively fast subsystem (the extended state observer), respectively. It is shown, analytically and geometrically, that there exists a unique exponential stable solution if the size of the initial observer error is sufficiently small, i.e. in the same order of the inverse of the observer bandwidth. The process of developing the uniformly asymptotic solution of the system reveals the condition on the stability of the ADRC and the relationship between the rate of change in the total disturbance and the size of the estimation error. The differentiability of the total disturbance is the only assumption made.

  13. Optimization of a photon rejecter to separate electronic noise in a photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seung-Wan; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-01-01

    Photon-counting-based X-ray imaging technology provides the capability to count individual photons and to characterize photon energies. The cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based photon-counting detector is limited in capability, however, under a high X-ray flux. A photon rejecter composed of aluminum, for example, can reduce this limitation by modulating the incident number of photons. In addition to this function, the optimal photon rejecter can separate electronic noise, which degrades image quality. The aim of this work was to optimize a photon rejecter for high-quality image acquisition by removing electronic noise from the actual pulse signal. The images and spectra were acquired using a micro-focus X-ray source with a CdTe-based photon-counting detector. We acquired data with various types of photon-rejecter materials composed of aluminum (Al) and iodine at three different tube voltages (50, 70, and 90 kVp). A phantom composed of high-atomic-number materials was imaged to evaluate the efficiency of the photon rejecter. Photon rejecters composed of 1-mm Al, 10-mm Al, and a combination of 10-mm Al and iodine provided optimum capability at 50, 70, and 90 kVp, respectively. Each optimal combination of photon-rejecter material and voltage effectively separated electronic noise from the actual pulse signal and gave the highest contrast-to-noise ratio for materials on the image. These optimized types of photon rejecters can effectively discriminate electronic noise and improve image quality at different tube voltages.

  14. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected components... supplement? 111.170 Section 111.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  15. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  16. Posttransplant soluble CD30 as a predictor of acute renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Koosha; Abbasi, Mohammad Amin; Farokhi, Babak; Abbasi, Ata; Fallah, Parvane; Seifee, Mohammad Hasan; Ghadimi, Naime; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2009-12-01

    Recent results have indicated that high prerenal and postrenal transplant soluble CD30 levels may be associated with an increased acute rejection and graft loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using serum sCD30 as a marker for predicting acute graft rejection. In this prospective study,we analyzed clinical data of 80 patients, whose pretransplant and posttransplant serum levels of sCD30 were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Eight patients developed acute rejection, 7 patients showed delayed graft function, and 65 recipients experienced an uncomplicated course group. The patients were followed for 12 months, and there were no deaths. Preoperative sCD30 levels of 3 groups were 96.2 -/+ 32.5, 80.2 -/+ 28.3, and 76.8 -/+ 29.8 U/mL (P = .28). After transplant, a significant decrease in the sCD30 level was detected in 3 groups on day 14 posttransplant (P sCD30 levels of acute rejection group remained significantly higher than delayed graft function and nonrejecting patients (28.3 -/+ 5.2, 22.1 -/+ 3.2, and 19.8 -/+ 4.7 U/mL) (P = .02). Positive panel reactive antibody was not statistically different among groups (P = .05). Also, hemodialysis did not affect sCD30 levels (P = .05). Receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the sCD30 level on day 14 posttransplant could discriminate patients who subsequently suffered acute allograft rejection (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.95). According to receiver operating characteristic curve, 20 U/mL may be the optimal operational cutoff level to predict impending graft rejection (specificity 93.8%, sensitivity 83.3%). Measurement of the soluble CD30 level on day 14 after transplant might offer a noninvasive means for recognizing patients at risk of acute graft rejection during the early posttransplant period.

  17. RNaseI from Escherichia coli cannot substitute for S-RNase in rejection of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, B; Murfett, J; McClure, B A

    1998-03-01

    Unilateral incompatibility often occurs between self-incompatible (SI) species and their self-compatible (SC) relatives. For example, SI Nicotiana alata rejects pollen from SC N. plumbaginifolia, but the reciprocal pollination is compatible. This interspecific pollen rejection system closely resembles intraspecific S-allele-specific pollen rejection. However, the two systems differ in degree of specificity. In SI, rejection is S-allele-specific, meaning that only a single S-RNase causes rejection of pollen with a specific S genotype. Rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen is less specific, occurring in response to almost any S-RNase. Here, we have tested whether a non-S-RNase can cause rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. The Escherichia coli rna gene encoding RNAseI was engineered for expression in transgenic (N. plumbaginifolia x SC N. alata) hybrids. Expression levels and pollination behavior of hybrids expressing E. coli RNaseI were compared to controls expressing SA2-RNase from N. alata. Immunoblot analysis and RNase activity assays showed that RNaseI and SA2-RNase were expressed at comparable levels. However, expression of SA2-RNase caused rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen, whereas expression of RNaseI did not. Thus, in this system, RNase activity alone is not sufficient for rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. The results suggest that S-RNases may be specially adapted to function in pollen rejection.

  18. High pre-transplant soluble CD30 levels are predictive of the grade of rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakariar, Ravindra; Jivanji, Naina; Varagunam, Mira; Rafiq, Mohammad; Gupta, Arun; Sheaff, Michael; Sinnott, Paul; Yaqoob, M M

    2005-08-01

    In renal transplantation, serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels in graft recipients are associated with increased rejection and graft loss. We investigated whether pre-transplant sCD30 concentrations are predictive of the grade of rejection. Pre-transplant sera of 51 patients with tubulointerstitial rejection (TIR), 16 patients with vascular rejection (VR) and an age-matched control group of 41 patients with no rejection (NR) were analyzed for sCD30. The transplant biopsies were immunostained for C4d. The median sCD30 level was significantly elevated in the group with VR (248 Units (U)/mL, range: 92-802) when compared with TIR (103 U/mL, range: 36-309, psCD30 levels compared to NR. Based on C4d staining, a TH2 driven process, the median sCD30 levels were significantly raised in C4d+ patients compared with C4d- group (177 U/mL vs. 120 U/mL, psCD30 levels measured at time of transplantation correlate with the grade of rejection. High pre-transplant levels are associated with antibody-mediated rejection which carries a poorer prognosis. sCD30 could be another tool to assess immunological risk prior to transplantation and enable a patient centered approach to immunosuppression.

  19. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  20. Remembering rejection: specificity and linguistic styles of autobiographical memories in borderline personality disorder and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Charlotte; Renneberg, Babette

    2015-03-01

    High levels of rejection sensitivity are assumed to be the result of early and prolonged experiences of rejection. Aim of this study was to investigate autobiographical memories of rejection in clinical samples high in rejection sensitivity (Borderline Personality Disorder, BPD, and Major Depressive Disorder, MDD) and to identify group differences in the quality of the memories. Memories of rejection were retrieved using an adapted version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; five positive cue words, five cue words referring to rejection). Specificity of memories and linguistic word usage was analyzed in 30 patients with BPD, 27 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls. Patients with BPD retrieved less specific memories compared to the healthy control group, whereas patients with MDD did not differ from controls in this regard. The group difference was no longer significant when controlling for rejection sensitivity. Linguistic analysis indicated that compared to both other groups, patients with BPD showed a higher self-focus, used more anger-related words, referred more frequently to social environments, and rated memories of rejection as more relevant for today's life. Clinical symptoms were not assessed in the control group. Moreover, the written form of the AMT might reduce the total number of specific memories. The level of rejection sensitivity influenced the specificity of the retrieved memories. Analysis of linguistic styles revealed specific linguistic patterns in BPD compared to non-clinical as well as depressed participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PHOSPHATES REMOVAL FROM REJECT WATER FROM DIGESTION OF SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sperczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research work was to evaluate if coagulants used on technical scale are useful in phosphates removal from reject water. Effectiveness of phosphorus compounds removal from reject water from digestion of sewage sludge was examined. Selected prehydrolysed alkaline aluminium polychlorides were used. The results were compared to the ones obtained with aluminium sulphate. Reject water from digestion of sewage sludge form WWTP of 100 000 PE were examined. Commercial agents – prehydrolysed PAX 18, PAX XL10, PAX-XL1905 as well as aluminium sulphate were used. Various doses of coagulants: 0.7; 1.0; 1.5 – time higher than stoichiometric dose were applied. Stoichiometric dose was calculated based on chemical reaction of insoluble aluminium phosphate formation. Concentrations of Kiejdahl nitrogen (891 mgNKj/dm3, phosphates (125 mgPO43-/dm3 and organic compounds - COD (592 mgO2/dm3 in reject water were very high. The effectiveness of coagulation process increased as the doses of chemical agents increased. The most effective doses were the highest ones used during the experiment. The most effective agent was PAX 18 (96% removal efficiency. As the phosphates concentration decreased COD content declined simultaneously. Maximum COD removal (47% was obtained when highly alkaline PAX XL 1905 was used. Use of the lowest dose of Al2(SO43 allowed for 50% phosphates removal, whereas the lowest dose of PAX 18 decreased phosphates concentration by 83%.

  2. Early and late humoral rejection: a clinicopathologic entity in two times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péfaur, J; Díaz, P; Panace, R; Salinas, P; Fiabane, A; Quinteros, N; Chea, R; Naranjo, E; Wurgaft, A; Beltran, E; Elgueta, S; Wegmann, M E; Gajardo, J G; Contreras, L

    2008-11-01

    Humoral rejection is an important cause of early and late graft loss. The late variant is difficult to diagnose and treat. There is a close correlation between sclerosing nephropathy and anti-HLA antibodies. We analyzed 113 renal allograft recipients between August 2004 and April 2007. Acute humoral rejection was defined as acute graft dysfunction in presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) detected by flow panel reactive antibodies (PRA) and/or C4d positive pericapilary tubules (PTC) detected histopathologically by immunofluorescent or immunoperoxidase at less than 3 months postransplantation. Late humoral rejection was defined as dysfunction occurring after 3 months postransplantation with histopathologic glomerulopathy or vasculopathy and positive C4d PTC. We included all patients who were diagnosed with early or late graft dysfunction and underwent biopsy, all of which were examined for C4d. Four patients had acute humoral rejection treated with IVIG or plasmapheresis. The patient and graft survivals were 100% and serum creatinine averaged 1.7 mg/dL. Three recipients experienced late humoral rejection at 3 to 10 years posttransplantation All received high-dose IVIG; one also was treated with thymoglobulin. Immunosuppression was switched to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. Only one patient recovered renal function; the others returned to dialysis. Among seven patients only one had an actual PRA (>20%) and three showed 10% to 20%. However, six had a positive historical PRA of 10% to 50%. In conclusion, Recognition of acute humoral rejection has contributed to graft rescue by controlling alloantibody production through new specific immunosuppressive therapies in contrast with the clinical response to acute therapy, treatment of a chronic entity has shown poor outcomes, probably because antibody mediated chronic graft damage is already present when the late diagnosis is established by biopsy.

  3. Kidney graft rejection studies with labeled platelets and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111-labelled platelets and lymphocyte scintigraphy in acute kidney graft rejection is evaluated in 155 patients. Blood cells were labelled with 100-150 uCi of In-111-oxine and reinjected. Subsequently patients were scanned once daily from 2 hours post-reinjection up to a week. The graft/contralateral area activity ratio was calculated in all scans. It is concluded that In-111-labelled platelets scintigraphy is nowadays the method of choice for acute kidney graft rejection diagnosis, especially in patients under cyclosporine immunosuppression. (author)

  4. Gene-Based Multiclass Cancer Diagnosis with Class-Selective Rejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisrine Jrad

    2009-01-01

    rejection scheme. The state of art multiclass algorithms can be considered as a particular case of the proposed algorithm where the number of decisions is given by the classes and the loss function is defined by the Bayesian risk. Two experiments are carried out in the Bayesian and the class selective rejection frameworks. Five genes selected datasets are used to assess the performance of the proposed method. Results are discussed and accuracies are compared with those computed by the Naive Bayes, Nearest Neighbor, Linear Perceptron, Multilayer Perceptron, and Support Vector Machines classifiers.

  5. Role of Soluble ST2 as a Marker for Rejection after Heart Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Choi, Jin-Oh; Ju, Eun-Seon; Lee, Yoo-Jung; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Endomyocardial biopsy is obligatory during the first year after heart transplant (HTx) for the surveillance of acute rejection. Previous attempts using cardiac biomarkers for the detection of rejection failed to show enough evidence to substitute endomyocardial biopsy. Therefore, this study sought the possibility of using soluble ST2 (sST2), a novel cardiovascular marker, as a surrogate marker for acute allograft rejection after HTx. Subjects and Methods A total of 4...

  6. Position statement. The right to accept or reject an assignment. American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The American Nurses Association (ANA) believes that nurses should reject assignment that puts patients or themselves in serious, immediate jeopardy. ANA supports the nurses obligation to reject an assignment in these situations even where there is not a specific legal protection for rejecting such an assignment. The professional obligations to the nurse to safeguard clients are grounded in the ethical norms of the profession, the Standards of Clinical Nursing Practice and state nurse practice acts.

  7. Film reject analysis and image quality in diagnostic Radiology Department of a Teaching hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Owusu-Banahene

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients usually undergo repeated X-ray examinations after their initial X-ray radiographs are rejected due to poor image quality. This subjects the patients to an excess radiation exposure and extra cost and necessitates the need to investigate the causes of reject. The use of reject analysis as part of the overall quality assurance programs in clinical radiography and radiology services is vital in the evaluation of image quality of a well-established practice. It is shown that, in spite of good quality control maintained by the Radiology Department of a Teaching hospital in Ghana, reject analysis performed on a number of radiographic films developed indicated 14.1% reject rate against 85.9% accepted films. The highest reject rate was 57.1 ± 0.7% which occurs in cervical spine and the lowest was7.7 ± 0.5% for lumbar spine. The major factors contributing to film rejection were found to be over exposure and patient positioning in cervical spine examinations. The most frequent examination was chest X-ray which accounts for about 42.2% of the total examinations. The results show low reject rates by considering the factors for radiographic rejection analysis in relation to both equipment functionality and film development in the facility.

  8. Surface modification of ultra thin PES-zeolite using thermal annealing to increase flux and rejection of produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Widayat,; Pradini, A. W.; Armeli, Y. P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Diponegoro Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024) 7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Membrane technology is an alternative of water treatment based on filtration that is being developed. Surface Modification using heat treatment has been investigated to improve the performance of ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment from Pertamina Balongan. Two types of membranes with surface modification and without modification were prepared to study the effect of surface modification on its permeation properties. Asymmetric ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment was casted using the dry/wet phase inversion technique from dope solutions containing polyethersulfone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and zeolite as a filler. Experimental results showed that the heat treatment at near glass transition temperature was increase the rejection of COD, Turbidity and ion Ca{sup 2+}. The better adherence of zeolite particles in the polymer matrix combined with formation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) and cross-linking might be the main factors to enhance the percent of rejection. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of PES-zeolite membrane became denser and more compact after the heat treatment. The FESEM micrographs also showed that the heat treatment was increased the adherence of zeolite particle and polymer. Membranes treated at 180 °C for 15 seconds indicated increase the rejection and small decrease in flux for produced water treatment.

  9. Beneficial Immune Effects of Myeloid-Related Proteins in Kidney Transplant Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekers, N. V.; Bajema, I. M.; Mallat, M. J. K.; Petersen, B.; Anholts, J. D. H.; Swings, G. M. J. S.; van Miert, P. P. M. C.; Kerkhoff, C.; Roth, J.; Popp, D.; van Groningen, M. C.; Baeten, D.; Goemaere, N.; Kraaij, M. D.; Zandbergen, M.; Heidt, S.; van Kooten, C.; de Fijter, J. W.; Claas, F. H. J.; Eikmans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute rejection is a risk factor for inferior long-term kidney transplant survival. Although T cell immunity is considered the main effector in clinical acute rejection, the role of myeloid cells is less clear. Expression of S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) and S100A9 was evaluated in 303

  10. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Makarova, Dasha; Evans, David; Clark, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  11. Entropy-Based Clutter Rejection for Intrawall Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Solimene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrawall diagnostic problem of detecting localized inhomogeneities possibly present within the wall is addressed. As well known, clutter arising from masonry structure can impair detection of embedded scatterers due to high amplitude reflections that wall front face introduces. Moreover, internal multiple reflections also can make it difficult ground penetrating radar images (radargramms interpretation. To counteract these drawbacks, a clutter rejection method, properly tailored on the wall features, is mandatory. To this end, here we employ a windowing strategy based on entropy measures of temporal traces “similarity.” Accordingly, instants of time for which radargramms exhibit entropy values greater than a prescribed threshold are “silenced.” Numerical results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the entropy-based clutter rejection algorithm. Moreover, a comparison with the standard average trace subtraction is also included.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Air-Based Heat Rejection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Fugmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Number of Transfer Units (NTU method a functional relation between electric power for fans/pumps and effectiveness in dry coolers and wet cooling towers is developed. Based on this relation, a graphical presentation method of monitoring and simulation data of heat rejection units is introduced. The functional relation allows evaluating the thermodynamic performance of differently sized heat rejection units and comparing performance among them. The method is used to evaluate monitoring data of dry coolers of different solar cooling field projects. The novelty of this approach is that performance rating is not limited by a design point or standardized operating conditions of the heat exchanger, but is realizable under flexible conditions.

  13. Adaptation of Rejection Algorithms for a Radar Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the algorithms for adaptive rejection of a radar clutter are synthesized for the case of a priori unknown spectral-correlation characteristics at wobbulation of a repetition period of the radar signal. The synthesis of algorithms for the non-recursive adaptive rejection filter (ARF of a given order is reduced to determination of the vector of weighting coefficients, which realizes the best effectiveness index for radar signal extraction from the moving targets on the background of the received clutter. As the effectiveness criterion, we consider the averaged (over the Doppler signal phase shift improvement coefficient for a signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR. On the base of extreme properties of the characteristic numbers (eigennumbers of the matrices, the optimal vector (according to this criterion maximum is defined as the eigenvector of the clutter correlation matrix corresponding to its minimal eigenvalue. The general type of the vector of optimal ARF weighting coefficients is de-termined and specific adaptive algorithms depending upon the ARF order are obtained, which in the specific cases can be reduced to the known algorithms confirming its authenticity. The comparative analysis of the synthesized and known algorithms is performed. Significant bene-fits are established in clutter rejection effectiveness by the offered processing algorithms compared to the known processing algorithms.

  14. CD28 Family and Chronic Rejection: “To Belatacept...and Beyond!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidneys are one of the most frequently transplanted human organs. Immunosuppressive agents may prevent or reverse most acute rejection episodes; however, the graft may still succumb to chronic rejection. The immunological response involved in the chronic rejection process depends on both innate and adaptive immune response. T lymphocytes have a pivotal role in chronic rejection in adaptive immune response. Meanwhile, we aim to present a general overview on the state-of-the-art knowledge of the strategies used for manipulating the lymphocyte activation mechanisms involved in allografts, with emphasis on T-lymphocyte costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules of the B7-CD28 superfamily. A deeper understanding of the structure and function of these molecules improves both the knowledge of the immune system itself and their potential action as rejection inducers or tolerance promoters. In this context, the central role played by CD28 family, especially the relationship between CD28 and CTLA-4, becomes an interesting target for the development of immune-based therapies aiming to increase the survival rate of allografts and to decrease autoimmune phenomena. Good results obtained by the recent development of abatacept and belatacept with potential clinical use aroused better expectations concerning the outcome of transplanted patients.

  15. Genome based analyses of six hexacorallian species reject the “naked coral” hypothesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin; Drillon, Gué nola; Ryu, Taewoo; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Scleractinian corals are the foundation species of the coral-reef ecosystem. Their calcium carbonate skeletons form extensive structures that are home to millions of species, making coral reefs one of the most diverse ecosystems of our planet. However, our understanding of how reef-building corals have evolved the ability to calcify and become the ecosystem builders they are today is hampered by uncertain relationships within their subclass Hexacorallia. Corallimorpharians have been proposed to originate from a complex scleractinian ancestor that lost the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification, suggesting the possibility for corals to lose and gain the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach using whole-genome data from six hexacorallian species to resolve the evolutionary relationship between reef-building corals and their non-calcifying relatives. Phylogenetic analysis based on 1,421 single-copy orthologs, as well as gene presence/absence and synteny information, converged on the same topologies, showing strong support for scleractinian monophyly and a corallimorpharian sister clade. Our broad phylogenomic approach using sequence-based and sequence-independent analyses provides unambiguous evidence for the monophyly of scleractinian corals and the rejection of corallimorpharians as descendants of a complex coral ancestor.

  16. Genome based analyses of six hexacorallian species reject the “naked coral” hypothesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2017-09-23

    Scleractinian corals are the foundation species of the coral-reef ecosystem. Their calcium carbonate skeletons form extensive structures that are home to millions of species, making coral reefs one of the most diverse ecosystems of our planet. However, our understanding of how reef-building corals have evolved the ability to calcify and become the ecosystem builders they are today is hampered by uncertain relationships within their subclass Hexacorallia. Corallimorpharians have been proposed to originate from a complex scleractinian ancestor that lost the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification, suggesting the possibility for corals to lose and gain the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach using whole-genome data from six hexacorallian species to resolve the evolutionary relationship between reef-building corals and their non-calcifying relatives. Phylogenetic analysis based on 1,421 single-copy orthologs, as well as gene presence/absence and synteny information, converged on the same topologies, showing strong support for scleractinian monophyly and a corallimorpharian sister clade. Our broad phylogenomic approach using sequence-based and sequence-independent analyses provides unambiguous evidence for the monophyly of scleractinian corals and the rejection of corallimorpharians as descendants of a complex coral ancestor.

  17. Trajectories of Italian Children's Peer Rejection: Associations with Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, Physical Attractiveness, and Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Thartori, Eriona; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Baumgartner, Emma; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Enders, Craig K

    2017-12-08

    In the present study, the predictors and outcomes associated with the trajectories of peer rejection were examined in a longitudinal sample of Italian children (338 boys, 269 girls) ages 10 to 14 years. Follow-up assessments included 60% of the original sample at age 16-17. Low, medium, and high rejection trajectory groups were identified using growth mixture models. Consistent with previous studies, we found that (a) being less prosocial and more physically aggressive at age 10 was characteristic of those children with the high rejection trajectory; (b) being less attractive was related to higher peer rejection from age 10 to 14; and (c) boys with a high rejection trajectory showed high levels of delinquency and anxiety-depression and low levels of academic aspiration at age 16-17, whereas girls with a high rejection trajectory showed low levels of academic aspiration and social competence at age 16-17. Our findings indicate the detrimental consequences of peer rejection on children's development and adjustment and shed light on the mechanisms that contribute to maintaining or worsening (e.g., being attractive, prosocial, and aggressive) a child's negative status (e.g., being rejected) within his or her peer group over time.

  18. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby D Dunn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  19. Abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence as a unique solution to control the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A S A; Massoud, M A; Abdel-Megeed, A A M; Hamid, N A; Mourad, A K K; Barakat, A S T

    2007-01-01

    Field trails were conducted to determine the performance of three different sequences as a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the two successive seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, during the evaluation period, the side effect against the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was put into consideration. Meanwhile, the comparative evaluation of the pesticides alone showed that abamectin and azadirachtin were highly effective against Liriomyza trifolii, while carbosulfan, pymetrozine and thiamethoxam provided to be of a moderate effect. Moreover, carbosulfan showed harmful effect to the larvae of the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker), while abamectin and azadirachtin gave a moderate effect. Thiamethoxam and the the detergent (Masrol 410) had slight effect in this respect. The highly effective sequence among the sequences was abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin, against Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), with slight harmful effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). However the sequence of azadirachtin, pymetrozine and abamectin had a moderate effect on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and exhibited a slight toxic effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). In contrast, the sequence of carbosulfan, thiamethoxam and pymetrozine was the least effective and represented a slight effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). From this study, it was concluded that abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence has proved to be a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

  20. COTRANSA simulation of Chinshan unit one generator load rejection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation of the plant behavior during a BWR generator load rejection transient using Exxon Nuclear Company's COTRANSA code is presented in this paper. The results are compared to measurements obtained by Taiwan Power Company during a generator load rejection transient, initiated at full power condition, which was one of the Chinshan Unit 1 initial cycle startup tests. Good agreement between the COTRANSA predicted and the measured values, indicates that the COTRANSA code can simulate this transient satisfactorily

  1. PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhideja ŠURBANOVSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper analyzes the parental acceptance or rejection and the emotional intelligence among adolescents with and without delinquent behavior. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to explore the differences between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among adolescentswith and without delinquent behavior, as well as the correlation between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among minors with delinquent behavior. Methods: The survey was conducted on two groups of adolescents, that is, 30 respondents serving a prison sentence for minors and/or have been imposed an educational measure of referral to an Educational and Correctional Facility aged 14 to 18, and 40 respondents that are secondary school students at the same age. In this research, the terms minors and adolescents both refer to persons aged 14-18 years. All respondents were males. The following measuring instruments were used: Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire and a Questionnaire for Measuring Emotional Intelligence – 45. Results: Minors with and without delinquent behavior differ considerably in terms of perceiving parental acceptance (by the mother and by the father, aggressiveness, neglect and undifferentiated rejection. The feeling of being rejected by the parents is more common among minors with delinquent behavior than in those without such behavior. Furthermore, minors with delinquent behavior have lower emotional intelligence compared with their peers without delinquent behavior. Positive associations were found between parental acceptance and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Minors with delinquent behavior have experienced lower acceptance and higher rejection from the parents and have lower emotional intelligence than their peers without delinquent behavior. In general, parental acceptance is associated with

  2. The Lived Experience of Psoriasis Patients from Social Stigma and Rejection: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Zarea, Kourosh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2016-07-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic skin disease that causes challenges such as stigma and labeling from both the community and individuals due to its effects on appearance. The objective of this study was to describe and explain the social stigma and rejection experienced by patients with psoriasis. The present research is a qualitative study with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach conducted among psoriasis patients referring to the dermatology clinic and ward of Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahvaz, Iran between June and December 2014. In this study, 15 patients with psoriasis were selected by purposeful sampling, and they were asked to express their experience of stigma and rejection. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews, and Diekelmann and colleagues' method was used for data analysis. After analysis of interviews, four themes were extracted: lack of social support, unrealistic and inappropriate labeling, rejection and isolation, and feeling of absurdity and futility. These can be indicative of the patients' experience from social stigma and rejection phenomena. Patients' experiences of stigma and rejection phenomena indicated that all aspects of their lives are affected. Moreover, these findings highlight the significance of stigma and rejection concepts in providing better care to these patients.

  3. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

  4. Dynamic Sequence Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR

  5. Neutral Pion Rejection at L2 using the CMS Endcap Preshower

    CERN Document Server

    Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Mousa, Jehad; Seez, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Applying a general Artificial Neural Network approach, we have examined the possibility of neutral pion rejection at the Level 2 Trigger stage ( L2) principally using information from the CMS Endcap Preshower. We have studied both pion/photon and pion/electron discrimination. For L2 the hope was to achieve some useful pion/electron discrimination for a high electron efficiency. For a single electron/photon efficiency of 95% the results show that no useful rejection of neutral pions against electrons/photons can be obtained using this algorithm alone, due to the presence of tracker material. If the efficiency is lowered or information from the tracker is available, the rejection can increase dramatically. This will be the case for off-line analyses.

  6. Soluble CD30 for the prediction and detection of kidney transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro

    2009-09-01

    Although safer and more effective immunosuppressants as well as enhanced immunosuppressive protocols are continuously being developed in order to increase graft survival, they come at the steep price of drug-related complications and important side effects. In addition, the value of panel reactive antibodies determination, which at present is the single most used indicator of an increased risk of transplant rejection, is now being reevaluated. Therefore, effective tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy minimizing the above-mentioned pitfalls requires the existence of dependable biomarkers that adequately monitor rejection risk both before and after transplantation. Here we review the data yielded by studies assessing the usefulness of measuring soluble CD30 levels (sCD30) in kidney transplant rejection. These data collectively show that sCD30 serum content has a considerable predictive/diagnostic value for acute rejection of renal grafts, particularly when measured a few days after transplantation. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of hyperacute kidney rejection in different xenogeneic system by 133xenon washout technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter, H.; Schmidt, K.R.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hammer, C.; Chaussy, C.

    1980-01-01

    1. 133 Xenon washout technique is suitable for studying all stages of xenogeneic kidney rejection. 2. Follow-up studies allow differentiation between kidney rejection and kidneys in shock. 3. Changes of intrarenal blood flow distribution correlate with the histologic changes caused by rejection. 4. Total blood flow measurements employing 133 xenon washout yield 10-20% lower values compared with venous outflow measurements. 5. Graft rejection in the xenogeneic cat-dog system can be significantly delayed by ALG pretreatment. 6. The beneficial effect of blood transfusion described in different clinical and experimental studies could not be found after pretreatment of dogs with fox red blood cells. (orig.)

  8. Prefrontal recruitment during social rejection predicts greater subsequent self-regulatory imbalance and impairment: neural and longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2014-11-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region's inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Tate, David J.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Strober, Samuel; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short and long-term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of cardiac transplant rejection. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 cardiac transplant patients. In 37 patients, TLI was administered for intractable allograft rejection despite conventional therapy while 10 patients received TLI prophylactically. The prescribed radiation dose was 8 Gy in 0.8 Gy fractions twice weekly to mantle and inverted-Y plus spleen fields. Postirradiation follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years, with a mean of 3.1 years. Results: The actual mean dose was 7.3 Gy delivered over a mean of 39 days. Fifty-six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, rejection rates dropped from 0.46 to 0.14 and to 0.06 episodes/patient/month before, during, and after TLI (p < 0.0001). Rejection rates continued to drop throughout follow-up. Prednisone requirements decreased from 0.41 mg/kg before treatment to 0.21 mg/kg afterward (p < 0.0001). The ratio of helper to cytotoxic-suppressor T-cells decreased during TLI from 1.33 to 0.89, and remained low at 0.44, 2-4 months after treatment. Infection rates were not increased and two patients developed malignancy. Rejection rates were high during prophylactic treatment and this protocol was abandoned. Three-year actuarial survival after irradiation was 60% for patients with intractable rejection and 70% for the prophylactic cohort. Conclusion: TLI is an effective treatment for control of intractable cardiac rejection. Episodes of rejection and steroid dosage requirements are decreased for up to 9.1 years. A possible mechanism of action is long term alteration in T-lymphocyte subsets. Patients experience transient bone marrow suppression but no increase in infection or bleeding. Long-term complications of TLI are not

  10. Responder Feelings in a Three-Player Three-Option Ultimatum Game: Affective Determinants of Rejection Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rüdiger Pfister

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of affect and emotions in shaping the behavior of responders in the ultimatum game. A huge amount of research shows that players do not behave in an economically rational way in the ultimatum game, and emotional mechanisms have been proposed as a possible explanation. In particular, feelings of fairness, anger and envy are likely candidates as affective determinants. We introduce a three-player ultimatum game with three-options, which permits the responder to either penalize the proposer or to penalize a third party by rejecting offers. This allows for partially distinguishing rejections due to a retaliation motive driven by anger towards the proposer from rejections due to inequity aversion driven by feelings of envy towards a third party. Results from two experiments suggest that responders experience feelings of dissatisfaction and unfairness if their share is small in comparison to the proposer���s share; anger, then, may trigger rejections towards the proposer. Responders also experience dissatisfaction and envy when third party shares exceed their own shares; however, in contrast to anger, envy does not trigger rejections and is dissociated from the decision to accept or reject an offer. We conclude that acting upon anger is socially acceptable, whereas envy is not acceptable as a reason for action. Furthermore, we find that responders generally feel better after rejections, suggesting that rejections serve to regulate one’s affective state.

  11. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous 111 In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures

  12. Culture-Based Rejection of Taboo-Infringing Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice William D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study analyzes the cultural basis of the United States market response to imported Spanish products that seem to violate strongly-held cultural taboos. Survey responses were obtained from students in two contrasting majors, Art and Business, in two distinct cities and universities, i.e. Little Rock at the University of Arkansas, and Dominguez Hills at California State University. The study focused on a baby doll marketed to piggy-back on the new movement towards breastfeeding babies. Although accepted in its original European market, the United States media reports strong moral objections to this product among U. S. citizens. The toy was overwhelmingly rejected in some, but not all, population sub-groups. This study attempts to discern the cultural basis for product rejection by comparing responses between regions, college majors, genders and gender/major combinations. Differences in acceptance between groups are correlated with specific cultural constructs.

  13. 'The Unhealthy Other': How vaccine rejecting parents construct the vaccinating mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, Katie; Smith, David T; Ward, Paul R

    2018-03-14

    To address the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy and rejection, researchers increasingly recognise the need to engage with the social context of parents' decision-making. This study examines how vaccine rejecting parents socially construct the vaccinating mainstream in opposition to themselves. We analyse qualitative data from interviews with parents in Adelaide, South Australia. Applying insights from Social Identity Theory (SIT), we show how these parents bolster their own sense of identity and self-belief by employing a discourse that casts vaccinators as an Unhealthy Other. We demonstrate how the parents identify vaccination as a marker of parental conformity to the 'toxic practices of mass industrial society', linking it to other ways in which membership of the consumerist mainstream requires individuals to 'neglect their health.' This is explored through themes of appearance, diet, (over) consumption of pharmaceuticals, inadequate parenting values and wilful or misguided ignorance. This construction of the Unhealthy Other elevates the self-concept of vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents, who see themselves as part of an enlightened, but constantly besieged, group of healthy and virtuous parents. It is common for the vaccinating mainstream to present vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents as a group subject to epistemic closure, groupthink, confirmation bias and over-confidence in their own expertise. However, vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents also see mainstream society as a group-a much larger one-subject to the same problems. We suggest the need to mitigate the 'groupness' of vaccination and non-vaccination by extending the practice of vaccination to recognisable practitioners of holistic health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Background rejection in NEXT using deep neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the potential of using deep learning techniques to reject background events in searches for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure xenon time projection chambers capable of detailed track reconstruction. The differences in the topological signatures of background and signal events can be learned by deep neural networks via training over many thousands of events. These networks can then be used to classify further events as signal or background, providing an additional background rejection factor at an acceptable loss of efficiency. The networks trained in this study performed better than previous methods developed based on the use of the same topological signatures by a factor of 1.2 to 1.6, and there is potential for further improvement.

  15. Background rejection in NEXT using deep neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, J.; Farbin, A.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Botas, A.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we investigate the potential of using deep learning techniques to reject background events in searches for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure xenon time projection chambers capable of detailed track reconstruction. The differences in the topological signatures of background and signal events can be learned by deep neural networks via training over many thousands of events. These networks can then be used to classify further events as signal or background, providing an additional background rejection factor at an acceptable loss of efficiency. The networks trained in this study performed better than previous methods developed based on the use of the same topological signatures by a factor of 1.2 to 1.6, and there is potential for further improvement.

  16. Ventricular function during the acute rejection of heterotopic transplanted heart: Gated blood pool studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, H.; Bourguignon, M.H.; Desruennes, M.; Merlet, P.; Le Guludec, D.; Syrota, A.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty patients who had undergone a heterotopic heart transplant were studied prospectively to determine the relationship between rejection and ventricular dysfunction assessed from gated blood pool studies. A fully automated method for detecting ventricular edges was implemented; its success rate for the grafted left and right ventricles was 94% and 77%, respectively. The parameters, peak ejection and filling rates, were calculated pixel per pixel using a two-harmonic Fourier algorithm and then averaged over the ventricular region of interest. Peak filling and ejection rates were closely related with the severity of the rejection, while the left ventricular ejection fraction was not. Peak filling rates of both ventricles were the indices closely related to the presence of moderate rejection. Despite the low number of patients, these data suggested that gated blood pool derived indices of ventricular function are associated with ventricular dysfunction resulting from myocarditis rejection. Radionuclide ventriculography provides parametric data which are accurate and reliable for the diagnosis of rejection. (orig.)

  17. Comprehending emotional eating in obese youngsters: the role of parental rejection and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, J; Moens, E; Braet, C

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion regulation in the relation between parental rejection and emotional eating of obese youngsters. Participants were 110 obese youngsters between the ages of 10 and 16 years who were referred to a Belgian treatment centre for obesity. Participants completed questionnaires assessing maternal and paternal rejection, emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating during their intake at the treatment centre. Bootstrapping procedure was used to test if emotion regulation mediated the relationship between maternal and paternal rejection on the one hand and emotional eating of the youngster on the other hand. Results revealed that the use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between maternal rejection and emotional eating. Paternal rejection was neither associated with the emotion regulation nor with the emotional eating of the youngster. The findings highlight the importance of assessing the emotional bond between mother and child and the emotion regulation of the youngster in the treatment of pediatric obesity.

  18. Significance of {sup 99m}Tc-tin Colloid Scan in Rejection of Transplanted Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Taik; Park, Seon Yang; Kim, Sung Yang; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    Renal transplant uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid was evaluated in 26 patients. Seventy-seven examinations were performed comparing transplant with bone marrow activity, clinical and/or pathological diagnosis. There were 13 instances of acute rejection; 7 of these exhibited slight uptake of radiocolloid in the renal transplant, 1 had marked uptake, and 5 had no evidence of uptake. There were 7 instances of chronic rejection; 5 of which demonstrated marked transplant uptake of radiocolloid, 1 had slight uptake, and 1 had no evidence of uptake. There were 2 instances of acute tubular necrosis and 55 instances of normal transplant function, but none of these exhibited transplant uptake of radiocolloid. From the result, the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid by renal transplant appears to signal rejection as long as the vascular supply is not severely compromised. Acute rejection may be represented by slight radiocolloid uptake, and chronic rejection by marked uptake when compared to bone marrow activity.

  19. High serum soluble CD30 does not predict acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Höckerstedt, K; Isoniemi, H

    2006-12-01

    Increased pre- and posttransplantation values of soluble CD30 (sCD30) have been shown to be associated with acute kidney transplant rejection. We sought to study whether high sCD30 could predict rejection early after liver transplantation. The study population included 54 consecutive liver transplant patients, whose samples were collected before liver transplantation and at discharge, which was at a mean time of 3 weeks after transplantation. During the first 6 months posttransplantation, 22 patients experienced an acute rejection episode. Serum sCD30 concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay; changes in serum sCD30 levels posttransplantation were also expressed as relative values compared with pretransplantation results. Liver patients before transplantation displayed higher serum sCD30 values compared with healthy controls: mean values +/- SD were 93 +/- 58 IU/mL vs 17 +/- 8 IU/mL, respectively. At 3 weeks after transplantation the mean sCD30 concentration in liver transplant patients decreased to 59 +/- 42 IU/mL (P = .005). The mean pretransplantation serum sCD30 value was slightly lower among rejecting vs nonrejecting patients: 78 +/- 43 IU/mL vs 104 +/- 65 IU/mL (P = NS). Posttransplantation values in both groups decreased significantly: 47 +/- 34 IU/mL in patients with rejection (P = .014) vs 69 +/- 45 IU/mL in patients without rejection (P = .012). The relative value at 3 weeks posttransplantation decreased slightly more among patients with vs without rejection (70% vs 88%; NS). No correlation was found between serum sCD30 and anti-HLA class I antibodies or crossmatch positivity. In conclusion, neither pre- nor posttransplantation sCD30 levels were associated with acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

  20. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  1. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  2. Detection of the immunologic rejection after xeno-islet transplantation: a study by MR imaging enhanced with superparamagnetic iron oxide marking CD4+ T cell antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Wei; Tang Yiya; Rong Pengfei; Ye Bin; Ye Zheng; Tong Qiongjuan; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the diagnosis of the early immunologic rejection after xeno-islet transplantation by MR imaging enhanced with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) marking CD4 + T cell antibody. Methods: Two thousand neonatal porcine islets (NPI)were transplanted under the left renal capsule of BALB/C nude mice. When the grafts could be observed by MRI, 10 7 human PBMC was intraperitoneal injected to nude mouse models to reconstitute the human immunologic system, 20 mice were reconstituted. Before and 3,7,14 days after reconstitution of human immunologic system on BALB/C nude mice, MRI imaging was performed half an hour after intravenous injection of nano-immunomagnetic beads via vena caudatis to observe the grafts' MRI signal. BALB/C nude mice were sacrificed after MRI scanning immediately, the histopathologic examination was assessed on grafts, the results were compared with MRI results. And calculate the sensitivity, specificity, Youden index number and coincidence of the MRI for immunologic rejection. Results: Grafts can be observed by MRI 3 weeks after islet cell transplantation (before immunologic rejection modeling), there is no abnormal MRI signal detected in nude mice' graft region after microbeads injected. Seven days after building of immunologic rejection model, MRI hypo-signal in graft site is shown in the T 2 WI sequence after nano-bioprober injected. Histopathologic assessments were employed on grafts in nude mice immediately (HE and immunohistochemistry staining), the results shown that there are a lot of T lymphocyts infiltrated in graft region, implying the occurrence of immunologic rejection. And the sensitivity, specificity, Youden index number and coincidence is: (72.96±0.24)%, 100%, 0.73±0.24, (88.46±0.13)% respectively. The correct Kappa between the MRI and the imunohistochemistry staining was 0.76. Conclusion: The cellular immunological rejection to xeno-islet grarts can be assessed with nano-bioprobe with anti-CD4

  3. Perceived parental rejection mediates the effects of previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural problems, parental rejection scores and child abuse ... evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist (parental version), the Memories of Parental Rearing ... However, mental illness had no moderating effect on these relationships.

  4. Utility of indium-111 labelled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.; Roca, M.; Grino, J.M.; Paradell, C.; Caralps, A.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111 labelled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection was studied. The method is based on imaging of the graft area at 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the injection of the labelled cells. The study was done in 21 renal cadaveric transplant recipients: control group: four patients without evidence of rejection. No platelet uptake was observed in any of them. Study group: in 13 patients with acute rejection and 1 with chronic rejection graft tracer uptake was seen. In the 3 others with a non-immunological sudden impairment of renal function, no activity was detected in graft area. Changes in renal platelet trapping correlated with response to antirejection therapy

  5. The embodiment design of the heat rejection system for the portable life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Francois, Jason; Laughlin, Julia; Phillips, Lee; Carrion, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) provides a suitable environment for the astronaut in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), and the heat rejection system controls the thermal conditions in the space suit. The current PLSS sublimates water to the space environment; therefore, the system loses mass. Since additional supplies of fluid must be available on the Space Shuttle, NASA desires a closed heat rejecting system. This document presents the embodiment design for a radiative plate heat rejection system without mass transfer to the space environment. This project will transform the concept variant into a design complete with material selection, dimensions of the system, layouts of the heat rejection system, suggestions for manufacturing, and financial viability.

  6. Research on rejection performance of reverse osmosis to manganese in simulated radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Wang Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the performance of reverse osmosis applied in the radioactive wastewater treatment, treatment experiments are carried out on a pilot RO equipment using wastewater containing manganese nuclide. Results show that the rejection ratio of RO to manganese is almost not influenced by the operation pressure and the ration of reclaiming, and has no direct relation with the salt rejection ratio. The ratio of manganese rejection is more than 95% and can meet the requirement on the disposal of radioactive wastewater produced by pressurized water reactors. (authors)

  7. Attachment Style and Rejection Sensitivity: The Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Worry Among Iranian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Khoshkam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the relations between anxious attachment styles and rejection sensitivity, and the potential mediating role of self-esteem and worry. A sample of 125 Iranian college students completed surveys assessing rejection sensitivity, attachment style, worry and self-esteem. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM analyses were conducted. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship between anxious attachment styles and rejection sensitivity. The study suggests that a higher score in anxious attachment styles is associated with a higher level of worry and lower level of self-esteem and it is also associated with higher level of rejection sensitivity. Furthermore, there is a positive significant relationship between worry and rejection sensitivity and there is a negative significant relationship between self-esteem and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that self-esteem and worry mediate the relationship between anxious attachment styles and rejection sensitivity.

  8. [Combined assay of soluble CD30 and hepatocyte growth factor for diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-jiang; Yu, Li-xin; Xu, Jian; Fu, Shao-jie; Deng, Wen-feng; Du, Chuan-fu; Wang, Yi-bin

    2008-02-01

    To study the value of detection of both preoperative soluble CD30 (sCD30) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) level 5 days after transplantation in the diagnosis of acute rejection of renal allograft. Preoperative serum sCD30 levels and HGF level 5 days after transplantation were determined in 65 renal-transplant recipients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The recipients were divided according to the sCD30 levels positivity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the value of HGF level on day 5 posttransplantation for diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection, and the value of combined assay of the sCD30 and HGF levels was also estimated. After transplantation, 26 recipients developed graft rejection and 39 had uneventful recovery without rejection. With the cut-off value of sCD30 of 120 U/ml, the positivity rate of sCD30 was significantly higher in recipients with graft rejection than in those without (61.5% vs 17.9%, Pacute rejection showed also significantly higher HGF levels on day 5 posttransplantation than those without rejection (Pacute renal allograft rejection, and at the cut-off value of 90 ug/L, the diagnostic sensitivity was 84.6% and specificity 76.9%. Evaluation of both the sCD30 and HGF levels significantly enhanced the diagnostic accuracy of acute graft rejection. Combined assay of serum sCD30 and HGF levels offers a useful means for diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection.

  9. Diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection with indium-111 labeled platelets in cyclosporin treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    Rejection of heart transplants remains difficult to diagnose. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes accumulate in rat cardiac allografts when recipients are treated with Cyclosporin (Cy), even in the absence of clinical rejection. This presumably occurs because of the non-specific 'interstitial infiltration' caused by Cy. This study examines the usefulness of In-111 labeled platelets in differentiating experimental cardiac allograft rejection from Cy-induced tissue changes. The authors initially examined the migration patterns of syngeneic In-111 labeled platelets in groups of Lewis recipients of ACI cardiac allografts treated with IM Cy (10mg/kg) for 6-14 days. In addition, 10 control animals were not immunosuppressed, and 10 were treated with Cy but received Lewis cardiac isografts. Syngeneic In-111 platelets were injected IV into each animal 24 hours prior to sacrifice. Three to five rats from each group were killed at 3 ,7, 14, 21 and 28 days after transplantation and the % ID/gm in the transplanted hearts and native hearts were determined and correlated with histopathology. Untreated Lewis recipients rejected ACI hearts in 6.5 +- 0.4 days while Cy prolonged allograft survival in a variable fashion. In-111 platelet accumulation correlated well with the degree of rejection determined independently by histopathology. No significant In-111 platelet accumulation was detected in non-rejecting cardiac transplants or in native hearts in Cy treated or control animals. The results suggest that In-111 labeled platelets will be an effective agent for diagnosis of cardiac rejection, even in the presence of Cy treatment

  10. Music genre recognition with risk and rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore risk and rejection for music genre recognition (MGR) within the minimum risk framework of Bayesian classification. In this way, we attempt to give an MGR system knowledge that some misclassifications are worse than others, and that deferring classification to an expert may be a better...

  11. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoî t; Collet, Gaelle; Gallard, Hervé ; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Zbtb7a induction in alveolar macrophages is implicated in anti-HLA-mediated lung allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Deepak K; Zhou, Fangyu; Xu, Min; Huang, Jing; Tsuji, Moriya; Yu, Jinsheng; Hachem, Ramsey; Gelman, Andrew E; Bremner, Ross M; Smith, Michael A; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2017-07-12

    Chronic rejection significantly limits long-term success of solid organ transplantation. De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen after human lung transplantation predispose lung grafts to chronic rejection. We sought to delineate mediators and mechanisms of DSA pathogenesis and to define early inflammatory events that trigger chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients and obliterative airway disease, a correlate of human chronic rejection, in mouse. Induction of transcription factor zinc finger and BTB domain containing protein 7a (Zbtb7a) was an early response critical in the DSA-induced chronic rejection. A cohort of human lung transplant recipients who developed DSA and chronic rejection demonstrated greater Zbtb7a expression long before clinical diagnosis of chronic rejection compared to nonrejecting lung transplant recipients with stable pulmonary function. Expression of DSA-induced Zbtb7a was restricted to alveolar macrophages (AMs), and selective disruption of Zbtb7a in AMs resulted in less bronchiolar occlusion, low immune responses to lung-restricted self-antigens, and high protection from chronic rejection in mice. Additionally, in an allogeneic cell transfer protocol, antigen presentation by AMs was Zbtb7a-dependent where AMs deficient in Zbtb7a failed to induce antibody and T cell responses. Collectively, we demonstrate that AMs play an essential role in antibody-induced pathogenesis of chronic rejection by regulating early inflammation and lung-restricted humoral and cellular autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoît

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-05

    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  15. Mechanisms of allograft rejection of corneal endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Y.; Silverstein, A.M.; Prendergast, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The local intraocular graft-vs.-host (GVH) reaction, involving the destruction of the corneal endothelial cells of the rabbit host by sensitized donor lymphoid cells, has been used to study the mechanism of corneal allograft rejection. Pretreatment of donor cells with a specific mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-T cell antibody and complement suppresses the destructive reaction, suggesting that a cellular-immune mechanism is primarily involved. Pretreatment of donor cells with mitomycin-C completely abolishes the local GVH reaction, indicating that the effector lymphocytes must undergo mitosis within the eye before they can engage in target cell destruction. Finally, studies of the local GVH reaction in irradiated leukopenic recipients or in preinflamed rabbit eyes suggest that host leukocytes may contribute nonspecifically to enhance the destructive process. These studies show that the local ocular GVH reaction may provide a useful model for the study of the mechanisms involved in the rejection of corneal allografts

  16. Patient-reported non-adherence and immunosuppressant trough levels are associated with rejection after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jennifer; Reber, Sandra; Stoessel, Lisa; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Jank, Sabine; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Grundmann, Franziska; Vitinius, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Bertram, Anna; Erim, Yesim

    2017-03-29

    Different measures of non-adherence to immunosuppressant (IS) medication have been found to be associated with rejection episodes after successful transplantation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether graft rejection after renal transplantation is associated with patient-reported IS medication non-adherence and IS trough level variables (IS trough level variability and percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels). Patient-reported non-adherence, IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels, and acute biopsy-proven late allograft rejections were assessed in 267 adult renal transplant recipients who were ≥12 months post-transplantation. The rate of rejection was 13.5%. IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels as well as patient-reported non-adherence were all significantly and positively associated with rejection, but not with each other. Logistic regression analyses revealed that only the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels and age at transplantation remained significantly associated with rejection. Particularly, the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels is associated with acute rejections after kidney transplantation whereas IS trough level variability and patient-reported non-adherence seem to be of subordinate importance. Patient-reported non-adherence and IS trough level variables were not correlated; thus, non-adherence should always be measured in a multi-methodological approach. Further research concerning the best combination of non-adherence measures is needed.

  17. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R.S.; Pfund, D.M.; Myjak, M.J.; Kulisek, J.A.; Seifert, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land–water interfaces

  18. Reconsidering the generation time hypothesis based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence comparisons in annual and perennial angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiz-Palacios Omar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in plant annual/perennial habit are hypothesized to cause a generation time effect on divergence rates. Previous studies that compared rates of divergence for internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA in angiosperms have reached contradictory conclusions about whether differences in generation times (or other life history features are associated with divergence rate heterogeneity. We compared annual/perennial ITS divergence rates using published sequence data, employing sampling criteria to control for possible artifacts that might obscure any actual rate variation caused by annual/perennial differences. Results Relative rate tests employing ITS sequences from 16 phylogenetically-independent annual/perennial species pairs rejected rate homogeneity in only a few comparisons, with annuals more frequently exhibiting faster substitution rates. Treating branch length differences categorically (annual faster or perennial faster regardless of magnitude with a sign test often indicated an excess of annuals with faster substitution rates. Annuals showed an approximately 1.6-fold rate acceleration in nucleotide substitution models for ITS. Relative rates of three nuclear loci and two chloroplast regions for the annual Arabidopsis thaliana compared with two closely related Arabidopsis perennials indicated that divergence was faster for the annual. In contrast, A. thaliana ITS divergence rates were sometimes faster and sometimes slower than the perennial. In simulations, divergence rate differences of at least 3.5-fold were required to reject rate constancy in > 80 % of replicates using a nucleotide substitution model observed for the combination of ITS1 and ITS2. Simulations also showed that categorical treatment of branch length differences detected rate heterogeneity > 80% of the time with a 1.5-fold or greater rate difference. Conclusion Although rate homogeneity was not rejected

  19. An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find out the causes, number, percentage and sizes of rejected radiographic filmswith a view of adopting measures that will reduce the rate and number of rejected films. Radiology Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Over a two-year period (1 April 2002 to 31 March 2004), the total number of x-ray films utilized ...

  20. Radiation therapy for renal transplant rejection refractory to pulse steroids and OKT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, William R.; Rodriguez, Rey; Knechtle, Stuart J.; Pirsch, John D.; Sollinger, Hans W.; D'Alessandro, Anthony M.; Chappell, Rick; Belzer, Folkert O.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the response rate and kidney graft survival following local irradiation to the transplanted renal graft undergoing persistent rejection after medical management including pulse steroids and OKT3. The role of radiation for renal transplant rejection after failure of OKT3 has not been previously reported. Methods and Materials: From July 1, 1988 to July 1, 1994, 72 consecutive patients with kidney graft rejection were treated with local irradiation to the transplanted renal graft following failure of medical management. All patients received pulse steroids and OKT3, an anti-CD3 immunosuppressant. Patients who failed to respond to methylprednisolone and OKT3 therapy were referred for radiation therapy. The median time from the diagnosis of rejection to irradiation was 8 days. All kidney grafts received local graft irradiation to a total of 8 Gy delivered in four daily fractions. Results: Sixty (83%) patients initially responded to radiotherapy at 7 days after completion of radiotherapy, as defined by a decrease in serum creatinine. Thirty-five responding patients have not experienced a second episode of graft rejection. Overall, 43 (60%) patients have renal graft survival, with a median follow-up of 16 months (range of 6-73 months). Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a subgroup of kidney graft patients undergoing graft rejection who are refractory to pulse steroids and OKT3 therapy where irradiation may be an effective modality with high rates of response and a moderate rate of graft survival. However, a prospective, randomized trial in these medically refractory patients is needed to ascertain whether these results are clinically significant

  1. Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: Transactional links and dopaminergic moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Heel, Martijn; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated (1) reciprocal links among parental psychological control, peer rejection, and adolescent externalizing (aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour), and (2) the moderating effect of an adolescent genetic factor (biologically informed polygenic score for dopamine signalling). Three-year longitudinal data from 1,116 adolescents (51% boys; M age = 13.79) and their parents included psychological measures (adolescent-reported psychological control, peer-reported rejection, and parent-reported aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour). Cross-lagged analyses showed bidirectional effects between psychological control and both aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour and a unidirectional effect of peer rejection on both forms of problem behaviour over time. Multigroup structural equation modelling revealed genetic moderation only for rule-breaking behaviour: for adolescents with intermediate levels of dopamine signalling significant environmental effects were present, whereas adolescent effects of rule-breaking behaviour on psychological control were significant for adolescents with both intermediate and high profiles and effects on peer rejection only for adolescents with high dopamine profiles. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Parental psychological control is related to adolescent externalizing problems. Experiencing peer rejection reinforces aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. Single-gene studies show that dopaminergic genes influence externalizing problems directly or in interaction with the environment. What does this study add? Parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour exacerbate one another longitudinally. Longitudinal associations between peer rejection and both subtypes of externalizing behaviour are unidirectional. With a polygenic approach, dopaminergic moderation is present for rule-breaking behaviour only. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. CD16+ Monocytes and Skewed Macrophage Polarization toward M2 Type Hallmark Heart Transplant Acute Cellular Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bosch, Thierry P. P.; Caliskan, Kadir; Kraaij, Marina D.; Constantinescu, Alina A.; Manintveld, Olivier C.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.; von der Th?sen, Jan H.; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Baan, Carla C.; Rowshani, Ajda T.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during rejection. Here, we aimed to define and correlate monocyte-macrophage endomyocardial tissue profiles obtained at rejection and time points prior to rejection, with corresponding serial blood samples ...

  3. Rejection of unfair offers can be driven by negative emotions, evidence from modified ultimatum games with anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Nan; He, Xiao-Song; Sun, De-Lin; Zhang, Xiaochu; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The rejection of unfair offers can be affected by both negative emotions (e.g. anger and moral disgust) and deliberate cognitive processing of behavioral consequences (e.g. concerns of maintaining social fairness and protecting personal reputation). However, whether negative emotions are sufficient to motivate this behavior is still controversial. With modified ultimatum games, a recent study (Yamagishi T, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:11520-11523) found that people reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases inequity, and even when they could not communicate to the proposers. Yamagishi suggested that rejection of unfair offers could occur without people's concerning of maintaining social fairness, and could be driven by negative emotions. However, as anonymity was not sufficiently guaranteed in Yamagishi's study, the rejection rates in their experiments may have been influenced by people's concerns of protecting personal reputation (reputational concerns) in addition to negative emotions; thus, it was unclear whether the rejection was driven by negative emotions, or by reputational concerns, or both. In the present study, with specific methods to ensure anonymity, the effect of reputational concerns was successfully ruled out. We found that in a private situation in which rejection could not be driven by reputational concerns, the rejection rates of unfair offers were significantly larger than zero, and in public situations in which rejection rates could be influenced by both negative emotions and reputational concerns, rejection rates were significantly higher than that in the private situation. These results, together with Yamagishi's findings, provided more complete evidence suggesting (a) that the rejection of unfair offers can be driven by negative emotions and (b) that deliberate cognitive processing of the consequences of the behavior can increase the rejection rate, which may benefit social cooperation.

  4. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of maxillary positioning after standard and inverted orthognathic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritto, Fabio G; Ritto, Thiago G; Ribeiro, Danilo Passeado; Medeiros, Paulo José; de Moraes, Márcio

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of maxillary positioning after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, using 2 sequences. A total of 80 cephalograms (40 preoperative and 40 postoperative) from 40 patients were analyzed. Group 1 included radiographs of patients submitted to conventional sequence, whereas group 2 patients were submitted to inverted sequence. The final position of the maxillary central incisor was obtained after vertical and horizontal measurements of the tracings, and it was compared with what had been planned. The null hypothesis, which stated that there would be no difference between the groups, was tested. After applying the Welch t test for comparison of mean differences between maxillary desired and achieved position, considering a statistical significance of 5% and a 2-tailed test, the null hypothesis was not rejected (P > .05). Thus, there was no difference in the accuracy of maxillary positioning between groups. Conventional and inverted sequencing proved to be reliable in positioning the maxilla after LeFort I osteotomy in bimaxillary orthognathic surgeries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An audit of rejected repeated x-ray films as a quality assurance element in a radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, K C; Omodia, N; Okegbunam, B; Adewonyi, T; Nzotta, C C

    2008-12-01

    To find out the causes, number, percentage and sizes of rejected radiographic films with a view of adopting measures that will reduce the rate and number of rejected films. Radiology Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Over a two-year period (1st April 2002 to 31st March 2004), the total number of x-ray films utilized for radiographic examinations, rejected films and sizes of rejected films were collected retrospectively from the medical record of radiology department. All the rejected films were viewed by a radiologist and three radiographers for the causes of the rejects which was arrived at by consensus. The data was analysed. A total of 15,095 films were used in the study period and 1,338 films (8.86%) were rejected or wasted. The rate of rejected films varied from 7.69% to 13.82% with average of 8.86%. The greatest cause of film rejects was radiographers' faults 547 (40.88%), followed by equipments faults 255 (19.06%), and patients' faults 250 (18.90%). The highest reject rate (13.82%) was for films used for examination of the spine (15 x 30) cm size. This is followed by 9.92% for skull (18 x 24) cm films and 8.83% for small sized films (24 x 30) cm used for paediatric patients. Of a total of 1,338 rejected films, 1276 (95.37%) additional exposure were done to obtain the basic desired diagnostic information involving 1151 patients; 885 (76.89%) of these patients needed at least one additional hospital visit to take the repeat exposure. Rejected films are not billable; patients receive additional radiation and may even come to hospital in another day for the repeat. Radiographer's work is increased as well as that of the support staff. The waiting room may be congested and waiting time increased. The cost of processing chemical and films are increased, thus if work is quantified in monetary terms, the cost of repeats is high. Rejected-repeated film analysis is cheap, simple, practicable, easy to interpret and an effective indictor of quality assurance

  7. Peer Rejection in Middle School: Subgroup Differences in Behavior, Loneliness, and Interpersonal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Jennifer T.; Asher, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Studied patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Obtained data on seventh and eighth graders' loneliness, social dissatisfaction, and concerns. The combination of aggressiveness and submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior was associated with peer rejection. (GLR)

  8. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  9. Detection of rejection of canine orthotopic cardiac allografts with indium-111 lymphocytes and gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Rosenbloom, M.; Laschinger, J.C.; Saffitz, J.E.; Cox, J.L.; Sobel, B.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting canine heterotopic cardiac allograft rejection scintigraphically after administration of 111In lymphocytes. To determine whether the approach is capable of detecting rejection in orthotopic cardiac transplants in which labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool may reduce sensitivity, the present study was performed in which canine orthotopic cardiac transplants were evaluated in vivo. Immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine A (10-20 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 2 wk after transplantation. Subsequently, therapy was tapered. Five successful allografts were evaluated scintigraphically every 3 days after administration of 100-350 microCi 111In autologous lymphocytes. Correction for labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool, but not actively sequestered in the allografts was accomplished by administering 3-6 mCi 99mTc autologous erythrocytes and employing a previously validated blood-pool activity correction technique. Cardiac infiltration of labeled lymphocytes was quantified as percent indium excess (%IE), scintigraphically detectable 111In in the transplant compared with that in blood, and results were compared with those of concomitantly performed endomyocardial biopsy. Scintigraphic %IE for hearts not undergoing rejection manifest histologically was 0.7 +/- 0.4. Percent IE for rejecting hearts was 6.8 +/- 4.0 (p less than 0.05). Scintigraphy detected each episode of rejection detected by biopsy. Scintigraphic criteria for rejection (%IE greater than 2 s.d. above normal) were not manifest in any study in which biopsies did not show rejection. Since scintigraphic results with 111In-labeled lymphocytes were concordant with biopsy results in orthotopic cardiac transplants, noninvasive detection of graft rejection in patients should be attainable with the approach developed

  10. Renal and urinary levels of endothelial protein C receptor correlate with acute renal allograft rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Lattenist

    Full Text Available The Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR is expressed on leukocytes, on endothelium of large blood vessels and to a lesser extent on capillaries. Membrane bound EPCR plays an important role in the activation of protein C which has anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. After cleavage by a protease EPCR is also found as a soluble protein. Acute rejection of kidney allografts can be divided in T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR and antibody-mediated (ABMR rejection. The latter is characterized by strong activation of coagulation. Currently no reliable non-invasive biomarkers are available to monitor rejection. Renal biopsies were available from 81 renal transplant patients (33 without rejection, 26 TCMR and 22 ABMR, we had access to mRNA material, matched plasma and urine samples for a portion of this cohort. Renal EPCR expression was assessed by RT-PCR and immunostaining. Plasma and urine sEPCR levels were measured by ELISA. ABMR patients showed higher levels of EPCR mRNA than TCMR patients. EPCR expression on glomeruli was significantly elevated in ABMR patients than in TCMR or control patients. In the peritubular capillaries EPCR expression was higher in ABMR patients than in control patients. EPCR expression was higher in tubules and arteries of rejection patients than in control patients. Plasma sEPCR levels did not differ. Urine sEPCR levels were more elevated in the ABMR group than in patients with TCMR or without rejection. ROC analysis demonstrated that urinary sEPCR is appropriate to discriminate between ABMR patients and TCMR or control patients. We conclude that urinary sEPCR could be a novel non-invasive biomarker of antibody mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

  11. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Cilene León Bueno de Camargo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

  12. Family Planning: Between Rejection And Acceptance In Islam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Planning: Between Rejection And Acceptance In Islam. ... factor for health workers and policy makers to impact positively on their communities. ... who are likely to work in such communities for effective negotiation and application of ...

  13. Fractal MapReduce decomposition of sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic fall in the cost of genomic sequencing, and the increasing convenience of distributed cloud computing resources, positions the MapReduce coding pattern as a cornerstone of scalable bioinformatics algorithm development. In some cases an algorithm will find a natural distribution via use of map functions to process vectorized components, followed by a reduce of aggregate intermediate results. However, for some data analysis procedures such as sequence analysis, a more fundamental reformulation may be required. Results In this report we describe a solution to sequence comparison that can be thoroughly decomposed into multiple rounds of map and reduce operations. The route taken makes use of iterated maps, a fractal analysis technique, that has been found to provide a "alignment-free" solution to sequence analysis and comparison. That is, a solution that does not require dynamic programming, relying on a numeric Chaos Game Representation (CGR data structure. This claim is demonstrated in this report by calculating the length of the longest similar segment by inspecting only the USM coordinates of two analogous units: with no resort to dynamic programming. Conclusions The procedure described is an attempt at extreme decomposition and parallelization of sequence alignment in anticipation of a volume of genomic sequence data that cannot be met by current algorithmic frameworks. The solution found is delivered with a browser-based application (webApp, highlighting the browser's emergence as an environment for high performance distributed computing. Availability Public distribution of accompanying software library with open source and version control at http://usm.github.com. Also available as a webApp through Google Chrome's WebStore http://chrome.google.com/webstore: search with "usm".

  14. B-cell-mediated strategies to fight chronic allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Dalloul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after one year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of tolerant vs effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic

  15. A False Rejection Oriented Threat Model for the Design of Biometric Authentication Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Bazen, A.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    For applications like Terrorist Watch Lists and Smart Guns, a false rejection is more critical than a false acceptance. In this paper a new threat model focusing on false rejections is presented, and the 'standard' architecture of a biometric system is extended by adding components like crypto,

  16. Heterogeneity among Peer-Rejected Boys across Middle Childhood: Developmental Pathways of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Van Lieshout, Cornelius F. M.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified subgroups of rejected boys with different developmental pathways of aggression and prosocial behavior during middle childhood. Four subgroups were identified associated with different patterns of sociometric acceptance and rejection over time and with social emotional adjustment in the last measurement wave.…

  17. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation pursuant to the authority delegated to the Director in...

  18. Novel Techniques for Background / Foreground Rejection in Particle Instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Novel Techniques for Background / Foreground Rejection in Particle Instruments project addresses the need for signal contamination and background signal...

  19. In-111 oxine autologous labeled platelets in the diagnosis of kidney graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.; Roca, M.; Grino, J.M.; Paradell, C.; Caralps, C.

    1983-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111 oxine labeled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection was studied. The method is based on imaging of the graft area at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the injection of the labeled cells. The study was done in 31 renal transplant recipients. The control group included four patients with normal renal function without evidence of rejection. No platelet uptake was observed in any of them. The study group included 22 patients with acute rejection which was confirmed histologically in 13. One case of chronic vascular type rejection of the graft tracer uptake was seen. There was a false-positive result due to a perirenal hematoma. In three patients with a non-immunological sudden impairment of renal function, no activity was detected in the graft area. We also evaluated the changes in platelet trapping throughout the study and they seemed to correlate with the response to the antirejection therapy

  20. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity: implications for mental and physical health, affect, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E

    2007-04-01

    Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity (Appearance-RS) is a personality-processing system characterized by anxious concerns and expectations about being rejected based on one's physical attractiveness. People differ in their sensitivity to rejection based on appearance, with consequences for mental and physical health, self-esteem, affect, and feelings of belonging. Study 1 describes the development and validation of the Appearance-RS scale, its relation to personality variables and to health-related outcomes. Study 2 provides experimental evidence that high Appearance-RS people feel more alone and rejected when asked to think about negative aspects of their appearance. Finally, Study 3 tests ways to reduce the negative effects of receiving an appearance threat among high Appearance-RS participants. Specifically, high Appearance-RS participants who engaged in self-affirmation (thought of their personal strengths) or received a secure attachment prime (thought of a close, caring relationship) were buffered from the negative effects of an appearance threat on subsequent state self-esteem and mood.

  1. The outcast-lash-out effect in youth: alienation increases aggression following peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J; Boelen, Paul A; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Telch, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Although there are good theoretical reasons to believe that youth who are high in alienation (i.e., estranged from society, significant others, and themselves) are prone to behave aggressively, empirical evidence is lacking. The present experiment tested whether alienation moderates the effects of acute peer rejection on aggression in youth. Participants (N = 121; mean age = 11.5 years) completed a personal profile (e.g., "How do you describe yourself?") that was allegedly evaluated online by a panel of peer judges. After randomly receiving negative or positive feedback from peer judges, participants were given the opportunity to aggress against them (i.e., by reducing their monetary reward and by posting negative comments about them online). As predicted, alienation increased participants' aggression against peers who had rejected them, but not against peers who had praised them, even after controlling for peer-nominated chronic rejection and peer-nominated aggression. Thus, alienated youth are more aggressive than others when they experience acute peer rejection.

  2. An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, William; Gregory, Nilgun; Reay, Kathleen M; Rohner, Ronald P

    2018-05-01

    Both clinicians and forensic practitioners should distinguish parental alienation (rejection of a parent without legitimate justification) from other reasons for contact refusal. Alienated children-who were not abused-often engage in splitting and lack ambivalence with respect to the rejected parent; children who were maltreated usually perceive the abusive parent in an ambivalent manner. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) in identifying and quantifying the degree of splitting, which may assist in diagnosing parental alienation. Results showed that severely alienated children engaged in a high level of splitting, by perceiving the preferred parent in extremely positive terms and the rejected parent in extremely negative terms. Splitting was not manifested by the children in other family groups. The PARQ may be useful for both clinicians and forensic practitioners in evaluating children of divorced parents when there is a concern about the possible diagnosis of parental alienation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Comparison of acidic polymers for the removal of cobalt from water solutions by polymer assisted ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dambies, Laurent, E-mail: chemjobs@netcourrir.com [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Jaworska, Agnieszka, E-mail: a.jaworska@ichtj.waw.pl [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Sartowska, Bozena [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, three sulfonated water-soluble polymers based on poly(vinyl alcohol) of different molecular weights (10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 Da) were prepared and tested against commercially available poly(acrylic acid) for the removal of cobalt using polymer assisted ultrafiltration. High rejection rates were obtained between pH 3 and 6 with sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA 10,000 and 50,000 Da) whereas poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) of similar molecular weights performed rather poorly in this pH range. Sulfonation improved significantly sorption capability of PVA. Sulfonated PVA 10,000 was the best complexing agent with rejection rate above 95% between pH 3 and 6. For unmodified PVA the rejection rate was only 30-45% at pH 6 and there was no rejection at pH 3 at all. PAA rejection rate was above 90% at pH 6 and only about 10% at pH 3. Large scale experiment in cross-flow, continuous apparatus conducted by using PVA-SO{sub 3}H 10,000 Da to remove {sup 60}Co radioisotope from water solutions showed excellent results demonstrating the potential of this polymer to purify acidic radioactive wastes containing cobalt radioisotopes.

  4. Graft rejection episodes after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty: part two: the statistical analysis of probability and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M O; Jordan, C S; Moore, G; Price, F W

    2009-03-01

    To investigate risk factors and probability of initial immunological graft rejection episodes after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). Outcomes of 598 DSEK cases from a single tertiary referral centre were reviewed. Risk factors and probability of rejection were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards modelling. Rejection episodes occurred in 54 eyes of 48 patients. Estimated probability of a rejection episode was 7.6% by 1 year and 12% by 2 years after grafting. Relative risk of rejection was five times higher for African-American patients compared with Caucasians (p = 0.0002). Eyes with pre-existing glaucoma (9%) or steroid-responsive ocular hypertension (27%) had twice the relative risk of rejection (p = 0.045) compared with eyes that did not have those problems. Patient age, sex and corneal diagnosis did not significantly influence rejection risk. Risk of rejection was not increased when fellow eyes were grafted within 1 year of the first eye (p = 0.62). Pre-existing glaucoma or steroid-responsive ocular hypertension and race were the two factors that independently influenced relative risk of rejection after DSEK. Rejection risk was not increased if the fellow eye was grafted within the prior year with DSEK.

  5. Redistribution of wastewater alkalinity with a microbial fuel cell to support nitrification of reject water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke; Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    In wastewater treatment plants, the reject water from the sludge treatment processes typically contains high ammonium concentrations, which constitute a significant internal nitrogen load in the plant. Often, a separate nitrification reactor is used to treat the reject water before it is fed back into the plant. The nitrification reaction consumes alkalinity, which has to be replenished by dosing e.g. NaOH or Ca(OH)(2). In this study, we investigated the use of a two-compartment microbial fuel cell (MFC) to redistribute alkalinity from influent wastewater to support nitrification of reject water. In an MFC, alkalinity is consumed in the anode compartment and produced in the cathode compartment. We use this phenomenon and the fact that the influent wastewater flow is many times larger than the reject water flow to transfer alkalinity from the influent wastewater to the reject water. In a laboratory-scale system, ammonium oxidation of synthetic reject water passed through the cathode chamber of an MFC, increased from 73.8 ± 8.9 mgN/L under open-circuit conditions to 160.1 ± 4.8 mgN/L when a current of 1.96 ± 0.37 mA (15.1 mA/L total MFC liquid volume) was flowing through the MFC. These results demonstrated the positive effect of an MFC on ammonium oxidation of alkalinity-limited reject water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of 12-phase, 2-stage Harmonic Rejection Mixer for TV Tuners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage 12-phase harmonic rejection mixer (HRM for TV tuners is proposed in order to reject the local oscillator (LO harmonics up to the ninth order. The proposed weighing scheme for 12-phase, 2-stage harmonic mixing can reduce the harmonic rejection (HR sensitivity to the amplitude error caused by irrational numbers such as . To verify this HR, the 2-stage HR circuit is designed with baseband gm weighting in order to save power and improve the HR ratios without calibration. The proposed HRM achieves the third to ninth worst HR ratios, more than 55 dB, according to Monte Carlo simulations. It consumes 6.5 mA under a 2.5 V supply voltage.

  7. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thane A Militz

    Full Text Available A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886 was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%, Chaetodontidae (26.3%, and Acanthuridae (18.2% and lowest for Labridae (6.6% and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%. The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases, undersized fish (21.8%, and fish deemed too thin (11.1%. Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15 with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%. These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity.

  8. [The relationship between acute rejection and expression of sCD30 for the patients after kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Lin; Hao, Hong-Jun; Qin, Bin; Bang, Ling-Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Xin, Dian-Qi; Guo, Ying-Lu; Na, Yan-Qun

    2005-03-16

    To study the relationship between the sCD30 and acute rejection. We tested the sCD30 level in serum for 58 cases with kidney transplantation before and the 7th day and 28th day after operation by ELISA. 31 healthy individual for control group, and simultaneously recorded the incidence of rejection after kidney transplantation. The results showed that there is an obviously relation before kidney transplantation between the sCD30 level in serum and the incidence of acute rejection (chi = 4.843, P = 0.028, P kidney transplantation between the sCD30 level in serum and the incidence of acute rejection (chi = 7.201, P = 0.007, P kidney transplantation between the sCD30 level in serum and the incidence of acute rejection (chi = 2.095, P = 0.148, P > 0.05). The results suggested that the expressions of sCD30 are related to acute rejection. We speculated that the expressions of sCD30 could play an important role in acute rejection.

  9. Limbic justice--amygdala involvement in immediate rejection in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Gospic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have revealed a putative neural account of emotional bias in decision making. However, it has been difficult in previous studies to identify the causal role of the different sub-regions involved in decision making. The Ultimatum Game (UG is a game to study the punishment of norm-violating behavior. In a previous influential paper on UG it was suggested that frontal insular cortex has a pivotal role in the rejection response. This view has not been reconciled with a vast literature that attributes a crucial role in emotional decision making to a subcortical structure (i.e., amygdala. In this study we propose an anatomy-informed model that may join these views. We also present a design that detects the functional anatomical response to unfair proposals in a subcortical network that mediates rapid reactive responses. We used a functional MRI paradigm to study the early components of decision making and challenged our paradigm with the introduction of a pharmacological intervention to perturb the elicited behavioral and neural response. Benzodiazepine treatment decreased the rejection rate (from 37.6% to 19.0% concomitantly with a diminished amygdala response to unfair proposals, and this in spite of an unchanged feeling of unfairness and unchanged insular response. In the control group, rejection was directly linked to an increase in amygdala activity. These results allow a functional anatomical detection of the early neural components of rejection associated with the initial reactive emotional response. Thus, the act of immediate rejection seems to be mediated by the limbic system and is not solely driven by cortical processes, as previously suggested. Our results also prompt an ethical discussion as we demonstrated that a commonly used drug influences core functions in the human brain that underlie individual autonomy and economic decision making.

  10. A False Rejection Oriented Threat Model for the Design of Biometric Authentication Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Bazen, A.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Zhang, David; Jain, Anil K.

    For applications like Terrorist Watch Lists and Smart Guns, a false rejection is more critical than a false acceptance. In this paper a new threat model focusing on false rejections is presented, and the standard architecture of a biometric system is extended by adding components like crypto, audit

  11. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...... the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic retention time...... of by sending it back to the head of a wastewater treatment plant. The system has proven to reduce the mass of nitrogen, COD, and water in the reject water, and can possibly reduce phosphorus and other substances. The overall effect is a reduction in the substance recycle within a wastewater treatment plant...

  12. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  13. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko

    2006-01-01

    treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios......In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...

  14. A bedside technique for the diagnosis of acute rejection in renal transplants using 111-In platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, S.T.; Buckels, J.A.C.; Drolc, Z.; Hawker, R.J.; Barnes, A.D.; McCollum, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 33 patients was studied with the aim of developing a bedside method for providing early diagnosis of acute rejection using 111-In labelled platelets. Platelet deposition was detected in all patients suffering acute rejection. A significant increase in kidney/aortic arch ratio, as measured by the portable bedside system, preceded the clinical diagnosis in 70% of patients. Using this system, it appeared possible not only to diagnose acute rejection at an earlier stage but also to predict irrecoverable transplant loss even in the presence of tubular necrosis. By labelling the platelets repeatedly for at least two weeks after transplantation, the period of highest risk for acute rejection and other complications. The gamma camera should still be employed in the event of markedly increased platelet deposition to differentiate between rejection and vascular complications

  15. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-12-20

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

  16. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay to screen for acute rejection in patients with heart transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parag C; Hill, Douglas A; Ayers, Colby R; Lavingia, Bhavna; Kaiser, Patricia; Dyer, Adrian K; Barnes, Aliessa P; Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Stastny, Peter; Ring, W Steves; de Lemos, James A; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    A noninvasive biomarker that could accurately diagnose acute rejection (AR) in heart transplant recipients could obviate the need for surveillance endomyocardial biopsies. We assessed the performance metrics of a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay for this purpose. Stored serum samples were retrospectively matched to endomyocardial biopsies in 98 cardiac transplant recipients, who survived ≥3 months after transplant. AR was defined as International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade 2R or higher cellular rejection, acellular rejection, or allograft dysfunction of uncertain pathogenesis, leading to treatment for presumed rejection. cTnI was measured with a high-sensitivity assay (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL). Cross-sectional analyses determined the association of cTnI concentrations with rejection and International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade and the performance metrics of cTnI for the detection of AR. Among 98 subjects, 37% had ≥1 rejection episode. cTnI was measured in 418 serum samples, including 35 paired to a rejection episode. cTnI concentrations were significantly higher in rejection versus nonrejection samples (median, 57.1 versus 10.2 ng/L; P<0.0001) and increased in a graded manner with higher biopsy scores (P(trend)<0.0001). The c-statistic to discriminate AR was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.88). Using a cut point of 15 ng/L, sensitivity was 94%, specificity 60%, positive predictive value 18%, and negative predictive value 99%. A high-sensitivity cTnI assay seems useful to rule out AR in cardiac transplant recipients. If validated in prospective studies, a strategy of serial monitoring with a high-sensitivity cTnI assay may offer a low-cost noninvasive strategy for rejection surveillance. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Community rejection following sexual assault as ‘forced migration’

    OpenAIRE

    AJ Morgen

    2013-01-01

    When women are banished from their communities following sexual assault, this rejection should be considered an act of forced migration by the administrators of truth commission reparations programmes.

  18. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  19. A semi-learning algorithm for noise rejection: an fNIRS study on ADHD children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoko, Stephanie; Funane, Tsukasa; Katura, Takusige; Sato, Hiroki; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Monden, Yukifumi; Nagashima, Masako; Yamagata, Takanori; Dan, Ippeita

    2017-02-01

    In pediatrics studies, the quality of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals is often reduced by motion artifacts. These artifacts likely mislead brain functionality analysis, causing false discoveries. While noise correction methods and their performance have been investigated, these methods require several parameter assumptions that apparently result in noise overfitting. In contrast, the rejection of noisy signals serves as a preferable method because it maintains the originality of the signal waveform. Here, we describe a semi-learning algorithm to detect and eliminate noisy signals. The algorithm dynamically adjusts noise detection according to the predetermined noise criteria, which are spikes, unusual activation values (averaged amplitude signals within the brain activation period), and high activation variances (among trials). Criteria were sequentially organized in the algorithm and orderly assessed signals based on each criterion. By initially setting an acceptable rejection rate, particular criteria causing excessive data rejections are neglected, whereas others with tolerable rejections practically eliminate noises. fNIRS data measured during the attention response paradigm (oddball task) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were utilized to evaluate and optimize the algorithm's performance. This algorithm successfully substituted the visual noise identification done in the previous studies and consistently found significantly lower activation of the right prefrontal and parietal cortices in ADHD patients than in typical developing children. Thus, we conclude that the semi-learning algorithm confers more objective and standardized judgment for noise rejection and presents a promising alternative to visual noise rejection

  20. Interplay between immune responses to HLA and non-HLA self-antigens in allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaswamy, Nataraju; Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Sarma, Nayan J; Subramanian, Vijay; Klein, Christina; Wellen, Jason; Shenoy, Surendra; Chapman, William C; Mohanakumar, T

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies strongly suggest an increasing role for immune responses against self-antigens (Ags) which are not encoded by the major histocompatibility complex in the immunopathogenesis of allograft rejection. Although, improved surgical techniques coupled with improved methods to detect and avoid sensitization against donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have improved the immediate and short term function of transplanted organs. However, acute and chronic rejection still remains a vexing problem for the long term function of the transplanted organ. Immediately following organ transplantation, several factors both immune and non immune mechanisms lead to the development of local inflammatory milieu which sets the stage for allograft rejection. Traditionally, development of antibodies (Abs) against mismatched donor HLA have been implicated in the development of Ab mediated rejection. However, recent studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that development of humoral and cellular immune responses against non-HLA self-Ags may contribute in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection. There are reports demonstrating that immune responses to self-Ags especially Abs to the self-Ags as well as cellular immune responses especially through IL17 has significant pro-fibrotic properties leading to chronic allograft failure. This review summarizes recent studies demonstrating the role for immune responses to self-Ags in allograft immunity leading to rejection as well as present recent evidence suggesting there is interplay between allo- and autoimmunity leading to allograft dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Skills and Perceived Maternal Acceptance-Rejection in Relation to Depression in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yazdkhasti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines the relationship between infertile women’s social skills andtheir perception of their own mothers’ acceptance or rejection, and the role this relationship playsin predicting self-reported depression.Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. 60 infertile women aged 25 to 35 yearsparticipated in a self-evaluation. A Social Skills Inventory, Parental Acceptance and RejectionQuestionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were used to measure social skills, acceptancerejection and depression. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, using independent two-sample ttest, logistic regression, and ANOVA.Results: Findings showed that there are significant differences between depressed and not depressedinfertile women in their perceptions of acceptance and rejection by their mothers. Further, women'sperceptions of rejection are a more significant predictor of depression among less socially skilledinfertile women than among those who are more socially skilled. Less socially skilled women didnot show symptoms of depression when they experienced their mothers as accepting. In generalthe results of this study revealed that poorer social skills were more predictive of depression whilegood social skills moderate the effect of infertile women’s perceptions of their mothers' rejection.At the same time, the findings showed that infertile women's perceptions of acceptance moderatedthe effects of poorer social skills in predicting depression.Conclusion: Results suggest that the perception of mothers’ rejection and poor social skills are thekey factors that make infertile women prone to depression.

  2. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  3. Soluble CD30 in renal transplant recipients: is it a good biomarker to predict rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpira, Negar; Aghdaie, Mahdokht Hosein; Malekpour, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) level may be a poten-tial marker for the prediction of acute allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Therefore, its serum concentrations might offer a promising non-invasive tool to recognize patients with an increased risk for developing an acute graft rejection. We retrospectively correlate pre and post transplant level on post transplant graft survival, incidence of acute rejection and graft function using stored serum samples. Ninety-nine patients were divided in two separate groups: Group A in whom sample collection was done one day before transplantation and Group B where sample collection was done five days after transplantation. Younger recipients (aged less than 20 years) had higher sCD30 levels (P= 0.02). There was neither significant difference in the incidence of acute rejection nor incomplete response rate after anti rejection therapy in relation to pre transplant or post transplant sCD30. We could not find a significantly inferior graft survival rate in the high sCD30 group. In conclusion, younger patients had higher sCD30 concentrations however no correlation existed between the serum concentrations and occurrence of rejection episodes or graft survival.

  4. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.

  5. Rejection in Bargaining Situations: An Event-Related Potential Study in Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Zanolie

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs in mid-adolescents (14-17 years and early adults (19-24 years. Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3 and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5 or a hyperfair distribution (3/7. Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5 when the alternative was unfair (7/3, but made mostly unfair offers (7/3 when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7. When participants' fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3 were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7. Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3 compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence.

  6. Acute and chronic rejection: compartmentalization and kinetics of counterbalancing signals in cardiac transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A M K; Goparaju, S; Dvorina, N; Iida, S; Keslar, K S; de la Motte, C A; Valujskikh, A; Fairchild, R L; Baldwin, W M

    2015-02-01

    Acute and chronic rejection impact distinct compartments of cardiac allografts. Intramyocardial mononuclear cell infiltrates define acute rejection, whereas chronic rejection affects large arteries. Hearts transplanted from male to female C57BL/6 mice undergo acute rejection with interstitial infiltrates at 2 weeks that resolve by 6 weeks when large arteries develop arteriopathy. These processes are dependent on T cells because no infiltrates developed in T cell-deficient mice and transfer of CD4 T cells restored T cell as well as macrophage infiltrates and ultimately neointima formation. Markers of inflammatory macrophages were up-regulated in the interstitium acutely and decreased as markers of wound healing macrophages increased chronically. Programmed cell death protein, a negative costimulator, and its ligand PDL1 were up-regulated in the interstitium during resolution of acute rejection. Blocking PDL1:PD1 interactions in the acute phase increased interstitial T cell infiltrates. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and its endogenous ligand hyaluronan were increased in arteries with neointimal expansion. Injection of hyaluronan fragments increased intragraft production of chemokines. Our data indicate that negative costimulatory pathways are critical for the resolution of acute interstitial infiltrates. In the arterial compartment recognition of endogenous ligands including hyaluronan by the innate TLRs may support the progression of arteriopathy. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Soluble CD30 does not predict late acute rejection or safe tapering of immunosuppression in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valke, Lars L F G; van Cranenbroek, Bram; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Joosten, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports revealed the potential value of the soluble CD30 level (sCD30) as biomarker for the risk of acute rejection and graft failure after renal transplantation, here we examined its use for the prediction of safe tapering of calcineurin inhibitors as well as late acute rejection. In a cohort of renal transplant patients receiving triple immunosuppressive therapy we examined whether sCD30 can be used as a marker for safe (rejection-free) discontinuation of tacrolimus at six months after transplantation (TDS cohort: 24 rejectors and 44 non-rejecting controls). Also, in a second cohort of patients (n=22, rejectors n=11 and non-rejectors n=11), participating in a clinical trial of rituximab as induction therapy after renal transplantation (RITS cohort), we examined whether sCD30 could predict the occurrence of late (>3months post-transplant) acute rejection episodes. sCD30 was measured by ELISA in serum taken before and at several time points after transplantation. Overall, in the TDS cohort sCD30 decreased after transplantation. No difference in sCD30 was observed between rejectors and non-rejecting controls at any of the time points measured. In addition, in the RITS cohort, sCD30 measured at three months after transplantation were not indicative for the occurrence of late acute rejection. In two prospectively followed cohorts of renal transplant patients we found no association between sCD30 and the occurrence of either late acute rejection or acute rejection after reduction of immunosuppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation of the transient processes of load rejection under different accident conditions in a hydroelectric generating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-11-01

    Load rejection test is one of the essential tests that carried out before the hydroelectric generating set is put into operation formally. The test aims at inspecting the rationality of the design of the water diversion and power generation system of hydropower station, reliability of the equipment of generating set and the dynamic characteristics of hydroturbine governing system. Proceeding from different accident conditions of hydroelectric generating set, this paper presents the transient processes of load rejection corresponding to different accident conditions, and elaborates the characteristics of different types of load rejection. Then the numerical simulation method of different types of load rejection is established. An engineering project is calculated to verify the validity of the method. Finally, based on the numerical simulation results, the relationship among the different types of load rejection and their functions on the design of hydropower station and the operation of load rejection test are pointed out. The results indicate that: The load rejection caused by the accident within the hydroelectric generating set is realized by emergency distributing valve, and it is the basis of the optimization for the closing law of guide vane and the calculation of regulation and guarantee. The load rejection caused by the accident outside the hydroelectric generating set is realized by the governor. It is the most efficient measure to inspect the dynamic characteristics of hydro-turbine governing system, and its closure rate of guide vane set in the governor depends on the optimization result in the former type load rejection.

  9. Method for the preparation of cellulose acetate flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis—Desalination using MgSO4 draw solution

    KAUST Repository

    Sairam, M.; Sereewatthanawut, E.; Li, K.; Bismarck, A.; Livingston, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A lab scale method for the preparation of defect free flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis (FO) has been developed. Membranes containing a thin layer of cellulose acetate (CA) cast on a nylon fabric of 50μm thick were prepared by phase inversion in water. Cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with an overall thickness of 70-80μm have been prepared with lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents, at different annealing temperatures, for forward osmosis. These membranes have been tested in the desalination of saline feeds (35g·L-1 of NaCl) using magnesium sulphate solution (150g·L-1) as the draw solution. The water flux, and rejection of NaCl, were compared with those of commercially available membranes tested under the same FO conditions. The commercially available FO membrane from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR (M1) has a permeability of 0.13L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 97% when tested with 150g·L-1 of MgSO4 in the draw solution. Another commercially available membrane for FO from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR, M2 has a water permeability of 0.014L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with NaCl rejection of 100%. The flux and rejection of the CA membranes prepared in this work are found to be dependent on the nature of the pore forming agent, and annealing temperature. Impregnation of an inorganic filler, sodium montmorrillonite in CA membranes and coating of CA membranes with hydrophilic PVA did not enhance the flux of base CA membranes. Cellulose acetate membranes cast from dope solutions containing acetone/isopropanol and lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents have water permeabilities of 0.13, 0.09 and 0.68L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 respectively, with NaCl rejections of 97.7, 99.3 and 88% when annealed at 50°C. CA membranes prepared with zinc chloride as a pore forming agent have good permeability of 0.27L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 95% when annealed at 70°C. © 2011.

  10. Method for the preparation of cellulose acetate flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis—Desalination using MgSO4 draw solution

    KAUST Repository

    Sairam, M.

    2011-06-01

    A lab scale method for the preparation of defect free flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis (FO) has been developed. Membranes containing a thin layer of cellulose acetate (CA) cast on a nylon fabric of 50μm thick were prepared by phase inversion in water. Cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with an overall thickness of 70-80μm have been prepared with lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents, at different annealing temperatures, for forward osmosis. These membranes have been tested in the desalination of saline feeds (35g·L-1 of NaCl) using magnesium sulphate solution (150g·L-1) as the draw solution. The water flux, and rejection of NaCl, were compared with those of commercially available membranes tested under the same FO conditions. The commercially available FO membrane from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR (M1) has a permeability of 0.13L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 97% when tested with 150g·L-1 of MgSO4 in the draw solution. Another commercially available membrane for FO from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR, M2 has a water permeability of 0.014L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with NaCl rejection of 100%. The flux and rejection of the CA membranes prepared in this work are found to be dependent on the nature of the pore forming agent, and annealing temperature. Impregnation of an inorganic filler, sodium montmorrillonite in CA membranes and coating of CA membranes with hydrophilic PVA did not enhance the flux of base CA membranes. Cellulose acetate membranes cast from dope solutions containing acetone/isopropanol and lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents have water permeabilities of 0.13, 0.09 and 0.68L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 respectively, with NaCl rejections of 97.7, 99.3 and 88% when annealed at 50°C. CA membranes prepared with zinc chloride as a pore forming agent have good permeability of 0.27L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 95% when annealed at 70°C. © 2011.

  11. A simple image-reject mixer based on two parallel phase modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dapeng; Zhao, Shanghong; Zhu, Zihang; Li, Xuan; Qu, Kun; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    A simple photonic microwave image-reject mixer (IRM) using two parallel phase modulators is proposed. First, a photonic microwave mixer with phase shift ability is achieved using two parallel phase modulators (PMs), an optical bandpass filter, three polarization controllers, three polarization beam splitters and two balanced photodetectors. At the output of the mixer, two frequency downconverted signals with tunable frequency difference can be obtained. By adjusting the phase difference as 90° and utilizing an electrical 90° hybrid, the useless components can be eliminated, and the image reject operation is realized. The key advantage of the proposed scheme is the usage of PM, which avoid the DC bias shifting problem and make the system simple and stable. A simulation is performed to verify the proposed scheme, a relative - 90° or 90° phase shift can be obtained between the two output ports of the photonic microwave mixer, at the output of the IRM, 60 dB image-reject ratio is obtained.

  12. Integrated Kidney Exosome Analysis for the Detection of Kidney Transplant Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongmin; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Assaker, Jean Pierre; Jeong, Sangmoo; Huang, Chen-Han; Kurdi, A; Lee, Kyungheon; Fraser, Kyle; Min, Changwook; Eskandari, Siawosh; Routray, Sujit; Tannous, Bakhos; Abdi, Reza; Riella, Leonardo; Chandraker, Anil; Castro, Cesar M; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho; Azzi, Jamil R

    2017-11-28

    Kidney transplant patients require life-long surveillance to detect allograft rejection. Repeated biopsy, albeit the clinical gold standard, is an invasive procedure with the risk of complications and comparatively high cost. Conversely, serum creatinine or urinary proteins are noninvasive alternatives but are late markers with low specificity. We report a urine-based platform to detect kidney transplant rejection. Termed iKEA (integrated kidney exosome analysis), the approach detects extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells into urine; we reasoned that T cells, attacking kidney allografts, would shed EVs, which in turn can be used as a surrogate marker for inflammation. We optimized iKEA to detect T-cell-derived EVs and implemented a portable sensing system. When applied to clinical urine samples, iKEA revealed high level of CD3-positive EVs in kidney rejection patients and achieved high detection accuracy (91.1%). Fast, noninvasive, and cost-effective, iKEA could offer new opportunities in managing transplant recipients, perhaps even in a home setting.

  13. ST2 IN REJECTION OF THE TRANSPLANTED HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current literature devoted to the analysis of prognostic role of ST2 biomarker in rejection of the transplanted heart. ST2 is one of the most promising diagnostic markers of the development and severity of heart failure as well as the mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases. ST2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes in response to a variety of pathological processes and mechanical damage to the heart, which allows diagnosing cardiovascular diseases before clinical manifestations. Presumably, measuring the level of ST2 in heart transplant may have diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of graft and risk of rejection. Currently, accumulated clinical data on the role of given biomarker in heart transplantation are not enough, and further research on the relation of ST2 levels with different clinical and laboratory parameters in heart recipients is necessary. 

  14. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical ...

  15. Foreign egg retention by avian hosts in repeated brood parasitism : Why do rejecters accept?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E.; Elek, Zoltan; Gommers, Moniek; Ban, Miklos; Groenewoud, Frank; Versluijs, Tom S. L.; Hoetz, Christiaan W. A.; Komdeur, Jan

    Great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) are frequently parasitized by egg-mimetic common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) in Hungary, and these hosts reject about a third of parasitic eggs. The timing of parasitism is important, in that the probability of rejection decreases with advancing breeding

  16. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  17. Clinical utility of labeled cells for detection of allograft rejection and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The choice of a specific radiolabeled blood component for use in detection of allograft rejection depends on several factors including the immunosuppressive agents used, the type of organ allografted, and particularly the length of time the allograft resides in the host and the duration of rejection. To date, only the use of 111In-labeled platelets in renal allograft recipients immunosuppressed with azathioprine and corticosteroids has shown clinical promise in the detection of early allograft rejection. Radiolabeled blood components are unlikely to play a significant role in detection of myocardial infarction. The use of these agents for monitoring therapeutic interventions or as indicators of prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction continues to be investigated

  18. Beneficiation of limestone plant rejects for value addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, M S; Sahu, P; Dash, P; Mohanty, J K

    2013-11-15

    Investigations were carried out on lime stone rejects (-1mm) generated at a lime stone washing plant in southern India. These rejects contain 12.09% CaO, 2.95% MgO, 10.73% Al2O3, 4.99% Fe2O3, 43.05% SiO2 and 24.92% LOI. Mineralogical studies including SEM-EDAX, XRD, FTIR and TGA were conducted to confirm relative distribution of minerals in the flotation feed and products. These studies revealed that feed sample consists of quartz and calcite as the major minerals with minor amounts of montmorillonite and dolomite whereas flotation concentrate dominantly consists of calcite, and tailings mostly of quartz and montmorillonite. A commercial grade sodium silicate, oleic acid and MIBC were used as depressant, collector and frother respectively in flotation studies. The effects of different operating parameters were evaluated for both conventional and column flotation. Two stage conventional cell flotation results indicate that a cleaner concentrate of 42.50% lime (CaO) content could be obtained at a yield of 15.65%. The lime (CaO) content of the concentrate was further enhanced up to 44.23% at 20.73% yield using single stage column flotation. The column flotation is more efficient in comparison to the conventional cell for treating this sample. A process flowsheet was developed to treat these rejects based on the studies carried out. This process can minimize the waste generation and the concentrate generated during this process can be directly utilized in the Indian cement industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimyosin monoclonal antibodies for early detection of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, A.; Fritsch, S.; Kemkes, B.M.; Kugler, C.; Angermann, C.; Spes, C.; Anthuber, M.; Weiler, A.; Wenke, K.; Gokel, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-eight indium 111-labeled antimyosin Fab-DTPA imaging studies (0.5 mg intravenously with a radioactivity of 65 to 75 MBq) were executed on 37 of 116 patients undergoing heart transplantation to assess diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility. As controls, 21 patients with cardiomyopathy (n = 8), unstable angina (n = 9), and myocardial infarction (n = 4) were selected. After 48 hours, single photon emission computed tomographic images were evaluated visually, and heart/lung ratios were measured, using the region of interest technique. They were compared with echocardiographic and endomyocardial biopsy results. In 40 studies a heart/lung ratio less than or equal to 1.6 corresponded to a negative biopsy result in 98% (40/41). Echocardiography enabled correct identification of 95% of the patients with normal biopsy findings. In 91% (22/24) a positive biopsy finding correlated with a heart/lung ratio greater than 1.6 including 20 mild rejections, but in only 64%, with an increase in wall thickness and/or decrease of fractional diameter shortening seen on echocardiogram. In addition, the various stages of rejection episodes determined the amount of the heart-lung ratio. There was a significant relationship between the histologic findings and the antimyosin uptake. In 13 patients a second investigation was performed after rejection therapy. All patients had a negative biopsy result, and the heart/lung ratio decreased to normal ranges (less than or equal to 1.6). Five antimyosin antibody studies were excluded, as in these cases, negative uptake results were found during rejection therapy with high-dose steroids. The overall sensitivity was calculated at 93% and the specificity at 98%

  20. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Relation between Mindfulness and Rejection Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Bizzi, Fabiola

    2015-09-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity (RS; the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to implied or overt interpersonal rejection) in psychopathology has mainly been studied with regard to borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we first sought to extend previous evidence of heightened RS in a clinical group with psychiatric disorders other than BPD, when compared with a community sample. Then, we tested whether emotion dysregulation and mindfulness were associated with RS in both sample, further hypothesizing that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relation between mindfulness deficits and RS. We adopted a cross-sectional design involving 191 psychiatric patients and 277 community participants (total N=468). All participants completed the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Our hypotheses were supported, with psychiatric patients reporting greater levels of rejection sensitivity and emotion dysregulation, and lower level of mindfulness. Mindfulness deficits and emotion dysregulation explained a significant amount of variance in RS, in both samples. Finally, bootstrap analyses revealed that mindfulness deficits played an indirect effect on RS through the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. In particular, two different patterns emerged. Among psychiatric patients, an impairment in the ability to assume a non-judgmental stance towards own thoughts and feelings was related to RS through the mediation of limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Conversely, in the community sample, overall emotion dysregulation mediated the effect of lack of attention and awareness for present activities and experience on RS. Longitudinal studies could help in delineating etiological models of RS, and the joint role of deficits in mindfulness and emotion regulation should inform treatment programs.

  1. Cellular basis for accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that 111 In-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered 67 Ga citrate and /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of 111 In leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  2. Cellular basis for accumulation of In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of In-111 leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  3. Rejection with hemodynamic compromise in the current era of pediatric heart transplantation: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Melanie D; Pahl, Elfriede; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Zheng, Jie; Ringewald, Jeremy M; L'ecuyer, Thomas; Naftel, David C; Kirklin, James K; Blume, Elizabeth D; Bullock, Emily A; Canter, Charles E

    2011-03-01

    Survival after pediatric heart transplant has improved over time, as has the incidence of overall rejection. We studied the effect of era on the occurrence and outcome of rejection with hemodynamic compromise (HC). Data from 2227 patients who received allografts between 1993 and 2006 at 36 centers in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study were analyzed to determine incidence, outcome, and risk factors for rejection with HC in early (1993-1999) and recent (2000-2006) eras. Rejection with HC was classified as severe (RSHC) when inotropes were used for circulatory support and mild (RMHC) when inotropes were not used. Of 1217 patients with any episode of rejection, 541 had rejection with HC. Freedom from RMHC improved at 1 year (81% vs 90%, p RMHC (87% at 1 year and 72% at 5 years, p RMHC was earlier era of transplant (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.56-2.41; p RMHC has declined over time but the same era effect has not occurred with RSHC. Close follow-up after RSHC is crucial because mortality is so high. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New scoring system identifies kidney outcome with radiation therapy in acute renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Luci M.; Godinez, Juan; Thisted, Ronald A.; Woodle, E. Steve; Thistlewaite, J. Richard; Powers, Claire; Haraf, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy for acute refractory renal rejection after failure of medical intervention, and to identify risk factors that influence graft survival following radiation therapy. Methods: Between June 1989 and December 1995, 53 renal transplant recipients (34 men and 19 women) were treated with localized radiation therapy for acute renal allograft rejection. Graft rejection was defined as an increase in serum creatinine with histologic evidence of rejection on renal biopsy. Ninety-one percent were cadaveric transplant recipients. The majority of patients who experienced acute graft rejection initially received corticosteroid therapy, except for 25% who were referred for radiation therapy and steroids for the first rejection. In more recent years, patients with moderate or severe steroid-resistant or recurrent rejection received OKT3, a polyclonal antilymphocyte antibody (ATGAM), tacrolimus (FK506), or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Patients who failed to respond to medical treatment were then referred for radiation therapy. Ultrasound was performed for kidney localization. Treatment consisted of a dose of 600 cGy given in 3 or 4 fractions using 6 MV photons, delivered AP or AP/PA. Results: The overall actuarial graft survival from the initiation of RT was 83% at 1 month, 60% at 1 year, and 36% at 5 years. The median follow-up from the date of transplant to the last follow-up was 22 months. The median time from the date of transplant to the initiation of radiotherapy was 3 months, and the median time from the initiation of radiotherapy to the last follow-up was 10 months. Variables evaluated were as follows: human leukocyte antigen matching on HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR, the transplant panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) at transplantation, number of acute rejection episodes, interval from the date of the transplant to the first rejection, serum creatinine levels at the time of the first radiation treatment, number of transplants, and

  5. Current and future challenges in therapy for antibody-mediated rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nandini; Ball, Timothy; Uber, Patricia A; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2011-06-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to present a challenge for the survival of the cardiac allograft. AMR appears to be on the rise, likely secondary to changing trends in clinical practice, including selection of patients for transplantation on mechanical circulatory support and development of more effective combinations of immunosuppressive drugs against acute cellular rejection. Most current strategies are aimed at treating acute AMR, but the treatment of chronic AMR is still not well defined. Clinically, AMR can often be more severe than cellular rejection and more difficult to treat, often not responding to typical protocols of increased immunosuppression. Complex steps involved in the antibody response allows for several potential targets for therapeutic intervention, including suppression of T and B cells, elimination of circulating antibodies, and inhibition of residual antibodies. Existing evidence suggests a multiregimen approach is the best option. Sustenance of accommodation and induction of tolerance could be viewed as viable options if adequate immune surveillance can be achieved in this setting. This review discusses the challenges in treating AMR and provides a critical analysis of current and possible future therapies. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental high-frequency ultrasound can detect graft rejection after small bowel transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Liu, Q; Wu, E X; Pescovitz, M D; Collins, M H; Kopecky, K K; Grosfeld, J L

    1994-02-01

    Early diagnosis of graft rejection after small bowel transplantation (SBT) can allow prompt institution of vigorous immunosuppressive therapy, with resultant reversal of the rejection process. The current method for graft monitoring is random mucosal biopsy from a stomal site or through an endoscope. However, because early rejection often has a patchy distribution, it could be missed by random biopsy. We hypothesized that the pathological process of rejection would alter acoustic impedance of the tissue and thus change the ultrasonic patterns of the graft intestinal wall. If this hypothesis is correct, then high-frequency endoscopic ultrasound (US) could be used to monitor the entire transplanted bowel and guide the biopsy, with improved yields. This hypothesis was tested in a rat orthotopic SBT model. Sixty-two intestinal specimens (9 isografts, 12 allografts treated with cyclosporine A [CsA], 22 untreated allografts, and 19 intestines from normal rats) were collected for in vitro transluminal US imaging (30 MHz) and histopathologic study. The echo pattern of normal rat intestinal wall consisted of five echo layers that correlated spatially with the histological layers: the innermost hyperechoic layer 1, plus hypoechoic layer 2, corresponded to the mucosa; hyperechoic layer 3, the submucosa; anechoic layer 4, the muscularis propria; and hyperechoic layer 5, the serosa. The isografts and CsA-treated allografts were identical histologically and ultrasonically to normal intestine. However, the echo patterns of the untreated allografts had progressive loss of architectural stratification, with worsening rejection. The change began with patchy indistinctness and disruption of hyperechoic layers 1, 3 and 5, and progressed to total obliteration of the layers, with the intestinal wall becoming a nonstratified hypoechoic structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing

    2017-07-01

    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Facility for electrochemical dissolution of rejected fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniskin, V.P.; Filatov, O.N.; Konovalov, E.A.; Kolesnikov, B.P.; Bukharin, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    A facility for electrochemical dissolution of rejected fuel elements with the stainless steel can and uranium of 90% enrichment is described. The start-adjustment works and trial-commercial tests of the facility are carried out. A s a result its technological parameters are determined [ru

  9. Acute humoral rejection and C4d immunostaining in ABO blood type-incompatible liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Hironori; Egawa, Hiroto; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Mikiko; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Sakurai, Takaki; Okuno, Tomoko; Koyanagi, Itsuko; Takada, Yasutsugu; Manabe, Toshiaki

    2006-03-01

    Complement C4d deposition in graft capillaries has been reported to be associated with antibody-mediated rejection in kidney and other solid organ transplantation. The correlation of C4d deposits and humoral rejection in liver transplants, however, is not well understood. We investigated the C4d immunostaining pattern in 34 patients whose liver biopsy was taken within the first 3 postoperative weeks for suspected acute rejection after ABO blood type-incompatible liver transplantation. The staining pattern was classified as positive (portal stromal staining), indeterminate (endothelial staining only), and negative (no staining). Positive C4d immunostaining was seen in 17 (50%) patients and was significantly associated with high (x64 or more) postoperative antidonor A/B antibody (immunoglobulin M (IgM)) titers (88 vs. 35%, P = 0.002) and poorer overall survival rate (41 vs. 88%, P = 0.007). Ten of 11 (91%) cases with histological acute humoral rejection (periportal edema and necrosis (PEN) or portal hemorrhagic edema) were positive for C4d, all of which showed high postoperative antibody titers. The other histologies associated with C4d positivity was purulent cholangitis (n = 4), coagulative hepatocyte necrosis (n = 1), acute cellular rejection (n = 1), and hepatocanalicular cholestasis (n = 1). Full clinical recovery was observed in only 6 of 17 (35%) C4d-positive patients, and tended to be associated with a lower rejection activity index (RAI). In conclusion, our study indicates that C4d deposits in the portal stroma can be a hallmark of acute humoral rejection in ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, and allograft damage can be reversible in a minority of cases. Copyright 2006 AASLD

  10. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-01-01

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner’s dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants’ tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants’ responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status. PMID:23188801

  11. The Mediating Roles of Rejection Sensitivity and Proximal Stress in the Association Between Discrimination and Internalizing Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, Christina; Feinstein, Brian A; Eaton, Nicholas R; London, Bonita

    2018-01-01

    The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination. Drawing on minority stress theory, we tested potential mediating effects using indirect effects structural equation modeling in a sample of 300 sexual minority women. Results indicated that the indirect effect of discrimination on internalizing symptoms (a latent variable indicated by depression and anxiety symptoms) through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress (a latent variable indicated by preoccupation with stigma, concealment motivation, and difficulty developing a positive sexual identity) was significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of discrimination on rejection-based proximal stress through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity on internalizing symptoms through rejection-based proximal stress were also significant. These findings indicate that sexual orientation rejection sensitivity plays an important role in contributing to rejection-based proximal stress and internalizing symptoms among sexual minority women.

  12. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-12-11

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner's dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants' tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants' responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status.

  13. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals...... published in English. Design Manuscripts rejected during a 4-year period were searched for in PubMed and Embase in order to assess the percentage of manuscripts subsequently published in other journals. In addition, characteristics of both the published manuscripts and the journals in which they were...... evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0...

  14. Variable depth recursion algorithm for leaf sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siochi, R. Alfredo C.

    2007-01-01

    The processes of extraction and sweep are basic segmentation steps that are used in leaf sequencing algorithms. A modified version of a commercial leaf sequencer changed the way that the extracts are selected and expanded the search space, but the modification maintained the basic search paradigm of evaluating multiple solutions, each one consisting of up to 12 extracts and a sweep sequence. While it generated the best solutions compared to other published algorithms, it used more computation time. A new, faster algorithm selects one extract at a time but calls itself as an evaluation function a user-specified number of times, after which it uses the bidirectional sweeping window algorithm as the final evaluation function. To achieve a performance comparable to that of the modified commercial leaf sequencer, 2-3 calls were needed, and in all test cases, there were only slight improvements beyond two calls. For the 13 clinical test maps, computation speeds improved by a factor between 12 and 43, depending on the constraints, namely the ability to interdigitate and the avoidance of the tongue-and-groove under dose. The new algorithm was compared to the original and modified versions of the commercial leaf sequencer. It was also compared to other published algorithms for 1400, random, 15x15, test maps with 3-16 intensity levels. In every single case the new algorithm provided the best solution

  15. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Sara; Beato, Maria Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively) were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on recollection

  16. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cadavid

    Full Text Available Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on

  17. Design of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for ion rejection and wastewater effluent treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Oishi

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) membranes present a special class of nanostructured membranes which have potential applications in a variety of water treatment operations. These membranes are fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of alternately charged polyelectrolytes on commercial membrane surfaces. A large variety of polyelectrolytes and their varied deposition conditions (pH, number of bilayers etc.) allow very fine tuning of the membrane performance in terms of permeability and rejection. The first part of this thesis is about the application of PEM membranes to the removal of perchlorate ion from water. Being a monovalent ion, it is most effectively removed by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. However, these membranes inherently have very low fluxes which lead to high pressure requirements. In our work, we modified the surface of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane by the LbL assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The appropriate tuning of the LbL conditions led to the development of a membrane with significantly higher flux than RO membranes but with equivalent perchlorate rejection. This was one of the best trade-offs offered by PEM membranes for monovalent ion rejection as has been reported in literature so far. While PEM membranes have mostly shown great potential in ion-rejection studies, they have seldom been tested for real wastewater effluents. The second part of this thesis, therefore, deals with evaluating the applicability of PEM membranes to treating an electrocoagulation (EC)-treated high strength wastewater. Two types of very commonly used polyelectrolyte combinations were tried out -- one of which was an ionically crosslinked system and the other one was covalently crosslinked. Both the types of PEM membranes showed a high level of COD reduction from the feed stream with higher fluxes than commercial RO membranes. One major challenge in using membranes for wastewater treatment is their fouling propensity. Like many other

  18. Asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of the blood glucose regulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Brandon; Liu, Weijiu

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance. For this, a mathematical model for the glucose disturbance is proposed on the basis of experimental data, and then incorporated into an existing blood glucose regulation model. Because all the eigenvalues of the disturbance model have zero real parts, the center manifold theory is used to establish blood glucose regulator equations. We then use their solutions to synthesize a required feedback and feedforward controller to reject the disturbance and asymptotically track a constant glucose reference of 90  mg/dl. Since the regulator equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and usually impossible to solve analytically, a linear approximation solution is obtained. Our numerical simulations show that, under the linear approximate feedback and feedforward controller, the blood glucose asymptotically tracks its desired level of 90 mg/dl approximately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-dependent changes in B-type natriuretic peptide after heart transplantation: correlation with allograft rejection and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Feras M; Rogers, R Kevin; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Gilbert, Edward M; Horne, Ben D; Stehlik, Josef; Renlund, Dale G

    2009-01-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy is the gold standard to diagnose cardiac allograft rejection, although a noninvasive modality such as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is attractive. The authors examined the correlation of BNP levels with rejection patterns and allograft function in cardiac allograft recipients followed up to 8 years. One hundred forty-four consecutive patients underwent endomyocardial biopsy, right heart catheterization, and blood sampling. BNP levels decreased during the first 6 months after transplant but then reached a plateau. Time-dependent correlations were made between BNP levels and allograft rejection, left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, and serum creatinine. BNP levels were not different between patients with any rejection pattern and no rejection prior to or after 6 months following transplant. BNP levels did not correlate with ejection fraction, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, or creatinine in the first 6 months after transplant. Statistically significant correlations existed between BNP and these parameters after 6 months following transplant. In cardiac transplant recipients, BNP levels decrease in the first 6 months following transplant and then reach a plateau regardless of the presence, type, or severity of allograft rejection. BNP levels do predict allograft rejection but correlate with allograft function after 6 months following transplant.

  20. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans

  1. 31 CFR 501.604 - Reports by U.S. financial institutions on rejected funds transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REPORTING, PROCEDURES AND PENALTIES REGULATIONS Reports § 501.604 Reports by U.S. financial institutions on rejected funds transfers. (a) Who must report. Any financial institution that rejects a funds transfer... institution, domestic bank, financial institution or U.S. financial institution, as those terms are defined in...

  2. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures, the...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems.......Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures......, the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  3. Two-stage, in silico deconvolution of the lymphocyte compartment of the peripheral whole blood transcriptome in the context of acute kidney allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Casey P; Balshaw, Robert; Ng, Raymond T; Wilson-McManus, Janet E; Keown, Paul; McMaster, Robert; McManus, Bruce M; Landsberg, David; Isbel, Nicole M; Knoll, Greg; Tebbutt, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Acute rejection is a major complication of solid organ transplantation that prevents the long-term assimilation of the allograft. Various populations of lymphocytes are principal mediators of this process, infiltrating graft tissues and driving cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Understanding the lymphocyte-specific biology associated with rejection is therefore critical. Measuring genome-wide changes in transcript abundance in peripheral whole blood cells can deliver a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. The heterogeneous nature of the tissue significantly affects the sensitivity and interpretability of traditional analyses, however. Experimental separation of cell types is an obvious solution, but is often impractical and, more worrying, may affect expression, leading to spurious results. Statistical deconvolution of the cell type-specific signal is an attractive alternative, but existing approaches still present some challenges, particularly in a clinical research setting. Obtaining time-matched sample composition to biologically interesting, phenotypically homogeneous cell sub-populations is costly and adds significant complexity to study design. We used a two-stage, in silico deconvolution approach that first predicts sample composition to biologically meaningful and homogeneous leukocyte sub-populations, and then performs cell type-specific differential expression analysis in these same sub-populations, from peripheral whole blood expression data. We applied this approach to a peripheral whole blood expression study of kidney allograft rejection. The patterns of differential composition uncovered are consistent with previous studies carried out using flow cytometry and provide a relevant biological context when interpreting cell type-specific differential expression results. We identified cell type-specific differential expression in a variety of leukocyte sub-populations at the time of rejection. The tissue-specificity of these differentially

  4. Two-stage, in silico deconvolution of the lymphocyte compartment of the peripheral whole blood transcriptome in the context of acute kidney allograft rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey P Shannon

    Full Text Available Acute rejection is a major complication of solid organ transplantation that prevents the long-term assimilation of the allograft. Various populations of lymphocytes are principal mediators of this process, infiltrating graft tissues and driving cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Understanding the lymphocyte-specific biology associated with rejection is therefore critical. Measuring genome-wide changes in transcript abundance in peripheral whole blood cells can deliver a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. The heterogeneous nature of the tissue significantly affects the sensitivity and interpretability of traditional analyses, however. Experimental separation of cell types is an obvious solution, but is often impractical and, more worrying, may affect expression, leading to spurious results. Statistical deconvolution of the cell type-specific signal is an attractive alternative, but existing approaches still present some challenges, particularly in a clinical research setting. Obtaining time-matched sample composition to biologically interesting, phenotypically homogeneous cell sub-populations is costly and adds significant complexity to study design. We used a two-stage, in silico deconvolution approach that first predicts sample composition to biologically meaningful and homogeneous leukocyte sub-populations, and then performs cell type-specific differential expression analysis in these same sub-populations, from peripheral whole blood expression data. We applied this approach to a peripheral whole blood expression study of kidney allograft rejection. The patterns of differential composition uncovered are consistent with previous studies carried out using flow cytometry and provide a relevant biological context when interpreting cell type-specific differential expression results. We identified cell type-specific differential expression in a variety of leukocyte sub-populations at the time of rejection. The tissue-specificity of

  5. On the centrality of disturbance rejection in automatic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that the problem of automatic control is, in essence, that of disturbance rejection, with the notion of disturbance generalized to symbolize the uncertainties, both internal and external to the plant. A novel, unifying concept of disturbance rejector is proposed to compliment the traditional notion of controller. The new controller-rejector pair is shown to be a powerful organizing principle in the realm of automatic control, leading to a Copernican moment where the model-centric design philosophy is replaced by the one that is control-centric in the following sense: the controller is designed for a canonical model and is fixed; the difference between the plant and the canonical model is deemed as disturbance and rejected. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting acute cardiac rejection from donor heart and pre-transplant recipient blood gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Chen, Virginia; Sidhu, Keerat; Lin, David; Ng, Raymond T; Balshaw, Robert; Cohen-Freue, Gabriela V; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Imai, Carol; Kaan, Annemarie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Wilson-McManus, Janet E; McMaster, Robert W; Keown, Paul A; McManus, Bruce M

    2013-02-01

    Acute rejection in cardiac transplant patients remains a contributory factor to limited survival of implanted hearts. Currently, there are no biomarkers in clinical use that can predict, at the time of transplantation, the likelihood of post-transplant acute cellular rejection. Such a development would be of great value in personalizing immunosuppressive treatment. Recipient age, donor age, cold ischemic time, warm ischemic time, panel-reactive antibody, gender mismatch, blood type mismatch and human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, -B and -DR) mismatch between recipients and donors were tested in 53 heart transplant patients for their power to predict post-transplant acute cellular rejection. Donor transplant biopsy and recipient pre-transplant blood were also examined for the presence of genomic biomarkers in 7 rejection and 11 non-rejection patients, using non-targeted data mining techniques. The biomarker based on the 8 clinical variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.53. The pre-transplant recipient blood gene-based panel did not yield better performance, but the donor heart tissue gene-based panel had an AUC = 0.78. A combination of 25 probe sets from the transplant donor biopsy and 18 probe sets from the pre-transplant recipient whole blood had an AUC = 0.90. Biologic pathways implicated include VEGF- and EGFR-signaling, and MAPK. Based on this study, the best predictive biomarker panel contains genes from recipient whole blood and donor myocardial tissue. This panel provides clinically relevant prediction power and, if validated, may personalize immunosuppressive treatment and rejection monitoring. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental smoking, rejection of parental smoking, and smoking susceptibility and behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-07-01

    We explored the role of rejection of parental smoking in the association between parental smoking and smoking in adolescents. In 2010-11 cross-sectional survey, 61,810 Hong Kong secondary school students (mean age 14.6 years, 50.5% boys) reported their smoking (never, not susceptible; never, susceptible; ever, not current; current), paternal and maternal smoking, and whether they accepted paternal and maternal smoking (acceptance/rejection). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of students' smoking in relation to acceptance and rejection of parental smoking, compared with no parental smoking. The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of paternal smoking was 1.81 (1.67-1.96), 2.46 (2.25-2.69), and 2.79 (2.51-3.10), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.70 (0.64-0.76), 1.23 (1.13-1.35), and 0.47 (0.40-0.56). The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of maternal smoking was 2.05 (1.80-2.33), 2.57 (2.29-2.88), and 6.33 (5.39-7.44), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.85 (0.69-1.05), 1.59 (1.39-1.81), and 2.14 (1.71-2.68). No overlapping was observed between the 95% CIs for acceptance and rejection of paternal or maternal smoking. While adolescent smoking was associated with parental smoking, especially in those who accepted parental smoking, the association was attenuated or reversed in those who rejected parental smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  9. Rejection Hurts: The Effect of Being Dumped on Subsequent Mating Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stanik

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the qualities that people seek in a long-term partner are not directly observable. As a consequence, information gathered through social learning may be important in partner assessment. Here, we tested the hypothesis that finding out potential partners were rejected by their last partner would negatively affect participants' desire to pursue a romantic relationship with them. Results support this hypothesis, and this effect was, as predicted, greater when the target was being evaluated for a potential long-term relationship compared to a sexual relationship. In a more exploratory vein, we tested the effect of the target having rejected their last partner and failing to disclose how their last relationship ended. These scenarios produced intriguing sex differences, such that men's ratings of women fell after learning she had rejected her last partner, but women's ratings of men increased after the same information was introduced. Failing to disclose information about a past relationship was unappealing to both men and women, though particularly so for women.

  10. Chronic Childhood Peer Rejection is Associated with Heightened Neural Responses to Social Exclusion During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; van Lier, Pol A C; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents reported similar increases in distress after being excluded in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball), but adolescents with a history of chronic peer rejection showed higher activity in brain regions previously linked to the detection of, and the distress caused by, social exclusion. Specifically, compared with stably accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents displayed: 1) higher activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during social exclusion and 2) higher activity in the dACC and anterior prefrontal cortex when they were incidentally excluded in a social interaction in which they were overall included. These findings demonstrate that chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence, which has implications for understanding the processes through which peer rejection may lead to adverse effects on mental health over time.

  11. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-01-01

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na + , Cl − , Mg 2+ , K + and Ca 2+ , at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ∼98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. (paper)

  13. A new preconditioner update strategy for the solution of sequences of linear systems in structural mechanics: application to saddle point problems in elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Sylvain; Gratton, Serge; Tardieu, Nicolas; Vasseur, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Many applications in structural mechanics require the numerical solution of sequences of linear systems typically issued from a finite element discretization of the governing equations on fine meshes. The method of Lagrange multipliers is often used to take into account mechanical constraints. The resulting matrices then exhibit a saddle point structure and the iterative solution of such preconditioned linear systems is considered as challenging. A popular strategy is then to combine preconditioning and deflation to yield an efficient method. We propose an alternative that is applicable to the general case and not only to matrices with a saddle point structure. In this approach, we consider to update an existing algebraic or application-based preconditioner, using specific available information exploiting the knowledge of an approximate invariant subspace or of matrix-vector products. The resulting preconditioner has the form of a limited memory quasi-Newton matrix and requires a small number of linearly independent vectors. Numerical experiments performed on three large-scale applications in elasticity highlight the relevance of the new approach. We show that the proposed method outperforms the deflation method when considering sequences of linear systems with varying matrices.

  14. Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment for precious DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer Aiden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment (TGE protocols permit selective sequencing of genomic regions of interest on a massively parallel scale. These protocols could be improved by: 1 modifying or eliminating time consuming steps; 2 increasing yield to reduce input DNA and excessive PCR cycling; and 3 enhancing reproducible. Results We developed a solution-based TGE method for downstream Illumina sequencing in a non-automated workflow, adding standard Illumina barcode indexes during the post-hybridization amplification to allow for sample pooling prior to sequencing. The method utilizes Agilent SureSelect baits, primers and hybridization reagents for the capture, off-the-shelf reagents for the library preparation steps, and adaptor oligonucleotides for Illumina paired-end sequencing purchased directly from an oligonucleotide manufacturing company. Conclusions This solution-based TGE method for Illumina sequencing is optimized for small- or medium-sized laboratories and addresses the weaknesses of standard protocols by reducing the amount of input DNA required, increasing capture yield, optimizing efficiency, and improving reproducibility.

  15. Errors in the estimation method for the rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    In recent years the problem of the mechanical vibrations impact in adaptive optics (AO) systems has been renewed. These signals are damped sinusoidal signals and have deleterious effect on the system. One of software solutions to reject the vibrations is an adaptive method called AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) where the procedure has three steps: estimation of perturbation parameters, estimation of the frequency response of the plant, update the reference signal to reject/minimalize the vibration. In the first step a very important problem is the estimation method. A very accurate and fast (below 10 ms) estimation method of these three parameters has been presented in several publications in recent years. The method is based on using the spectrum interpolation and MSD time windows and it can be used to estimate multifrequency signals. In this paper the estimation method is used in the AVC method to increase the system performance. There are several parameters that affect the accuracy of obtained results, e.g. CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, b - number of ADC bits, γ - damping ratio of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value for systematic error is approximately 10^-10 Hz/Hz for N = 2048 and CiR = 0.1. This paper presents equations that can used to estimate maximum systematic errors for given values of H, CiR and N before the start of the estimation process.

  16. Eculizumab for the Treatment of Severe Antibody-Mediated Rejection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In renal transplantation, treatment options for antibody-mediated rejection are limited. Here, we report a case of severe AMR treated with eculizumab. A 50-year-old woman known for end stage kidney disease secondary to IgA nephropathy received a kidney transplant from a 50-year-old deceased donor. At 5 months after transplantation, she presented with acute graft dysfunction and biopsy showed a severe antibody-mediated rejection associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. Despite an aggressive conventional immunosuppressive regimen, signs of rejection persisted and the patient was treated with 3 doses of eculizumab. Following the therapy, markers of TMA improved and graft function stabilized. However, ongoing signs of rejection remained in the repeated biopsy. In kidney transplantation, eculizumab is an expensive treatment and its role in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection remains to be determined.

  17. Response of the μ-opioid system to social rejection and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, D T; Sanford, B J; Meyers, K K; Love, T M; Hazlett, K E; Wang, H; Ni, L; Walker, S J; Mickey, B J; Korycinski, S T; Koeppe, R A; Crocker, J K; Langenecker, S A; Zubieta, J-K

    2013-11-01

    The endogenous opioid system, which alleviates physical pain, is also known to regulate social distress and reward in animal models. To test this hypothesis in humans (n=18), we used an μ-opioid receptor (MOR) radiotracer to measure changes in MOR availability in vivo with positron emission tomography during social rejection (not being liked by others) and acceptance (being liked by others). Social rejection significantly activated the MOR system (i.e., reduced receptor availability relative to baseline) in the ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). This pattern of activation is consistent with the hypothesis that the endogenous opioids have a role in reducing the experience of social pain. Greater trait resiliency was positively correlated with MOR activation during rejection in the amygdala, PAG and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), suggesting that MOR activation in these areas is protective or adaptive. In addition, MOR activation in the pregenual ACC was correlated with reduced negative affect during rejection. In contrast, social acceptance resulted in MOR activation in the amygdala and anterior insula, and MOR deactivation in the midline thalamus and sgACC. In the left ventral striatum, MOR activation during acceptance predicted a greater desire for social interaction, suggesting a role for the MOR system in social reward. The ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus, PAG, anterior insula and ACC are rich in MORs and comprise a pathway by which social cues may influence mood and motivation. MOR regulation of this pathway may preserve and promote emotional well being in the social environment.

  18. Questionnaire investigation to clarify the occurrence rate and characteristics of maternal rejection behavior in Japanese black cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohari, Daisuke; Takakura, Azusa

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was 'Occurred from the first birth (65.6%)' and behavior manner was performing no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior (75%). Almost all the farmers assisted in each parturition (P cattle was approximately 6% and many of the rejective cows continuously performed no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Soluble CD30 correlates with clinical but not subclinical renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt-Minkowski, Patricia; Roth, Michèle; Hönger, Gideon; Amico, Patrizia; Hopfer, Helmut; Schaub, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been proposed as a promising noninvasive biomarker for clinical renal allograft rejection, but its diagnostic characteristics regarding detection of subclinical rejection have not been assessed. We investigated sCD30 in 146 consecutive kidney allograft recipients under tacrolimus-mycophenolate-based immunosuppression having 250 surveillance biopsies at 3 and 6 months as well as 52 indication biopsies within the first year post-transplant. Allograft histology results were classified as (i) acute Banff score zero or interstitial infiltrates only, (ii) tubulitis t1, (iii) tubulitis t2-3 and (iv) isolated vascular compartment inflammation. sCD30 correlated well with the extent of clinical (P sCD30, histological groups were assigned to two categories: no relevant inflammation (i.e. acute Banff score zero and interstitial infiltrates only) versus all other pathologies (tubulitis t1-3 and isolated vascular compartment inflammation). For clinical allograft inflammation, AUC was 0.87 (sensitivity 89%, specificity 79%; P = 0.0006); however, for subclinical inflammation, AUC was only 0.59 (sensitivity 50%, specificity 69%; P = 0.47). In conclusion, sCD30 correlated with clinical, but not subclinical renal allograft rejection limiting its clinical utility as a noninvasive rejection screening biomarker in patients with stable allograft function receiving tacrolimus-mycophenolate-based immunosuppression. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  20. Effects of experimental egg composition on rejection by Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, J.W.; Cruz, A.; Weaver, P.F.; Wiley, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally parasitized nests of the Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus) in Hispaniola using real and artificial eggs made from wood and modeling clay. Artificial eggs were similar in size and shape to real weaver eggs and were coated with acrylic paint and glazed. Real eggs were actual weaver eggs taken from Village Weaver nests. Experimental parasitic eggs (1) mimicked natural weaver eggs, (2) differed in color only, (3) differed in spotting only, or (4) mimicked Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) egg color and spotting pattern. Parasitized nests were checked after 2-6 days. Real eggs were ejected from weaver nests with increasing frequency as they became less similar to the eggs in the nest with cowbirds eggs having the highest rejection (81%). However, for artificial egg types there were no significant within-composition differences in patterns of rejection. Clay eggs were usually ejected from the nests, whereas nests containing wood eggs often ended empty, or with only the artificial egg remaining in the nest. These patterns may reflect the differential ability of weavers to recognize and remove foreign eggs of different compositions from their nests. Researchers undertaking egg-rejection experiments should use real eggs either in addition or in place of artificial eggs to assess the cost of rejection and the coevolutionary relationships between parasite and host.

  1. 'A Stitch in Time?':Repairs and Rejection in Sale of Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Parker

    2008-01-01

    Section 35(6)(a) says there is no acceptance of goods (and, hence, no loss of the right to reject) where a defective good is repaired, pursuant to 'an arrangement with the seller'. However, what is the position where the seller, having repaired the goods, does not tell the buyer what the fault was or what was done to rectify it? In such a case, the House of Lords has held the buyer can still reject the goods, even where the seller says they are 'as good as new'. The basis for doing so was an ...

  2. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... capital cities: Madrid, Paris, Berlin and London. A common and translated topic guide was developed prior to the field work. A ranking exercise was applied, where the participants classified the technologies into accepted, neutral or rejected concepts, after discussing the perceived benefits and risks...... in society, global warming crisis, disease outbreaks and degradation of the environment are shaping consumers' opinion in regard to food production. There was a severe criticism about too much intervention in food and a strong desire to keep food and beef processing as simple and natural as possible....

  3. Long term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Tate, David J.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Strober, Samuel; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short and long term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients. Materials and Methods: From 1986 to 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 patients who had received cardiac transplants at Stanford University. In 38 cases, TLI was administered for chronic, intractable allograft rejection despite conventional anti-rejection therapy, including corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, OKT3, DHPG, RATG, and methotrexate. Ten patients received TLI prophylactically, beginning radiation between 5 and 16 days after heart transplantation. The prescribed radiation dose was 800 cGy given in 80 cGy fractions twice weekly to all major lymph node regions using mantle and inverted Y fields. Patients continued to receive all medications except azathioprine which was held during TLI to prevent severe marrow suppression. All patients were closely monitored for episodes of rejection, infection, prednisone requirements, blood counts, and complications of treatment. Post-irradiation follow up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years with a mean of 3.1 years. Results: The actual mean dose of radiation was 730 cGy delivered over a mean of 39 calendar days. Fifty six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, the frequency of rejection dropped from 0.46 episodes/patient/month before radiation to 0.14 episodes/patient/month during TLI (p 3 during TLI (p = 0.01) and remained low at 167.6 cells/mm 3 2-4 months after treatment (p = 0.05). CD8+ lymphocytes also decreased during treatment from 233.2 to 65.8 cells/mm 3 (p = 0.003) but rose significantly above normal to 381.3 cells/mm 3 2-4 months after TLI (p 0.05). Thus, the ratio of helper/suppresser T-cells was chronically decreased. Infection rates were not significantly different before, during or after

  4. Experiential Avoidance as a Mediator between Rejection Sensitivity and Social Interaction Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. Sintos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overarching and related concepts involved in interpersonal sensitivity, this study aimed to look at the differences between, and relationships of, some of its concepts by explaining the mediating effect of experiential avoidance on rejection sensitivity and social interaction anxiety. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates within the National Capital Region, aged 16 to 40 (M = 19.29, SD = 2.89, and comprising 89 females and 70 males participated in the study. Results show that both rejection sensitivity and experiential avoidance significantly affect social interaction anxiety. Also, a full mediation occurs when experiential avoidance serves as a mediator. This is explained through the occurrence of habitual coping, whereby the cognitive aspect of behavior (in this case, rejection sensitivity becomes dormant and unnecessary. Some variables which may have possibly accounted for the relationship between these concepts may be considered for future research to validate and better understand the findings of this study.

  5. Relationship between CGRP level and acute reject reaction in cardiac allograft recipient in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lusheng; Zhao Xin; Song Guangmin; Yang Xixiu; Song Huimin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and acute reject reaction in the cardiac allograft in rat. Methods: There were 28 wistar rats with inbreeding line as donors and SD rats as recipients. Cervical heart allograft model was used. Blood was sampled from the third day after grafting to terminal reject reaction when the acceptors were killed. 32 rats without allograft were regarded as the normal controls. Results: The mean survival time of the experimental group was 7.21±2.36 days. Volume of the allografts was greatly increased with hyperemia and edema. CGRP level in the plasma of experimental rats was 180.18±69.77 ng/L, while the level of control rats was 277.41 ± 79.02 ng/L. The deference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: In the acute reject reaction, CGRP level is greatly decreased in the plasma of cardiac allograft recipients. Further studies are therefore needed to investigate the application of CGRP measurement in the prevention and treatment of rejection reaction of cardiac allograft

  6. Use of radionuclide imaging in the early diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, S.R.; Mattern, W.D.; Staab, E.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the clinical application of radionuclide imaging to evaluate changes in cadaver transplant function in the immediate postoperative period. The method uses orthoiodohippuric acid (hippuran) administered IV, with scintillation imaging, and curve analysis by a digital computer. An initial study is always obtained 24 hours after transplantation. Serial studies are then obtained, as needed, to interpret the clinical course. Selected cases are presented which illustrate the use of this protocol in various clinical settings. In the oliguric patient serial studies have been of particular value. They have identified ATN so that overenthusiastic treatment for rejection could be avoided. They have also identified acute rejection complicating ATN so that high dose steroid therapy could be administered appropriately. In the nonoliguric patient they have frequently contributed to the early diagnosis of acute rejection, and they have been useful in monitoring the effect and duration of treatment for severe rejection crisis. It is concluded that radionuclide imaging studies, when carefully applied and interpreted, are a valuable adjunct to the management of patients in this complex clinical setting

  7. Increased circulating follicular helper T cells with decreased programmed death-1 in chronic renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Shi, Qianqian; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2015-11-03

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major issue that affects long-term renal allograft survival. Since follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote the development of antigen-specific B cells in alloimmune responses, we investigated the potential roles of Tfh cells, B cells and their alloimmune-regulating molecules in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft rejection in this study. The frequency of Tfh, B cells and the levels of their alloimmune-regulating molecules including chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS), programmed death-1 (PD-1), ICOSL, PDL-1 and interleukin-21 (IL-21), of peripheral blood were comparatively measured in 42 primary renal allograft recipients within 1-3 years after transplantation. Among them, 24 patients had definite chronic rejection, while other 18 patients had normal renal function. Tfh-cell ratio was significantly increased with PD-1 down-regulation in the patients with chronic renal allograft rejection, while B cells and the alloimmune-regulating molecules studied did not show any appreciable change in parallel. The patients with chronic renal allograft rejection have a characteristic increase in circulating Tfh cells with a decrease in PD-1 expression. These pathological changes may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic renal allograft rejection and can be useful as a clinical index for monitoring conditions of renal transplant.

  8. Methods for otpimum and near optimum disassembly sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, A.J.D.; Gupta, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers disassembly sequencing problems subjected to sequence dependent disassembly costs. In practice, the methods for dealing with such problems rely mainly on metaheuristic and heuristic methods, which intrinsically generate suboptimum solutions. Exact methods are NP-hard and

  9. USA: California rejects mandatory GMO labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    Buying organic remains the best strategy for US consumers to avoid eating GM food. The voters of California have rejected the proposal to label GMO food. The proposition was narrowly lost, 47% to 53% (4,326,770 ‘Yes’ votes vs. 4,884,961 ‘No’ votes). Proposition 47 was supported by the organic sector but opposed by a coalition of GMO companies and US multinational food companies. Californians were invited to vote into law ‘The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act’. Section ...

  10. A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a Ball and Rigid Triangle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguilar-Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of linear flatness control along with active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for the local stabilization and trajectory tracking problems in the underactuated ball and rigid triangle system. To this end, an observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed based on the flat tangent linearization of the system around its corresponding unstable equilibrium rest position. It was accomplished through two decoupled linear extended observers and a single linear output feedback controller, with disturbance cancelation features. The controller guarantees locally exponentially asymptotic stability for the stabilization problem and practical local stability in the solution of the tracking error. An advantage of combining the flatness and the ADRC methods is that it possible to perform online estimates and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher-order nonlinearities discarded by the linearization approximation. Simulation indicates that the proposed controller behaves remarkably well, having an acceptable domain of attraction.

  11. Why don't you like me? Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, M J W; Dekkers, L M S; Westenberg, P M; van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M W

    2017-02-01

    Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4-8Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta dynamics (power and inter-trial phase synchrony) during the processing of social evaluative feedback. We employed the Social Judgment paradigm in which 56 undergraduate women (mean age=19.67 years) were asked to communicate their expectancies about being liked vs. disliked by unknown peers. Expectancies were followed by feedback indicating social acceptance vs. rejection. Results revealed a significant increase in EEG theta power to unexpected social rejection feedback. This EEG theta response could be source-localized to brain regions typically reported during activation of the saliency network (i.e., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, frontal pole, and the supplementary motor area). Theta phase dynamics mimicked the behavior of the time-domain averaged feedback-related negativity (FRN) by showing stronger phase synchrony for feedback that was unexpected vs. expected. Theta phase, however, differed from the FRN by also displaying stronger phase synchrony in response to rejection vs. acceptance feedback. Together, this study highlights distinct roles for midfrontal theta power and phase synchrony in response to social evaluative feedback. Our findings contribute to the literature by showing that midfrontal theta oscillatory power is sensitive to social rejection but only when peer rejection is unexpected, and this theta response is governed by a widely distributed neural network implicated in saliency detection and conflict monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat Shock Protein 90α Is a Potential Serological Biomarker of Acute Rejection after Renal Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Maehana

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a molecular chaperone associated with the activation of client proteins, was recently reported to play an important role in immunologic reactions. To date, the role of HSP90 in solid organ transplantations has remained unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum HSP90α levels and acute allograft rejection after organ and tissue transplantation using serum samples from kidney allograft recipients, an in vitro antibody-mediated rejection model, and a murine skin transplantation.Serum HSP90α levels were significantly higher in kidney recipients at the time of acute rejection (AR than in those with no evidence of rejection. In most cases with AR, serum HSP90 decreased to baseline after the treatment. On the other hand, serum HSP90α was not elevated as much in patients with chronic rejection, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, or BK virus nephropathy as in AR patients. In vitro study showed that HSP90α concentration in the supernatant was significantly higher in the supernatant of human aortic endothelial cells cocultured with specific anti-HLA IgG under complement attack than in that of cells cocultured with nonspecific IgG. In mice receiving skin transplantation, serum HSP90α was elevated when the first graft was rejected and the level further increased during more severe rejection of the second graft.The results suggest that HSP90α is released into the serum by cell damage due to AR in organ and tissue transplantation, and it is potentially a new biomarker to help detect AR in kidney recipients.

  13. Online monitoring of N-nitrosodimethylamine rejection as a performance indicator of trace organic chemical removal by reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Haruka; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Kodamatani, Hitoshi

    2018-06-01

    The security of recycled water quality in potable reuse can be enhanced by improving the credibility of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment for the removal of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). This study evaluated the potential of online monitoring of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) before and after RO treatment as a surrogate indicator for TOrC removal by RO. This pilot-scale study monitored NDMA concentrations in RO feedwater (ultrafiltration-treated wastewater) and RO permeate every 22 min using novel online NDMA analyzers-high-performance liquid chromatography followed by photochemical reaction and chemiluminescence detection. NDMA rejection by RO varied considerably in response to changes in operating conditions (permeate flux and feedwater temperature). A high linear correlation between NDMA rejection and the rejection of six other TOrCs was observed. The linear correlation was also identified for an RO membrane damaged with chlorine. The correlation between another potential surrogate indicator (conductivity rejection) and TOrC rejection was relatively low. NDMA, which is the smallest compound among regulated TOrCs, revealed rejections lower than the other TOrCs, indicating that NDMA rejection can be a conservative surrogate indicator capable of predicting changes in TOrC removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring fit of sequence data to phylogenetic model: gain of power using marginal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Peter J; Ota, Rissa; Penny, David

    2009-10-01

    Testing fit of data to model is fundamentally important to any science, but publications in the field of phylogenetics rarely do this. Such analyses discard fundamental aspects of science as prescribed by Karl Popper. Indeed, not without cause, Popper (Unended quest: an intellectual autobiography. Fontana, London, 1976) once argued that evolutionary biology was unscientific as its hypotheses were untestable. Here we trace developments in assessing fit from Penny et al. (Nature 297:197-200, 1982) to the present. We compare the general log-likelihood ratio (the G or G (2) statistic) statistic between the evolutionary tree model and the multinomial model with that of marginalized tests applied to an alignment (using placental mammal coding sequence data). It is seen that the most general test does not reject the fit of data to model (P approximately 0.5), but the marginalized tests do. Tests on pairwise frequency (F) matrices, strongly (P < 0.001) reject the most general phylogenetic (GTR) models commonly in use. It is also clear (P < 0.01) that the sequences are not stationary in their nucleotide composition. Deviations from stationarity and homogeneity seem to be unevenly distributed amongst taxa; not necessarily those expected from examining other regions of the genome. By marginalizing the 4( t ) patterns of the i.i.d. model to observed and expected parsimony counts, that is, from constant sites, to singletons, to parsimony informative characters of a minimum possible length, then the likelihood ratio test regains power, and it too rejects the evolutionary model with P < 0.001. Given such behavior over relatively recent evolutionary time, readers in general should maintain a healthy skepticism of results, as the scale of the systematic errors in published trees may really be far larger than the analytical methods (e.g., bootstrap) report.

  15. Plasma levels of soluble CD30 in kidney graft recipients as predictors of acute allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, K; Abdallah, T B; Bardi, R; Abderrahim, E; Kheder, A

    2006-09-01

    In renal transplant recipients elevated soluble serum CD30 levels are associated with increased rejection and graft loss. We sought to determine the sCD30 plasma levels before and after kidney transplantation and to assess whether sCD30 was a predictive factor of immunological risk. sCD30 plasma levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay in 52 kidney graft recipients before as well as 7, 15, and 21 days after transplantation. Eighteen patients developed acute allograft rejection (group I) and 34 patients showed uneventful courses (group II). Before transplantation sCD30 plasma levels were elevated in both groups (mean: 162.6 +/- 89.5 U/mL). After transplantation, group I recipients with acute rejection showed higher relative levels of plasma sCD30 on days 7 and 15 (120.8 +/- 74.6 U/mL and 210.6 +/- 108.7 U/mL respectively) compared with group II patients without rejection (95 +/- 45 U/mL and 59.4 +/- 31.6 U/mL), a difference that was significant for group I (P = .0003) and not significant for group II (P = .09). On day 21, sCD30 decreased in the two groups but remained higher among group I patients (120.6 +/- 92.7 U/mL). HLA antibodies were positive in 18 patients (34.6%) with 9 (50%) experiencing at last one episode of acute rejection. Among 34 patients negative for anti-HLA antibodies, nine displayed acute rejection only (26.4%), a difference that was not significant (P > .05). If we consider 100 U/mL as the minimum predictive level for allograft rejection, our results suggested that levels of sCD30 should be taken into consideration with the presence of HLA-antibodies detectable before and after transplantation, especially in patients with more than three HLA mismatches [RR = 3.20 (0.94 sCD30 is a useful procedure for the recognition of rejection in its earliest stages.

  16. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.

  17. REJECTION TO LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS BECAUSE OF VIOLENCE IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACCALAUREATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caballero-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper corresponds the first theoretical and applied results in the thesis of the author and director, and aims to make a conceptual review of school education and its importance in society and the study of mathematics and as these are rejected and stigmatized. In turn, we study, how it manifests itself direct, structural and cultural violence in learning math to finally propose peace education as alternative in order to influence the rejection and stigma regarding mathematics, trying to improve their learning.

  18. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  19. When rejection stings: how self-esteem constrains relationship-enhancement processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sandra L; Rose, Paul; Bellavia, Gina M; Holmes, John G; Kusche, Anna Garrett

    2002-09-01

    Three experiments examined how needs for acceptance might constrain low versus high self-esteem people's capacity to protect their relationships in the face of difficulties. The authors led participants to believe that their partner perceived a problem in their relationship. They then measured perceptions of the partner's acceptance, partner enhancement, and closeness. Low but not high self-esteem participants read too much into problems, seeing them as a sign that their partner's affections and commitment might be waning. They then derogated their partner and reduced closeness. Being less sensitive to rejection, however, high self-esteem participants affirmed their partner in the face of threat. Ironically, chronic needs for acceptance may result in low self-esteem people seeing signs of rejection where none exist, needlessly weakening attachments.

  20. Persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Dong [Institute of Information and Control Engineering Technology, Nanjing Normal University, 78 Bancang Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210042 (China)], E-mail: medongy@njnu.edu.cn; Lam, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Wang Zidong [Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zidong.Wang@brunel.ac.uk

    2009-04-15

    The problem of persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems is concerned based on the Lyapunov function method. The effect of the network conditions, such as network-induced delay and data dropout, is considered in the modeling of the system. It is assumed that the state and the control signals are individually quantized by quantizers on the sensor side and the controller side. The feedback gain and the quantizer parameters that guarantee the internal stability and the disturbance rejection performance of the closed-loop system are obtained by solving some linear matrix inequalities. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a numerical example is provided for the design of the feedback gain and the quantizer parameters.

  1. Persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Dong; Lam, James; Wang Zidong

    2009-01-01

    The problem of persistent disturbance rejection via state feedback for networked control systems is concerned based on the Lyapunov function method. The effect of the network conditions, such as network-induced delay and data dropout, is considered in the modeling of the system. It is assumed that the state and the control signals are individually quantized by quantizers on the sensor side and the controller side. The feedback gain and the quantizer parameters that guarantee the internal stability and the disturbance rejection performance of the closed-loop system are obtained by solving some linear matrix inequalities. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a numerical example is provided for the design of the feedback gain and the quantizer parameters.

  2. Practices for Identifying and Rejecting Hemolyzed Specimens Are Highly Variable in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Lehman, Christopher M; Jones, Bruce A; Meier, Frederick A; Horowitz, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Hemolysis is an important clinical laboratory quality attribute that influences result reliability. To determine hemolysis identification and rejection practices occurring in clinical laboratories. We used the College of American Pathologists Survey program to distribute a Q-Probes-type questionnaire about hemolysis practices to Chemistry Survey participants. Of 3495 participants sent the questionnaire, 846 (24%) responded. In 71% of 772 laboratories, the hemolysis rate was less than 3.0%, whereas in 5%, it was 6.0% or greater. A visual scale, an instrument scale, and combination of visual and instrument scales were used to identify hemolysis in 48%, 11%, and 41% of laboratories, respectively. A picture of the hemolysis level was used as an aid to technologists' visual interpretation of hemolysis levels in 40% of laboratories. In 7.0% of laboratories, all hemolyzed specimens were rejected; in 4% of laboratories, no hemolyzed specimens were rejected; and in 88% of laboratories, some specimens were rejected depending on hemolysis levels. Participants used 69 different terms to describe hemolysis scales, with 21 terms used in more than 10 laboratories. Slight and moderate were the terms used most commonly. Of 16 different cutoffs used to reject hemolyzed specimens, moderate was the most common, occurring in 30% of laboratories. For whole blood electrolyte measurements performed in 86 laboratories, 57% did not evaluate the presence of hemolysis, but for those that did, the most common practice in 21 laboratories (24%) was centrifuging and visually determining the presence of hemolysis in all specimens. Hemolysis practices vary widely. Standard assessment and consistent reporting are the first steps in reducing interlaboratory variability among results.

  3. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eSigdel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration of urine samples collected from kidney transplant patients with and without acute rejection, which were biopsy matched. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw and urine exosomes (Ue underwent mass spectroscopy-based quantitative proteonomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR. A total of 1018 proteins were identified in Uw and 349 proteins in Ue. 279 overlapped between the two urinary compartments and 70 proteins were unique to the Ue compartment. Of 349 exosomal proteins identified from transplant patients,220 had not been previously identified in the normal Ue fraction. 11 Ue proteins, functionally involved in an inflammatory and stress response, were more abundant in urine samples from patients with acute rejection, 3 of which are exclusive to the Ue fraction. Ue AR-specific biomarkers(8 were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Ue proteins was applied. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were specific to inflammatory responses, and were not observed in the Ue fraction from normal healthy subjects. Ue specific protein alterations in renal disease provide potential mechanistic insights and offer a unique panel of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring AR.

  4. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  5. TPMT genetic variants are associated with increased rejection with azathioprine use in heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jackson J; Geske, Jennifer R; Boilson, Barry A; Frantz, Robert P; Edwards, Brooks S; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Kremers, Walter K; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Pereira, Naveen L

    2013-12-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is an important immunosuppressant drug used in heart transplantation (HTX). Consensus guidelines recommend that patients with thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genetic variants be started on lower AZA dose because of higher active metabolite levels and risk of adverse events. However, in-vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays performed in participants with inactive TPMT alleles have suggested that AZA use may result in decreased immunosuppressant efficacy as compared with wild-type (WT) individuals. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the effect of TPMT genetic variation on AZA efficacy or prevention of rejection in HTX recipients treated with AZA. We genotyped 93 HTX recipients treated with AZA and measured erythrocyte TPMT enzyme activity. Acute rejection was monitored by routine endomyocardial biopsies. There were 83 WT and 10 heterozygote (HZ) HTX recipients. TPMT activity level was lower in HZ compared with WT (13.1±2.8 vs. 21±4.5 U/ml red blood cell, Prejection earlier (Prejection score was higher (P=0.02) than WT. AZA was discontinued more frequently in HZ (P=0.01) because of rejection. The incidence of leukopenia was similar between the groups (40 vs. 43%, P=1.0). HTX recipients with TPMT genetic variant alleles who are treated with AZA develop acute rejection earlier, more frequently, and of greater severity. These patients, despite having lower TPMT enzymatic activity, should be monitored carefully for possible increased risk of acute rejection.

  6. Cation exchange process for recovery of plutonium from laboratory solutions containing chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1978-10-01

    A cation exchange technique was developed for the separation of plutonium from laboratory solutions containing either Pu(III) or Pu(III)--Pu(IV) mixtures in acidic solutions containing chloride ions. The procedure consists of adjusting the acid concentration to less than one molar and adjusting the valence of the plutonium ion to the (III) state, if necessary. The adjusted solution is fed to a cation exchange column and washed with distilled water to remove residual chlorides from the column. Plutonium is then eluted from the column with 5M nitric acid containing 0.34M sulfamic acid. This procedure was used to separate plutonium from 1.2M chloride solution on a production-scale column. Typical plutonium recovery was 99.97%, while greater than 96% of the original chloride was rejected

  7. Interpersonal rejection results in increased appearance satisfaction for women who rely on body weight for self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Lauren M; Jarry, Josée L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether body weight contingent self-worth (BWCSW), the tendency to base self-worth on body weight, moderates the effects of interpersonal rejection on self-esteem and body satisfaction. In an online survey, female undergraduates (N=148) completed measures of trait self-esteem, depression, and BWCSW. In a subsequent lab session, participants were assigned to either an interpersonal rejection or to a neutral control condition, after which they completed measures of state self-esteem and body satisfaction. Compared to women with lower BWCSW, women with higher BWCSW reported lower appearance self-esteem (p=.001) and body satisfaction (p=.004) across conditions. However, they reacted to rejection by reporting greater appearance self-esteem (p=.034) and body satisfaction (p=.021). Rejection had no effect on women with lower BWCSW. The reaction of women with higher BWCSW is interpreted as a compensatory self-enhancement response to interpersonal rejection within a self-important domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bortezomib-based treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Li, X L; Xu, X G; Shi, B Y; Zhang, Z M; Li, Z L; Han, Y; Zhou, W Q; Chen, C Q; Cai, M; Zhang, X

    2015-12-22

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is an important factor affecting survival after renal transplantation. A highly selective proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, clears activated plasma cells from the body and has important therapeutic effect on AMR. We investigated the effects of bortezomib on AMR in a patient after a second renal transplant. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of mixed cellular rejection and AMR. Bortezomib was administered on day 1 (1.3 mg/m(2)), day 4 (1.0 mg/m(2)), and day 8 (1.0 mg/m(2)). On the same days, 250 mg methylprednisolone was administered once, and cyclosporine dose (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was reduced by 50%. Oral mycophenolate mofetil and steroid were withdrawn on day 1 of bortezomib treatment. Intermittent double-filtration plasmapheresis was also performed. We monitored parameters, including T lymphocyte subsets, CD139 and CD19 expression, panel reactive antibody (PRA), and serum creatinine concentration. At follow-up 6 months after bortezomib treatment, we observed: 1) serum creatinine stabilized at 130 μM from a peak level of 337 μM; 2) PRA decreased from a maximum of 66.7 to 0%; 3) blood plasma cell percentage rebounded after significantly decreasing following the first dose of bortezomib; 4) in renal allograft biopsy, immunohistochemical staining for C4d shifted from strongly positive to negative, and cellular rejection shifted from type IIA to borderline; and 5) adverse effects such as platelet suppression, hypotension, and grade 3 peripheral neuropathy emerged. Bortezomib effectively treated antibody-mediated renal transplantation rejection in this case study, but clinical trials with large sample sizes are still needed to explore clinical safety and tolerability.

  9. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Pathogenesis, Prevention, Treatment, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Blume

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a major cause of late kidney transplant failure. It is important to have an understanding of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA typing including well-designed studies to determine anti-MHC-class-I-related chain A (MICA and antibody rejection pathogenesis. This can allow for more specific diagnosis and treatment which may improve long-term graft function. HLA-specific antibody detection prior to transplantation allows one to help determine the risk for AMR while detection of DSA along with a biopsy confirms it. It is now appreciated that biopsy for AMR does not have to include diffuse C4d, but does require a closer look at peritubular capillary microvasculature. Although plasmapheresis (PP is effective in removing alloantibodies (DSAs from the circulation, rebound synthesis of alloantibodies can occur. Splenectomy is used in desensitization protocols for ABO incompatible transplants as well as being found to treat AMR refractory to conventional treatment. Also used are agents targeted for plasma cells, B cells, and the complement cascade which are bortezomib rituximab and eculizumab, respectively.

  10. CMV driven CD8(+) T-cell activation is associated with acute rejection in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Antoine; Mourin, Gisèle; Fastenackels, Solène; Almeida, Jorge R; Iglesias, Maria Candela; Boyd, Anders; Gostick, Emma; Larsen, Martin; Price, David A; Sacre, Karim; Douek, Daniel C; Autran, Brigitte; Picard, Clément; Miranda, Sandra de; Sauce, Delphine; Stern, Marc; Appay, Victor

    2013-07-01

    Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for terminal respiratory disease, but the associated mortality rate is high. Acute rejection of the transplanted lung is a key determinant of adverse prognosis. Furthermore, an epidemiological relationship has been established between the occurrence of acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection. However, the reasons for this association remain unclear. Here, we performed a longitudinal characterization of CMV-specific T-cell responses and immune activation status in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of forty-four lung transplant patients. Acute rejection was associated with high levels of cellular activation in the periphery, reflecting strong CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell activity post-transplant. Peripheral and lung CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were very similar, and related to the presence of CMV in the transplanted organ. These findings support that activated CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cells in the lung may play a role in promoting acute rejection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rejection sensitivity as a vulnerability marker for depressive symptom deterioration in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Consistent across time and cultures, men and male adolescents older than 14 years of age appear underrepresented in mood disorders, and are far less likely than women to seek psychological help. The much higher rate of suicide amongst males suggests that depression in men might be underreported. One of the core human motives is to seek acceptance by others and avoid rejection. Rejection Sensitivity (RS has been conceptualized as the cognitive-affective processing disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely respond to cues of rejection in the behavior of others. RS has been previously linked with the onset and course of depression, but-as yet-has not been investigated longitudinally in a clinical population. We investigated the predictive role of RS to symptom deterioration 6 months after end-of- treatment in 72 male inpatients with depressive spectrum disorder. The BDI was administered at intake, end-of-treatment and 6 month follow-up. RS scores were obtained at intake. Rejection Sensitivity had additional predictive power on BDI scores at 6 months follow-up controlling for BDI scores at end-of-treatment (ΔR2 = .095. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of targeting RS during treatment, and highlight the fact that therapeutic follow-up care is paramount. Future research should investigate possible mediators of the RS-relapse-to-depression association, such as self-blame, rumination, neuroticism, pessimism, emotion dysregulation, and low self-esteem.

  12. Noise-Coupled Image Rejection Architecture of Complex Bandpass ΔΣAD Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Hao; Kobayashi, Haruo

    This paper proposes a new realization technique of image rejection function by noise-coupling architecture, which is used for a complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator. The complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator processes just input I and Q signals, not image signals, and the AD conversion can be realized with low power dissipation. It realizes an asymmetric noise-shaped spectra, which is desirable for such low-IF receiver applications. However, the performance of the complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator suffers from the mismatch between internal analog I and Q paths. I/Q path mismatch causes an image signal, and the quantization noise of the mirror image band aliases into the desired signal band, which degrades the SQNDR (Signal to Quantization Noise and Distortion Ratio) of the modulator. In our proposed modulator architecture, an extra notch for image rejection is realized by noise-coupled topology. We just add some passive capacitors and switches to the modulator; the additional integrator circuit composed of an operational amplifier in the conventional image rejection realization is not necessary. Therefore, the performance of the complex modulator can be effectively raised without additional power dissipation. We have performed simulation with MATLAB to confirm the validity of the proposed architecture. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture can achieve the realization of image-rejection effectively, and improve the SQNDR of the complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator.

  13. Hazards of X-ray diagnosis: Between rejection and exaggeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The exaggeration and rejection of radiological protection has become a problem during the last decade. This has given rise to controversies which have occupied the scientific world and the public (eg. nuclear energy, low-dose debates, disputes over mammography). The observed deviations from interrationally accepted standard values overstep the domain of constructive and critical furtherance of the state of scientific knowledge. Extreme views are commonly represented by a biased choice of references, one-sided interpretation of available data or clearly false argumentation. Rejection and exaggeration are frequently practised by groups of people whose aims are non-scientific. The giudelines of leading international organisations (eg. UNSCEAR and ICRP) represent a consensus of opinion of numerous nations with extensive radiation research programmes but with entirely different social systems. For this reason it is likely that this consensus reflects most plausibly the assumptions of the present time. (orig.) [de

  14. The effect of ABO blood incompatibility on corneal transplant failure in conditions with low-risk of graft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven P; Stark, Walter J; Stulting, R Doyle; Lass, Jonathan H; Sugar, Alan; Pavilack, Mark A; Smith, Patricia W; Tanner, Jean Paul; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Beck, Roy W; Kollman, Craig; Mannis, Mark J; Holland, Edward J

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether corneal graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period was affected by ABO blood type compatibility in participants in the Cornea Donor Study undergoing corneal transplantation principally for Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema, conditions at low-risk for graft rejection. Multi-center prospective, double-masked, clinical trial. ABO blood group compatibility was determined for 1,002 donors and recipients. During a 5-year follow-up period, episodes of graft rejection were documented, and graft failures were classified as to whether or not they were attributable to immunologic rejection. Endothelial cell density was determined by a central reading center for a subset of subjects. ABO donor-recipient incompatibility was not associated with graft failure attributable to any cause including graft failure because of rejection, or with the occurrence of a rejection episode. The 5-year cumulative incidence of graft failure attributable to rejection was 32 (6%) for recipients with ABO recipient-donor compatibility and 12 (4%) for those with ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 1.25; P = .20). The 5-year incidence for a definite rejection episode, irrespective of whether graft failure ultimately occurred, was 64 (12%) for ABO compatible compared with 25 (8%) for ABO incompatible cases (P = .09). Among clear grafts at 5 years, percent loss of endothelial cells was similar in ABO compatible and incompatible cases. In patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema, ABO matching is not indicated since ABO incompatibility does not increase the risk of transplant failure attributable to graft rejection.

  15. Increased deoposition of 111indium labelled platelets in chronically rejected kidney transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leithner, C.; Syre, G.

    1982-01-01

    Increased deposition of 111 In-oxine labelled autologous platelets in chronically rejected kidney transplants was demonstrated using a gamma-camera and by measurement of a platelet uptake index (PUI). In this group of patients the PUI correlated indirectly with the platelet half-life and was statistically different from the PUI found in stable transplant patients who acted as controls. It is therefore suggested that platelets may play a key role in chronic rejection by the release of a mitogenic factor which promotes the development of obliterative arterial lesions in the transplant. (orig.)

  16. Rhoh deficiency reduces peripheral T-cell function and attenuates allogenic transplant rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porubsky, Stefan; Wang, Shijun; Kiss, Eva

    2011-01-01

    better graft function. This effect was independent of the lower T-cell numbers in Rhoh-deficient recipients, because injection of equal numbers of Rhoh-deficient or control T cells into kidney transplanted mice with SCID led again to a significant 60% reduction of rejection. Mixed lymphocyte reaction...... deficiency in a clinically relevant situation, in which T-cell inhibition is desirable. In murine allogenic kidney transplantation, Rhoh deficiency caused a significant 75% reduction of acute and chronic transplant rejection accompanied by 75% lower alloantigen-specific antibody levels and significantly...

  17. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Antibody Mediated Rejection After Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0664 TITLE: Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Antibody-Mediated Rejection after...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2016 – 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to...sensitization, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, antibody mediated rejection, donor specific antibodies 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  18. Evolution of silvicultural thinning: from rejection to transcendence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris Zeide

    2006-01-01

    Our views on a main tool of forestry, silvicultural thinning, have changed greatly since the beginning of forestry over 200 years ago. At first, thinning was rejected as something unnatural and destructive. It was believed that the densest stands were the most productive and any thinning only detracted from maximum growth produced by nature. This philosophy was still...

  19. Balancing rejection and infection with respect to age, race, and gender: clues acquired from 17 years of cardiac transplantation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James F; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Tallaj, José A; Naftel, David C; Myers, Susan L; Foushee, Margaret T; Brown, Robert N; Pajaro, Octavio E; McGiffin, David C; Kirklin, James K

    2010-09-01

    Donor and recipient risk factors for rejection and infection have been well characterized. The contribution of demographic factors, especially age at the time of transplantation to morbidity and mortality due to rejection and infection, is much less well understood. Using parametric hazard analysis and multivariate risk-factor equations for infection and rejection events, we quantitatively determined the relationship of fundamental demographic variables (age, race and gender) to infection and rejection. These analyses were conducted with respect to date of transplant and age at the time of transplantation. The patient group consisted of all primary heart transplants performed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham during the years 1990 to 2007 (n = 526). Risk factors for rejection within 12 months post-transplantation were date of transplant (p < 0.0001) and age at the time of transplantation (young adults 10 to 30 years of age, p < 0.0001). Risk factors for infection were date of transplant (p < 0.0001) and age at the time of transplantation (young children and older adults, p < 0.0001). There were three immunosuppressive eras in 1990 to 2007. Notably, although the proportion of patients experiencing rejection and infection events decreased during each successive immunosuppressive era, the relative relationship of infection to rejection, as well as age at the time of transplantation, remained similar into the most recent era. The maximal frequency of rejection events and rejection death occurred among patients transplanted at ages 10 to 30 years. Conversely, the frequency of infection events was minimal within the same group. In the oldest and youngest patients receiving transplants, infection was the predominant cause of death and rates of rejection events decreased. These data show that evolving immunosuppressive strategies have successfully reduced rejection and infection frequencies, and those patients transplanted at 30 to 60 years of age have the lowest

  20. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  1. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-12-15

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  2. Renal blood flow after transplantation: Effects of acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and cyclosporine toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Raff, U.; Jain, R.; Horgan, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors incorporated their recently developed radionuclide first pass-technique for the quantitative measurement of renal transplant perfusion into routine DTPA imaging. Using this technique they investigated the effects of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), rejection, and cyclosporing toxicity on renal blood flow in a series of 80 studies in 35 patients, with independent evaluation of renal function. Transplant flow values were as follows: normal functioning, 439 mL/min +-83; ATN 248 mL/min +-63; rejection, 128 mL/min +-58; cyclosporing toxicity, 284 mL/min +-97; (normal flow in nontransplanted kidneys, approximately 550 mL/min). Differences between normal functioning, ATN, and rejection were significant (P < .05). Interestingly, immediate postsurgical hyperemia frequently occurred, with flow values sometimes exceeding 700 mL/min

  3. Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Blood Group A-Transgenic Mouse Model of ABO-Incompatible Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Bruce; Fisicaro, Nella; Wang, Szu-I; Kratochvil, Annetta; Labonte, Katrina; Tao, Kesheng; Pearcey, Jean; Marshall, Thuraya; Mengel, Michael; Sis, Banu; Fan, Xiaohu; dʼApice, Anthony J F; Cowan, Peter J; West, Lori J

    2016-06-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) organ transplantation is performed owing to unremitting donor shortages. Defining mechanisms of antibody-mediated rejection, accommodation, and tolerance of ABOi grafts is limited by lack of a suitable animal model. We report generation and characterization of a murine model to enable study of immunobiology in the setting of ABOi transplantation. Transgenesis of a construct containing human A1- and H-transferases under control of the ICAM-2 promoter was performed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. A-transgenic (A-Tg) mice were assessed for A-antigen expression by histology and flow cytometry. B6 wild-type (WT) mice were sensitized with blood group A-human erythrocytes; others received passive anti-A monoclonal antibody and complement after heart transplant. Serum anti-A antibodies were assessed by hemagglutination. "A-into-O" transplantation (major histocompatibility complex syngeneic) was modeled by transplanting hearts from A-Tg mice into sensitized or nonsensitized WT mice. Antibody-mediated rejection was assessed by morphology/immunohistochemistry. A-Tg mice expressed A-antigen on vascular endothelium and other cells including erythrocytes. Antibody-mediated rejection was evident in 15/17 A-Tg grafts in sensitized WT recipients (median titer, 1:512), with 2 showing hyperacute rejection and rapid cessation of graft pulsation. Hyperacute rejection was observed in 8/8 A-Tg grafts after passive transfer of anti-A antibody and complement into nonsensitized recipients. Antibody-mediated rejection was not observed in A-Tg grafts transplanted into nonsensitized mice. A-Tg heart grafts transplanted into WT mice with abundant anti-A antibody manifests characteristic features of antibody-mediated rejection. These findings demonstrate an effective murine model to facilitate study of immunologic features of ABOi transplantation and to improve potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Esophageal motor disorders are frequent during pre and post lung transplantation. Can they influence lung rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza de Los Ríos, Constanza; Canga Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Castel de Lucas, Isabel; Lora Pablos, David; Castellano Tortajada, Gregorio

    2018-06-01

    lung transplantation (LTx) is a viable option for most patients with end-stage lung diseases. Esophageal motor disorders (EMD) are frequent in candidates for LTx, but there is very little data about changes in esophageal motility post-LTx. the aim of our study was to assess esophageal motor disorders by high resolution manometry (HRM) both pre-LTx and six months post-LTx in patients with and without organ rejection. HRM (Manoscan®) was performed in 57 patients both pre-LTx and six months post-LTx. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification 3.0. EMD were found in 33.3% and in 49.1% of patients pre-LTx and post-LTx, respectively, and abnormal peristalsis was more frequently found post-LTx (p = 0.018). Hypercontractile esophagus was frequently found post-LTx (1.8% and 19.3% pre-LTx and post-LTx, respectively). Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology changed significantly pre-LTx and post-LTx; type I (normal) was more frequent post-LTx (63-2% and 82.5% respectively, p = 0.007). EMD were more frequent post-LTx in both the non-rejection and rejection group, although particularly in the rejection group (43.2% and 69.2% respectively, p = 0.09). EMD such as distal spasm, hypercontractile esophagus and EGJ outflow obstruction were also observed more frequently post-LTx in the rejection group. significant changes in esophageal motility were observed pre-LTx and particularly post-LTx; hypercontractile esophagus was a frequent EMD found post-LTx. EMD were more frequent in the group of patients that experienced organ rejection compared to the non-rejection group. EMD leading to an impaired esophageal clearance should be considered as an additional factor that contributes to LTx failure.

  5. Early bedside detection of ischemia and rejection in liver transplants by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håugaa, Håkon; Thorgersen, Ebbe B; Pharo, Anne; Boberg, Kirsten M; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål Dag; Sanengen, Truls; Almaas, Runar; Grindheim, Guro; Pischke, Soeren Erik; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Tønnessen, Tor Inge

    2012-07-01

    This study was performed to explore whether lactate, pyruvate, glucose, and glycerol levels sampled via microdialysis catheters in the transplanted liver could be used to detect ischemia and/or rejection. The metabolites were measured at the bedside every 1 to 2 hours after the operation for a median of 10 days. Twelve grafts with biopsy-proven rejection and 9 grafts with ischemia were compared to a reference group of 39 grafts with uneventful courses. The median lactate level was significantly higher in both the ischemia group [5.8 mM (interquartile range = 4.0-11.1 mM)] and the rejection group [2.1 mM (interquartile range = 1.9-2.4 mM)] versus the reference group [1.5 mM (interquartile range = 1.1-1.9 mM), P interquartile range = 155-206 μM)] versus the reference group [124 μM (interquartile range = 102-150 μM), P interquartile range = 23.9-156.7) and 138 μM (interquartile range = 26-260 μM)] versus the reference group [11.8 (interquartile range = 10.6-13.6), P interquartile range = 9-24 μM), P = 0.002]. Ischemia was detected with 100% sensitivity and greater than 90% specificity when a positive test was repeated after 1 hour. In 3 cases of hepatic artery thrombosis, ischemia was detected despite normal blood lactate levels. Consecutive pathological measurements for 6 hours were used to diagnose rejection with greater than 80% sensitivity and specificity at a median of 4 days before the activity of alanine aminotransferase, the concentration of bilirubin in serum, or both increased. In conclusion, bedside measurements of intrahepatic lactate and pyruvate levels were used to detect ischemia and rejection earlier than current standard methods could. Discrimination from an uneventful patient course was achieved. Consequently, intrahepatic graft monitoring with microdialysis may lead to the earlier initiation of graft-saving treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Serum level of soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 in renal allograft recipients with acute rejection: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Yang, C; Tang, Q; Zhao, T; Jia, Y; Ma, Z; Rong, R; Xu, M; Zhu, T

    2012-12-01

    Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sfgl2), which is mainly secreted by T cells, is a novel effector of regulatory T cells with immunosuppressive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of sfgl2 among renal allograft recipients. From November 2010 to August 2011 we retrospectively divided 47 renal allograft recipients into an acute rejection (n = 19) versus a stable group (n = 28) according to allograft biopsy results, using the Banff 2007 classification. The acute rejection group was subdivided into grade I (n = 8) versus grade II T-cell-mediated (n = 6) or antibody-mediated rejection episodes (n = 5). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of biopsy. Fourteen healthy volunteers were included as normal group controls. Serum levels of sfgl2 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of sfgl2 were increased among renal allograft recipients suffering from biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (61.91 ± 45.68 ng/mL), versus those with stable allografts (38.59 ± 19.92 ng/mL, P rejection episodes (41.71 ± 16.44 ng/mL, P rejection (34.10 ± 9.26 ng/mL, P rejection episodes to an extent dependent upon the pathological type and severity of the response. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Existence of Periodic Solutions and Stability of Zero Solution of a Mathematical Model of Schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model on schistosomiasis governed by periodic differential equations with a time delay was studied. By discussing boundedness of the solutions of this model and construction of a monotonic sequence, the existence of positive periodic solution was shown. The conditions under which the model admits a periodic solution and the conditions under which the zero solution is globally stable are given, respectively. Some numerical analyses show the conditional coexistence of locally stable zero solution and periodic solutions and that it is an effective treatment by simply reducing the population of snails and enlarging the death ratio of snails for the control of schistosomiasis.

  8. The heart-break of social rejection versus the brain wave of social acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Maurits W.; Sahibdin, Priya P.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of social rejection on cardiac and brain responses was examined in a study in which participants had to decide on the basis of pictures of virtual peers whether these peers would like them or not. Physiological and behavioral responses to expected and unexpected acceptance and rejection were compared. It was found that participants expected that about 50% of the virtual judges gave them a positive judgment. Cardiac deceleration was strongest for unexpected social rejection. In contrast, the brain response was strongest to expected acceptance and was characterized by a positive deflection peaking around 325 ms following stimulus onset and the observed difference was maximal at fronto-central positions. The cardiac and electro-cortical responses were not related. It is hypothesized that these differential response patterns might be related to earlier described differential involvement of the dorsal and ventral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:23887821

  9. Delay discounting, risk-taking, and rejection sensitivity among individuals with Internet and Video Gaming Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Abu, Hodaya Ben; Timor, Ayelet; Mama, Yaniv

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims There is a previous evidence for impulsivity in individuals with Internet and Video Gaming Disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether Internet and video game addictions are associated with experiential delay discounting, risk-taking, and sensitivity to social rejection using computerized tasks and questionnaires. Methods Twenty participants (mean age 24, SD = 1.55) with high score on the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were compared with 20 participants (mean age 24.8, SD = 1.34) with low score on the POGQ. They performed on computerized Balloon Analog Risk Task and Experiential Delay discounting Task (EDT), and filled in the sensitivity to social rejection questionnaire. Results Participants with high POGQ scores had lower measures of delay discounting, higher measures of risk-taking, and higher measures of sensitivity to social rejection compared with participants with low POGQ scores. Discussion The results of this study support the previous evidence of risk-taking and provide new evidence for difficulties in delay discounting and sensitivity to social rejection among those who score high on Internet and video games. Conclusions The results suggest that Internet- and video game-addicted individuals seek immediate gratification and cannot wait for later reward. Furthermore, these individuals spend time in the virtual world, where they feel safe, and avoid social interactions presumably due to fears of social rejection.

  10. Exploration of polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in forward osmosis processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2012-03-01

    The development of the forward osmosis (FO) process has been constrained by the slow development of appropriate draw solutions. Two significant concerns related to draw solutions are the draw solute leakage and intensiveenergy requirement in recycling draw solutes after the FO process. FO would be much attractive if there is no draw solute leakage and the recycle of draw solutes is easy and economic. In this study, polyelectrolytes of a series of polyacrylic acid sodium salts (PAA-Na), were explored as draw solutes in the FO process. The characteristics of high solubility in water and flexibility in structural configuration ensure the suitability of PAA-Na as draw solutes and their relative ease in recycle through pressure-driven membrane processes. The high water flux with insignificant salt leakage in the FO process and the high salt rejection in recycle processes reveal the superiority of PAA-Na to conventional ionic salts, such as NaCl, when comparing their FO performance via the same membranes. The repeatable performance of PAA-Na after recycle indicates the absence of any aggregation problems. The overall performance demonstrates that polyelectrolytes of PAA-Na series are promising as draw solutes, and the new concept of using polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in FO processes is applicable. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. New approaches to the prevention of organ allograft rejection and tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Jessamyn; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John

    2007-07-15

    The therapeutic use of organ allograft transplantation is dependent on the discovery and clinical application of immunologic strategies to blunt the immune response and prevent graft rejection. It was the discovery of powerful immunotherapeutics such as cyclosporine A and rapamycin that has allowed for the widespread use of organ transplantation to treat organ failure. However, despite the attainment of impressive survival rates 1 year after organ transplantation, a significant number of organ allografts are lost to immune-mediated chronic rejection. Furthermore, significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with the use of currently available immunosuppressive regimens. Thus, the development of novel approaches to prevent of organ allograft rejection remains extremely important. Here we discuss two promising and novel avenues of research. First, the discovery and characterization of naturally occurring immune inhibitory signals have led to recent research aimed at exploiting these pathways to induce peripheral tolerance to alloantigen. Furthermore, we discuss new approaches to the induction of donor-specific tolerance by induction of molecular chimerism and the transfer of alloantigen-expressing mature T cells.

  12. Endothelial cell chimerism after renal transplantation and vascular rejection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagaaij, E.L.; Cramer-Knijnenburg, G.F.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Es, L.A. van; Bruijn, J.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The blood vessels of a transplanted organ are the interface between donor and recipient. The endothelium in the blood vessels is thought to be the major target for graft rejection. Endothelial cells of a transplanted organ are believed to remain of donor origin after transplantation. We

  13. Sonar waveforms for reverberation rejection, Part IV: Adaptive processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Deruaz, L.; Been, R.; Doisy, Y.; Beerens, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    For littoral ASW, reverberation is a big problem and rejection of reverberation is of utmost importance. The influence of the transmitted signal on the signal to reverberation ratio has been presented in three preceding papers. In this paper, the influence of improved signal processing on the

  14. Increased neural response to social rejection in major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Poornima; Waiter, Gordon D.; Dubois, Magda; Milders, Maarten; Reid, Ian; Steele, J. Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Being a part of community is critical for survival and individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have a greater sensitivity to interpersonal stress that makes them vulnerable to future episodes. Social rejection is a critical risk factor for depression and it is said to increase

  15. A CAMAC 32-channel pile-up detection and rejection module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikne, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    A specially developed CAMAC module for detection and rejection of analog pile-up in multiparameter, nuclear spectroscopy experiments is described. The present report is a complete technical manual for the module. 23 refs., 6 figs

  16. Reliability and construct validity for scale of rejection of Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J; Bradford, Amanda

    2003-02-01

    A sample of 16 male and 30 female undergraduates completed the Greer and Francis Scale of Rejection of Christianity. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale for this sample.

  17. Emotional responses to a romantic partner's imaginary rejection: the roles of attachment anxiety, covert narcissism, and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-02-01

    These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.

  18. Free to be me: The relationship between the true self, rejection sensitivity, and use of online dating sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Margaret A; Blackhart, Ginette; Dew, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Prior research (Blackhart et al., 2014) found that rejection-sensitive individuals are more likely to use online dating sites. The purpose of the current research was to explain the relationship between rejection sensitivity and online dating site usage. Study 1 examined whether true self mediated the relation between rejection sensitivity and online dating. Study 2 sought to replicate the findings of Study 1 and to examine whether self-disclosure moderated the relationship between true self and online dating in the mediation model. Results replicated those found by Blackhart et al. and also found that true self mediated the relationship between rejection sensitivity and online dating site usage. These findings suggest that rejection-sensitive individuals feel they can more easily represent their "true" selves in online environments, such as online dating sites, which partially explains why they are more likely to engage in online dating.

  19. Building gene expression profile classifiers with a simple and efficient rejection option in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco; Savino, Alessandro; Hafeezurrehman, Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    The collection of gene expression profiles from DNA microarrays and their analysis with pattern recognition algorithms is a powerful technology applied to several biological problems. Common pattern recognition systems classify samples assigning them to a set of known classes. However, in a clinical diagnostics setup, novel and unknown classes (new pathologies) may appear and one must be able to reject those samples that do not fit the trained model. The problem of implementing a rejection option in a multi-class classifier has not been widely addressed in the statistical literature. Gene expression profiles represent a critical case study since they suffer from the curse of dimensionality problem that negatively reflects on the reliability of both traditional rejection models and also more recent approaches such as one-class classifiers. This paper presents a set of empirical decision rules that can be used to implement a rejection option in a set of multi-class classifiers widely used for the analysis of gene expression profiles. In particular, we focus on the classifiers implemented in the R Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (R for short in the remaining of this paper). The main contribution of the proposed rules is their simplicity, which enables an easy integration with available data analysis environments. Since in the definition of a rejection model tuning of the involved parameters is often a complex and delicate task, in this paper we exploit an evolutionary strategy to automate this process. This allows the final user to maximize the rejection accuracy with minimum manual intervention. This paper shows how the use of simple decision rules can be used to help the use of complex machine learning algorithms in real experimental setups. The proposed approach is almost completely automated and therefore a good candidate for being integrated in data analysis flows in labs where the machine learning expertise required to tune traditional

  20. LPTAU, Quasi Random Sequence Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, Ilya M.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPTAU generates quasi random sequences. These are uniformly distributed sets of L=M N points in the N-dimensional unit cube: I N =[0,1]x...x[0,1]. These sequences are used as nodes for multidimensional integration; as searching points in global optimization; as trial points in multi-criteria decision making; as quasi-random points for quasi Monte Carlo algorithms. 2 - Method of solution: Uses LP-TAU sequence generation (see references). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of points that can be generated is L 30 . The dimension of the space cannot exceed 51

  1. Sequences of extremal radially excited rotating black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen

    2014-01-10

    In the Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory the extremal Reissner-Nordström solution is no longer the single extremal solution with vanishing angular momentum, when the Chern-Simons coupling constant reaches a critical value. Instead a whole sequence of rotating extremal J=0 solutions arises, labeled by the node number of the magnetic U(1) potential. Associated with the same near horizon solution, the mass of these radially excited extremal solutions converges to the mass of the extremal Reissner-Nordström solution. On the other hand, not all near horizon solutions are also realized as global solutions.

  2. Rejected applications: an early American Academy of Neurology struggles to define its membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2014-07-22

    To review membership application materials (especially rejected applications) to the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) during its formative years (1947-1953). Detailed study of materials in the AAN Historical Collection. The author identified 73 rejected applications. Rejected applicants (71 male, 2 female) lived in 25 states. The largest number was for the Associate membership category (49). These were individuals "in related fields who have made and are making contributions to the field of neurology." By contrast, few applicants to Active membership or Fellowship status were rejected. The largest numbers of rejectees were neuropsychiatrists (19), neurosurgeons (16), and psychiatrists (14). The AAN, established in the late 1940s, was a small and politically vulnerable organization. A defining feature of the fledgling society was its inclusiveness; its membership was less restrictive than that of the older American Neurological Association. At the same time, the society needed to preserve its core as a neurologic society rather than one of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Hence, the balance between inclusiveness and exclusive identity was a difficult one to maintain. The Associate membership category, more than any other, was at the heart of this issue of self-definition. Associate members were largely practitioners of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Their membership was a source of consternation and was to be carefully been held in check during these critical formative years. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Speeding up Monte Carlo molecular simulation by a non-conservative early rejection scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2015-04-23

    Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation describes fluid systems with rich information, and it is capable of predicting many fluid properties of engineering interest. In general, it is more accurate and representative than equations of state. On the other hand, it requires much more computational effort and simulation time. For that purpose, several techniques have been developed in order to speed up MC molecular simulations while preserving their precision. In particular, early rejection schemes are capable of reducing computational cost by reaching the rejection decision for the undesired MC trials at an earlier stage in comparison to the conventional scheme. In a recent work, we have introduced a ‘conservative’ early rejection scheme as a method to accelerate MC simulations while producing exactly the same results as the conventional algorithm. In this paper, we introduce a ‘non-conservative’ early rejection scheme, which is much faster than the conservative scheme, yet it preserves the precision of the method. The proposed scheme is tested for systems of structureless Lennard-Jones particles in both canonical and NVT-Gibbs ensembles. Numerical experiments were conducted at several thermodynamic conditions for different number of particles. Results show that at certain thermodynamic conditions, the non-conservative method is capable of doubling the speed of the MC molecular simulations in both canonical and NVT-Gibbs ensembles. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

  4. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L.; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F.; Campbell, W. Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem’s moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications—suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks. PMID:22611304

  5. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F; Campbell, W Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-03-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem's moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications-suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks.

  6. Coronary blood flow and thallium 201 uptake in rejecting rat heart transplantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Hwang, K.; Driscoll, R.; Carr, E.A.; Wright, J.R.; Curran-Everett, D.C.; Carroll, M.; Krasney, E.; Krasney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of rejection on coronary flow (CAF) in heart allografts are unclear, although previous evidence with cardiac imaging agents indicates impaired flow during advanced rejection. The purpose of this study was to measure CAF in heterotopically placed heart grafts. Lewis rats (LEW) received grafts from either syngeneic Lewis rats (LEW/LEW group) or allogeneic ACI rats (ACI/LEW group). CAF was measured in both the transplanted and native hearts with radiolabeled microspheres. Rejection was measured histologically (grades 0 [absent] to 4+ [severe]). In addition systemic blood pressure and cardiac outputs of the native hearts were determined with microspheres. Different animals were studied during relatively early (4 days) and late (6 days) rejection. Among the 4-day animals a cyclosporine-treated group was included (ACI/LEW CyA). In 6-day rats CAF in allografts was lower (0.56 +/- .06 ml/gm/min) compared with syngeneic grafts (1.72 +/- 0.4 ml/gm/min) (p less than 0.05). The CAF in the native hearts did not differ significantly but was higher than in the grafts in both groups. Heart rates were reduced in allografts (p less than 0.05). It is interesting that arterial pressure and cardiac output were significantly lower in animals bearing allogeneic than syngeneic grafts. In rats studied at 4 days graft CAF was lower than in the native heart in both the LEW/LEW and ACI/LEW groups, but there was no significant difference in behavior between groups. The same was true for a cyclosporine-treated group. Graft heart rates were similar in all 4-day rats

  7. Review of graft rejection in age-related macular degeneration replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Ying Mao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis the leading cause of blindness among the elderly worldwide. AMD is classified as either neovascular(wetor non-neovascular(dry. The dysfunction and loss of retinal pigment epithelial(RPEcells is regarded as the main pathological changes of AMD. The recent development of regenerative medicine has witnessed RPE cell-replacement therapy as a new approach to treat AMD, resulting in obvious visual improvement in various studies. However, there are still many problems and challenges that remain unsolved, including graft rejection. This review introduces subretinal immune environment under both normal and AMD condition, putting emphasis on immune response to allogeneic RPE. Lastly, strategies to prevent graft rejection are discussed.

  8. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. RNA-Pareto: interactive analysis of Pareto-optimal RNA sequence-structure alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnattinger, Thomas; Schöning, Uwe; Marchfelder, Anita; Kestler, Hans A

    2013-12-01

    Incorporating secondary structure information into the alignment process improves the quality of RNA sequence alignments. Instead of using fixed weighting parameters, sequence and structure components can be treated as different objectives and optimized simultaneously. The result is not a single, but a Pareto-set of equally optimal solutions, which all represent different possible weighting parameters. We now provide the interactive graphical software tool RNA-Pareto, which allows a direct inspection of all feasible results to the pairwise RNA sequence-structure alignment problem and greatly facilitates the exploration of the optimal solution set.

  10. Ranked solutions to a class of combinatorial optimizations—with applications in mass spectrometry based peptide sequencing and a variant of directed paths in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Timothy P.; Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2005-08-01

    Typical combinatorial optimizations are NP-hard; however, for a particular class of cost functions the corresponding combinatorial optimizations can be solved in polynomial time using the transfer matrix technique or, equivalently, the dynamic programming approach. This suggests a way to efficiently find approximate solutions-find a transformation that makes the cost function as similar as possible to that of the solvable class. After keeping many high-ranking solutions using the approximate cost function, one may then re-assess these solutions with the full cost function to find the best approximate solution. Under this approach, it is important to be able to assess the quality of the solutions obtained, e.g., by finding the true ranking of the kth best approximate solution when all possible solutions are considered exhaustively. To tackle this statistical issue, we provide a systematic method starting with a scaling function generated from the finite number of high-ranking solutions followed by a convergent iterative mapping. This method, useful in a variant of the directed paths in random media problem proposed here, can also provide a statistical significance assessment for one of the most important proteomic tasks-peptide sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry data. For directed paths in random media, the scaling function depends on the particular realization of randomness; in the mass spectrometry case, the scaling function is spectrum-specific.

  11. From Acceptance to Rejection: Food Contamination in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise to explain design and measurement principles in methodology and statistics courses. This demonstration which involves measurement of a shift from food acceptance to food rejection produces meaningful data sets. The realism of the exercise gives students a view of problems that emerge in research. (KO)

  12. Distributed Optimization for a Class of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Disturbance Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghu; Hong, Yiguang; Ji, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    The paper studies the distributed optimization problem for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems in the presence of external disturbances. To solve the problem, we need to achieve the optimal multiagent consensus based on local cost function information and neighboring information and meanwhile to reject local disturbance signals modeled by an exogenous system. With convex analysis and the internal model approach, we propose a distributed optimization controller for heterogeneous and nonlinear agents in the form of continuous-time minimum-phase systems with unity relative degree. We prove that the proposed design can solve the exact optimization problem with rejecting disturbances.

  13. Stress response and the adolescent transition: performance versus peer rejection stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R; Foster, Elizabeth; Papandonatos, George D; Handwerger, Kathryn; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about normative variation in stress response over the adolescent transition. This study examined neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to performance and peer rejection stressors over the adolescent transition in a normative sample. Participants were 82 healthy children (ages 7-12 years, n = 39, 22 females) and adolescents (ages 13-17, n = 43, 20 females) recruited through community postings. Following a habituation session, participants completed a performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) or peer rejection (exclusion challenges) stress session. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and heart rate were measured throughout. Adolescents showed significantly greater cortisol, sAA, SBP, and DBP stress response relative to children. Developmental differences were most pronounced in the performance stress session for cortisol and DBP and in the peer rejection session for sAA and SBP. Heightened physiological stress responses in typical adolescents may facilitate adaptation to new challenges of adolescence and adulthood. In high-risk adolescents, this normative shift may tip the balance toward stress response dysregulation associated with depression and other psychopathology. Specificity of physiological response by stressor type highlights the importance of a multisystem approach to the psychobiology of stress and may also have implications for understanding trajectories to psychopathology.

  14. Thermal degradation and kinetic study for different waste/rejected plastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Srujal; Parikh, Jigisha Kamal; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic analysis based on thermal decomposition of rejected polypropylene, plastic film and plastic pellets collected from different industrial outlet has been carried out. Non-isothermal experiments using different heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 .deg. C min"−"1 have been performed from ambient to 700 .deg. C in a thermo-balance with the objective of determining the kinetic parameters. The values of activation energy and frequency factor were found to be in the range of 107-322 kJ/mol, 85-331 kJ/mol, 140-375 kJ/mol and 3.49E+07-4.74E+22 min⌃(-1), 3.52E+06-2.88E+22min⌃(-1), 7.28E+13-1.17E+25 min⌃(-1) for rejected polypropylene, plastic film and plastic pellets, respectively, by Coats-Redfern and Ozawa methods including different models. Kissinger method, a model free analysis is also adopted to find the kinetic parameters. Activation energy and frequency factor were found to be 108 kJ/mol, 98 kJ/mol, 132 kJ/mol and 6.89E+03, 2.12E+02, 8.06E+05 min⌃(-1) for rejected polypropylene, plastic film and plastic pellets, respectively, by using the Kissinger method

  15. Original article Attachment styles and anxiety of rejecters in intimate relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In this paper, the problem of the lack of stability of intimate female-male relationships, the intensity of which is currently increasing, is presented. Attention is focused on early-childhood attachment styles and anxiety in rejecters in intimate relationships. Participants and procedure The research included 120 individuals: 60 individuals who had dropped 3-15 partners (on average, M = 3.77 partners and 60 individuals from the control group. The following research tools were applied: the Attachment Styles Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results The results showed that rejecters in intimate relationships obtained higher results than individuals from the control group in an avoidant and an anxious-ambivalent attachment style, and lower ones in a secure attachment style, as well as higher ones in anxiety as a trait. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor in any of the studied variables. An avoidant attachment style, and anxiety as a trait, were predictors of being a rejecter. Conclusions The obtained results confirm the fundamental findings of the theory of attachment indicating that the lower the level of a secure style is, the lower is the level of interpersonal skills.

  16. Why don't you like me? : Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.W.; Dekkers, L.M.S.; Westenberg, P.M.; van der Veen, F.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4–8 Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta

  17. Barriers to Sustainable Food Trade: China’s Exports Food Rejected by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2011–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food export rejection can be a harmful barrier to sustainable international food trade. To understand China’s export food rejected by FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States, we analyzed 4047 cases of rejection from February 2011 to July 2017. Although the number of rejected food exported from China to the United States has been declining, and the quality has been improving, there is still space for improvement. Of the 4047 cases of rejection, the Guangdong, Fujian and Shandong provinces were the top three with the largest number of rejected food (1253 (31%, 520 (12.8%, and 508 (12.6%, respectively (being rejected mainly in New York and Los Angeles. The top four types of rejected food involved fruits and vegetables, fishery and seafood products, bakery products, grain and related processed products. More importantly, the major reasons for rejection can be attributed to problems in maintaining food safety, namely: (1 the food contained filth, decay, decomposition or other substances; (2, the food contained toxic and harmful substances (e.g., suspected melamine, chemical insecticides, or lead; and (3 the food contained agricultural and veterinary drugs. The results are of great implications for the United States to regulate the imported food from China, and for China to improve the quality and safety of export food.

  18. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients