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Sample records for solute reflection coefficient

  1. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  2. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  3. Rational reflection coefficient and inverse scattering on the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse scattering for the Schroedinger equation on the line is studied for reflection and transmission coefficients that satisfy the usual regularity conditions and are rational functions of k. The origin is still a particular point, but the potentials do not need to be cut at this point like in previous studies. Giving up this restriction corresponds to the existence of poles for both reflection coefficients in both upper and lower half k-planes. It is shown that the problem reduces to solving a linear algebraic system. A different algorithm, made of a sequence of Darboux-Backlund transforms, gives also the solution in closed form and enables to study separately modifications of both sides of the potential due to the introduction of poles. Thus it paves the way for approximation studies. Generalizations and particular problems will be studied in forthcoming papers

  4. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  5. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2017-09-18

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer thickness is assumed to be much smaller than the wavelengths of P- and SV-waves inside. The exact reflection and transmission coefficients are derived by the propagator matrix method. In the case of normal incidence, the exact reflection and transmission coefficients are expressed in terms of the impedances of vertically propagating P- and S-waves. For subcritical incidence, the approximate reflection coefficients are expressed in terms of the contrast in the VTI parameters between the layer and the background. Numerical examples are designed to analyze the reflection coefficients at normal and oblique incidence, and investigate the influence of transverse isotropy on the reflection coefficients. Despite giving numerical errors, the approximate formulae are sufficiently simple to qualitatively analyze the variation of the reflection coefficients with the angle of incidence.

  6. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer

  7. Development of reflectance-based crop coefficients for corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, C.M.U.; Bausch, W.C.; Heermann, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Concurrent measurements of reflected canopy radiation and the basal crop coefficient (K^b) for corn were conducted throughout a season in order to develop a reflectance-based crop coefficient model. Reflectance was measured in Landsat Thematic Mapper bands TM3 (0.63 - 0.69 um) and TM4 (0.76 - 0.90 um) and used in the calculation of a vegetation index called the normalized difference (ND). A linear transformation of the ND was used as the reflectance-based crop coefficient (Kcr). The transformation equates the ND for dry bare soil and the ND at effective cover, to the basal crop coefficient for dry soil evaporation and at effective cover, respectively. Basal crop coefficient values for com were obtained from daily evapotranspiration measurements of corn and alfalfa, using hydraulic weighing lysimeters. The Richards growth curve function was fitted to both sets of data. The K^b values were determined to be within -2.6% and 4.7% of the K^^ values. The date of effective cover obtained from the K^b data was within four days of the date on which the ND curve reached its maxima according to the Richards function. A comparison of the Kcr with basal crop curves from the literature for several years of data indicated good agreement. Reflectance-based crop coefficients are sensitive to periods of slow and fast growth induced by weather conditions, resulting in a real time coefficient, independent from the traditional time base parameters based on the day of planting and effective cover

  8. Analytical computation of reflection and transmission coefficients for love waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.

    1995-09-01

    The computation of the transmission and reflection coefficients is an important step in the construction, if modal summation technique is used, of synthetic seismograms for 2-D or 3-D media. These coupling coefficients for Love waves at a vertical discontinuity are computed analytically. Numerical test for realistic structures show how the energy carried by an incoming mode is redistributed on the various modes existing on both sides of the vertical interface. (author). 15 refs, 8 figs

  9. Diffusion Coefficients of Several Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Erwin D.; Riele, Marcel J.M. te; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine

  10. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  11. Explicit solutions of two nonlinear dispersive equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shaoyong; Lv Xiumei; Wu Yonghong

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary equation and the symbolic computation system Matlab is developed to construct the exact solutions for a generalized Camassa-Holm equation and a nonlinear dispersive equation with variable coefficients. It is shown that the variable coefficients of the derivative terms in the equations cause the qualitative change in the physical structures of the solutions

  12. Solution of heat equation with variable coefficient using derive

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lebelo, RS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the method of approximating solutions of partial differential equations with variable coefficients is studied. This is done by considering heat flow through a one-dimensional model with variable cross-sections. Two cases...

  13. Graphical Solution of the Monic Quadratic Equation with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    There are many geometrical approaches to the solution of the quadratic equation with real coefficients. In this article it is shown that the monic quadratic equation with complex coefficients can also be solved graphically, by the intersection of two hyperbolas; one hyperbola being derived from the real part of the quadratic equation and one from…

  14. Exact solutions to a nonlinear dispersive model with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jun; Lai Shaoyong; Qing Yin

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary differential equation and the symbolic computation system Maple is employed to investigate a prototypical and nonlinear K(n, n) equation with variable coefficients. The exact solutions to the equation are constructed analytically under various circumstances. It is shown that the variable coefficients and the exponent appearing in the equation determine the quantitative change in the physical structures of the solutions.

  15. Radionuclides distribution coefficient of soil to soil-solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The present book addresses various issues related with the coefficient of radionuclides distribution between soil and soil solution. It consists of six sections and two appendices. The second section, following an introductory one, describes the definition of the coefficient and a procedures of its calculation. The third section deals with the application of the distribution coefficient to the prediction of movements of radionuclides through soil. Various methods for measuring the coefficient are described in the fourth section. The next section discusses a variety of factors (physical and chemical) that can affect the distribution coefficient. Measurements of the coefficient for different types of oils are listed in the sixth section. An appendix is attached to the book to show various models that can be helpful in applying the coefficient of distribution of radionuclides moving from soil into agricultural plants. (N.K.)

  16. Reflection coefficients of permeant molecules in human red cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J D; Eyring, E M

    1975-08-01

    The Staverman reflection coefficient, sigma for several permeant molecules was determined in human red cell suspensions with a Durrum stopped-flow spectrophotometer. This procedure was first used with dog, cat, and beef red cells and with human red cells. The stopped-flow technique used was similar to the rapid-flow method used by those who originally reported sigma measurements in human red cells for molecules which rapidly penetrate the red cell membrane. The sigma values we obtained agreed with those previously reported for most of the slow penetrants, except malonamide, but disagreed with all the sigma values previously reported for the rapid penetrants. We were unable to calculate an "equivalent pore radius" with our sigma data. The advantages of our equipment and our experimental procedure are discussed. Our sigma data suggest that sigma is indirectly proportional to the log of the nonelectrolyte permeability coefficient, omega. Since a similar trend has been previously shown for log omega and molar volume of the permeant molecules, a correlatioo was shown between sigma and molar volume suggesting the membrane acts as a sieve.

  17. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  18. Solutions of the spin coefficient equations with nongeodesic eigenrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, J.; Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many significant results obtained by spin coefficient techniques in general relativity, the exact integrals of gravitational equations have enjoyed particular attention. These integration procedures were first carried out with respect to a congruence of null geodesic curves. The authors show that spin coefficient equations can sometimes be exactly solved when the selected null congruence is nongeodesic. They derive metrics with this property and, among them, a new solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations. (Auth.)

  19. Calculating the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media from a single optical reflectance signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Maureen; Liu, Hanli

    2003-07-01

    When light interacts with tissue, it can be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Such quantitative information can be used to characterize the optical properties of tissue, differentiate tissue types in vivo, and identify normal versus diseased tissue. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that determines the reduced scattering coefficient (μs") of tissues from a single optical reflectance spectrum with a small source-detector separation. The basic relationship between μs" and optical reflectance was developed using Monte Carlo simulations. This produced an analytical equation containing μs" as a function of reflectance. To experimentally validate this relationship, a 1.3-mm diameter fiber optic probe containing two 400-micron diameter fibers was used to deliver light to and collect light from Intralipid solutions of various concentrations. Simultaneous measurements from optical reflectance and an ISS oximeter were performed to validate the calculated μs" values determined by the reflectance measurement against the 'gold standard" ISS readings. The calculated μs" values deviate from the expected values by approximately -/+ 5% with Intralipid concentrations between 0.5 - 2.5%. The scattering properties within this concentration range are similar to those of in vivo tissues. Additional calculations are performed to determine the scattering properties of rat brain tissues and to discuss accuracy of the algorithm for measured samples with a broad range of the absorption coefficient (μa).

  20. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (C4H8O2), succinimide (C4H5NO2) as estimated from the measured absorbance of. 7 radiations in their ... species in the solution and ε is called the molar absorptivity or extinction coefficient. (l mol-1cm-1 or ... Integration of eq. (4) leads to.

  1. Measurements of the diffusion and reflection coefficients of Cd(1S0) in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudecki, P.; Domyslawska, J.

    2003-01-01

    A new method of simultaneous determining of the diffusion coefficient and the reflection coefficient of atoms from the reservoir walls is presented. The diffusion coefficient of cadmium atoms in the ground state in buffer noble gas atoms such as Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and reflection coefficient of Cd atoms from the quartz cell wall in the temperature range 350-550 K were determined. Experimental values diffusion coefficient are compared with theoretical ones calculated from a available potentials. (author)

  2. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical solution for identification of feedback coefficients in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebizuka, Yoshie; Sakai, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    Quasilinearization technique was studied to determine the Kinetic parameters of nuclear reactors. The method of solution was generalized to the determination of the parameters contained in a nonlinear system with nonlinear boundary conditions. A computer program, SNR-3, was developed to solve the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value equations with generalized boundary conditions. In this paper, the problem formulation and the method of solution are explained for a general type of time dependent problem. A flow chart shows the procedure of numerical solution. The method was then applied to the determination of the critical factor and the reactivity feedback coefficients of reactors to investigate the accuracy and the applicability of the present method. The results showed that the present method was considerably successful, but that the random observation error effected the results of the identification. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Non-invasive determination of the absorption coefficient of the brain from time-resolved reflectance using a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Marion; Kienle, Alwin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the performance of a neural network for derivation of the absorption coefficient of the brain from simulated non-invasive time-resolved reflectance measurements on the head. A five-layered geometry was considered assuming that the optical properties (except the absorption coefficient of the brain) and the thickness of all layers were known with an uncertainty. A solution of the layered diffusion equation was used to train the neural network. We determined the absorption coefficient of the brain with an RMS error of <6% from reflectance data at a single distance calculated by diffusion theory. By applying the neural network to reflectance curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, similar errors were found. (note)

  5. Correlations and fluctuations in reflection coefficients for coherent wave propagation in disordered scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Feng, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relation between the reflection coefficients and the Green's function for a coherent wave propagation in a disordered elastic-scattering medium is derived. The sum rule of the reflection and transmission coefficients corresponding to probability conservation is shown rigorously for an arbitrary scattering potential. The correlation function of the reflection coefficients is then calculated by using a Feynman-diagrammatic approach in the weak-localized multiple-scattering regime (L much-gt l much-gt λ). The result is in agreement with recent experiments on the so-called ''memory effect'' in reflection coefficients. A more general condition under which the memory effect can occur is derived. Differences between the the correlation functions for reflection and that for transmission are discussed

  6. Effect of the refraction factor of a plastic fiber shell on the internal reflection coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pkrksypkin, A.I.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of pilot studies of the effect of refraction factor of plastic fiber shell on the coefficient of light internal reflection in the fiber are presented. It is pointed, that the shell does not absorb the light, but effects the surface layer of the fiber centre so, that dependence of the coefficient of internal reflection on refraction factor of the shell may be described using Fresnel formulae. It is shown, that coefficient of internal reflection decreases with the increase of refraction factor. Technique to determine volume length of scintillation light absorption in the fiber is suggested

  7. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (R dI and R dI 0.5 ) and wave energy (R I and R I 0.5 ) as well as the measured pressure (R dP ) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, R dP , R dI 0.5 and R I 0.5 are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst R dI and R I provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the

  8. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer. PMID:22942718

  9. Measurement of integrated coefficients of ultracold neutron reflection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.V.; Kulagin, E.N.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    The method of measurement of the integrated coefficients of ultracold neutrons (UCN) reflection from solid surfaces is reported. A simple formula is suggested which expresses the integrated coefficients of UCN reflection from a given sample through the measured counting rate of the detector with and without strong absorber (polyethelene). The parameters are determined describing anisotropic and inhomogeneity properties of UCN reflection from Al, Mg, Pb, Zn, Mo, stainless steel, T and V are measured. The thickness of oxide layers is determined within the 5-10A accuracy limits from the experimental coefficients of UCN reflection from metals having on their surfaces the oxides with boundary velocity larger than that for the metal. It has been determined that the density of 5000 A layer of heavy ice freezed on aluminium is 0.83 +- 0.05 from the crystal ice density

  10. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  11. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS TO STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH RANDOM COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with a stochastic differential equation (SDE) with random coefficients. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the equation are given.

  12. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    efficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity ... Molar extinction coefficients; effective atomic numbers; electron density. PACS Nos 29.30. ... the radiation path and is linearly dependent on the concentration of the absorbing species. This is most ...

  13. General guidelines solution for linear programming with fuzzy coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gerardo de los Cobos Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work introduce to the Possibilistic Programming and the Fuzzy Programming as paradigms that allow to resolve problems of linear programming when the coefficients of the model or the restrictions on the same are presented as fuzzy numbers, rather than exact numbers (crisp. This work presents some examples based on [1].

  14. A Simple Student Laboratory on Osmotic Flow, Osmotic Pressure, and the Reflection Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Joseph J.; Ford, George D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise containing a practical series of experiments that novice students can perform within two hours. The exercise provides a confirmation of van't Hoff's law while placing more emphasis on osmotic flow than pressure. Students can determine parameters such as the reflection coefficient which stress the interaction of both…

  15. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  16. Restriction coefficients of low molecular weight solutes and macromolecules during peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho-Dac-Pannekeet, M. M.; Koopmans, J. G.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    The intrinsic permeability of the peritoneal membrane can be functionally represented by the restriction coefficient (RC). The RC can be calculated as the exponent of the power relation between the mass transfer area coefficients (MTACs) of various solutes and their free diffusion coefficients in

  17. Frequency Dependencies of the Exchange Spin Wave Reflection Coefficient on a One-Dimensional Magnon Crystal with Complex Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii O. Reshetniak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. It is shown that the frequency dependencies are periodic, points of full transmission and areas, full of reflection. Decreasing exchange parameter value in interface causes the increase of reflectance coefficient. Changing the material parameters we get the necessary intensity value of the reflection coefficient depending on the frequency at a constant value of the external magnetic field.

  18. Fuzzy solution of the linear programming problem with interval coefficients in the constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Kuchta

    2005-01-01

    A fuzzy concept of solving the linear programming problem with interval coefficients is proposed. For each optimism level of the decision maker (where the optimism concerns the certainty that no errors have been committed in the estimation of the interval coefficients and the belief that optimistic realisations of the interval coefficients will occur) another interval solution of the problem will be generated and the decision maker will be able to choose the final solution having a complete v...

  19. Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.

  20. Intrinsic viscosity and friction coefficient of permeable macromolecules in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegel, F.W.; Mijnlieff, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A polymer molecule in solution is treated as a porous sphere with a spherically symmetric permeability distribution. Solvent motion in and around this sphere is described by the Debije- Brinkman equation (Navier-Stokes equation and Darcy equation combined). The model allows a straightforward

  1. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  2. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Determine Sensor Radiometric Response Coefficients for NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1, the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor s digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the attenuation method model with a quadratic polynomial for the retrieved spectral radiance. We show that using the inadequate model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

  3. A new fifth parameter for transverse isotropy III: reflection and transmission coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the newly defined fifth parameter, ηκ, of transverse anisotropy to the reflection and transmission coefficients, especially for P-to-S and S-to-P conversion coefficients, is examined. While ηκ systematically affects the P-to-S and S-to-P conversions, in the incidence angle range of the practical interest of receiver function studies, the effect may be asymmetric in a sense that P-wave receiver function is affected more than S-receiver function in terms of amplitude. This asymmetry may help resolving ηκ via extensive receiver function analysis. It is also found that P-wave anisotropy significantly influences P-to-S and S-to-P conversion coefficients that complicates the interpretation of receiver functions, because, for isotropic media, we typically attribute the primary receiver function signals to S-wave velocity changes but not to P-wave changes.

  4. Theoretical calculations of the self-reflection coefficients for some species of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Z.M. E-mail: luozm@scu.edu.cn; Gou, C.; Hou, Q

    2002-06-01

    The bipartition model of ion transport has been applied to study the self-reflection coefficients of some species of ion beams which are normally incident to a surface. The computational results has been compared with the results taken from Eckstein and Biersack and the compilation data given by Thomas, Janev and Smith. It was found that there are in reasonable agreement between the results given by the bipartition model and the results given by Monte Carlo method.

  5. New Explicit Solutions of (1 + 1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhilian; Zhou Jianping

    2010-01-01

    By using the compatibility method, many explicit solutions of the (1 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system are constructed, which include new solutions expressed by error function, Bessel function, exponential function, and Airy function. Some figures of the solutions are given by the symbolic computation system Maple. (general)

  6. On k-summability of formal solutions for certain partial differential operators with polynomial coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Ichinobe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the \\(k\\-summability of divergent formal solutions for the Cauchy problem of certain linear partial differential operators with coefficients which are polynomial in \\(t\\. We employ the method of successive approximation in order to construct the formal solutions and to obtain the properties of analytic continuation of the solutions of convolution equations and their exponential growth estimates.

  7. Globally exponential stability and periodic solutions of CNNS with variable coefficients and variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haifei; Wang Li

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, by using the inequality method and the Lyapunov functional method, we analyze the globally exponential stability and the existence of periodic solutions of a class of cellular neutral networks with delays and variable coefficients. Some simple and new sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and uniqueness of globally exponential stability of periodic solutions for cellular neutral networks with variable coefficients and delays are obtained. In addition, one example is also worked out to illustrate our theory

  8. Globally exponential stability and periodic solutions of CNNS with variable coefficients and variable delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Haifei [School of Management and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: hfliu80@126.com; Wang Li [School of Management and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2006-09-15

    In this Letter, by using the inequality method and the Lyapunov functional method, we analyze the globally exponential stability and the existence of periodic solutions of a class of cellular neutral networks with delays and variable coefficients. Some simple and new sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and uniqueness of globally exponential stability of periodic solutions for cellular neutral networks with variable coefficients and delays are obtained. In addition, one example is also worked out to illustrate our theory.

  9. An effective method for finding special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Maochang; Fan Guihong

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting methods can be utilized to construct special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with constant coefficients. However, most of these methods are not applicable to nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. A new method is presented in this Letter, which can be used to find special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. This method is based on seeking appropriate Bernoulli equation corresponding to the equation studied. Many well-known equations are chosen to illustrate the application of this method

  10. A gradient estimate for solutions to parabolic equations with discontinuous coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishan Fan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-Vogelius and Li-Nirenberg gave a gradient estimate for solutions of strongly elliptic equations and systems of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients, respectively. The discontinuities of the coefficients are assumed to be given by manifolds of codimension 1, which we called them emph{manifolds of discontinuities}. Their gradient estimate is independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities. In this paper, we gave a parabolic version of their results. That is, we gave a gradient estimate for parabolic equations of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients. The coefficients are assumed to be independent of time and their discontinuities are likewise the previous elliptic equations. As an application of this estimate, we also gave a pointwise gradient estimate for the fundamental solution of a parabolic operator with piecewise smooth coefficients. Both gradient estimates are independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities.

  11. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  12. Laser Sensing of Vegetation Based on Dual Spectrum Measurements of Reflection Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a promising trend in remote sensing of environment is to monitor the vegetative cover: evaluate the productivity of agricultural crops; evaluate the moisture content of soils and the state of ecosystems; provide mapping the sites of bogging, desertification, drought, etc.; control the phases of vegetation of crops, etc.Development of monitoring systems for remote detection of vegetation sites being under unfavorable conditions (low or high temperature, excess or lack of water, soil salinity, disease, etc. is of relevance. Optical methods are the most effective for this task. These methods are based on the physical features of reflection spectra in the visible and near infrared spectral range for vegetation under unfavorable conditions and vegetation under normal conditions.One of the options of optoelectronic equipment for monitoring vegetation condition is laser equipment that allows remote sensing of vegetation from the aircraft and mapping of vegetation sites with abnormal (inactive periods of vegetation reflection spectra with a high degree of spatial resolution.The paper deals with development of a promising dual-spectrum method for laser remote sensing of vegetation. Using the experimentally measured reflection spectra of different vegetation types, mathematical modeling of probability for appropriate detection and false alarms to solve a problem of detecting the vegetation under unfavorable conditions (with abnormal reflection spectra is performed based on the results of dual-spectrum measurements of the reflection coefficient.In mathematical modeling, the lidar system was supposed to provide sensing at wavelengths of 0.532 μm and 0.85 μm. The noise of the measurement was supposed to be normal with zero mean value and mean-square value of 1% -10%.It is shown that the method of laser sensing of vegetation condition based on the results of dual-spectrum measurement of the reflection coefficient at wavelengths of 0.532 μm and 0

  13. SO-FDTD method and its application to the calculation of electromagnetic wave reflection coefficients of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing; Chen Rushan; Zhang Yun

    2006-01-01

    The dielectric property of dispersive media is written as rational polynomial function, the relation between D and E is derived in time domain. It is named shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method. The high accuracy and efficiency of this method is confirmed by computing the reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves by a collisional plasma slab. The reflection coefficients between plasma and the atmosphere or vacuum can be calculated by using the SO-FDTD method. The result is that the reflection coefficients are affected by plasma thickness, electron numerical density, the distributing orderliness of electron density, and incidence wave frequency. (authors)

  14. Wronskian and Grammian Determinant Solutions for a Variable-Coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenzhi; Zhu Hongwu; Meng Xianghua; Lue Xing; Shan Wenrui; Tian Bo; Zhang Chunyi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the bilinear form for a variable-coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-typed equation. Based on the bilinear form, we obtain the Wronskian determinant solution, which is proved to be indeed an exact solution of this equation through the Wronskian technique. In addition, we testify that this equation can be reduced to a Jacobi identity by considering its solution as a Grammian determinant by means of Pfaffian derivative formulae

  15. DETERMINING SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE COEFFICIENTS FROM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES OBTAINED FROM LOW ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Walczykowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based, object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor

  16. Determining Spectral Reflectance Coefficients from Hyperspectral Images Obtained from Low Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Orych, A.; Siok, K.

    2016-06-01

    Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based), object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor mounted on an

  17. A gradient estimate for solutions to parabolic equations with discontinuous coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jishan; Kim, Kyoungsun; Nagayasu, Sei; Nakamura, Gen

    2011-01-01

    Li-Vogelius and Li-Nirenberg gave a gradient estimate for solutions of strongly elliptic equations and systems of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients, respectively. The discontinuities of the coefficients are assumed to be given by manifolds of codimension 1, which we called them emph{manifolds of discontinuities}. Their gradient estimate is independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities. In this paper, we gave a parabolic version of their results. T...

  18. Osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Vapor pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50 o C and at molalities up to 0.2 mol·kg -1 . The data were fitted to three- and four-parameter equations containing limiting-law terms for a 4:1 electrolyte. The variation of the osmotic coefficients as a function of temperature was found to be small. The results are compared to published values for the osmotic coefficients. (author)

  19. Simulating Osmotic Equilibria: A New Tool for Calculating Activity Coefficients in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Michael; Duvail, Magali; Guilbaud, Philippe; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2017-10-19

    Herein, a new theoretical method is presented for predicting osmotic equilibria and activities, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapor phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarization. Calculated time-averaged number density profiles provide the amount of evaporated molecules present in the vapor phase and consequently the vapor-phase density. The activity of the solvent and the corresponding osmotic coefficient are determined by the vapor density at different solute concentrations with respect to the reference vapor density of the pure solvent. With the extended Debye-Hückel equation for the activity coefficient along with the corresponding Gibbs-Duhem relation, the activity coefficients of the solutes are calculated by fitting the osmotic coefficients. A simple model based on the combination of Poisson processes and Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distributions is introduced to interpret statistical phenomena observed during the simulations, which are related to evaporation and recondensation. This method is applied to aqueous dysprosium nitrate [Dy(NO 3 ) 3 ] solutions at different concentrations. The obtained densities of the liquid bulk and the osmotic and activity coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental results for concentrated and saturated solutions. Density profiles of the liquid-vapor interface at different concentrations provide detailed insight into the spatial distributions of all compounds.

  20. Summary of existing information on gamma-ray and X-ray attenuation coefficients of solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    Accurate values of X-ray and gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of different chemicals are required in spectrometry as well as in many other scientific, engineering and medical disciplines involving photon radiation. The current state of knowledge of experimental and theoretical gamma-ray and X-r......-ray attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of salts is presented and exemplified by recent work. The results presented provide a basis for studying X-ray and gamma-ray photon interactions with ions in solution (hydrated ions) rather than ion compounds in solid form....

  1. Energy reflection coefficient for H+ ions at energies between 10 and 80 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.; Bohdansky, J.; Eckstein, W.; Robinson, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    The energy reflection coefficient for H + ions at energies between 10 keV and 80 keV was determined by experiments and by computer calculations. Measurements were made with graphite, Al, Cu, Mo and W. targets. The angle of ion incidence was restricted to 85 0 , 78 0 and 70 0 measured from the surface normal. Calculated data were obtained by two different Monte Carlo computer programs (MARLOWE, TRIM). It was found that both the calculated and the measured data scale with the parameter epsilon cos 2 α, where epsilon is Lindhard's reduced energy and α the angle of incidence for the ions. The measured values are smaller than those calculated. This can be explained by surface roughness which developed during the ion irradiation

  2. Simulation calculations of physical sputtering and reflection coefficient of plasma-irradiated carbon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.; Ono, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    1994-08-01

    Physical sputtering yields from the carbon surface irradiated by the boundary plasma are obtained with the use of a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The yields are calculated for many random initial energy and angle values of incident protons or deuterons with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, and then averaged. Here the temperature of the boundary plasma, the sheath potential and the angle δ between the magnetic field line and the surface normal are taken into account. A new fitting formula for an arrangement of the numerical data of sputtering yield is introduced, in which six fitting parameters are determined from the numerical results and listed. These results provide a way to estimate the erosion of carbon materials irradiated by boundary plasma. The particle reflection coefficients for deuterons and their neutrals from a carbon surface are also calculated by the same code and presented together with, for comparison, that for the case of monoenergetic normal incidence. (author)

  3. Global stability of almost periodic solution of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ling; Zhao Hongyong

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates the almost periodicity of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with delays and variable coefficients. Several sufficient conditions are established for the existence and globally exponential stability of almost periodic solutions by employing fixed point theorem and differential inequality technique. The results of this paper are new and they complement previously known results

  4. Activity Coefficients of Acetone-Chloroform Solutions: An Undergraduate Experiment. Undergraduate Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information, laboratory procedures, and results of an undergraduate experiment in which activity coefficients for a two-component liquid-vapor system are determined. Working in pairs, students can perform the experiment with 10 solutions in a given three-hour laboratory period. (Author/JN)

  5. Solution of time dependent atmospheric diffusion equation with a proposed diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Essa, KH.S.M.; Aly, SH.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional model for the dispersion of passive atmospheric contaminant (not included chemical reactions) in the atmospheric boundary layer is considered. On the basis of the gradient transfer theory (K-theory), the time dependent diffusion equation represents the dispersion of the pollutants is solved analytically. The solution depends on diffusion coefficient K', which is expressed in terms of the friction velocity 'u the vertical coordinate -L and the depth of the mixing layer 'h'. The solution is obtained to either the vertical coordinate 'z' is less or greater than the mixing height 'h'. The obtained solution may be applied to study the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  6. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang; Chung, Dong Chul

    2017-01-01

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils

  7. Apparent diffusion coefficient value as a biomarker reflecting morphological and biological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeyeol; Yoshida, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Oya, Miyako; Nakayama, Takayuki; Takeshita, Hideki; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Numao, Noboru; Koga, Fumitaka; Saito, Kazutaka; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    To assess whether there is an association between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. The study cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRI before the prostate biopsy. In 42 tumor foci, the associations of the ADC values with the clinicopathological characteristics and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were analyzed. High-grade cancers (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 4 + 3), larger cancers (maximum diameter (MD) ≥ 16 mm), and highly proliferating cancers (Ki-67 LI ≥ 4.43 %) had significantly lower ADC values, respectively (P value according to age, prostate-specific antigen, presence of extra-prostatic extension, and intra-tumoral stroma proportion. Multivariate analysis showed that GS, Ki-67 LI, and MD had independent and significant correlations with ADC value (P value to predict high-grade cancer foci are 81.8 and 93.5 %, respectively. A low ADC value reflects the morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. Analyzing the ADC value may make it possible to more precisely predict the cancer aggressiveness of each focus before treatment.

  8. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Chul [Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils.

  9. Arsenic sulfide layers for dielectric reflection mirrors prepared from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Pedlikova, Jitka; BartoÅ, Ivo; Podrazký, Ondřej

    2017-12-01

    Chalcogenide materials due to high refractive indices, transparency in the mid-IR spectral region, nonlinear refractive indices, etc, have been employed as fibers and films in different photonic devices such as light amplifiers, optical regenerators, broadband radiation sources. Chalcogenide films can be prepared by physical methods as well as by solution-based techniques in which solutions of chalcogenides in amines are used. This paper presents results on the solution-based fabrication and optical characterization of single arsenic sulfide layers and multilayer stacks containing As2S3 layers together with porous silica layers coated on planar and fiber-optic substrates. Input As2S3 solutions for the layer fabrications were prepared by dissolving As2S3 powder in n-propylamine in a concentration of 0.50 mol/l. These solutions were applied on glass slides by dip-coating method and obtained layers were thermally treated in vacuum at temperatures up to 180 °C. Similar procedure was used for As2S3 layers in multilayer stacks. Such stacks were fabricated by repeating the application of one porous silica layer prepared by the sol-gel method and one As2S3 layer onto glass slides or silica fibers (a diameter of 0.3 mm) by using the dip-coating method. It has been found that the curing process of the applied layers has to be carefully controlled in order to obtain stacks with three pairs of such layers. Single arsenic and porous silica layers were characterized by optical microscopy, and by measuring their transmission spectra in a range of 200-2500 nm. Thicknesses and refractive indices were estimated from the spectra. Transmission spectra of planar multilayer stacks were measured, too. Interference bands have been determined from optical measurements on the multilayer stacks with a minimum transmittance of about 50% which indicates the possibility of using such stacks as reflecting mirrors.

  10. Rebound coefficient of collisionless gas in a rigid vessel. A model of reflection of field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Hamada, Shigeo

    1996-01-01

    A system of collisionless neutral gas contained in a rigid vessel is considered as a simple model of reflection of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma by a magnetic mirror. The rebound coefficient of the system is calculated as a function of the incident speed of the vessel normalized by the thermal velocity of the gas before reflection. The coefficient is compared with experimental data of FIX (Osaka U.) and FRX-C/T(Los Alamos N.L.). Agreement is good for this simple model. Interesting is that the rebound coefficient takes the smallest value (∼0.365) as the incident speed tends to zero and approaches unity as it tends to infinity. This behavior is reverse to that expected for a system with collision dominated fluid instead of collisionless gas. By examining the rebound coefficient, therefore, it could be successfully inferred whether the ion mean free path in each experiment was longer or shorter than the plasma length. (author)

  11. Image potential effect on the specular reflection coefficient of alkali ions scattered from a nickel surface at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemih, R.; Boudjema, M.; Benazeth, C.; Boudouma, Y.; Chami, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The resonant charge exchange in the incoming path of alkali ions scattered at low energy from a polycrystalline nickel surface is studied by using the image effect occurring at glancing incidence (2-10 deg. from the surface plane) and for specular reflection. The part of the experimental artefacts (geometrical factor, surface roughness ...) is extracted from the reflection coefficient of almost completely neutralised projectiles (He + or Ne + ) compared with the coefficient obtained from numerical simulations (TRIM and MARLOWE codes). The present model explains very well the lowering of the reflection coefficient measured at grazing incidence (below 4 deg.). Furthermore, the optimised values of the charge fraction in the incoming path and the image potential are in agreement with the theoretical calculations in the case of Na + /Ni at 4 keV

  12. Correlation and prediction of osmotic coefficient and water activity of aqueous electrolyte solutions by a two-ionic parameter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazuki, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, osmotic coefficients and water activities in aqueous solutions have been modeled using a new approach based on the Pitzer model. This model contains two physically significant ionic parameters regarding ionic solvation and the closest distance of approach between ions in a solution. The proposed model was evaluated by estimating the osmotic coefficients of nine electrolytes in aqueous solutions. The obtained results showed that the model is suitable for predicting the osmotic coefficients in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Using adjustable parameters, which have been calculated from regression between the experimental osmotic coefficient and the results of this model, the water activity coefficients of aqueous solutions were calculated. The average absolute relative deviations of the osmotic coefficients between the experimental data and the calculated results were in agreement

  13. Bias in the absorption coefficient determination of a fluorescent dye, standard reference material 1932 fluorescein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, Paul C.; Kramer, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at λ=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers

  14. Interaction between lactose and cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions as seen by diffusion coefficients measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Gomes, Joselaine C.S.; Romero, Carmen; Esteso, Miguel A.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diffusion coefficients of aqueous systems containing lactose and cadmium chloride. ► Influence of the lactose on the diffusion of cadmium chloride. ► Interactions between Cd 2+ and lactose. -- Abstract: Diffusion coefficients of an aqueous system containing cadmium chloride 0.100 mol · dm −3 and lactose at different concentrations at 25 °C have been measured, using a conductimetric cell and an automatic apparatus to follow diffusion. The cell relies on an open-ended capillary method and a conductimetric technique is used to follow the diffusion process by measuring the resistance of a solution inside the capillaries, at recorded times. From these results and by ab initio calculations, it was possible to obtain a better understanding of the effect of lactose on transport of cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions

  15. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; González García, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which

  16. [Evaluation of the Peusner's coefficients matrix for polymeric membrane and ternary non-electrolyte solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasik-Slęzak, Jolanta; Slęzak-Prochazka, Izabella; Slęzak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    A system of network forms of Kedem-Katchalsky (K-K) equations for ternary non-electrolyte solutions is made of eight matrix equations containing Peusner's coefficients R(ij), L(ij), H(ij), W(ij), K(ij), N(ij), S(ij) or P(ij) (i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}). The equations are the result of symmetric or hybrid transformation of the classic form of K-K equations by the use of methods of Peusner's network thermodynamics (PNT). Calculating concentration dependences of the determinant of Peusner's coefficients matrixes R(ij), L(ij), H(ij), W(ij), S(ij), N(ij), K(ij) and P(ij) (i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}). The material used in the experiment was a hemodialysis Nephrophan membrane with specified transport properties (L(p), σ, Ω) in aqueous glucose and ethanol solution. The method involved equations for determinants of the matrixes coefficients R(ij), L(ij), H(ij), W(ij), S(ij), N(ij), K(ij) or P(ij) (i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}). The objective of calculations were dependences of determinants of Peusner's coeffcients matrixes R(ij), L(ij), H(ij), W(ij), S(ij), N(ij), K(ij) or P(ij) (i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}) within the conditions of solution homogeneity upon an average concentration of one component of solution in the membrane (C1) with a determined value of the second component (C2). The method of calculating the determinants of Peusner's coeffcients matrixes R(ij), L(ij), H(ij), W(ij), S(ij), N(ij), K(ij) or P(ij) (i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}) is a new tool that may be applicable in studies on membrane transport. Calculations showed that the coefficients are sensitive to concentration and composition of solutions separated by a polymeric membrane.

  17. Similarity solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.-T.; Ho, C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we consider the solvability of the Fokker–Planck equation with both time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients by means of the similarity method. By the introduction of the similarity variable, the Fokker–Planck equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Adopting the natural requirement that the probability current density vanishes at the boundary, the resulting ordinary differential equation turns out to be integrable, and the probability density function can be given in closed form. New examples of exactly solvable Fokker–Planck equations are presented, and their properties analyzed. - Highlights: ► Scaling form of the Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients is derived. ► Exact similarity solution of the Fokker–Planck equation is given in closed forms. ► New examples of Fokker–Planck equations exactly solvable by similarity methods are discussed.

  18. Estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of radiostrontium using soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Nao K; Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new approach for estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (K(d)) of radiostrontium using some selected soil properties. We used 142 Japanese agricultural soil samples (35 Andosol, 25 Cambisol, 77 Fluvisol, and 5 others) for which Sr-K(d) values had been determined by a batch sorption test and listed in our database. Spearman's rank correlation test was carried out to investigate correlations between Sr-K(d) values and soil properties. Electrical conductivity and water soluble Ca had good correlations with Sr-K(d) values for all soil groups. Then, we found a high correlation between the ratio of exchangeable Ca to Ca concentration in water soluble fraction and Sr-K(d) values with correlation coefficient R=0.72. This pointed us toward a relatively easy way to estimate Sr-K(d) values.

  19. Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

    2007-07-01

    Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

  20. Shape Optimization in Contact Problems with Coulomb Friction and a Solution-Dependent Friction Coefficient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beremlijski, P.; Outrata, Jiří; Haslinger, Jaroslav; Pathó, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2014), s. 3371-3400 ISSN 0363-0129 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Grant - others:GA MŠK(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠK(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0070 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : shape optimization * contact problems * Coulomb friction * solution-dependent coefficient of friction * mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/MTR/outrata-0434234.pdf

  1. Solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation with a realistic diffusion coefficient and time dependent mixing height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Etman, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One dimensional model for the dispersion of a passive atmospheric contaminant (neglecting chemical reactions) in the atmospheric boundary layer is introduced. The differential equation representing the dispersion of pollutants is solved on the basis of gradient-transfer theory (K- theory). The present approach deals with a more appropriate and realistic profile for the diffusion coefficient K, which is expressed in terms of the friction velocity U, the vertical coordinate z and the depth of the mixing layer h, which is taken time dependent. After some mathematical simplification, the equation analytic obtained solution can be easily applied to case study concerning atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  2. Determination of acoustic properties of thin polymer films utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Sakamoto, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique to measure the acoustic properties of a thin polymer film utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound reflected back from a system comprising a reflection plate, the film, and a material that covers the film. The frequency components of the echo reflected from the back of the plate, where the film is attached, take their minimum values at the resonant frequency, and from these frequency characteristics, the acoustic impedance, sound velocity, and the density of the film can be determined. We applied this technique to characterize an ion exchange membrane, which has high water absorbability, and successfully determined the acoustic properties of the membrane without getting it wet.

  3. Trial function method and exact solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Rui; Zhang Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the trial function method is extended to study the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. On the basis of a generalized traveling wave transformation and a trial function, we investigate the exact envelope traveling wave solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. Taking advantage of solutions to trial function, we successfully obtain exact solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients under constraint conditions. (general)

  4. New Soliton-like Solutions and Multi-soliton Structures for Broer-Kaup System with Variable Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Mingjun; Lue Zhuosheng

    2005-01-01

    By using the further extended tanh method [Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 269; Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 669] to the Broer-Kaup system with variable coefficients, abundant new soliton-like solutions and multi-soliton-like solutions are derived. Based on the derived multi-soliton-like solutions which contain arbitrary functions, some interesting multi-soliton structures are revealed.

  5. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin W McBride

    Full Text Available The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  6. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the

  7. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, M.; Molina-Concha, M.B.; El-Kissi, N.; Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH 4 electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH 4 at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH 4 at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H 2 bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H 2 bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders

  8. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...... on particles apparently is low and not correlated with porosity, probably because the pore-filling cementation in this interval causes Biot's coefficient to decline as burial increases. Limestone from the water zone of the North sea Chalk Group follows the same stress trend as deep sea limestone. These results...

  9. Longitudinal dispersion coefficients for numerical modeling of groundwater solute transport in heterogeneous formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyun; Rolle, Massimo; Kitanidis, Peter K

    2017-09-15

    Most recent research on hydrodynamic dispersion in porous media has focused on whole-domain dispersion while other research is largely on laboratory-scale dispersion. This work focuses on the contribution of a single block in a numerical model to dispersion. Variability of fluid velocity and concentration within a block is not resolved and the combined spreading effect is approximated using resolved quantities and macroscopic parameters. This applies whether the formation is modeled as homogeneous or discretized into homogeneous blocks but the emphasis here being on the latter. The process of dispersion is typically described through the Fickian model, i.e., the dispersive flux is proportional to the gradient of the resolved concentration, commonly with the Scheidegger parameterization, which is a particular way to compute the dispersion coefficients utilizing dispersivity coefficients. Although such parameterization is by far the most commonly used in solute transport applications, its validity has been questioned. Here, our goal is to investigate the effects of heterogeneity and mass transfer limitations on block-scale longitudinal dispersion and to evaluate under which conditions the Scheidegger parameterization is valid. We compute the relaxation time or memory of the system; changes in time with periods larger than the relaxation time are gradually leading to a condition of local equilibrium under which dispersion is Fickian. The method we use requires the solution of a steady-state advection-dispersion equation, and thus is computationally efficient, and applicable to any heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity K field without requiring statistical or structural assumptions. The method was validated by comparing with other approaches such as the moment analysis and the first order perturbation method. We investigate the impact of heterogeneity, both in degree and structure, on the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and then discuss the role of local dispersion

  10. Approximate Solutions of Delay Differential Equations with Constant and Variable Coefficients by the Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olvera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We expand the application of the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM to solve delay differential equations (DDEs with constant and variable coefficients. This EMHPM is based on a sequence of subintervals that provide approximate solutions that require less CPU time than those computed from the dde23 MATLAB numerical integration algorithm solutions. To address the accuracy of our proposed approach, we examine the solutions of several DDEs having constant and variable coefficients, finding predictions with a good match relative to the corresponding numerical integration solutions.

  11. Existence of positive solutions for multi-term non-autonomous fractional differential equations with polynomial coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Babakhani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we discuss the existence of positive solutions in the case of multi-term non-autonomous fractional differential equations with polynomial coefficients; the constant coefficient case has been studied in [2]. We consider the equation $$ Big(D^{alpha_n} -sum_{j = 1}^{n - 1} p_j(xD^{alpha_{n - j}}Bigy = f(x, y. $$ We state various conditions on $f$ and $p_j$'s under which this equation has: positive solutions, a unique solution which is positive, and a unique solution which may not be positive.

  12. Measurement of anchoring coefficient of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal using a polarizing optical microscope in reflective mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Baek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals is widely used in LCD TVs, no easy method exists to measure its anchoring coefficient. In this study, we propose an easy and convenient measurement technique in which a polarizing optical microscope is used in the reflective mode with an objective lens having a low depth of focus. All measurements focus on the reflection of light near the interface between the liquid crystal and alignment layer. The change in the reflected light is measured by applying an electric field. We model the response of the director of the liquid crystal to the electric field and, thus, the change in reflectance. By adjusting the extrapolation length in the calculation, we match the experimental and calculated results and obtain the anchoring coefficient. In our experiment, the extrapolation lengths were 0.31 ± 0.04 μm, 0.32 ± 0.08 μm, and 0.23 ± 0.05 μm for lecithin, AL-64168, and SE-5662, respectively.

  13. Variability of the reflectance coefficient of skylight from the ocean surface and its implications to ocean color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilerson, Alexander; Carrizo, Carlos; Foster, Robert; Harmel, Tristan

    2018-04-16

    The value and spectral dependence of the reflectance coefficient (ρ) of skylight from wind-roughened ocean surfaces is critical for determining accurate water leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectances from shipborne, AERONET-Ocean Color and satellite observations. Using a vector radiative transfer code, spectra of the reflectance coefficient and corresponding radiances near the ocean surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are simulated for a broad range of parameters including flat and windy ocean surfaces with wind speeds up to 15 m/s, aerosol optical thicknesses of 0-1 at 440nm, wavelengths of 400-900 nm, and variable Sun and viewing zenith angles. Results revealed a profound impact of the aerosol load and type on the spectral values of ρ. Such impacts, not included yet in standard processing, may produce significant inaccuracies in the reflectance spectra retrieved from above-water radiometry and satellite observations. Implications for satellite cal/val activities as well as potential changes in measurement and data processing schemes are discussed.

  14. Multi-soliton solutions to the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in inhomogeneous fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Chao-Qing; Qin, Zhen-Yun; Zheng, Chun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Multi-soliton solutions to the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (MNLSE) with variable coefficients (VCs) in inhomogeneous fibers are obtained with the help of mapping transformation, which reduces the VC MNLSE into a constant-coefficient MNLSE. Based on the analytical solutions, one- and two-soliton transmissions in the proper dispersion management systems are discussed. The sustainment of solitons and the disappearance of breathers for the VC MNLSE are first reported here. (paper)

  15. Properties of weak contrast PP reflection/transmission coefficients for weakly anisotropic elastic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenčík, Ivan; Martins, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2001), s. 176-199 ISSN 0039-3169. [ICTCA'99. Trieste, 10.05.1999-14.05.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : elastic media * anisotropy * seismic reflection Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.680, year: 2001

  16. Global existence of periodic solutions of BAM neural networks with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shangjiang; Huang Lihong; Dai Binxiang; Zhang Zhongzhi

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we study BAM (bidirectional associative memory) networks with variable coefficients. By some spectral theorems and a continuation theorem based on coincidence degree, we not only obtain some new sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the periodic solution but also estimate the exponentially convergent rate. Our results are less restrictive than previously known criteria and can be applied to neural networks with a broad range of activation functions assuming neither differentiability nor strict monotonicity. Moreover, these conclusions are presented in terms of system parameters and can be easily verified for the globally Lipschitz and the spectral radius being less than 1. Therefore, our results should be useful in the design and applications of periodic oscillatory neural circuits for neural networks with delays

  17. General method and exact solutions to a generalized variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ., Shangai; Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    A general method to uniformly construct exact solutions in terms of special function of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented by means of a more general ansatz and symbolic computation. Making use of the general method, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan (J. Phys. A., 36 (2003) 7009) and find other new and more general solutions, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solution, soliton solutions, soliton-like solutions and Jacobi, Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. A general variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation is chosen to illustrate the method. As a result, some new exact soliton-like solutions are obtained. planets. The numerical results are given in tables. The results are discussed in the conclusion

  18. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  19. Retrieving Constitutive Parameters of Plasmonic Multilayers from Reflection and Transmission Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, E. A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract the effective permittivity and permeability of plasmonic multilayers in the optical domain. For material parameters retrieval the classical Nicolson-Ross-Weir method is commonly used. However, its direct application leads to spurious zero-permittivity points and f...... and false permeability resonances in the case of total reflection from the slab. We offer a way to overcome this issue and retrieve correct constitutive parameters of plasmonic multilayers...

  20. Numerical solutions to critical problem of reflected cylindrical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Junnosuke

    1977-01-01

    The multi-region critical problem can be transformed into an eigenvalue problem in the classical sense by using the method of Kuscer and Corngold and of Wing. This transformation is applied to derive a variational formulation for a reflected reactor. An approximate critical value of the multiplying factor is determined by maximizing the Rayleigh quotient for radially and totally reflected cylindrical reactors. It is shown that this approximate critical value is an upper bound of the true critical value. From the facts that the operator is self-adjoint and the eigenfunction is positive, an expression is derived for the upper and lower bounds of the true eigenvalue, by making use of the approximate distribution. The difference of the upper and lower bounds is an uncertainty of the presumption of the true critical value. It is found that we can compute the bounds to any required precision. The narrow bounds are calculated for two radially and one totally reflected cylindrical reactors. (auth.)

  1. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-01-01

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct

  2. High-order dynamic modeling and parameter identification of structural discontinuities in Timoshenko beams by using reflection coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiang; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Dayue

    2013-02-01

    Properties of discontinuities, such as bolt joints and cracks in the waveguide structures, are difficult to evaluate by either analytical or numerical methods due to the complexity and uncertainty of the discontinuities. In this paper, the discontinuity in a Timoshenko beam is modeled with high-order parameters and then these parameters are identified by using reflection coefficients at the discontinuity. The high-order model is composed of several one-order sub-models in series and each sub-model consists of inertia, stiffness and damping components in parallel. The order of the discontinuity model is determined based on the characteristics of the reflection coefficient curve and the accuracy requirement of the dynamic modeling. The model parameters are identified through the least-square fitting iteration method, of which the undetermined model parameters are updated in iteration to fit the dynamic reflection coefficient curve with the wave-based one. By using the spectral super-element method (SSEM), simulation cases, including one-order discontinuities on infinite- and finite-beams and a two-order discontinuity on an infinite beam, were employed to evaluate both the accuracy of the discontinuity model and the effectiveness of the identification method. For practical considerations, effects of measurement noise on the discontinuity parameter identification are investigated by adding different levels of noise to the simulated data. The simulation results were then validated by the corresponding experiments. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) the one-order discontinuities can be identified accurately with the maximum errors of 6.8% and 8.7%, respectively; (2) and the high-order discontinuities can be identified with the maximum errors of 15.8% and 16.2%, respectively; and (3) the high-order model can predict the complex discontinuity much more accurately than the one-order discontinuity model.

  3. Energy Reflection Coefficients for 5-10 keV He Ions Incident on Au, Ag, and Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Littmark, U.

    1978-01-01

    The calorimetric deuterium-film method was used for measurements of the energy reflection coefficient γ for normal incidence of 5-10 keV He ions on Cu, Ag and Au. A theoretical calculation of γ by means of transport theory gives fair agreement with the experimental results. The experimental data...... the experimental and theoretical results for the He ions are in acceptable agreement with other experimental and theoretical results. For He ions, the experimental γ-values are 20-30% above the values for hydrogen ions for the same value of ε...

  4. On Solutions for Linear and Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations with Variable Coefficients: A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amador

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, after reviewing two different ways to solve Riccati systems, we are able to present an extensive list of families of integrable nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS equations with variable coefficients. Using Riccati equations and similarity transformations, we are able to reduce them to the standard NLS models. Consequently, we can construct bright-, dark- and Peregrine-type soliton solutions for NLS with variable coefficients. As an important application of solutions for the Riccati equation with parameters, by means of computer algebra systems, it is shown that the parameters change the dynamics of the solutions. Finally, we test numerical approximations for the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation by the Crank-Nicolson scheme with analytical solutions found using Riccati systems. These solutions include oscillating laser beams and Laguerre and Gaussian beams.

  5. 1-Soliton solution of the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with nonlinear dispersion and time-dependent coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Anjan

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, the 1-soliton solution of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with power law nonlinearity and nonlinear dispersion along with time-dependent coefficients is obtained. There are two models for this kind of an equation that are studied. The constraint relation between these time-dependent coefficients is established for the solitons to exist. Subsequently, this equation is again analysed with generalized evolution. The solitary wave ansatz is used to carry out this investigation.

  6. Shape optimization in 2D contact problems with given friction and a solution-dependent coefficient of friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, J.; Outrata, Jiří; Pathó, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 31-59 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : shape optimization * Signorini problem * model with given frinction * solution-dependent coefficient of friction * mathematical probrams with equilibrium constraints Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.036, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/outrata-shape optimization in 2d contact problems with given friction and a solution-dependent coefficient of friction .pdf

  7. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), S cdm (units: nm -1 ), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving S cdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of S cdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  8. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires

  9. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  10. The determination of acoustic reflection coefficients by using cepstral techniques, II: Extensions of the technique and considerations of accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J. S.; Gold, E.

    1986-10-01

    In a companion paper the cepstral technique for the measurement of reflection coefficients was described. In particular the concepts of extraction noise and extraction delay were introduced. They are considered further here, and, in addition, a means of extending the cepstral technique to accommodate surfaces having lengthy impulse responses is described. The character of extraction noise, a cepstral component which interferes with reflection measurements, is largely determined by the spectrum of the signal radiated from the source loudspeaker. Here the origin and effects of extraction noise are discussed and it is shown that inverse filtering techniques may be used to reduce extraction noise without making impractical demands of the electrical test signal or the source loudspeaker. The extraction delay, a factor which is introduced when removing the reflector impulse response from the power cepstrum, has previously been estimated by a cross-correlation technique. Here the importance of estimating the extraction delay accurately is emphasized by showing the effect of small spurious delays on the calculation of the normal impedance of a reflecting surface. The effects are shown to accord with theory, and it was found that the real part of the estimated surface normal impedance is very nearly maximized when the spurious delay is eliminated; this has suggested a new way of determining the extraction delay itself. Finally, the basic cepstral technique is suited only to the measurement of surfaces whose impulse responses are shorter than τ, the delay between the arrival of the direct and specularly reflected components at the measurement position. Here it is shown that this restriction can be eliminated, by using a process known as cepstral inversion, when the direct cepstrum has a duration less than τ and cepstral aliasing is insignificant. It is also possible to use this technique to deconvolve a signal from an echo sequence in the time domain, an operation

  11. On nonlinear changes of the reflection coefficient of the fast wave at LH frequencies due to ponderomotive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1991-09-01

    The nonlinear changes of the reflection coefficient R of fast waves launched by waveguide arrays may be significant even for power densities S in the range of 3 or 4 kW/cm 2 . For the input parameters chosen in the computations, the effects of ponderomotive forces lead to an increase in plasma density in front of the grill , whereas for the slow wave the plasma density always decreases with growing S. For small plasma density in front of the grill, ponderomotive forces thus lead to the decrease of R, whereas for high plasma densities R grows with growing power density S. The heating of the edge plasma by the wave tends to weaken these changes. (Z.S.) 6 figs., 17 refs

  12. Histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient reflect tumor cellularity and proliferation activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Richter, Cindy; Hoehn, Anna-Kathrin

    2018-05-04

    Our purpose was to analyze associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis parameters and histopathologicalfeatures in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study involved 32 patients with primary HNSCC. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters were calculated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , P10, P25, P75, P90, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. Furthermore, proliferation index KI 67, cell count, total and average nucleic areas were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient (p) was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. In overall sample, all ADC values showed moderate inverse correlations with KI 67. All ADC values except ADCmax correlated inversely with tumor cellularity. Slightly correlations were identified between total/average nucleic area and ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , and P25. In G1/2 tumors, only ADCmode correlated well with Ki67. No statistically significant correlations between ADC parameters and cellularity were found. In G3 tumors, Ki 67 correlated with all ADC parameters except ADCmode. Cell count correlated well with all ADC parameters except ADCmax. Total nucleic area correlated inversely with ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , P25, and P90. ADC histogram parameters reflect proliferation potential and cellularity in HNSCC. The associations between histopathology and imaging depend on tumor grading.

  13. Reflection principle for classical solutions of the homogeneous real Monge–Ampère equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Koskenoja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider reflection principle for classical solutions of the homogeneous real Monge–Ampère equation. We show that both the odd and the even reflected functions satisfy the Monge–Ampère equation if the second-order partial derivatives have continuous limits on the reflection boundary. In addition to sufficient conditions, we give some necessary conditions. Before stating the main results, we present elementary formulas for the reflected functions and study their differentiability properties across the reflection boundary. As an important special case, we finally consider extension of polynomials satisfying the homogeneous Monge–Ampère equation.

  14. New convergence behavior of solutions to Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with delays and time-varying coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingwen

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter the convergence behavior of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with delays and time-varying coefficients are considered. Some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the solutions of the networks converge locally exponentially to zero point, which are new and complement of previously known results

  15. Flowchart on Choosing Optimal Method of Observing Transverse Dispersion Coefficient for Solute Transport in Open Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Oh Baek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methods for observing and estimating the transverse dispersion coefficient in an analysis of the solute transport in open channel flow. It may be difficult to select an optimal method to calculate dispersion coefficients from tracer data among numerous methodologies. A flowchart was proposed in this study to select an appropriate method under the transport situation of either time-variant or steady condition. When making the flowchart, the strengths and limitations of the methods were evaluated based on its derivation procedure which was conducted under specific assumptions. Additionally, application examples of these methods on experimental data were illustrated using previous works. Furthermore, the observed dispersion coefficients in a laboratory channel were validated by using transport numerical modeling, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental results from tracer tests. This flowchart may assist in choosing the better methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in various river mixing situations.

  16. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C; Joyce, Kevin P; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing ([Formula: see text] for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining [Formula: see text] compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to [Formula: see text]. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple [Formula: see text] correction improved agreement with experiment from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  17. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C.; Joyce, Kevin P.; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing (R=0.98 for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining R=0.73 compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to R=0.93. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple pK_{ {a}} correction improved agreement with experiment from R=0.54 to R=0.66, despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  18. Measurement and modelling of mean activity coefficients of aqueous mixed electrolyte solution containing glycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, M.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ; Modarress, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ]. E-mail: hmodares@aut.ac.ir; Monirfar, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Electrochemical measurements were made on (H{sub 2}O + NaBr + K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + glycine) mixtures at T = 298.15 K by using ion selective electrodes. The mean ionic activity coefficients of NaBr at molality 0.1 were determined at five K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} molalities (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.1) mol . kg{sup -1}. The activity coefficients of glycine were evaluated from mean ionic activity coefficients of NaBr. The modified Pitzer equation was used to model the experimental data.

  19. Revealing Layers of Pristine Oriented Crystals Embedded Within Deep Ice Clouds Using Differential Reflectivity and the Copolar Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, W. J.; Westbrook, C. D.

    2017-11-01

    Pristine ice crystals typically have high aspect ratios (≫ 1), have a high density and tend to fall preferentially with their major axis aligned horizontally. Consequently, they can, in certain circumstances, be readily identified by measurements of differential reflectivity (ZDR), which is related to their average aspect ratio. However, because ZDR is reflectivity weighted, its interpretation becomes ambiguous in the presence of even a few, larger aggregates or irregular polycrystals. An example of this is in mixed-phase regions that are embedded within deeper ice cloud. Currently, our understanding of the microphysical processes within these regions is hindered by a lack of good observations. In this paper, a novel technique is presented that removes this ambiguity using measurements from the 3 GHz Chilbolton Advanced Meteorological Radar in Southern England. By combining measurements of ZDR and the copolar correlation coefficient (ρhv), we show that it is possible to retrieve both the relative contribution to the radar signal and "intrinsic" ZDR (ZDRIP) of the pristine oriented crystals, even in circumstances where their signal is being masked by the presence of aggregates. Results from two case studies indicate that enhancements in ZDR embedded within deep ice clouds are typically produced by pristine oriented crystals with ZDRIP values between 3 and 7 dB (equivalent to 5-9 dB at horizontal incidence) but with varying contributions to the radar reflectivity. Vertically pointing 35 GHz cloud radar Doppler spectra and in situ particle images from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 aircraft support the conceptual model used and are consistent with the retrieval interpretation.

  20. A new generalized expansion method and its application in finding explicit exact solutions for a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Zahran, M.A.; Fan Engui

    2004-01-01

    A generalized expansion method is proposed to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for general variable coefficients non-linear evolution equations. The new approach admits the following types of solutions (a) polynomial solutions, (b) exponential solutions, (c) rational solutions, (d) triangular periodic wave solutions, (e) hyperbolic and solitary wave solutions and (f) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. The efficiency of the method has been demonstrated by applying it to a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation. Then, new and rich variety of exact explicit solutions have been found

  1. On the asymptotic expansions of solutions of an nth order linear differential equation with power coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, R.B.; Wood, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    The asymptotic expansions of solutions of a class of linear ordinary differential equations of arbitrary order n, containing a factor zsup(m) multiplying the lower order derivatives, are investigated for large values of z in the complex plane. Four classes of solutions are considered which exhibit the following behaviour as /z/ → infinity in certain sectors: (i) solutions whose behaviour is either exponentially large or algebraic (involving p ( < n) algebraic expansions), (ii) solutions which are exponentially small (iii) solutions with a single algebraic expansion and (iv) solutions which are even and odd functions of z whenever n+m is even. The asymptotic expansions of these solutions in a full neigbourhood of the point at infinity are obtained by means of the theory of the solutions in the case m=O developed in a previous paper

  2. New solution for transport and industrial noise protection through reflective noise barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kralov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution for protection of transportation and industrial noise through reflective noise barriers is proposed and investigated in this study. The new solution combines the advantages of the known barriers and has its own advantages in addition. The preliminary results show a very good level of noise reduction for this type of barriers.

  3. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Faezeh [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin-Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Deyhimi, Farzad, E-mail: f-deyhimi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin-Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution ({gamma}{sup {infinity}}) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment ({mu}) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 {gamma}{sub Solute}{sup {infinity}}for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  4. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Faezeh; Deyhimi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ ∞ ) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment (μ) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 γ Solute ∞ for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R 2 ) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  5. Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobtorweihen, S.; Zuniga, A. Chaides; Ingram, T.; Gerlach, T.; Keil, F. J.; Smirnova, I.

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative predictions of biomembrane/water partition coefficients are important, as they are a key property in pharmaceutical applications and toxicological studies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes. The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Additionally, solute orientations calculated with MD and COSMOmic are compared and again a good agreement is found. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations. For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations.

  6. Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobtorweihen, S.; Ingram, T.; Gerlach, T.; Smirnova, I.; Zuniga, A. Chaides; Keil, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of biomembrane/water partition coefficients are important, as they are a key property in pharmaceutical applications and toxicological studies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes. The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Additionally, solute orientations calculated with MD and COSMOmic are compared and again a good agreement is found. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations. For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations

  7. Solutions of differential equations with regular coefficients by the methods of Richmond and Runge-Kutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the differential equation which describe the electric field within an inhomogeneous layer of permittivity, upon which a perpendicularly-polarized plane wave is incident, are considered. Richmond's method and the Runge-Kutta method are compared for linear and exponential profiles of permittivities. These two approximate solutions are also compared with the exact solutions.

  8. PN solutions of radiative heat transfer in a slab with reflective boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The spherical harmonics method is used to obtain solution for the radiative heat transfer equation for a slab with reflective boundaries. An absorbing, emitting, non-isothermal, gray medium is considered with linearly anisotropic scattering. Under the condition of the thermal equilibrium, the slab boundaries are subjected to specular and diffuse reflection. The analytical form of solutions is obtained for both conservative and non-conservative cases. The accuracy of the method was verified by benchmark comparisons against the solutions of an earlier work performed by the normal-mode expansion technique. The present predictions of heat flux were found to be in good agreement with the benchmark data. a

  9. Iterative discrete ordinates solution of the equation for surface-reflected radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of numerical solution of the integral equation for the radiance reflected from an anisotropic surface. The equation relates the radiance at the surface level with BRDF and solutions of the standard radiative transfer problems for a slab with no reflection on its surfaces. It is also shown that the kernel of the equation satisfies the condition of the existence of a unique solution and the convergence of the successive approximations to that solution. The developed method features two basic steps: discretization on a 2D quadrature, and solving the resulting system of algebraic equations with successive over-relaxation method based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Presented numerical examples show good coincidence between the surface-reflected radiance obtained with DISORT and the proposed method. Analysis of contributions of the direct and diffuse (but not yet reflected) parts of the downward radiance to the total solution is performed. Together, they represent a very good initial guess for the iterative process. This fact ensures fast convergence. The numerical evidence is given that the fastest convergence occurs with the relaxation parameter of 1 (no relaxation). An integral equation for BRDF is derived as inversion of the original equation. The potential of this new equation for BRDF retrievals is analyzed. The approach is found not viable as the BRDF equation appears to be an ill-posed problem, and it requires knowledge the surface-reflected radiance on the entire domain of both Sun and viewing zenith angles.

  10. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    FernáNdez Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A. G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; GonzáLez GarcíA, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which approximates the fields incident on the ground interface as plane waves and calculates the time domain RC using the inverse Fourier transform of Fresnel equations. The implementation presented in this paper uses general expressions for the RC which extend its range of applicability to lossy grounds, and is proven to be accurate and fast for antennas located not too near to the ground. The resulting general purpose procedure, able to treat arbitrarily oriented thin-wire antennas, is appropriate for all kind of half-spaces, including lossy cases, and it has turned out to be as computationally fast solving the problem of an arbitrary ground as dealing with a perfect electric conductor ground plane. Results show a numerical validation of the method for different half-spaces, paying special attention to the influence of the antenna to ground distance in the accuracy of the results.

  11. An Analytical Solution for Transient Heat Conduction in a Composite Slab with Time-Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Chiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution is derived for one-dimensional transient heat conduction in a composite slab consisting of n layers, whose heat transfer coefficient on an external boundary is an arbitrary function of time. The composite slab, which has thermal contact resistance at n-1 interfaces, as well as an arbitrary initial temperature distribution and internal heat generation, convectively exchanges heat at the external boundaries with two different time-varying surroundings. To obtain the analytical solution, the shifting function method is first used, which yields new partial differential equations under conventional types of external boundary conditions. The solution for the derived differential equations is then obtained by means of an orthogonal expansion technique. Numerical calculations are performed for two composite slabs, whose heat transfer coefficient on the heated surface is either an exponential or a trigonometric function of time. The numerical results demonstrate the effects of temporal variations in the heat transfer coefficient on the transient temperature field of composite slabs.

  12. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Krolikowska, Marta; Acree, William E.; Baker, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using GLC. → 36 organic solvents and water in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [EMIM][TCB]. → Possible entrainer for different separation processes. → The partial molar excess thermodynamic functions at infinite dilution were calculated. - Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ , for 36 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water, in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [EMIM][TCB], were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 358.15 K. These values are compared to those previously published for selected solutes in the same ionic liquid. The values of the partial molar excess Gibbs free energy ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpy ΔH 1 E,∞ , and entropy ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. Three gas-liquid partition coefficients, K L were calculated for all solutes and the Abraham solvation parameter model is discussed. The values of the selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from γ 13 ∞ and compared to literature values for N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), sulfolane, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [DMIM][TCB], and additional ionic liquids.

  13. Integral particle reflection coefficient for oblique incidence of photons as universal function in the domain of initial energies up to 300 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of calculations and analyses of the integral particle reflection coefficient of photons for oblique photon incidence on planar targets, in the domain of initial photon energies from 100 keV to 300 keV. The results are based on the Monte Carlo simulations of the photon reflection from water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper materials, performed by the MCNP code. It has been observed that the integral particle reflection coefficient as a function of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material shows universal behavior for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain. Analytical formulas for different angles of photon incidence have been proposed, which describe the reflection of photons for all the materials and energies analyzed.

  14. On Attainability of Optimal Solutions for Linear Elliptic Equations with Unbounded Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Kogut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study an optimal boundary control problem (OCP associated to a linear elliptic equation —div (Vj/ + A(xVy = f describing diffusion in a turbulent flow. The characteristic feature of this equation is the fact that, in applications, the stream matrix A(x = [a,ij(x]i,j=i,...,N is skew-symmetric, ац(х = —a,ji(x, measurable, and belongs to L -space (rather than L°°. An optimal solution to such problem can inherit a singular character of the original stream matrix A. We show that optimal solutions can be attainable by solutions of special optimal boundary control problems.

  15. Dissipative weak solutions to compressible Navier–Stokes–Fokker–Planck systems with variable viscosity coefficients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Süli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 443, č. 1 (2016), s. 322-351 ISSN 0022-247X Keywords : weak solutions * kinetic polymer models * FENE chain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X1630172X

  16. Continuity in a pathwise sense with respect to the coefficients of solutions of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Skov

    1997-01-01

    For stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of the form dX(t) = b(X)(t)) dt + sigma(X(t))dW(t) where b and sigma are Lipschitz continuous, it is shown that if we consider a fixed sigma is an element of C-5, bounded and with bounded derivatives, the random field of solutions is pathwise locally...

  17. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  18. Numerical solutions of several reflected shock-wave flow fields with nonequilibrium chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. K.; Presley, L. L.; Williams, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    The method of characteristics for a chemically reacting gas is used in the construction of the time-dependent, one-dimensional flow field resulting from the normal reflection of an incident shock wave at the end wall of a shock tube. Nonequilibrium chemical reactions are allowed behind both the incident and reflected shock waves. All the solutions are evaluated for oxygen, but the results are generally representative of any inviscid, nonconducting, and nonradiating diatomic gas. The solutions clearly show that: (1) both the incident- and reflected-shock chemical relaxation times are important in governing the time to attain steady state thermodynamic properties; and (2) adjacent to the end wall, an excess-entropy layer develops wherein the steady state values of all the thermodynamic variables except pressure differ significantly from their corresponding Rankine-Hugoniot equilibrium values.

  19. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tiejun; Chen Anping; Zhou Yuyuan

    2005-01-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible

  20. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, distributed delays [rapid communication] T.; Chen, A.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-08-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible.

  1. Osmotic pressure and virial coefficients of star and comb polymer solutions: dissipative particle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yu; Fang, Che-Ming; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-03-28

    The effects of macromolecular architecture on the osmotic pressure pi and virial coefficients (B(2) and B(3)) of star and comb polymers in good solvents are studied by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for both dilute and semiconcentrated regimes. The dependence of the osmotic pressure on polymer concentration is directly calculated by considering two reservoirs separated by a semipermeable, fictitious membrane. Our simulation results show that the ratios A(n+1) identical with B(n+1)/R(g)(3n) are essentially constant and A(2) and A(3) are arm number (f) dependent, where R(g) is zero-density radius of gyration. The value of dimensionless virial ratio g = A(3)/A(2)(2) increases with arm number of stars whereas it is essentially arm number independent for comb polymers. In semiconcentrated regime the scaling relation between osmotic pressure and volume fraction, pi proportional to phi(lambda), still holds for both star and comb polymers. For comb polymers, the exponent lambda is close to lambda(*) (approximately = 2.73 for linear chains) and is independent of the arm number. However, for star polymers, the exponent lambda deviates from lambda(*) and actually grows with increasing the arm number. This may be attributed to the significant ternary interactions near the star core in the many-arm systems.

  2. Integrable aspects and rogue wave solution of Sasa-Satsuma equation with variable coefficients in the inhomogeneous fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ping; Yu, Lan; Wei, Guang-Mei

    2018-02-01

    Under investigation with symbolic computation in this paper, is a variable-coefficient Sasa-Satsuma equation (SSE) which can describe the ultra short pulses in optical fiber communications and propagation of deep ocean waves. By virtue of the extended Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur system, Lax pair for the model is directly constructed. Based on the obtained Lax pair, an auto-Bäcklund transformation is provided, then the explicit one-soliton solution is obtained. Meanwhile, an infinite number of conservation laws in explicit recursion forms are derived to indicate its integrability in the Liouville sense. Furthermore, exact explicit rogue wave (RW) solution is presented by use of a Darboux transformation. In addition to the double-peak structure and an analog of the Peregrine soliton, the RW can exhibit graphically an intriguing twisted rogue-wave (TRW) pair that involve four well-defined zero-amplitude points.

  3. Water-Reflected 233U Uranyl Nitrate Solutions in Simple Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of critical experiments involving 233 U were performed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 9213 Critical Experiments Facility during the years 1952 and 1953. These experiments, reported in Reference 1, were directed toward determining bounding values for the minimum critical mass, minimum critical volume, and maximum safe pipe size of water-moderated solutions of 233 U. Additional information on the critical experiments was found in the experimental logbooks. Two experiments utilizing uranyl nitrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ) solutions in simple geometry are evaluated in this report. Experiment 37 is in a 10.4-inch diameter sphere, and Experiment 39 is in a 10-inch diameter cylinder. The 233 U concentration ranges from 49 to 62 g 233 U/l. Both experiments were reflected by at least 6 inches of water in all directions. Paraffin-reflected uranyl nitrate experiments, also reported in Reference 1, are evaluated elsewhere. Experiments with smaller paraffin reflected 5-, 6-, and 7.5-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-004. Experiments with paraffin reflected 8-, 8.5-, 9-, 10-, and 12-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-002. Later experiments with highly-enriched 235 U uranyl fluoride solution in the same 10.4-inch diameter sphere are reported in HEU-SOL-THERM-010. Both experiments were judged acceptable for use as criticality-safety benchmark experiments

  4. Unified solution of the Boltzmann equation for electron and ion velocity distribution functions and transport coefficients in weakly ionized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Dmitry A.; Cocks, Daniel G.; White, Ronald D.

    2017-10-01

    The velocity distribution function and transport coefficients for charged particles in weakly ionized plasmas are calculated via a multi-term solution of Boltzmann's equation and benchmarked using a Monte-Carlo simulation. A unified framework for the solution of the original full Boltzmann's equation is presented which is valid for ions and electrons, avoiding any recourse to approximate forms of the collision operator in various limiting mass ratio cases. This direct method using Lebedev quadratures over the velocity and scattering angles avoids the need to represent the ion mass dependence in the collision operator through an expansion in terms of the charged particle to neutral mass ratio. For the two-temperature Burnett function method considered in this study, this amounts to avoiding the need for the complex Talmi-transformation methods and associated mass-ratio expansions. More generally, we highlight the deficiencies in the two-temperature Burnett function method for heavy ions at high electric fields to calculate the ion velocity distribution function, even though the transport coefficients have converged. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  5. Protein-polysaccharide interactions: The determination of the osmotic second virial coefficients in aqueous solutions of ß-lactoglobulin and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Smit, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Solutions containing dextran and solutions containing mixtures of dextran +ß-lactoglobulin are studied by membrane osmometry. The low concentration range of these solutions is considered. From the measured osmotic pressures the virial coefficients are obtained. These are analyzed using the osmotic

  6. DETERMINING PARAMETERS OF THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION OF A SUBSTANCE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SELF-REFERENCED REFLECTION THZ SPECTROSCOPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining dielectric function of liquid solutions and thereby concentrations of substances in aqueous solution or the volatile/non-volatile nature of the liquid by self-referenced reflection THz spectroscopy. Having the aqueous solution in any container with a window al....... The invention is particularly useful for determining alcohol (ethanol) content in aqueous solution containing other substances and particles....

  7. Comparision of Incidental Reflection From Containerized Maintenance/Housekeeping Solutions and One Inch of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacQuigg, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids which will be analyzed as water that may be present under normal conditions of an operation. The reactivity worth is compared to the reactivity worth due to I-inch of close-fitting 4n water reflection and I-inch of close-fitting radial water reflection. Both have been used to bound incidental reflection by 2-liter bottles in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that, when the maintenance/housekeeping fluids are containerized the reactivity increase from a configuration which is bounding of normal conditions (up to eight bottles modeled with 2-liters of solution at varying diameter) is bound by I-inch of close fitting 4n water relection.

  8. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • γ 13 ∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  9. Periodic, complexiton solutions and stability for a (2+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the Bose-Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui-Min; Tian, Bo; Zhao, Xin-Chao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a (2 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the Bose-Einstein condensation. Periodic and complexiton solutions are obtained. Solitons solutions are also gotten through the periodic solutions. Numerical solutions via the split step method are stable. Effects of the weak and strong modulation instability on the solitons are shown: the weak modulation instability permits an observable soliton, and the strong one overwhelms its development.

  10. Osmotic and activity coefficients of aqueous NaTcO4 and NaReO4 solutions at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Isopiestic vapor-pressure comparison experiments were performed with aqueous binary sodium perchlorate, pertechnetate, and perrhenate solutions to concentrations of approximately 8.5 m. Osmotic coefficients for these solutions and mean molal ionic activity coefficients for NaTcO 4 and NaReO 4 were derived from the isotonic molalities. Pitzer's treatment was applied to describe the concentration dependence of the osmotic coefficients of NaClO 4 , NaTcO 4 , and NaReO 4 , and the implications of the parameters derived from a least-squares fit are discussed in terms of solvent structure and interionic forces. 4 tables, 1 figure

  11. Apparent molar volumes, isobaric expansion coefficients, and isentropic compressibilities, and their H/D isotope effects for some aqueous carbohydrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.J.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The molar volumes, isobaric expansion coefficients, and isentropic compressibilities of solutions of a number of carbohydrates and their deuterated isomers were determined in H 2 O and D 2 O between 288.15 and 328.15 K and over a wide range of solute-to-solvent mole ratios. The results are discussed in terms of the specific hydration model. (author)

  12. A variable-coefficient unstable nonlinear Schroedinger model for the electron beam plasmas and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in nonuniform plasmas: Solutions and observable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yitian; Tian Bo

    2003-01-01

    A variable-coefficient unstable nonlinear Schroedinger model is hereby investigated, which arises in such applications as the electron-beam plasma waves and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in nonuniform plasmas. With computerized symbolic computation, families of exact analytic dark- and bright-soliton-like solutions are found, of which some previously published solutions turn out to be the special cases. Similarity solutions also come out, which are expressible in terms of the elliptic functions and the second Painleve transcendent. Some observable effects caused by the variable coefficient are predicted, which may be detected in the future with the relevant space or laboratory plasma experiments with nonuniform background existing

  13. Effect of the reference solution in the measurement of ion activity coefficients using cells with transference at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladosa, Estela; Arce, Alberto; Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Vera, Juan H.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports individual activity coefficients of ions at T = 298.15 K in aqueous solutions obtained from voltage values of the respective half-cell ion-selective-electrode and a single-junction Ag-AgCl reference electrode, filled with different reference solutions at different concentrations. For potassium and chloride ions in KCl aqueous solutions, reference solutions of KCl, NaCl, or CsCl were used. For sodium and chloride ions in aqueous NaCl solutions, reference solutions of CsCl were used. Experimental runs were performed at molalities (1, 2, and 3) m of the reference solution. The concentration of the sample solution was increased, starting from around 1 . 10 -3 m, up to the molality of the reference solution. The values of activity coefficients are calculated using the Henderson equation to estimate the liquid-junction potential. Results show that the ionic activity coefficients are independent of the nature and concentration of reference solution.

  14. Characterization of swollen structure of high-density polyelectrolyte brushes in salt solution by neutron reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Takahara, Atsushi [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Terayama, Yuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Hino, Masahiro [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Ishihara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Zwitterionic and cationic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (METAC), respectively. The effects of ionic strength on brush structure and surface properties of densely grafted polyelectrolyte brushes were analysed by neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements. NR at poly(METAC)/D{sub 2}O and poly(MPC)/D{sub 2}O interface revealed that the grafted polymer chains were fairly extended from the substrate surface, while the thickness reduction of poly(METAC) brush was observed in 5.6 M NaCl/D{sub 2}O solution due to the screening of the repulsive interaction between polycations by hydrated salt ions. Interestingly, no structural change was observed in poly(MPC) brush even in a salt solution probably due to the unique interaction properties of phosphorylcholine units.

  15. Polynomial Chaos Expansion of Random Coefficients and the Solution of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Tensor Train Format

    KAUST Repository

    Dolgov, Sergey

    2015-11-03

    We apply the tensor train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some quantities of interest (mean, variance, and exceedance probabilities). We assume that the random diffusion coefficient is given as a smooth transformation of a Gaussian random field. In this case, the PCE is delivered by a complicated formula, which lacks an analytic TT representation. To construct its TT approximation numerically, we develop the new block TT cross algorithm, a method that computes the whole TT decomposition from a few evaluations of the PCE formula. The new method is conceptually similar to the adaptive cross approximation in the TT format but is more efficient when several tensors must be stored in the same TT representation, which is the case for the PCE. In addition, we demonstrate how to assemble the stochastic Galerkin matrix and to compute the solution of the elliptic equation and its postprocessing, staying in the TT format. We compare our technique with the traditional sparse polynomial chaos and the Monte Carlo approaches. In the tensor product polynomial chaos, the polynomial degree is bounded for each random variable independently. This provides higher accuracy than the sparse polynomial set or the Monte Carlo method, but the cardinality of the tensor product set grows exponentially with the number of random variables. However, when the PCE coefficients are implicitly approximated in the TT format, the computations with the full tensor product polynomial set become possible. In the numerical experiments, we confirm that the new methodology is competitive in a wide range of parameters, especially where high accuracy and high polynomial degrees are required.

  16. Multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation from plasma physics, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics and optical communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Xing; Zhu Hongwu; Yao Zhenzhi; Meng Xianghua; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Chunyi; Tian Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant are presented for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which appears in space and laboratory plasmas, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics, optical communications and so on. By means of the particularly nice properties of Wronskian determinant, the solutions are testified through direct substitution into the bilinear equations. Furthermore, it can be proved that the bilinear Baecklund transformation transforms between (N - 1)- and N-soliton solutions

  17. Estimation of abraham solvation equation coefficients for hydrogen bond formation from abraham solvation parameters for solute activity and basicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abraham solvation equations find widespread use in environmental chemistry and pharmaco-chemistry. The coefficients in these equations, which are solvent (system) descriptors, are usually determined by fitting experimental data. To simplify the determination of these coefficients in Abraham

  18. Spectral dependence of backscattering coefficient of mixed phase clouds over West Africa measured with two-wavelength Raman polarization lidar: Features attributed to ice-crystals corner reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskii, I.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Tanre, D.; Ansmann, A.; Korenskiy, M.; Borovoi, A.; Hu, Q.; Whiteman, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    The existing models predict that corner reflection (CR) of laser radiation by simple ice crystals of perfect shape, such as hexagonal columns or plates, can provide a significant contribution to the ice cloud backscattering. However in real clouds the CR effect may be suppressed due to crystal deformation and surface roughness. In contrast to the extinction coefficient, which is spectrally independent, consideration of diffraction associated with CR results in a spectral dependence of the backscattering coefficient. Thus measuring the spectral dependence of the cloud backscattering coefficient, the contribution of CR can be identified. The paper presents the results of profiling of backscattering coefficient (β) and particle depolarization ratio (δ) of ice and mixed-phase clouds over West Africa by means of a two-wavelength polarization Mie-Raman lidar operated at 355 nm and 532 nm during the SHADOW field campaign. The lidar observations were performed at a slant angle of 43 degree off zenith, thus CR from both randomly oriented crystals and oriented plates could be analyzed. For the most of the observations the cloud backscatter color ratio β355/β532 was close to 1.0, and no spectral features that might indicate the presence of CR of randomly oriented crystals were revealed. Still, in two measurement sessions we observed an increase of backscatter color ratio to a value of nearly 1.3 simultaneously with a decrease of the spectral depolarization ratio δ355/δ532 ratio from 1.0 to 0.8 inside the layers containing precipitating ice crystals. We attribute these changes in optical properties to corner reflections by horizontally oriented ice plates.

  19. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Bessho, Takeshi [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kang, Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method.

  20. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan; Bessho, Takeshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method

  1. Osmotic virial coefficients for model protein and colloidal solutions: Importance of ensemble constraints in the analysis of light scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Roberts, Christopher J.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2012-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions in solution may be quantified by the osmotic second virial coefficient (OSVC), which can be measured by various experimental techniques including light scattering. Analysis of Rayleigh light scattering measurements from such experiments requires identification of a scattering volume and the thermodynamic constraints imposed on that volume, i.e., the statistical mechanical ensemble in which light scattering occurs. Depending on the set of constraints imposed on the scattering volume, one can obtain either an apparent OSVC, A2,app, or the true thermodynamic OSVC, {B_{22}^{osm}}, that is rigorously defined in solution theory [M. A. Blanco, E. Sahin, Y. Li, and C. J. Roberts, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 225103 (2011), 10.1063/1.3596726]. However, it is unclear to what extent A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} differ, which may have implications on the physical interpretation of OSVC measurements from light scattering experiments. In this paper, we use the multicomponent hard-sphere model and a well-known equation of state to directly compare A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}}. Our results from the hard-sphere equation of state indicate that A2,app underestimates {B_{22}^{osm}}, but in a systematic manner that may be explained using fundamental thermodynamic expressions for the two OSVCs. The difference between A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} may be quantitatively significant, but may also be obscured in experimental application by statistical uncertainty or non-steric interactions. Consequently, the two OSVCs that arise in the analysis of light scattering measurements do formally differ, but in a manner that may not be detectable in actual application.

  2. Analytical solution for the normal emission portion of the averaged Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzvieskii-Paddack coefficient for a single facet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzvieskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been well studied for asteroids. This paper develops an analytic solution to find the normal emission YORP component for a single facet. The solution presented here does not account for self-shadowing or self-heating. The YORP coefficient for all facets can be summed together to find the total coefficient of the asteroid. The normal emission component of YORP has been shown to be the most important for asteroids and it directly affects the rate of change of the asteroid's spin period. The analytical solution found is a sole function of the facet's geometry and the obliquity of the asteroid. This solution is universal for any facet and its orientation. The behaviour of the coefficient is analysed with this analytical solution. The closed-form solution is used to find the total YORP coefficient for the asteroids Apollo and 1998 ML14 whose shape models are composed of different numbers of facets. The results are then compared to published results and those obtained through numerical quadrature for validation.

  3. Hydrothermally synthesized PZT film grown in highly concentrated KOH solution with large electromechanical coupling coefficient for resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Lee, Kuan-Yi

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a study of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films hydrothermally grown on a dome-shaped titanium diaphragm. Few articles in the literature address the implementation of hydrothermal PZT films on curved-diaphragm substrates for resonators. In this study, a 50-μm-thick titanium sheet is embossed using balls of designed dimensions to shape a dome-shaped cavity array. Through single-process hydrothermal synthesis, PZT films are grown on both sides of the processed titanium diaphragm with good adhesion and uniformity. The hydrothermal synthesis process involves a high concentration of potassium hydroxide solution and excess amounts of lead acetate and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate. Varied deposition times and temperatures of PZT films are investigated. The grown films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The 10-μm-thick PZT dome-shaped resonators with 60- and 20-μm-thick supporting layers are implemented and further tested. Results for both resonators indicate that large electromechanical coupling coefficients and a series resonance of 95 MHz from 14 MHz can be attained. The device is connected to a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for analysis of oscillator applications. The oscillator reaches a Q value of 6300 in air. The resonator exhibits a better sensing stability when loaded with water when compared with air.

  4. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Traceable mean activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients in aqueous magnesium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K up to a molality of 3.0 mol · kg−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, Jaakko I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This work reports new equations for thermodynamic activity quantities in aqueous MgCl 2 solutions. • The new equations are functionally the same as those obtained previously solutions of CaCl 2 and uni-univalent electrolytes. • The new activity and osmotic coefficients are fully traceable and transparent. • These new values were tested thoroughly with existing literature data. -- Abstract: The Hückel equation used in this study for the thermodynamic activity quantities in dilute MgCl 2 solutions up to an ionic strength (=I m ) of 1.5 mol · kg −1 contains two parameters being dependent on the electrolyte, i.e., those of B and b 1 . The former is linearly related to the ion-size parameter in the Debye–Hückel equation and the latter is the coefficient of the linear correction term with respect to the molality. For more concentrated solutions up to I m of 9.0 mol · kg −1 , an extended Hückel equation was used. For it, the Hückel equation was extended with a quadratic term in molality, and the coefficient of this term is the third parameter b 2 . Parameters B and b 1 for dilute MgCl 2 solutions were obtained from the isopiestic data of Robinson and Stokes for solutions of this salt and KCl [Trans. Faraday Soc. 36 (1940) 733] by using the previous Hückel parameters for dilute KCl solutions [J. Chem. Eng. Data 54 (2009) 208]. The resulting parameters for MgCl 2 solutions were successfully tested with all isopiestic data available in the literature for dilute solutions of this salt. For less dilute solutions, new values for parameters b 1 and b 2 were determined for the extended version of the Hückel equation of MgCl 2 solutions from the isopiestic data of Rard and Miller [J. Chem. Eng. Data 26 (1981) 38] for NaCl and MgCl 2 solutions but the dilute-solution value for parameter B was used. The previous extended Hückel equation for concentrated NaCl solutions was used in this estimation (see the KCl citation above). In the tests of the

  6. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775. The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003. The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006 and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006. There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026 and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030. CONCLUSION: Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  7. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqun; Tong, Tong; Cai, Sanjun; Bi, Rui; Xin, Chao; Gu, Yajia

    2014-01-01

    We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775). The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003). The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006) and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006). There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026) and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030). Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  8. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  9. An analytical solution for stationary distribution of photon density in traveling-wave and reflective SOAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totović, A R; Crnjanski, J V; Krstić, M M; Gvozdić, D M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze two semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structures, traveling-wave and reflective, with the active region made of the bulk material. The model is based on the stationary traveling-wave equations for forward and backward propagating photon densities of the signal and the amplified spontaneous emission, along with the stationary carrier rate equation. We start by introducing linear approximation of the carrier density spatial distribution, which enables us to find solutions for the photon densities in a closed analytical form. An analytical approach ensures a low computational resource occupation and an easy analysis of the parameters influencing the SOA’s response. The comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows high agreement for a wide range of the input optical powers and bias currents. (paper)

  10. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  11. New solitary solutions and non-elastic interactions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Tao; Shan Wenrui; Lue Xing; Cai Kejie; Zhang Cheng; Tian Bo

    2009-01-01

    Fusion and fission phenomena for solitary waves have been discovered theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, the (2 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system is symbolically investigated. By employing the bilinear method, new solitary solutions with arbitrary functions are obtained. At the same time, the non-elastic interactions of solitary solutions are graphically studied. Furthermore, soliton fusion and fission phenomena are revealed by choosing appropriate functions.

  12. Subcritical multiplication measurements with a BeO reflected 233U uranyl nitrate solution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Srinivasan, M.; Nargundkar, V.R.; Chandramoleshwar, K.; Pasupathy, C.S.; Das, S.; Mayankutty, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of subcritical multiplication measurements were carried out in PURNIMA with 233 U uranyl nitrate solution contained in all 11 x 11 cm 2 square sectional tank and reflected by 30 cm thickness of BeO on all sides. The objective of these experiments was to determine the 'Minimum critical mass' of the system in rectangular parellelopiped geometry. The rectangular aluminium core tank was attached to the bottom of an alpha tight glove box. BeO reflector was arranged below the glove box outside the core tank. The system multiplication was measured as a function of solution concentration and core volume by means of neutron detectors placed outside the assembly. The extrapolated critical mass was obtained through conventional inverse counts plot. The maximum amount of 233 U used was 120 gms. The rectangular geometry was estimated to be 235 +- 10 gms, in the concentration range of 80 to 120 gms/litre of 233 U. The experimental set up, procedure adopted, method of analysis and the details of the results are described. (author)

  13. Diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in aqueous solutions of lactose at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Gomes, Joselaine C.S.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Lobo, Victor M.M.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Binary mutual diffusion coefficients (interdiffusion coefficients) of nickel chloride in water at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K, and at concentrations between (0.000 and 0.100) mol · dm -3 , using a Taylor dispersion method have been measured. These data are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss and Pikal models. The equivalent conductance at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at T = 310.15 K has been estimated using these results. Through the same technique, ternary mutual diffusion coefficients (D 11 , D 22 , D 12 , and D 21 ) for aqueous solutions containing NiCl 2 and lactose, at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K, and at different carrier concentrations were also measured. These data permit us to have a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of NiCl 2 in different media.

  14. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and influence of interfacial adsorption using gas–liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lin-Kun; Wang, Li-Sheng; Du, Chao-Jun; Wang, Xue-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in [HMIM][TFA] were determined. • The contribution of interfacial adsorption to the retention mechanism was estimated. • The partial molar excess enthalpies and the solubility parameters of [HMIM][TFA] were calculated. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for a series of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate ([HMIM][TFA]) have been determined by gas–liquid chromatography at the temperature range from (303.15 to 363.15) K. The contribution of interfacial adsorption to the retention mechanism was estimated by changing the loading of ionic liquid in stationary phase. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution and the solubility parameters of ionic liquid were also calculated from the experimental values of activity coefficients at infinite dilution

  15. revue bibliographique des représentations analytiques de coefficients d'activité ioniques moyens dans les solutions binaires électrolytiques Bibliographic Review of Analytic Equations of Mean Lonic Activity Coefficients in Electrolytic Binary Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz J. -L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le calcul de certaines propriétés à l'équilibre, de systèmes électrolytiques, nécessite la connaissance des coefficients d'activité en phase liquide des constituants de ces systèmes. L'estimation du coefficient d'activité ionique moyen de l'électrolyte permet, pour des systèmes binaires, de calculer ces coefficients d'activité. Dans cette revue bibliographique sont présentées les principales expressions analytiques, de coefficients d'activité ioniques moyens, fournies par la littérature. II est possible de classer ces expressions en plusieurs grandes catégories en fonction des modèles dont elles dérivent. Des critères de choix, de l'une ou l'autre de ces équations, sont proposés suivant le type de système électrolytique et le domaine de concentration étudiés. Liquid-phase activity coefficients must be known in order to calculate various equilibrium properties of electrolytic systems. For binary systems, these coefficients can be calculated by estimating the mean ionic activity coefficient of the electrolyte. This bibliographic review describes the principal analytic equations for mean ionic activity coefficients found in the literature. These equations can be classified in several major categories according to the theoretical model from which they are derived. Some criteria are proposed for choosing one or another of these equations on the basis of the type of electrolytic system and the concentration range studied.

  16. Determination of the osmotic second virial coefficient and the demerization of beta-lactoglobulin in aqueous solutions with added salt at the isoelectric point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Smit, J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of β-lactoglobulin (at the isoelectric point pH=5.18) have been studied by membrane osmometry. The osmotic second virial coefficient as well as the monomer–dimer equilibrium of β-lactoglobulin have been found to depend significantly on the salt concentration. At low salt

  17. Determination of distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides (U, Ra, Pb, Po) between different types of Syrian soils and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po) between different types of soils in Syria and their solutions were determined. The distribution coefficients values ranged from (164-1933, 280-1722, 350-4749 and 101-117) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 4.0. While, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (207-6706, 673-2397, 149-2147 and 103- 292) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 5.5. In addition, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (167-1707, 126- 1239, 44-1122 and 125-1475) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 7.0. Moreover, the results showed that 210 Po distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 7. While 210 Pb distribution coefficients had the minimum values at same pH. In addition to, U distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 5.5. On the other hand, the effect of soil mineral content, CEC, ECE, pH and soluble ions on the distribution coefficients were investigated. In general, the results showed that there are logarithmic relationships between studied radionuclide activity in the soil and their distribution coefficients in all soil types (R 2 ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 at pH 4.0). On the other hand, there were no relationships between the distribution coefficients and soil pH. (authors)

  18. On the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for reflection coefficients in HTI media: implications for the determination of fracture density and orientation from seismic AVAZ data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Aamir; Jakobsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for PP reflection coefficients in HTI media (relative to an exact generalization of Zoeppritz to anisotropy derived by Schoenberg and Protazio) within the context of seismic fracture characterization. We consider the inverse problem of seismic amplitude-versus-angle and azimuth (AVAZ) inversion with respect to fracture density and azimuthal fracture orientation, as well as the forward problem of calculating PP reflection coefficients for different contrasts and anisotropy levels. The T-matrix approach was used to relate the contrast and anisotropy level to the parameters of the fractures (in the case of a single set of vertical fractures). We have found that Rüger's approximation can be used to recover the true fracture density with small uncertainty if, and only if, the fracture density and contrast are significantly smaller than the values that are believed to occur in many practically interesting cases of fractured (carbonate) reservoirs. In one example involving a minimal contrast and a fracture density in the range 0.05–0.1, Rüger's approximation performed satisfactorily for inversion, although the forward modelling results were not very accurate at high incident angles. But for fracture densities larger than 0.1 (which we believe may well occur in real cases), Rüger's approximation did not perform satisfactorily for forward or inverse modelling. However, it appears that Rüger's approximation can always be used to obtain estimates of the azimuthal fracture orientation with small uncertainty, even when the contrast and anisotropy levels are extremely large. In order to illustrate the significance of our findings within the context of seismic fracture characterization, we analysed a set of synthetic seismic AVAZ data associated with a fault facies model where the fracture density decreases exponentially with distance from the fault core, and a set of real seismic AVAZ data involving offset

  19. Derivation of Coefficients for the Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function from AVHRR-data over Europe, under Consideration of the Helmholtz Reciprocity Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, H.; Koslowsky, D.

    In the AVHRR data of the polar orbiting NOAA Satellites, directional reflectance under a certain view from satellite and a certain illumination by the sun is measured. Due to the nearly sunsynchroneous orbit of the NOAA satellite, each area is seen under different viewing angles in successive days. Only after approximately 9 days, the conditions are again similar. Areas, seen in specular direction, may appear only half as bright, as if seen in antispecular direction. This deviation from a Lambertian reflector is a function of the surface roughness and the degree of coverage with vegetation. The NOAA afternoon satellites drift by half an hour from year to year. Thus even data from the same season, but different years, are seen under different illumination conditions. To derive the bidirectional reflection distribution function in dependence on satellite viewing angle and solar illumination becomes a very complicated procedure. Using the Helmholtz reciprocity principle (HRP), i.e. the symetrie in viewing and illumination, reduces the problem by one dimension. For different bidimensional reflection laws it will be tested, whether they can be formulated to fullfill the HRP. Via regression, the parameters will be deduced for time series of AVHRR data of 10 years from NOAA 11,14,16 and 17. Brdfunctions, suggested by Rao as well as a law, suggested by Ba seem to become unstable for low sun resp. large viewing zenit angles. Only brdfs with 4 coefficients can fit the observed distributions. A nonlinear temporal angular model (NTAM), suggested by Latifovic,Cihlar and Chen, seems to be suitable to describe even the hot spot and the dependence on plant growth. The coefficients of these brdf-function will be derived via regression for monthly series of cloud free data for the European area, where AVHRR data in full resolution are received in Berlin. Using these coefficients, monthly maps of surface roughness are produced for the above area for the time since 1985. Ba, M

  20. Spectrophotometric Determination of the CuSO4 Soret Coefficient of a CuSO4-H2O Binary Solutions System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijang Rohman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric technique for the determination of the CuSO4 soret coefficient of a CuSO4-water binary solutions system is described. A short column of solutions is placed between horizontal metal plates that are held at different temperatures. The subsequent changes in composition due to thermal diffusion are followed by monitoring changes of transmittance near the end of the solutions column. In water, CuSO4 diffuses to the warm compartment of column. The soret coefficient of CuSO4 0.0254 molal in water agrees with the appropriate theory, i.e. 17.60x10-3 °C-1 on the average.

  1. Painleve Analysis and Determinant Solutions of a (3+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation in Wronskian and Grammian Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianghua; Tian Bo; Yao Zhenzhi; Feng Qian; Gao Yitian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the investigation is focused on a (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (vcKP) equation, which can describe the realistic nonlinear phenomena in the fluid dynamics and plasma in three spatial dimensions. In order to study the integrability property of such an equation, the Painleve analysis is performed on it. And then, based on the truncated Painleve expansion, the bilinear form of the (3+1)-dimensional vcKP equation is obtained under certain coefficients constraint, and its solution in the Wronskian determinant form is constructed and verified by virtue of the Wronskian technique. Besides the Wronskian determinant solution, it is shown that the (3+1)-dimensional vcKP equation also possesses a solution in the form of the Grammian determinant. (general)

  2. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-10-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires the joint estimation of spatial location and Doppler shift, which is a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, the computational complexity of ML estimation is prohibitively high. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, a reduced complexity optimum performance algorithm is proposed, which allow two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location and Doppler shift. To asses the performances of the proposed estimators, the Cramér-Rao-lower-bound (CRLB) is derived. Simulation results show that the mean square estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the CRLB. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Improved Discrete Ordinate Solutions in the Presence of an Anisotropically Reflecting Lower Boundary: Upgrades of the DISORT Computational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Stamnes, S.; Jin, Z.; Laszlo, I.; Tsay, S. C.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Stamnes, K.

    2015-01-01

    A successor version 3 of DISORT (DISORT3) is presented with important upgrades that improve the accuracy, efficiency, and stability of the algorithm. Compared with version 2 (DISORT2 released in 2000) these upgrades include (a) a redesigned BRDF computation that improves both speed and accuracy, (b) a revised treatment of the single scattering correction, and (c) additional efficiency and stability upgrades for beam sources. In DISORT3 the BRDF computation is improved in the following three ways: (i) the Fourier decomposition is prepared "off-line", thus avoiding the repeated internal computations done in DISORT2; (ii) a large enough number of terms in the Fourier expansion of the BRDF is employed to guarantee accurate values of the expansion coefficients (default is 200 instead of 50 in DISORT2); (iii) in the post processing step the reflection of the direct attenuated beam from the lower boundary is included resulting in a more accurate single scattering correction. These improvements in the treatment of the BRDF have led to improved accuracy and a several-fold increase in speed. In addition, the stability of beam sources has been improved by removing a singularity occurring when the cosine of the incident beam angle is too close to the reciprocal of any of the eigenvalues. The efficiency for beam sources has been further improved from reducing by a factor of 2 (compared to DISORT2) the dimension of the linear system of equations that must be solved to obtain the particular solutions, and by replacing the LINPAK routines used in DISORT2 by LAPACK 3.5 in DISORT3. These beam source stability and efficiency upgrades bring enhanced stability and an additional 5-7% improvement in speed. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate and quantify the improvements in accuracy and efficiency of DISORT3 compared to DISORT2.

  4. Development of Solution-Processable, Optically Transparent Polyimides with Ultra-Low Linear Coefficients of Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Hasegawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of new high-temperature polymeric materials applicable to plastic substrates in image display devices with a focus on our previous results. Novel solution-processable colorless polyimides (PIs with ultra-low linear coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE are proposed in this paper. First, the principles of the coloration of PI films are briefly discussed, including the influence of the processing conditions on the film coloration, as well as the chemical and physical factors dominating the low CTE characteristics of the resultant PI films to clarify the challenges in simultaneously achieving excellent optical transparency, a very high Tg, a very low CTE, and excellent film toughness. A possible approach of achieving these target properties is to use semi-cycloaliphatic PI systems consisting of linear chain structures. However, semi-cycloaliphatic PIs obtained using cycloaliphatic diamines suffer various problems during precursor polymerization, cyclodehydration (imidization, and film preparation. In particular, when using trans-1,4-cyclohexanediamine (t-CHDA as the cycloaliphatic diamine, a serious problem emerges: salt formation in the initial stages of the precursor polymerization, which terminates the polymerization in some cases or significantly extends the reaction period. The system derived from 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (s-BPDA and t-CHDA can be polymerized by a controlled heating method and leads to a PI film with relatively good properties, i.e., excellent light transmittance at 400 nm (T400 = ~80%, a high Tg (>300 °C, and a very low CTE (10 ppm·K−1. However, this PI film is somewhat brittle (the maximum elongation at break, εb max is about 10%. On the other hand, the combination of cycloaliphatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides and aromatic diamines does not result in salt formation. The steric structures of cycloaliphatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides significantly influence

  5. Self-similar solutions for implosion and reflection of coalesced shocks in a plasma : spherical and cylindrical geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavda, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions to the self-similar equations of gas dynamics for a plasma, treated as an ideal gas with specific heat ratio γ=5/3 are obtained for the implosion and subsequent reflection of various types of shock sequences in spherical and cylindrical geometries. This is based on the lowest-order polynomial approximation in the reduced fluid velocity, for a suitable nonlinear function of the sound velocity and the fluid velocity. However, the method developed here is powerful enough to be extended analytically to higher order polynomial approximations, to obtain successive approximations to the exact self-similar solutions. Also obtained, for the first time, are exact asymptotic solutions, in analytic form, for the reflected shocks. Criteria are given that may enable one to make a choice between the two geometries for maximising compression or temperature of the gas. These solutions should be useful in the study of inertial confinement of a plasma. (author)

  6. Osmotic coefficients of aqueous solutions of four ionic liquids at T = (313.15 and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Begona; Calvar, Noelia; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of osmotic coefficients of BmimCl (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride), HmimCl (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride), MmimMeSO 4 (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate), and BmimMeSO 4 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate) with water at T = (313.15 and 333.15) K are reported in this work. Vapour pressure and activity data of all the studied binary systems are obtained from experimental data. The osmotic coefficients data are correlated using the extended Pitzer model of Archer and the modified NRTL (MNRTL) model and standard deviations obtained with both models are given too. The parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model of Archer are used to calculate the mean molal activity coefficients

  7. Solute activity coefficients in dilute aqueous electrolyte mixutes. III. The ternary system HCLO4 + UO2(CLO4)2 + H2O at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Isopiestic vapor pressure comparison measurements were conducted with the three-component system HClO 4 + UO 2 (ClO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O in the concentration range between I = 0.05 and 1.9 m. Analysis of the mixture composition and concentration dependence of the osmotic coefficients with the Scatchard neutral-electrolyte and ion-component methods and with the Pitzer ion-component methods gave equally satisfactory results. Prediction of the observed osmotic coefficients by two-component approximations was satisfactory, and the data agreed well with values estimated with a model based on the osmolal fraction. A fair concordance was also found between predicted solute activity coefficients from simple models and values derived from complete treatments which included interaction terms

  8. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and enthalpies of solution of methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol in 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Andreas; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Lehmann, Jochen K.; Vasiltsova, Tatiana V.; Ondo, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ i ∼ of methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide ([HMIM][NTf 2 ]) have been determined by gas chromatography using the ionic liquids as stationary phase. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between 298K and 396K. From the temperature dependence of the limiting activity coefficients partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution H i E,∼ of the alcohol in the ionic liquid have been derived. Additionally, enthalpies of solution of the same alcohols in the [HMIM][NTf 2 ] have been measured at T=298.15K in the range of low concentrations using titration calorimetry. Results at infinite dilution, H i E,∼ , are compared with those indirectly obtained from activity coefficients in infinite dilution γ i ∼ . Within the experimental error of both methods thermodynamic consistency has been confirmed

  9. Influence of magnetic and ultrasonic fields on coefficient of reflectivity of GaAs, GaSb and InAs crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveryukhin, B.N.; Zaveryukhina, N.N.; Zaveryukhina, E.V.; Volodarskiy, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Previously we demonstrated for the first time in the world that ultrasonic waves of the megahertz range can change the transport properties and a structure of semiconductors. In this work we have experimentally studied the influence of ultrasonic treatment on the spectral coefficients of reflection R in the magnetic fields of the samples of GaAs-, GaSb- and InAs-crystals. The reflectance spectra in the magnetic field of the samples before and after the ultrasonic treatment (UST) for a certain time were measured in a broad wavelength range including ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions. The semi-insulating GaAs-crystals had a thickness d=100 μm and a working area S of up to 3sm 2 . The p-GaSb- crystals had an area of S=0.25sm 2 and d =250 μm. The base p-GaSb-layers possessed the concentration N=2·10 17 sm 3 and n-GaSb-layers with a thickness of 0.5 m were created by diffusion doping with phosphorus. Besides, the experiments were performed also for of the n-InAs-crystals. The samples of the InAs-n crystals had a thickness of 100 μm an area S = 0.25 sm 2 . Some remains of sulfuric (S) were discovered in InAs-samples. As could was see from the experiments, all the initial IR spectra measured for the samples with various dopant concentrations NP exhibit maximums (peaks) for 0.2 μm and minimum (holes) for. The reflectance spectra measured after UST for time of t > l hour clearly reveal a shift of the R minima toward longer wavelengths and a general decrease in the reflectance of each sample. The shift of the R is unambiguous evidence of the acoustically stimulated diffusion of impurity (phosphorus) inward of the samples. Discovered peaks and holes slitted and changed their sizes in the magnetic fields. It should be emphasized that behavior of the R spectra of the GaAs-, In As- and GaSb- samples is determined by the same mechanisms. Changes of the R spectra after the UST are explained by acoustically stimulated diffusion of the dopant inward

  10. A nonequilibrium simulation method for calculating tracer diffusion coefficients of small solutes in n-alkane liquids and polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Briels, Willem J.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    1998-01-01

    The tracer diffusion coefficients of methane in n-alkane liquids of increasing chain length were calculated by measuring the friction from short time nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The frictional constant was calculated from the exponentially decaying distance between two methane

  11. The determination of the first normal stress coefficient of an exopolysaccharide solution by rheo-optical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarzycki, R.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Venema, P.; Babuchowski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper illustrates how rheo-optical techniques may be utilized to determine the first normal stress coefficient for an exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by the Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LY03, which is widely used in yoghurt production. In this technique both shear stress,

  12. Self-Similar Solutions of Variable-Coefficient Cubic-Quintic Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation with an External Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongyu; Fei Jinxi; Zheng Chunlong

    2010-01-01

    An improved homogeneous balance principle and an F-expansion technique are used to construct exact self-similar solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Such solutions exist under certain conditions, and impose constraints on the functions describing dispersion, nonlinearity, and the external potential. Some simple self-similar waves are presented. (general)

  13. Analytical Solution of Heat Conduction for Hollow Cylinders with Time-Dependent Boundary Condition and Time-Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Wen Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution for the heat transfer in hollow cylinders with time-dependent boundary condition and time-dependent heat transfer coefficient at different surfaces is developed for the first time. The methodology is an extension of the shifting function method. By dividing the Biot function into a constant plus a function and introducing two specially chosen shifting functions, the system is transformed into a partial differential equation with homogenous boundary conditions only. The transformed system is thus solved by series expansion theorem. Limiting cases of the solution are studied and numerical results are compared with those in the literature. The convergence rate of the present solution is fast and the analytical solution is simple and accurate. Also, the influence of physical parameters on the temperature distribution of a hollow cylinder along the radial direction is investigated.

  14. Lie group analysis, numerical and non-traveling wave solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional diffusion—advection equation with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Gupta, R. K.; Jiwari, Ram

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the variable-coefficient diffusion—advection (DA) equation, which arises in modeling various physical phenomena, is studied by the Lie symmetry approach. The similarity reductions are derived by determining the complete sets of point symmetries of this equation, and then exact and numerical solutions are reported for the reduced second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Further, an extended (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to the DA equation to construct some new non-traveling wave solutions

  15. Coefficients of interphase distribution and Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdan, K. V.; Gamov, G. A.; Dushina, S. V.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2012-11-01

    Coefficients of the interphase distribution of nicotinic acid are determined in aqueous solution systems of ethanol-hexane and DMSO-hexane at 25.0 ± 0.1°C. They are used to calculate the Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide. The Gibbs energy values for the transfer of the molecular and zwitterionic forms of nicotinic acid are obtained by means of UV spectroscopy. The diametrically opposite effect of the composition of binary solvents on the transfer of the molecular and zwitterionic forms of nicotinic acid is noted.

  16. Limiting partition coefficients of solutes in biphasic trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride ionic liquid-supercritical CO2 system: measurement and LSER-based correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 26 (2007), s. 7620-7625 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400310504; GA ČR GA203/05/2106; GA ČR GA203/07/0886 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : phosphonium ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solute partition coefficient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2007

  17. Contribution to the measurement of the reflection coefficient for curved crystals between 50 and 80 keV; Contribution a la mesure du coefficient de reflexion de cristaux courbes entre 50 keV et 80 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    In the first part, we summarize the main approximate theories dealing with the diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by the crystalline medium, allowing the determination of the characteristic properties of flat and bent crystals used in X and gamma-Ray spectroscopy ('Laue Case'). We describe the experimental setting and we explain our method to measure {gamma}: reflectivity of elastically or plastically bent-crystals from narrow wave-length intervals in the continuous X-Ray spectrum. We discuss our experimental results obtained with different crystals (quartz (3140), Al (200), FLi (200) and compare them with theoretical ones. Finally, we refer to a use of the bent-crystal spectrometer (Cauchois arrangement) in dosimetry. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous resumons les principales approximations theoriques qui traitent la diffraction du rayonnement electromagnetique par le milieu cristallin et permettent de determiner les grandeurs caracteristiques des lames cristallines planes ou courbees utilisees 'par transmission' en spectroscopie X ou gamma. Apres avoir decrit le montage experimental, nous exposons la methode de mesure de {gamma}: coefficient de reflexion de cristaux courbes (elastiquement ou plastiquement). Le domaine energetique etudie est voisin de 100 keV. Dans cette methode, nous n'utilisons pas des rayonnements monoenergetiques provenant de transitions atomiques ou nucleaires mais des bandes etroites d'energie appartenant au spectre continu du rayonnement emis par un tube a rayons X. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus avec differents cristaux (quartz (3140), Al (200), FLi (200)) sont discutes et compares a ceux prevus par la theorie. Nous mentionnons, enfin, une application en dosimetrie du spectrographe a cristal couche (Geometrie Cauchois). (auteur)

  18. Apparent molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of caffeine in aqueous thorium nitrate solutions at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Biswajit, E-mail: biswachem@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India); Roy, Pran Kumar; Sarkar, Bipul Kumar; Brahman, Dhiraj [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India); Roy, Mahendra Nath, E-mail: mahendraroy2002@yahoo.co.i [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Apparent molar volumes phi{sub V} and viscosity B-coefficients for caffeine in (0.00, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) mol . dm{sup -3} aqueous thorium nitrate, Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, solutions were determined from solution density and viscosity measurements over the temperature range (298.15 to 318.15) K as function of concentration of caffeine and the relation: phi{sub V}{sup 0}=a{sub 0}+a{sub 1}T+a{sub 2}T{sup 2}, have been used to describe the temperature dependence of the standard partial molar volumes phi{sub V}{sup 0}. These results have been used to deduce the standard volumes of transfer DELTAphi{sub V}{sup 0} and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer DELTAB for caffeine from water to aqueous Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solutions for rationalizing various interactions in the ternary solutions. The structure-making or breaking ability of caffeine has been discussed in terms of the sign of (delta{sup 2}phi{sub V}{sup 0}/deltaT{sup 2}){sub P}. The Friedman-Krishnan co-sphere model was used to explain the transfer volume of caffeine with increasing Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} molarity. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the ternary solutions were also discussed in terms of transition state theory.

  19. Apparent molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of caffeine in aqueous thorium nitrate solutions at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Biswajit; Roy, Pran Kumar; Sarkar, Bipul Kumar; Brahman, Dhiraj; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2010-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes φ V and viscosity B-coefficients for caffeine in (0.00, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) mol . dm -3 aqueous thorium nitrate, Th(NO 3 ) 4 , solutions were determined from solution density and viscosity measurements over the temperature range (298.15 to 318.15) K as function of concentration of caffeine and the relation: φ V 0 =a 0 +a 1 T+a 2 T 2 , have been used to describe the temperature dependence of the standard partial molar volumes φ V 0 . These results have been used to deduce the standard volumes of transfer Δφ V 0 and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer ΔB for caffeine from water to aqueous Th(NO 3 ) 4 solutions for rationalizing various interactions in the ternary solutions. The structure-making or breaking ability of caffeine has been discussed in terms of the sign of (δ 2 φ V 0 /δT 2 ) P . The Friedman-Krishnan co-sphere model was used to explain the transfer volume of caffeine with increasing Th(NO 3 ) 4 molarity. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the ternary solutions were also discussed in terms of transition state theory.

  20. Mutual diffusion coefficients of L-glutamic acid and monosodium L-glutamate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Rodrigo, M.M.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Romero, Carmen; Valente, Artur J.M.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Interdiffusion coefficients of L-glutamic acid and sodium L-glutamate were measured. • The L-glutamic acid behaves as a monoprotic weak acid. • The sodium L-glutamate shows a symmetrical 1:1 non-associated behaviour. • Limiting diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities were estimated. • Diffusion coefficients were discussed on the basis of the Onsager–Fuoss equations. - Abstract: Mutual diffusion coefficient values for binary aqueous solutions of both L-glutamic acid (H 2 Glu) and sodium L-glutamate (NaHGlu) were measured with the Taylor dispersion technique, at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.001 to 0.100) mol · dm −3 . The results were discussed on the basis of the Onsager–Fuoss and the Nernst theoretical equations, by considering the H 2 Glu as a weak acid (monoprotic acid, with K 2 = 5.62 · 10 −5 ). The smaller values found for the acid with respect to those of the salt, confirm this association hypothesis. From the diffusion coefficient values at infinitesimal concentration, limiting ionic conductivities as well as the hydrodynamic radius of the hydrogen glutamate ion (HGlu − ) were derived and analyzed in terms of the chain methylene groups. The effect of different phenomena, such as association or complexation, were also taken into consideration and discussed. Values for the dissociation degree for H 2 Glu were also estimated

  1. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Hu, Hanlin; Kim, Taesoo; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Mansour, Ahmed; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Faria, Jorge C.D.; Munir, Rahim; Anjum, Dalaver H.; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top

  2. Solution of Differential Equations with Polynomial Coefficients with the Aid of an Analytic Continuation of Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Morita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a series of papers, we discussed the solution of Laplace’s differential equation (DE by using fractional calculus, operational calculus in the framework of distribution theory, and Laplace transform. The solutions of Kummer’s DE, which are expressed by the confluent hypergeometric functions, are obtained with the aid of the analytic continuation (AC of Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative (fD and the distribution theory in the space D′R or the AC of Laplace transform. We now obtain the solutions of the hypergeometric DE, which are expressed by the hypergeometric functions, with the aid of the AC of Riemann–Liouville fD, and the distribution theory in the space D′r,R, which is introduced in this paper, or by the term-by-term inverse Laplace transform of AC of Laplace transform of the solution expressed by a series.

  3. He's variational iteration method applied to the solution of the prey and predator problem with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufoglu, Elcin; Erbas, Baris

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, a mathematical model of the problem of prey and predator is presented and He's variational iteration method is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method and homotopy perturbation method. Comparison of the methods show that He's variational iteration method is a powerful method for obtaining approximate solutions to nonlinear equations and their systems

  4. Theoretical and Numerical Approaches for Determining the Reflection and Transmission Coefficients of OPEFB-PCL Composites at X-Band Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ahmad F; Abbas, Zulkifly; Obaiys, Suzan J; Ibrahim, Norazowa; Hashim, Mansor; Khaleel, Haider

    2015-01-01

    Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL) with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB) and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL) provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC), connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA), is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.

  5. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and physicochemical properties for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • γ ∞ and K L for 65 solutes in the IL [C 2 OHmim][FAP] were determined by IGC. • Partial molar thermodynamics functions ΔG 1 E,∞ , ΔH 1 E,∞ and ΔS 1 E,∞ were calculated. • Selectivities and capacities for alkanes/thiophene separation problems were calculated. • LFER system constants as a function of T for [C 2 OHmim][FAP] were calculated. • Results were compared to other ILs based on the same cation and anion. -- Abstract: This work presents new data of activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ ∞ of different organic solutes and water in the 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, [C 2 OHmim][FAP] ionic liquid. Values of γ ∞ were determined for 65 organic solutes, including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, esters, 1-nitropropane, aldehydes, acetonitrile and water by inverse gas chromatography within the temperature range from (318.15 to 368.15) K. The basic thermodynamic functions, such as partial molar excess Gibbs energies, ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpies, ΔH 1 E,∞ and entropies, ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. Additionally the gas–liquid partition coefficients, K L were determined. Experimental values of gas–liquid partition coefficients were used to determine the coefficients in the Abraham solvation parameter model (LFER). Results are compared to previously investigated ionic liquids with the same [C 2 OHmim] + cation and [FAP] − anion. The selectivity and capacity at infinite dilution for alkanes/thiophene extraction problems were calculated from experimental γ ∞ values to verify the possibility of investigated ionic liquid as an entrainer in liquid–liquid extraction

  6. Improved discrete ordinate solutions in the presence of an anisotropically reflecting lower boundary: Upgrades of the DISORT computational tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Stamnes, S.; Jin, Z.; Laszlo, I.; Tsay, S.-C.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Stamnes, K.

    2015-01-01

    A successor version 3 of DISORT (DISORT3) is presented with important upgrades that improve the accuracy, efficiency, and stability of the algorithm. Compared with version 2 (DISORT2 released in 2000) these upgrades include (a) a redesigned BRDF computation that improves both speed and accuracy, (b) a revised treatment of the single scattering correction, and (c) additional efficiency and stability upgrades for beam sources. In DISORT3 the BRDF computation is improved in the following three ways: (i) the Fourier decomposition is prepared “off-line”, thus avoiding the repeated internal computations done in DISORT2; (ii) a large enough number of terms in the Fourier expansion of the BRDF is employed to guarantee accurate values of the expansion coefficients (default is 200 instead of 50 in DISORT2); (iii) in the post-processing step the reflection of the direct attenuated beam from the lower boundary is included resulting in a more accurate single scattering correction. These improvements in the treatment of the BRDF have led to improved accuracy and a several-fold increase in speed. In addition, the stability of beam sources has been improved by removing a singularity occurring when the cosine of the incident beam angle is too close to the reciprocal of any of the eigenvalues. The efficiency for beam sources has been further improved from reducing by a factor of 2 (compared to DISORT2) the dimension of the linear system of equations that must be solved to obtain the particular solutions, and by replacing the LINPAK routines used in DISORT2 by LAPACK 3.5 in DISORT3. These beam source stability and efficiency upgrades bring enhanced stability and an additional 5–7% improvement in speed. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate and quantify the improvements in accuracy and efficiency of DISORT3 compared to DISORT2. - Highlights: • We present a successor version 3 of DISORT (DISORT3) with important upgrades. • Redesigned BRDF computation improves both

  7. Upper and lower solutions for BVPs on the half-line with variable coefficient and derivative depending nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Djebali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem with a derivative depending nonlinearity and posed on the positive half-line. The derivative operator is time dependent. Upon a priori estimates and under a Nagumo growth condition, the Schauder's fixed point theorem combined with the method of upper and lower solutions on unbounded domains are used to prove existence of solutions. A uniqueness theorem is also obtained and some examples of application illustrate the obtained results.

  8. The number of zero solutions for complex canonical differential equation of second order with constant coefficients in the first quadrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of complex differential equations in recent years has opened up some of questions concerning the determination of the frequency of zero solutions, the distribution of zero, oscillation of the solution, asymptotic behavior, rank growth and so on. Besides, this is solved by only some classes of differential equations. In this paper, our aim was to determine the number of zeros and their arrangement in the first quadrant, for the complex canonical differential equation of the second order. The accuracy of our results, we illustrate with two examples.

  9. Solutions of Heat-Like and Wave-Like Equations with Variable Coefficients by Means of the Homotopy Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomari, A. K.; Noorani, M. S. M.; Nazar, R.

    2008-01-01

    We employ the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to obtain approximate analytical solutions to the heat-like and wave-like equations. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ, which provides a convenient way of controlling the convergence region of series solutions. The analysis is accompanied by several linear and nonlinear heat-like and wave-like equations with initial boundary value problems. The results obtained prove that HAM is very effective and simple with less error than the Adomian decomposition method and the variational iteration method

  10. Diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in aqueous solutions of lactose at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Gomes, Joselaine C.S., E-mail: leidygomes18@hotmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Barros, Marisa C.F., E-mail: marisa.barros@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871, Alcala de Henares (Madrid) (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Binary mutual diffusion coefficients (interdiffusion coefficients) of nickel chloride in water at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K, and at concentrations between (0.000 and 0.100) mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3}, using a Taylor dispersion method have been measured. These data are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss and Pikal models. The equivalent conductance at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at T = 310.15 K has been estimated using these results. Through the same technique, ternary mutual diffusion coefficients (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) for aqueous solutions containing NiCl{sub 2} and lactose, at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K, and at different carrier concentrations were also measured. These data permit us to have a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of NiCl{sub 2} in different media.

  11. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  12. Trace elemental analysis of leaching solutions of hijiki seaweeds by a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF) was used to analyze leaching solutions of hijiki seaweeds. S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As and Br were detected in the solutions. Arsenic quantification results were compared to those from ICP-AES. The TXRF quantification results of arsenic were not significantly different from those of ICP-AES, as two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was applied to the significance test. This kind of small and high sensitive TXRF spectrometer can be used in food quality and environmental pollution investigation. (author)

  13. Thermodynamics and activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylmorpholinium tricyanomethanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domańska, Urszula; Lukoshko, Elena Vadimovna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using GLC. • Sixty one organic solvents in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylmorpholinium tricyanomethanide. • High selectivity for heptane/thiophene, or pyridine, or 1-nitropropane. • The excess thermodynamic functions and the gas–liquid partition coefficients were presented. • Possible entrainer for the extraction of sulphur and nitrogen-compounds from alkanes. -- Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ , for 61 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, water, thiophene, ethers, ketones, esters, aldehyde, acetonitrile, pyridine and 1-nitropropane in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-1-methylmorpholinium tricyanomethanide, [BMMOR][TCM] were determined by gas–liquid chromatography at six temperatures within the range of (318.15 to 368.15) K. The thermodynamic functions at infinite dilution as partial molar excess Gibbs free energy ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpy ΔH 1 E,∞ , and entropy term T ref ΔS 1 E,∞ were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The density of [BMMOR][TCM] was measured over the temperature range (288.15 to 368.15) K. The gas–liquid partition coefficient K L was calculated for all solutes. The values of selectivity and capacity for a few separation problems such as hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, heptane/thiophene at T = 328.15 K were calculated from γ 13 ∞ and compared to literature values for similar ionic liquids, viz. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and sulfolane. In comparison with the previously measured values for [BMPYR][TCM], the morpholinium IL presents high selectivity for the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons from aliphatic hydrocarbons, and especially thiophene, or piridine from heptane with a slightly lower capacity. New data show that [BMMOR][TCM] IL may be proposed as an alternative solvent for the separation of

  14. Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domańska, Urszula; Lukoshko, Elena Vadimovna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using GLC. • 62 organic solvents and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide. • High capacity for thiophene, 1.37 at T = 328.15 K. • Possible entrainer for extraction of sulfur, or nitrogen compounds from fuels. • The excess thermodynamic functions and the gas–liquid partition coefficients were calculated. -- Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ , for 62 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, water, thiophene, ethers, ketones, acetonitrile, pyridine and 1-nitropropane in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, [BMPYR][TCM] were determined by gas–liquid chromatography at six temperatures over the range of (318.15 to 368.15) K. The partial molar excess Gibbs free energy, ΔG 1 E ∞, enthalpy ΔH 1 E ∞, and entropy term T ref ΔS 1 E ,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The densities of [BMPYR][TCM] were measured within temperature range from 318.15 K to 368.15 K. The gas–liquid partition coefficients, K L were calculated for all solutes. The values of selectivity for few separation problems as hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, heptane/thiophene were calculated from γ 13 ∞ and compared to literature values for N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), sulfolane, and other ionic liquids based on [BMPYR] + cation. In comparison with the former measured ILs, [BMPYR][TCM] present quite high selectivity for the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatics hydrocarbons, an average capacity for benzene. The data presented here shows that [BMPYR][TCM] ionic liquid can be used as an alternative solvent for the separation of thiophene from the aliphatic hydrocarbons

  15. Partition coefficients of organics between water and carbon dioxide revisited: Correlation with solute molecular descriptors and solvent cohesive properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 23 (2016), s. 12857-12863 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : partitioning between water and supercritical CO2 * organic solutes * K-factor modeling * linear solvation energy relationship Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2016

  16. Theoretical and Numerical Approaches for Determining the Reflection and Transmission Coefficients of OPEFB-PCL Composites at X-Band Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F Ahmad

    Full Text Available Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC, connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA, is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.

  17. Histogram analysis derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is more sensitive to reflect serological parameters in myositis than conventional ADC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans Jonas; Emmer, Alexander; Kornhuber, Malte; Surov, Alexey

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with serological parameters in myositis. 16 patients with autoimmune myositis were included in this retrospective study. DWI was obtained on a 1.5 T scanner by using the b-values of 0 and 1000 s mm - 2 . Histogram analysis was performed as a whole muscle measurement by using a custom-made Matlab-based application. The following ADC histogram parameters were estimated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADCmin, ADCmedian, ADCmode, and the following percentiles ADCp10, ADCp25, ADCp75, ADCp90, as well histogram parameters kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. In all patients, the blood sample was acquired within 3 days to the MRI. The following serological parameters were estimated: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin. All patients were screened for Jo1-autobodies. Kurtosis correlated inversely with CRP (p = -0.55 and 0.03). Furthermore, ADCp10 and ADCp90 values tended to correlate with creatine kinase (p = -0.43, 0.11, and p = -0.42, = 0.12 respectively). In addition, ADCmean, p10, p25, median, mode, and entropy were different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients. ADC histogram parameters are sensitive for detection of muscle alterations in myositis patients. Advances in knowledge: This study identified that kurtosis derived from ADC maps is associated with CRP in myositis patients. Furthermore, several ADC histogram parameters are statistically different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients.

  18. Numerical solution of a coefficient inverse problem with multi-frequency experimental raw data by a globally convergent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh-Liem; Klibanov, Michael V.; Nguyen, Loc H.; Kolesov, Aleksandr E.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Liu, Hui

    2017-09-01

    We analyze in this paper the performance of a newly developed globally convergent numerical method for a coefficient inverse problem for the case of multi-frequency experimental backscatter data associated to a single incident wave. These data were collected using a microwave scattering facility at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The challenges for the inverse problem under the consideration are not only from its high nonlinearity and severe ill-posedness but also from the facts that the amount of the measured data is minimal and that these raw data are contaminated by a significant amount of noise, due to a non-ideal experimental setup. This setup is motivated by our target application in detecting and identifying explosives. We show in this paper how the raw data can be preprocessed and successfully inverted using our inversion method. More precisely, we are able to reconstruct the dielectric constants and the locations of the scattering objects with a good accuracy, without using any advanced a priori knowledge of their physical and geometrical properties.

  19. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and physicochemical properties for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: The and KL for 61 solutes in the ionic liquid [COC2mPIP][NTf2] were determined by IGC at different temperatures. ► The partial molar excess Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies at infinite dilution were calculated. ► The selectivities for selected compounds which form azeotropic mixtures were calculated and compared to other ILs. ► LFER system constants as a function of temperature for [COC2mPIP][NTf2] were calculated. - Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ ∞ and gas–liquid partition coefficients, K L for 61 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, esters, 1-nitropropane, butanal, acetonitrile, and water in the ionic liquid 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide were determined by inverse gas chromatography at the temperatures from (318.15 to 368.15) K. The partial molar excess Gibbs free energies ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpies ΔH 1 E,∞ and entropies ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for selected compounds, which form azeotropic mixtures, were calculated from the γ ∞ and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide anion.

  20. Molar mass, radius of gyration and second virial coefficient from new static light scattering equations for dilute solutions: application to 21 (macro)molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien, Bertrand; Ying, Ruifeng

    2009-05-11

    New static light scattering (SLS) equations for dilute binary solutions are derived. Contrarily to the usual SLS equations [Carr-Zimm (CZ)], the new equations have no need for the experimental absolute Rayleigh ratio of a reference liquid and solely rely on the ratio of scattered intensities of solutions and solvent. The new equations, which are based on polarizability equations, take into account the usual refractive index increment partial differential n/partial differential rho(2) complemented by the solvent specific polarizability and a term proportional to the slope of the solution density rho versus the solute mass concentration rho(2) (density increment). Then all the equations are applied to 21 (macro)molecules with a wide range of molar mass (0.2equations clearly achieve a better agreement with supplier M values. For macromolecules (M>500 kg mol(-1)), for which the scattered intensity is no longer independent of the scattering angle, the new equations give the same value of the radius of gyration as the CZ equation and consistent values of the second virial coefficient.

  1. Creative Solutions and Their Evaluation: Comparing the Effects of Explanation and Argumentation Tasks on Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiliou, Andria; Murphy, P. Karen

    2014-01-01

    Creative problem solving which results in novel and effective ideas or products is most advanced when learners can analyze, evaluate, and refine their ideas to improve creative solutions. The purpose of this investigation was to examine creative problem solving performance in undergraduate students and determine the tasks that support critical…

  2. Self-similar solutions for implosion and reflection of strong and weak shocks in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.N.; Chavda, L.K.

    1980-06-01

    We present an improved approximation scheme for finding approximate solutions in analytic form to the self-similar equations of gas dynamics. The method gives better agreement with exact results not only for the weak shocks which were considered previously but also for strong shocks for which the previous method gave poor results. We have considered various shock configurations in spherical and cylindrical geometries. (author)

  3. Insight into the electroreduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode, in neutral solution, after determination of their diffusion coefficient by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouina, Nizar; Cachet, Hubert [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques - UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Debiemme-chouvy, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.debiemme-chouvy@upmc.f [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques - UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Tran, Thi Tuyet Mai [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques - UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2010-10-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode in an unbuffered neutral aqueous solution is studied. Using a two compartment electrochemical cell, three stationary cathodic waves, noted P1, P2 and P3, were evidenced by cyclic voltammetry at -0.9, -1.2 and -1.3 V/SCE, respectively. By comparing the electrochemical response of nitrate and nitrite containing solutions, P1 was attributed to the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. In order to assign P2 and P3 features by determining the number of electrons involved at the corresponding potential, rotating disk electrode experiments at various rotation speeds, combined with linear sweep voltammetry, were performed. Current data analysis at a given potential was carried out using Koutecky-Levich treatment taking into account water reduction. Confident values of the diffusion coefficient D of nitrate ions were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for nitrate concentrations of 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -1} M. For a nitrate concentration of 10{sup -2} M, D was found to be 1.31 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} allowing the number of electrons to be determined as 6 for P2 and 8 for P3, in accordance with nitrate reduction into hydroxylamine and ammonia, respectively. The formation of hydroxylamine was confirmed by the observation of its reoxidation at a Pt microelectrode present at the Cu electrode/nitrate solution interface.

  4. Alkylarylnitrosoureas--stability in aqueous solution, partition coefficient, alkylating activity and its relationship to SCE induction in Chinese hamster V 79-E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1982-01-01

    The alkylating activity, chemical stability in aqueous solution (pH 7.0; 37 degrees C), and partition coefficient (octanol/water) of the following compounds were determined: 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (MPNU), 1-ethyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (EPNU), 1-isopropyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (i-PrPNU), 1-methyl-3-(p-fluorophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (F-MPNU), 1-methyl-3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Cl-MPNU), 1-methyl-3-(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU), 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (DMPNU), and 1-methyl-3-naphthyl-1-nitrosocarbamate (NCA). 1-Methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) and 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) were used for the comparison. THe rate of decomposition in aqueous solution is discussed concerning the influences of the substituents at the 1- and 3-N-atom. The mono- and disubstituted N-nitrosoureas showed a coarse correlation between alkylating activity and SCE induction in Chinese hamster V 79-E cells. On the other hand, this correlation is missing in the case of NCA, which is a potent SCE inducer despite relatively low alkylating activity. DMPNU is the strongest SCE inducer, but this compound shows a high stability in aqueous solution and, consequently, we were not able to detect an alkylating activity.

  5. Insight into the electroreduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode, in neutral solution, after determination of their diffusion coefficient by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouina, Nizar; Cachet, Hubert; Debiemme-chouvy, Catherine; Tran, Thi Tuyet Mai

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode in an unbuffered neutral aqueous solution is studied. Using a two compartment electrochemical cell, three stationary cathodic waves, noted P1, P2 and P3, were evidenced by cyclic voltammetry at -0.9, -1.2 and -1.3 V/SCE, respectively. By comparing the electrochemical response of nitrate and nitrite containing solutions, P1 was attributed to the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. In order to assign P2 and P3 features by determining the number of electrons involved at the corresponding potential, rotating disk electrode experiments at various rotation speeds, combined with linear sweep voltammetry, were performed. Current data analysis at a given potential was carried out using Koutecky-Levich treatment taking into account water reduction. Confident values of the diffusion coefficient D of nitrate ions were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for nitrate concentrations of 10 -3 , 10 -2 and 10 -1 M. For a nitrate concentration of 10 -2 M, D was found to be 1.31 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 allowing the number of electrons to be determined as 6 for P2 and 8 for P3, in accordance with nitrate reduction into hydroxylamine and ammonia, respectively. The formation of hydroxylamine was confirmed by the observation of its reoxidation at a Pt microelectrode present at the Cu electrode/nitrate solution interface.

  6. Calculating the permeability coefficients of mixed matrix membranes of polydimethylsiloxane and silicalite crystals to various ethanol-water solutions using molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The permeability coefficients of mixed matrix membranes of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and silicalite crystal are taken as the sum of the permeability coefficients of membrane components each weighted by their associated mass fraction. The permeability coefficient of a membrane c...

  7. Exact solution for the reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by a travelling evanescent laser wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    The exact solution to the problem of reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by a travelling evanescent wave is found starting with a bare-state formulation. The solution for the wavefunctions, the tunnelling losses and the non-adiabatic losses are given exactly in terms of hyper-Bessel functions, and are valid for all detuning and Rabi frequencies, thus generalizing previous approximate methods. Furthermore we give the limiting cases of all amplitudes in the uniform semiclassical limit, which is valid in all regions including near the classical turning points, and in the large and weak coupling cases. Exact results for the zero detuning case are obtained in terms of Bessel functions. We find our uniform semiclassical limit to be closer to the exact result over the full range of parameter values than the previously reported calculations. The current knowledge of hyper-Bessel function properties is reviewed in order to apply this to the physical problems imposed

  8. Benchmark calculation for water reflected STACY cores containing low enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Takemi

    2001-01-01

    In order to validate the availability of criticality calculation codes and related nuclear data library, a series of fundamental benchmark experiments on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution have been performed with a Static Experiment Criticality Facility, STACY in JAERI. The basic core composed of a single tank with water reflector was used for accumulating the systematic data with well-known experimental uncertainties. This paper presents the outline of the core configurations of STACY, the standard calculation model, and calculation results with a Monte Carlo code and JENDL 3.2 nuclear data library. (author)

  9. Anomalous Quasiparticle Reflection from the Surface of a ^{3}He-^{4}He Dilute Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroki; Kim, Kitak; Sato, Daisuke; Kono, Kimitoshi; Choi, Hyoungsoon; Monarkha, Yuriy P

    2017-11-10

    A free surface of a dilute ^{3}He-^{4}He liquid mixture is a unique system where two Fermi liquids with distinct dimensions coexist: a three-dimensional (3D) ^{3}He Fermi liquid in the bulk and a two-dimensional (2D) ^{3}He Fermi liquid at the surface. To investigate a novel effect generated by the interaction between the two Fermi liquids, the mobility of a Wigner crystal of electrons formed on the free surface of the mixture is studied. An anomalous enhancement of the mobility, compared with the case where the 3D and 2D systems do not interact with each other, is observed. The enhancement is explained by the nontrivial reflection of 3D quasiparticles from the surface covered with the 2D ^{3}He system.

  10. Impact of Industrialization on Environment and Sustainable Solutions - Reflections from a South Indian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rasmi

    2018-03-01

    Industrialization has brought economic prosperity; additionally it has resulted in more population, urbanization, obvious stress on the basic life supporting systems while pushing the environmental impacts closer to the threshold limits of tolerance. With booming industrial growth and relatively low land mass, environmental sustainability is now becoming a significant deciding factor in industrial development process. Accumulating evidences constantly indicate that the transition of the existing industries into eco-industrial network through successful implementation of green approaches provides a viable solution to preserve the natural resources of the region while concurrently enhances the regional economy on a sustainable basis. It calls for an appropriate planning and integrated framework in harmony with the environment, after careful assessment of past and prevailing conditions. The empirical knowledge on affected area helps understanding the local context and developing further course of action based on ground realities. With this aim, a study was conducted on the current industrial pollution and environmental setting of Puducherry. A causal chain analysis indicated severe impacts of industrialization on local environment while highlighting its immediate and root causes. The findings form a base for suggesting sustainable solutions to curb rampant pollution in Puducherry region and similar scenarios found across the world.

  11. Fitness function and nonunique solutions in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting: crosserror between surface roughness and mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Sormunen, J; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    Nonunique solutions of the x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting problem were studied by modelling layer structures with neural networks and designing a fitness function to handle the nonidealities of measurements. Modelled atomic-layer-deposited aluminium oxide film structures were used in the simulations to calculate XRR curves based on Parratt's formalism. This approach reduced the dimensionality of the parameter space and allowed the use of fitness landscapes in the study of nonunique solutions. Fitness landscapes, where the height in a map represents the fitness value as a function of the process parameters, revealed tracks where the local fitness optima lie. The tracks were projected on the physical parameter space thus allowing the construction of the crosserror equation between weakly determined parameters, i.e. between the mass density and the surface roughness of a layer. The equation gives the minimum error for the other parameters which is a consequence of the nonuniqueness of the solution if noise is present. Furthermore, the existence of a possible unique solution in a certain parameter range was found to be dependent on the layer thickness and the signal-to-noise ratio

  12. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Torje V.; Olsen, Dag R.; Skretting, Arne

    1997-01-01

    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm 2 h -1 , at the cost of significantly lower R 1 sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the R 1 sensitivity. (author) OK

  13. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for solutes in the trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid using gas-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwala, Nobuhle V.; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Tumba, Kaniki; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2010-01-01

    The activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) for 30 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkynes, ketones, alcohols, and aromatic compounds was determined from gas-liquid chromatography (glc) measurements at three temperatures (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K. The ionic liquid: trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, was used as the stationary phase. For each temperature, γ 13 ∞ values were determined using two columns with different mass percent packing of the ionic liquid. The selectivity (S 12 ∞ ) value was calculated from the γ 13 ∞ to determine the suitability of the solvent as a potential entrainer for extractive distillation in the separation of an hexane/benzene mixture, indicative of a typical industrial separation problem for benchmarking purposes.

  14. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula [Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.pl; Marciniak, Andrzej [Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} for 36 solutes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [bmPY][NTf{sub 2}] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values {delta}H{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} were calculated from the experimental {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from the {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane.

  15. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ for 36 solutes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [bmPY][NTf 2 ] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from the γ 13 ∞ and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane.

  16. Soliton-like solutions of a generalized variable-coefficient higher order nonlinear Schroedinger equation from inhomogeneous optical fibers with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juan; Zhang Haiqiang; Xu Tao; Zhang, Ya-Xing; Tian Bo

    2007-01-01

    For the long-distance communication and manufacturing problems in optical fibers, the propagation of subpicosecond or femtosecond optical pulses can be governed by the variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation with higher order effects, such as the third-order dispersion, self-steepening and self-frequency shift. In this paper, we firstly determine the general conditions for this equation to be integrable by employing the Painleve analysis. Based on the obtained 3 x 3 Lax pair, we construct the Darboux transformation for such a model under the corresponding constraints, and then derive the nth-iterated potential transformation formula by the iterative process of Darboux transformation. Through the one- and two-soliton-like solutions, we graphically discuss the features of femtosecond solitons in inhomogeneous optical fibers

  17. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2 , and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825 0 C to 1300 0 C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250 0 C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures, with data for pure borax available from the literature. (orig.)

  18. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and physicochemical properties for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniak, Andrzej, E-mail: a.marciniak@ch.pw.edu.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > The {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} and KL for 46 solutes in the ionic liquid [N-C3OHPY][NTf2] were determined by GLC at different temperatures. > The partial molar excess Gibbs energies {Delta}G{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}}, enthalpies {Delta}H{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} and entropies {Delta}S{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} at infinite dilution were calculated. > The selectivities for aliphatics/aromatics hydrocarbons separation problem were calculated and compared to other ILs, NMP and sulfolane. > The selectivities for selected compounds which form azeotropic mixtures were calculated. - Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} and gas-liquid partition coefficients, K{sub L} for 46 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, acetic acid, and water in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at the temperatures from (308.15 to 378.15) K. The partial molar excess Gibbs free energies {Delta}G{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}}, enthalpies {Delta}H{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} and entropies {Delta}S{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbons separation problem were calculated from the {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide anion, NMP and sulfolane. It was found that the investigated ionic liquid shows much higher selectivity at infinite dilution than the general used organic solvents such as NMP, sulfolane and other ionic liquids. Additionally the selectivities for selected compounds which form azeotropic mixtures were calculated.

  19. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and physicochemical properties for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The γ 13 ∞ and KL for 46 solutes in the ionic liquid [N-C3OHPY][NTf2] were determined by GLC at different temperatures. → The partial molar excess Gibbs energies ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpies ΔH 1 E,∞ and entropies ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated. → The selectivities for aliphatics/aromatics hydrocarbons separation problem were calculated and compared to other ILs, NMP and sulfolane. → The selectivities for selected compounds which form azeotropic mixtures were calculated. - Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ and gas-liquid partition coefficients, K L for 46 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, acetic acid, and water in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at the temperatures from (308.15 to 378.15) K. The partial molar excess Gibbs free energies ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpies ΔH 1 E,∞ and entropies ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbons separation problem were calculated from the γ 13 ∞ and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide anion, NMP and sulfolane. It was found that the investigated ionic liquid shows much higher selectivity at infinite dilution than the general used organic solvents such as NMP, sulfolane and other ionic liquids. Additionally the selectivities for selected compounds which form azeotropic mixtures were calculated.

  20. Osmotic and activity coefficients in the binary solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in methanol or ethanol at T = 298.15 K from isopiestic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Azamat, Jafar; Atabay, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The osmotic coefficients of the solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in ethanol and methanol have been measured. → Measured osmotic coefficients were correlated using NRTL and Pitzer models. → Vapor pressures were evaluated from the correlated osmotic coefficients. → Model parameters have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. - Abstract: Osmotic coefficients of the binary solutions of two room-temperature ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide) in methanol and ethanol have been measured at T = 298.15 K by the isopiestic method. The experimental osmotic coefficient data have been correlated using a forth-order polynomial in terms of (molality) 0.5 , with both, ion interaction model of Pitzer and electrolyte non-random two liquid (e-NRTL) model of Chen. The values of vapor pressures of above-mentioned solutions have been calculated from the osmotic coefficients. The model parameters fitted to the experimental osmotic coefficients have been used for prediction of the mean ionic activity coefficients of those ionic liquids in methanol and ethanol.

  1. Why gender matters in the solution towards safe sanitation? Reflections from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tina; Das, Madhumita

    2016-12-01

    While the topic of women and water, sanitation and hygiene is a widely accepted concern among academics and activists, it continues to be an issue in developing countries with serious consequences. Based on a qualitative research conducted in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, the paper affirms that sanitation issues for women and girls are compounded by inequitable gender norms that put them at greater risk of experiencing violence and multiple health vulnerabilities. Women, despite having a high demand for safe toilet facilities, continue to practise unsafe sanitation. The findings highlight the role of three structural constraints as the key factors influencing toilet construction and use: poverty, inadequate sanitation policy and its implementation and gender-based power dynamics at the household level. The paper concludes by emphasising the relevance of engendering sanitation programmes and policies by involving women and girls in the planning process to ensure that dignified and gender-sensitive sanitation solutions are developed. The paper also stresses the need to have measures for strengthening and effectively implementing a sanitation policy for the poor and for programmes to work with both men and women to address gender power relations which influence toilet adoption and use.

  2. REFLECTIONS ON POVERTY SOLUTIONS OFFERED BY INTRODUCING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP TO ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA PRELIPCEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The new economy which characterizes today’s world is invaded by countless theories and concepts which try to explain the way societies fail to assure a general well-being for citizens and wish to offer support for the development of a flourishing and safe future. Between these concepts, some new and some old, are the social entrepreneurship and the ecosystem services. Both of these have started to become very important for researchers and policy makers in the last decade. Also, both have the objective of creating a more human economy and assuring the human well-being. Even though the subjects of these theories are very different, we have managed to show in this paper that a correlation between the two is possible and more than that their combination can have positive outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a concept describing a new way of using business know-how gained from the private sector in order to find solutions to social, cultural and environmental problems. Ecosystem services are the benefits which people obtain from ecosystems. A relation between the two concepts can be represented by the fact that ecosystem services might be the subject of social entrepreneurship. Another one would be the input which social entrepreneurship might bring to ecosystem services, in what concerns abilities and techniques in dealing with different problems. In conclusion, we tried to show that these double way relations would have an important role in what concerns the fight against poverty.

  3. Potential of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) to predict the dermal penetration behaviour of amphiphilic compounds in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Gintautas; Wellner, Tanja; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Drexler, Hans

    2012-11-23

    Aqueous amphiphilic compounds may exhibit enhanced skin penetration compared with neat compounds. Conventional models do not predict this percutaneous penetration behaviour. We investigated the potential of the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) to predict dermal fluxes for eight compounds applied neat and as 50% aqueous solutions in diffusion cell experiments using human skin. Data for seven other compounds were accessed from literature. In total, seven glycol ethers, three alcohols, two glycols, and three other chemicals were considered. Of these 15 compounds, 10 penetrated faster through the skin as aqueous solutions than as neat compounds. The other five compounds exhibited larger fluxes as neat applications. For 13 of the 15 compounds, a consistent relationship was identified between the percutaneous penetration behaviour and the logP. Compared with the neat applications, positive logP were associated with larger fluxes for eight of the diluted compounds, and negative logP were associated with smaller fluxes for five of the diluted compounds. Our study demonstrates that decreases or enhancements in dermal penetration upon aqueous dilution can be predicted for many compounds from the sign of logP (i.e., positive or negative). This approach may be suitable as a first approximation in risk assessments of dermal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon footprint of a reflective foil and comparison with other solutions for thermal insulation in building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proietti, Stefania; Desideri, Umberto; Sdringola, Paolo; Zepparelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environmental and energy assessment of thermal insulating materials in building envelope. ► Carbon footprint of a reflective foil, conceived and produced by an Italian company. ► Study conducted according to principles of LCA – Life Cycle Assessment. ► Identification of main impacting processes and measures for reducing emissions. ► Comparison with traditional insulating materials (EPS and rockwool). - Abstract: The present study aims at assessing environmental and energy compatibility of different solutions of thermal insulation in building envelope. In fact a good insulation results in a reduction of heating/cooling energy consumptions; on the other hand construction materials undergo production, transformation and transport processes, whose energy and resources consumptions may lead to a significant decrease of the environmental benefits. The paper presents a detailed carbon footprint of a product (CFP, defined as the sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of a product system, expressed in CO 2 equivalents), which is a reflective foil conceived and produced by an Italian company. CFP can be seen as a Life Cycle Assessment with climate change as the single impact category; it does not assess other potential social, economic and environmental impacts arising from the provision of products. The analysis considers all stages of the life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to the product’s disposal, i.e. “from cradle to grave”; it was carried out according to UNI EN ISO 14040 and 14044, and LCA modelling was performed using SimaPro software tool. On the basis of obtained results, different measures have been proposed in order to reduce emissions in the life cycle and neutralize residual carbon footprint. The results allowed to make an important comparison concerning the environmental performance of the reflective foil in comparison with other types of insulating materials

  5. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution and physicochemical properties for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-methylmorpholinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlazło, Michał; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The γ 13 ∞ and K L for 62 solutes in the IL [COC 2 mMOR][FAP] were determined by IGC. ► Partial molar excess thermodynamic functions at infinite dilution were calculated. ► The selectivities and capacities for selected separation problems were calculated. ► LFER system constants as a function of T for [COC 2 mMOR][FAP] were calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents new data on activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ ∞ for 62 different solutes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, and water in the ionic liquid 4-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-methylmorpholinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, [COC 2 mMOR][FAP]. The data were determined by inverse gas chromatography at six temperatures from T = 318.15 K to T = 368.15 K. These values were compared with ionic liquid based on the same cation and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide anion, [COC 2 mMOR][NTf 2 ]. Additionally the partial molar excess Gibbs free energies ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpies ΔH 1 E,∞ , and entropies ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ ∞ values obtained over the temperatures range. The selectivities and capacities at infinite dilution for hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, and heptane/thiophene extraction problems were calculated from the γ ∞ to verify the possibility of investigated ionic liquid as an entrainer in liquid–liquid extraction and desulphurization of fuels. Obtained values were compared with literature data of other ionic liquids based on trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide anions and industrial solvents: NMP and sulfolane. Also the Abraham solvation parameter model was used for evaluation of the solvation characteristic of the ionic liquid. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) system constants as a function of temperature were calculated.

  6. Characterizing the hydration state of L-threonine in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huachuan; Liu, Qiao; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren

    2018-01-01

    The hydration of biomolecules is closely related to the dynamic process of their functional expression, therefore, characterizing hydration phenomena is a subject of keen interest. However, direct measurements on the global hydration state of biomolecules couldn't have been acquired using traditional techniques such as thermodynamics, ultrasound, microwave spectroscopy or viscosity, etc. In order to realize global hydration characterization of amino acid such as L-threonine, terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (THz-TDS-ATR) was adopted in this paper. By measuring the complex permittivity of L-threonine solutions with various concentrations in the THz region, the hydration state and its concentration dependence were obtained, indicating that the number of hydrous water decreased with the increase of concentration. The hydration number was evaluated to be 17.8 when the molar concentration of L-threonine was 0.34 mol/L, and dropped to 13.2 when the molar concentration increased to 0.84 mol/L, when global hydration was taken into account. According to the proposed direct measurements, it is believed that the THz-TDS-ATR technique is a powerful tool for studying the picosecond molecular dynamics of amino acid solutions.

  7. Self-consistent-field method and τ-functional method on group manifold in soliton theory. II. Laurent coefficients of soliton solutions for sln and for sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; Providencia, Joao da; Komatsu, Takao

    2007-01-01

    To go beyond perturbative method in terms of variables of collective motion, using infinite-dimensional fermions, we have aimed to construct the self-consistent-field (SCF) theory, i.e., time dependent Hartree-Fock theory on associative affine Kac-Moody algebras along the soliton theory. In this paper, toward such an ultimate goal we will reconstruct a theoretical frame for a υ (external parameter)-dependent SCF method to describe more precisely the dynamics on the infinite-dimensional fermion Fock space. An infinite-dimensional fermion operator is introduced through Laurent expansion of finite-dimensional fermion operators with respect to degrees of freedom of the fermions related to a υ-dependent and a Υ-periodic potential. As an illustration, we derive explicit expressions for the Laurent coefficients of soliton solutions for sl n and for su n on infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The associative affine Kac-Moody algebras play a crucial role to determine the dynamics on the infinite-dimensional fermion Fock space

  8. Gas-liquid chromatography measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of various organic solutes and water in tri-iso-butylmethylphosphonium tosylate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Paduszynski, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) of 33 different solutes (including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, benzene, alkylbenzenes, water, alcohols, MTBE, thiophene and THF) in the ionic liquid tri-iso-butylmethylphosphonium tosylate have been determined by using the GLC method and have been reported over the temperature range (298.15 to 368.15) K. The partial molar excess enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution have been determined based on temperature dependence of γ 13 ∞ . Selectivity and capacity at infinite dilution has been also calculated for exemplary separation processes in systems n-hexane/benzene and n-hexane/thiophene, to evaluate if the studied ionic liquid is capable to be a good entrainer for these processes, e.g. in the liquid-liquid extraction. The obtained results are promising however the ionic liquid studied shows a lower selectivity than some of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. To our best knowledge, the results indicate that tri-iso-butylmethylphosphonium tosylate is the best for the separation problem of aliphatic hydrocarbons from aromatic hydrocarbons among all of the studied quaternary phosphonium-based ionic liquids.

  9. Soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of soil organic matter is a key factor for that of radioiodide in surface and subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yusuke; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takeda, Akira; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution of the soil-soil-solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of 125 I, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr in organic-rich surface soil and organic-poor subsurface soil of a pasture and an urban forest near a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. K d of 137 Cs was highly correlated with water-extractable K + . K d of 85 Sr was highly correlated with water-extractable Ca 2+ and SOC. K d of 125 I - was low in organic-rich surface soil, high slightly below the surface, and lowest in the deepest soil. This kinked distribution pattern differed from the gradual decrease of the other radionuclides. The thickness of the high- 125 I - K d middle layer (i.e., with high radioiodide retention ability) differed between sites. K d of 125 I - was significantly correlated with K d of soil organic carbon. Our results also showed that the layer thickness is controlled by the ratio of K d -OC between surface and subsurface soils. This finding suggests that the addition of SOC might prevent further radioiodide migration down the soil profile. As far as we know, this is the first report to show a strong correlation of a soil characteristic with K d of 125 I - . Further study is needed to clarify how radioiodide is retained and migrates in soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of Concentration of Microalgae Anabaena Cylindrica, Coal-bed Methane Water Isolates Nannochloropsis Gaditana and PW-95 in Aquatic Solutions through Hyperspectral Reflectance Measurement and Analytical Model Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhou, X.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Three species of microalgae, Anabaena cylindrica (UTEX # 1611), coal-bed methane water isolates Nannochloropsis gaditana and PW-95 were cultured for the measurements of their hyperspectral profiles in different concentrations. The hyperspectral data were measured by an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiomter with the spectral resolution of 1 nanometer over the wavelength ranges from 350nm to 1050 nm for samples of microalgae of different concentration. Concentration of microalgae was measured using a Hemocytometer under microscope. The objective of this study is to establish the relation between spectral reflectance and micro-algal concentration so that microalgae concentration can be measured remotely by space- or airborne hyperspectral or multispectral sensors. Two types of analytical models, linear reflectance-concentration model and Lamber-Beer reflectance-concentration model, were established for each species. For linear modeling, the wavelength with the maximum correlation coefficient between the reflectance and concentrations of algae was located and then selected for each species of algae. The results of the linear models for each species are shown in Fig.1(a), in which Refl_1, Refl_2, and Refl_3 represent the reflectance of Anabaena, N. Gaditana, and PW-95 respectively. C1, C2, and C3 represent the Concentrations of Anabaena, N. Gaditana, and PW-95 respectively. The Lamber-Beer models were based on the Lambert-Beer Law, which states that the intensity of light propagating in a substance dissolved in a fully transmitting solvent is directly proportional to the concentration of the substance and the path length of the light through the solution. Thus, for the Lamber-Beer modeling, a wavelength with large absorption in red band was selected for each species. The results of Lambert-Beer models for each species are shown in Fig.1(b). Based on the Lamber-Beer models, the absorption coefficient for the three different species will be quantified.

  11. Source Determination of Red Gel Pen Inks using Raman Spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy combined with Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Asri, Muhammad Naeim; Mat Desa, Wan Nur Syuhaila; Ismail, Dzulkiflee

    2018-01-01

    The potential combination of two nondestructive techniques, that is, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with Pearson's product moment correlation (PPMC) coefficient (r) and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the actual source of red gel pen ink used to write a simulated threatening note, was examined. Eighteen (18) red gel pens purchased from Japan and Malaysia from November to December 2014 where one of the pens was used to write a simulated threatening note were analyzed using RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The spectra of all the red gel pen inks including the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note gathered from the RS and ATR-FTIR analyses were subjected to PPMC coefficient (r) calculation and principal component analysis (PCA). The coefficients r = 0.9985 and r = 0.9912 for pairwise combination of RS and ATR-FTIR spectra respectively and similarities in terms of PC1 and PC2 scores of one of the inks to the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note substantiated the feasibility of combining RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with PPMC coefficient (r) and PCA for successful source determination of red gel pen inks. The development of pigment spectral library had allowed the ink deposited on the threatening note to be identified as XSL Poppy Red (CI Pigment Red 112). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Partition coefficients for Ni, Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid and the formation of compositionally zoned Ni-Cu sulfide bodies by fractional crystallization of sulfide liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, S.J.; Makovicky, E.; Makovicky, M.

    1996-01-01

    of the system. There is a positive correlation between the partition coefficients and sulfur content of the monosulfide solid solution and between the partition coefficients and the sulfur content of the liquid. In sulfur-saturated and sulfur-over-saturated experimental systems, the metals behave in a manner...... (Alexo, Abitibi Greenstone Belt) and a zoned tholeiite-related ore (Oktyabr'sky, Noril'sk region, Siberia). In both cases, the experimental partition coefficients numerically model the composition zones of the actual ores. This supports the model of fractional crystallization of a monosulfide solid...

  13. Use of code DTF-4 for determining the coefficient of back-reflection of the neutron within the thermonuclear plasma of a thermonuclear reactor controlled by the rate of the fission reactions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristea, G.

    1975-01-01

    The neutron problems are discussed of the thermonuclear reactor controlled by the rate of the fission reactions. The results obtained by rolling the DTF-4 program in a spherical geometry in the case of an ''external source'' problem permit to draw conclusions concerning the problems of the neutronics system of this thermonuclear reactor type. A relation is deduced for estimating the coefficient of back-reflection of the neutrons within the thermonuclear plasma and the focussion system is discussed of the neutronics of this reactor type

  14. Diffusion coefficients of N2O in aqueous piperazine solutions using the taylor dispersion technique from (293 to 333) K and (0.3 to 1.4) mol·dm-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamborg, E. S.; Derks, P. W. J.; Kersten, S. R. A.; Niederer, J. P. M.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of N2O in aqueous piperazine (PZ) solutions have been determined using the Taylor dispersion technique over a temperature range from (293 to 333) K and a concentration range from (0.3 to 1.4) mol·dm-3 PZ. The experimental results have been compared to literature values.

  15. Isopiestic determination of the activity coefficients of some aqueous rare earth electrolyte solutions at 250C. I. The rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spedding, F.H.; Weber, H.O.; Saeger, V.W.; Petheram, H.H.; Rard, J.A.; Habenschuss, A.

    1976-01-01

    The osmotic coefficients of the aqueous trichlorides of La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y were determined from 0.1 M to saturation at 25 0 C. Semiempirical least-squares equations were obtained for the osmotic coefficients as a function of molality and these equations were used to calculate water activities and mean molal activity coefficients. The water activities of the light rare earth chlorides at constant molalities are higher than for the heavy rare earths, while the mean molal activity coefficients are larger for the heavy rare earths than for the light ones. The above effects are discussed in terms of changes in the cationic radii and hydration of the rare earth ions

  16. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide using gas–liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumba, Kaniki; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measured in the ionic liquid [3C 6 C 14 P][BTI]. • 22 solutes investigated at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15, 373.15) K using glc. • Selectivities and capacities for selected separations compared to other IL’s and solvents. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes, which include n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, alcohols and ketones, in the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide were measured by gas–liquid chromatography using the latter as the stationary phase. This ionic liquid had previously been studied and reported in literature; however due to significant discrepancies in the reported infinite activity coefficient values, there was justification for further study and reporting. The temperature range investigated in this study is significantly wider and at higher temperatures than presented previously in the literature. From the experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient data at the four different temperatures T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15) K, partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution were calculated. Values of the selectivity for hexane/benzene and methanol/benzene separations were determined from experimental values of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution and these results were compared to literature values for other ionic liquids, as well as for industrial solvents. The capacities were also determined as it gives an indication of the solvent extraction behavior of the ionic liquid

  17. TN approximation to reflected slab and computation of the critical half thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anli, F.; Guengoer, S.; Yasa, F.; Oztuerk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The criticality solution to one-speed neutron transport equation using the T N approximation is described for reflected slab. In the solution, Marshak type boundary condition is used. The critical half thicknesses are computed for different values of c and reflection coefficients. Computations are made by using the both T N and P N approximation for the comparison

  18. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate using gas-liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Eugene; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2010-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution were determined for 24 solutes (n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, and alcohols) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate by gas-liquid chromatography at three different temperatures T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15) K. The partial molar excess enthalpy values at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental results over the same temperature range. Selectivities and capacities at infinite dilution for the hexane/benzene and methanol/benzene separation problems were calculated from experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient values. The activity coefficients, enthalpies, selectivities, and capacities are discussed and compared to literature values for other ionic liquids, as well as industrial molecular solvents.

  19. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in N-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([CnPY][NTf2], n = 2, 4, 5) using gas-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Peifang; Liu Qingshan; Yang Miao; Liu Xiumei; Tan Zhicheng; Welz-Biermann, Urs

    2010-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ i ∞ for both polar and non-polar solutes in the ionic liquids N-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C n PY][NTf 2 ], n = 2, 4, 5) have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography using the ionic liquid as the stationary phase. The measurements were carried out at the temperatures from (303 to 353) K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution H i E,∞ of the solutes in the ionic liquids were also derived from the temperature dependence of the γ i ∞ values. The values of the selectivity for the hexane/benzene and cyclohexane/benzene separation problems were calculated from experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient values and compared to the other ionic liquids, taken from the recent literatures.

  20. A Lie-admissible method of integration of Fokker-Planck equations with non-linear coefficients (exact and numerical solutions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronteau, J.; Combis, P.

    1984-08-01

    A Lagrangian method is introduced for the integration of non-linear Fokker-Planck equations. Examples of exact solutions obtained in this way are given, and also the explicit scheme used for the computation of numerical solutions. The method is, in addition, shown to be of a Lie-admissible type

  1. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian, E-mail: gaoyt163@163.com; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple–dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  2. Infrared reflectivity of the solid solutions LaNi1-xFexO3 (0.00≤x≤1.00)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, N.E.; Falcon, H.; Salva, H.; Carbonio, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent far- and midinfrared reflectivity spectra of LaNi (1-x) Fe x O 3 solid solutions that span the passage from LaFeO 3 , a room-temperature antiferromagnetic insulator, to LaNiO 3 , a known metal oxide. Light Ni doping creates defects that induce extra bands assigned to electronic transitions within the insulating gap. An incipient Drude term emerges in the reflectivity spectrum of LaNi 0.39 Fe 0.61 O 3 together with subbands that contribute to the electronic background. At these concentrations the dielectric response shows a picture in which the spectral weigh switches over toward far-infrared frequencies while phonon features develop strong antiresonances near longitudinal-optical modes. Further increment of carriers produces phonon screening and the development of a reflectivity tail that extends beyond 1 eV. We assign extra-non-Drude terms in the 700 endash 4000cm -1 frequency region to transitions due to intrinsic defects. While the increment in reflectivity at far-infrared frequencies is evident for Fe concentrations well above the insulator-metal transition (x∼0.30), the spectral features of a metal oxide, with phonons mostly screened, are found for x=0.23. These metallic spectra show an absorption dip at ∼650cm -1 that is traced to the perovskite symmetric stretching longitudinal mode. Electron-phonon interactions are thus present in solid solutions even when the numbers of effective carriers are those of a metal. This characterization is also supported by the observation of weak reflectivity dips in LaNiO 3 that have a direct correspondence to longitudinal-optical mode frequencies of the insulating phases of our series. We infer that strong electron-phonon interactions play a role in the conductivity of those solid solutions and are likely related to polaron formation and carrier phonon-assisted hopping motion. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. THE EXISTENCE OF THE STABILIZING SOLUTION OF THE RICCATI EQUATION ARISING IN DISCRETE-TIME STOCHASTIC ZERO SUM LQ DYNAMIC GAMES WITH PERIODIC COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dr ̆agan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem for solving a discrete-time periodic gen- eralized Riccati equation with an indefinite sign of the quadratic term. A necessary condition for the existence of bounded and stabilizing solution of the discrete-time Riccati equation with an indefinite quadratic term is derived. The stabilizing solution is positive semidefinite and satisfies the introduced sign conditions. The proposed condition is illustrated via a numerical example.

  4. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  5. Measurements of density and of thermal expansion coefficient of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.

    1980-12-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 850 0 C to 1325 0 C. The data for the pure borax and for the sodium metaborate agree reasonably well with the data from the literature, giving confidence that the measurements are correct and the new data for the salts with UO 2 are reliable. (orig.) [de

  6. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tetrafluoroborate using gas-liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15, and 373.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumba, Kaniki; Reddy, Prashant; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Activity coefficients at infinite dilution in the ionic liquid [3C 6 C 14 P][BF 4 ]. → Twenty-seven solutes investigated at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15, and 373.15) K. → [3C 6 C 14 P][BF 4 ] shows promise for the separation of aromatic and alcohol mixtures. - Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution have been measured by gas-liquid chromatography for 27 organic solutes (n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, 1-alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, alcohols, and ketones) in the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tetrafluoroborate [3C 6 C 14 P][BF 4 ]. The measurements were carried out at four different temperatures viz.T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15, and 373.15) K. From the experimental data, partial molar excess enthalpy values at infinite dilution were calculated for the experimental temperature range. The selectivity values for the separation of n-hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, and methanol/benzene mixtures were determined from the experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient values. These values were compared to those available in the literature for other ionic liquids and commercial solvents, so as to assess the feasibility of employing [3C 6 C 14 P][BF 4 ] in solvent-enhanced industrial separations.

  7. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate using gas-liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Eugene; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2010-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution were determined for 24 solutes: n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alcohols in the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [OMIM][PF 6 ], by gas-liquid chromatography at three different temperatures T = (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. The partial molar excess enthalpy values at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental data over the same temperature range. Capacities and selectivities at infinite dilution for the systems hexane/benzene and methanol/benzene were determined from the experimental data and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, as well as for industrial molecular solvents. The influence of the cation and anion of the ionic liquid on the activity coefficient is discussed, as well as the usefulness of [OMIM][PF 6 ] in separating organic liquids.

  8. Determination of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of water and organic solutes (polar and non-polar) in the Ammoeng 100 ionic liquid at T = (308.15, 313.5, 323.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Prashant; Chiyen, Kaleng J.; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Activity coefficients at infinite dilution in the ionic liquid Ammoeng 100. → Twenty-seven solutes investigated at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. → Ammoeng 100 not suited to aromatic/aliphatic and alkane/alcohol separations. - Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) have been determined for 27 solutes, viz. water and organic compounds (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, 1-alkenes, 1-alkynes, aromatics, alcohols, and ketones) in the ionic liquid Ammoeng 100, by gas-liquid chromatography at four different temperatures, T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. Columns with different phase loadings (20 to 24)% of the ionic liquid in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature investigated. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution (ΔH 1 E,∞ ) were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency relationship of the ln(γ 13 ∞ ) values for the temperature range in this study. The uncertainties in the determinations of the γ 13 ∞ and ΔH 1 E,∞ values are 6% and 10%, respectively. Selectivity values at infinite dilution (S ij ∞ ), have been computed from the γ 13 ∞ values to assess the potential candidacy of the Ammoeng 100 ionic liquid for the separation of alkane/alcohol mixtures. The results from this study have been compared to those available for several ionic liquids from previous investigations.

  9. Isopiestic determination of the osmotic coefficient and vapour pressure of N-R-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (R = C4H9, C5H11, C6H13) in the ethanol solution at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Atabay, Maryam; Azamat, Jafar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The osmotic coefficients of the solutions of ionic liquid in ethanol have been measured. ► Measured osmotic coefficients were correlated using Pitzer, e-NRTL and NRF models and polynomial equation. ► Vapour pressures were evaluated from the correlated osmotic coefficients. - Abstract: Osmotic coefficients of the solutions of room temperature ionic liquid N-R-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (R = C 4 H 9 , C 5 H 11 , C 6 H 13 ) in ethanol have been measured at T = 298.15 K by the isopiestic method. The experimental osmotic coefficients have been correlated using the ion interaction model of Pitzer, electrolyte non-random two liquid (e-NRTL) model of Chen, non-random factor (NRF) and a fourth-order polynomial in terms of molality. The vapour pressures of the solutions studied have been evaluated from the osmotic coefficients.

  10. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  11. Transport coefficients and cross sections for electrons in water vapour: Comparison of cross section sets using an improved Boltzmann equation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; White, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits the issues surrounding computation of electron transport properties in water vapour as a function of E/n0 (the ratio of the applied electric field to the water vapour number density) up to 1200 Td. We solve the Boltzmann equation using an improved version of the code of Ness and Robson [Phys. Rev. A 38, 1446 (1988)], facilitating the calculation of transport coefficients to a considerably higher degree of accuracy. This allows a correspondingly more discriminating test of the various electron-water vapour cross section sets proposed by a number of authors, which has become an important issue as such sets are now being applied to study electron driven processes in atmospheric phenomena [P. Thorn, L. Campbell, and M. Brunger, PMC Physics B 2, 1 (2009)] and in modeling charged particle tracks in matter [A. Munoz, F. Blanco, G. Garcia, P. A. Thorn, M. J. Brunger, J. P. Sullivan, and S. J. Buckman, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 277, 175 (2008)].

  12. The influence of precipitation kinetics on trace element partitioning between solid and liquid solutions: A coupled fluid dynamics/thermodynamics framework to predict distribution coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavner, A.

    2017-12-01

    In a multicomponent multiphase geochemical system undergoing a chemical reaction such as precipitation and/or dissolution, the partitioning of species between phases is determined by a combination of thermodynamic properties and transport processes. The interpretation of the observed distribution of trace elements requires models integrating coupled chemistry and mechanical transport. Here, a framework is presented that predicts the kinetic effects on the distribution of species between two reacting phases. Based on a perturbation theory combining Navier-Stokes fluid flow and chemical reactivity, the framework predicts rate-dependent partition coefficients in a variety of different systems. We present the theoretical framework, with applications to two systems: 1. species- and isotope-dependent Soret diffusion of species in a multicomponent silicate melt subjected to a temperature gradient, and 2. Elemental partitioning and isotope fractionation during precipitation of a multicomponent solid from a multicomponent liquid phase. Predictions will be compared with results from experimental studies. The approach has applications for understanding chemical exchange in at boundary layers such as the Earth's surface magmatic systems and at the core/mantle boundary.

  13. Multiple positive solutions of nonlinear singular m-point boundary value problem for second-order dynamic equations with sign changing coefficients on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2010-04-01

    \\end{array}\\right.$$ where $1\\leq k\\leq s\\leq m-2, a_i, b_i\\in(0,+\\infty$ with $0<\\sum_{i=1}^{k}b_{i}-\\sum_{i=k+1}^{s}b_{i}<1, 0<\\sum_{i=1}^{m-2}a_{i}<1, 0<\\xi_1<\\xi_2<\\cdots<\\xi_{m-2}<\\rho(T$, $f\\in C( [0,+\\infty,[0,+\\infty$, $a(t$ may be singular at $t=0$. We show that there exist two positive solutions by using two different fixed point theorems respectively. As an application, some examples are included to illustrate the main results. In particular, our criteria extend and improve some known results.

  14. A new medium for Caenorhabditis elegans toxicology and nanotoxicology studies designed to better reflect natural soil solution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyne, William; Lofts, Stephen; Spurgeon, David J; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus

    2013-08-01

    A new toxicity test medium for Caenorhabditis elegans is presented. The test solution is designed to provide a better representation of natural soil pore water conditions than currently available test media. The medium has a composition that can readily be modified to allow for studies of the influences of a range of environmentally relevant parameters on nematode biology and toxicology. Tests conducted in the new medium confirmed that nematodes' reproduction was possible at a range of solution pH levels, offering the potential to conduct toxicity studies under a variety of conditions. A test to establish silver nanoparticle and dissolved silver nitrate toxicity, a study type not feasible in M9 or agar media due to precipitation and nanoparticle agglomeration, indicated lower silver nanoparticle (median effective concentration [EC50] of 6.5 mg Ag/L) than silver nitrate (EC50 0.28 mg Ag/L) toxicity. Characterization identified stable nanoparticle behavior in the new test medium. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Concrete reflected cylinders of highly enriched solutions of uranyl nitrate ICSBEP Benchmark: A re-evaluation by means of MCNPX using ENDF/B-VI cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzate, J.A.; Carelli, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical re-evaluation of a set of original experiments included in the 2009 issue of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, as “Concrete Reflected Cylinders of Highly Enriched Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate” (identification number: HEU-SOL-THERM- 002) [4]. The present evaluation has been made according to benchmark specifications [4], and added data taken out of the original published report [3], but applying a different approach, resulting in a more realistic calculation model. In addition, calculations have been made using the latest version of MCNPX Monte Carlo code, combined with an updated set of cross section data, the continuous-energy ENDF/B-VI library. This has resulted in a comprehensive model for the given experimental situation. Uncertainties analysis has been made based on the evaluation of experimental data presented in the HEU-SOLTHERM-002 report. Resulting calculations with the present improved physical model have been able to reproduce the criticality of configurations within 0.5%, in good agreement with experimental data. Results obtained in the analysis of uncertainties are in general agreement with those at HEU-SOL-THERM-002 benchmark document. Qualitative results from analyses made in the present work can be extended to similar fissile systems: well moderated units of 235 U solutions, reflected with concrete from all directions. Results have confirmed that neutron absorbers, even as impurities, must be taken into account in calculations if at least approximate proportions were known. (authors)

  16. Comparison of inter-diffusion coefficients for Ni/Cu thin films determined from classical heating analysis and linear temperature ramping analysis by means of profile reconstruction and a numerical solution of Fick's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, H.D.; Terblans, J.J.; Swart, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Classical inter-diffusion studies assume a constant time of annealing when samples are annealed in a furnace. It is assumed that the sample temperature reaches the annealing temperature immediately after insertion, while the sample temperature immediately drops to room temperature after removal, the annealing time being taken as the time between insertion and removal. Using the above assumption, the diffusion coefficient can be calculated in a number of ways. In reality, the sample temperature does not immediately reach the annealing temperature; instead it rises at a rate governed by several heat transfer mechanisms, depending on the annealing procedure. For short annealing times, the sample temperature may not attain the annealing temperature, while for extended annealing times the sample temperature may reach the annealing temperature only for a fraction of the annealing time. To eliminate the effect of heat transfer mechanisms, a linear temperature ramping regime is proposed. Used in conjunction with a suitable profile reconstructing technique and a numerical solution of Fick's second law, the inter-diffusion parameters obtained from a linear ramping of Ni/Cu thin film samples can be compared to those obtained from calculations performed with the so-called Mixing-Roughness-Information model or any other suitable method used to determine classical diffusion coefficients.

  17. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  18. The Pursuit of K: Reflections on the Current State-of-the-Art in Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Practical Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CraigMcClung, R.; Lee, Yi-Der; Cardinal, Joseph W.; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stress intensity factor (SIF, commonly denoted as K) is the foundation of practical fracture mechanics (FM) analysis for aircraft structures. This single parameter describes the first-order effects of stress magnitude and distribution as well as the geometry of both structure/component and crack. Hence, the calculation of K is often the most significant step in fatigue analysis based on FM. This presentation will provide several reflections on the current state-of-the-art in SIF solution methods used for practical aerospace applications, including a brief historical perspective, descriptions of some recent and ongoing advances, and comments on some remaining challenges. Newman and Raju made significant early contributions to practical structural analysis by developing closed-form SIF equations for surface and corner cracks in simplified geometries, often based on empirical fits of finite element (FE) solutions. Those solutions (and others like them) were sometimes revised as new analyses were conducted or limitations discovered. The foundational solutions have exhibited striking longevity, despite the relatively "coarse" FE models employed many decades ago. However, in recent years, the accumulation of different generations of solutions for the same nominal geometry has led to some confusion (which solution is correct?), and steady increases in computational capabilities have facilitated the discovery of inaccuracies in some (not all!) of the legacy solutions. Some examples of problems and solutions are presented and discussed, including the challenge of maintaining consistency with legacy design applications. As computational power has increased, the prospect of calculating large numbers of SIF solutions for specific complex geometries with advanced numerical methods has grown more attractive. Fawaz and Andersson, for example, have been generating literally millions of new SIF solutions for different combinations of multiple cracks under simplified

  19. Closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, H T; Thrane, L; Andersen, P E

    2000-12-01

    Within the paraxial approximation, a closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function is derived for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium. This solution is based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle for the optical field, which is widely used in studies of wave propagation through random media. The results are general in that they apply to both an arbitrary small-angle volume scattering function, and arbitrary (real) ABCD optical systems. Furthermore, they are valid in both the single- and multiple-scattering regimes. Some general features of the Wigner phase-space distribution function are discussed, and analytic results are obtained for various types of scattering functions in the asymptotic limit s > 1, where s is the optical depth. In particular, explicit results are presented for optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. On this basis, a novel way of creating OCT images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase-space distribution is suggested, and the advantage over conventional OCT images is discussed. Because all previous published studies regarding the Wigner function are carried out in the transmission geometry, it is important to note that the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the ABCD matrix formalism may be used successfully to describe this geometry (within the paraxial approximation). Therefore for completeness we present in an appendix the general closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function in ABCD paraxial optical systems for direct propagation through random media, and in a second appendix absorption effects are included.

  20. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid, methyl(trioctyl)ammonium thiosalicylate, [N1888][TS] by gas-liquid chromatography at T = (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Prashant; Gwala, Nobuhle V.; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ammonium ionic liquid selectivity value lower than for imidazolium ionic liquid. → Ammonium ionic liquids with smaller alkyl groups have higher selectivity values. → For the same cation the [TS] anion has a higher selectivity than the [NTf 2 ]. - Abstract: In this work, activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) have been obtained for 19 polar and non-polar organic solutes in the form of n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, 1-alkenes, 1-alkynes, aromatic compounds, and ketones in the ionic liquid methyl(trioctyl)ammonium thiosalicylate by gas-liquid chromatography at three different temperatures, i.e. T = (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K. Two columns with different phase loadings of the ionic liquid in the stationary phase (25% and 30%) were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature investigated. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution (ΔH 1 E,∞ ) were calculated for each of the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ 13 ∞ values for the temperature range in this study. Selectivity values at infinite dilution (S ij ∞ ) were computed from the γ 13 ∞ values to screen the potential candidacy of the ionic liquid for the separation of n-hexane/benzene mixtures. The results from this study have been compared to those available for several other classes of ionic liquids and commercial solvents employed in solvent-enhanced industrial separation processes.

  1. Permeability and Dispersion Coefficients in Rocks with Fracture Network - 12140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.K.; Htway, M.Z. [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid flow and solute transport are considered for a rock medium with a fracture network with regard to the effective permeability and the dispersion coefficients. To investigate the effects of individual fractures a three-fracture system is chosen in which two are parallel and the third one connects the two at different angles. Specifically the micro-cell boundary-value problems(defined through multiple scale analysis) are solved numerically by using finite elements to calculate the permeability and dispersion coefficients. It is shown that the permeability depends significantly on the pattern of the fracture distribution and the dispersion coefficient is influenced by both the externally imposed pressure gradient (which also reflects the flow field) and the direction of the gradient of solute concentration on the macro-scale. From the calculations of the permeability and dispersion coefficients for solute in a rock medium with a fracture network the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium depends on the primary orientation of the fracture network and is influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The cross permeability, e.g., permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the external pressure gradient is rather insensitive to the orientation of the fracture network. 3. Calculation of permeability is most efficiently achieved with optimal discretization across individual fractures and is rather insensitive to the discretization along the fracture.. 4. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dxx of a fractured medium depends on both the macro-scale concentration gradient and the direction of the flow (pressure gradient). Hence both features must be considered when investigating solute transport in a fractured medium. (authors)

  2. Thermodynamic Calculation of the Distribution Coefficient Between the Liquid and Solid Phases of an Element in Dilute Solution in a Metal: Application to the Purification of Beryllium; Calcul Thermodynamique du Coefficient de Distribution Entre Phases Liquide et Solide d'un Element en Presence d'Autres Constituants en Solution Diluee dans un Metal: Application a la Purification du Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desre, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie (France); Schaub, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France); Bonnier, I. E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie, Grenoble (France)

    1966-01-15

    The authors calculate the distribution coefficient {Gamma}{sub i} between the liquid and solid phases of an element i in the presence of other elements j in a solvent M ({Gamma}{sub i} = x'{sub i}/x{sub i}, where x'{sub i} and x{sub i} are the atomic fractions of i in the solid and liquid phases respectively) from the thermodynamic properties of binary systems of the type (i, M), (j, M) and (i, j). They show that the interaction of all the elements present may, under certain conditions, strongly affect the value of the coefficient {Gamma}{sub i}. This effect is pronounced if the following condition is fulfilled: {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub i(M)}, {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j(M)} > {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub ij} where {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub i(M)}, {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j(M)} and {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub ij} are limiting activity coefficients of the constituents i and j in the (i, M) (j, M) and (i, j) liquid state systems. It is a simple matter to deduce from this condition an application to the purification of metals by the zone-melting method; the condition enables one to choose an element j which is added deliberately to a metal in order to facilitate the elimination-of an element i (subsequent elimination of the element j being also, of course, a simple matter). For example, the authors were able to confirm that the addition of aluminium to beryllium enables one to improve the elimination of iron during the purification of the beryllium by the zone-melting technique, the aluminium acting as a carrier. (author) [French] Les auteurs calculent le coefficient de distribution Greek-Capital-Letter-Gamma {sub i} entre phases liquide et solide d'un element i en presence d'autres elements j dans un solvant M ( Greek-Capital-Letter-Gamma {sub i} = x'{sub i}/x{sub i}, x'{sub i} et x{sub i} representant respectivement les fractions atomiques de i dans les phases solide et liquide), a partir des proprietes thermodynamiques des systemes binaires de type: (i, M

  3. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  4. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K: Experimental results and COSMO-RS predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Prashant; Aslam Siddiqi, M.; Atakan, Burak; Diedenhofen, Michael; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► γ 13 ∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate. ► Measurements undertaken using the g.l.c. technique at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. ► Sound speed, density and refractive index data for ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate also reported. ► Measured γ 13 ∞ values compared to COSMO-RS predictions. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ 13 ∞ have been determined for 25 polar and non-polar organic solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, and ketones) in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate with gas–liquid chromatography at four different temperatures, T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. Packed columns with phase loadings of 0.28 and 0.34 ionic liquid mass fraction in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature investigated. Speed of sound, density, and refractive index values have also been measured for the pure ionic liquid at P = 0.1 MPa and T = (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. The uncertainties in the sound speeds, densities, and refractive indices are estimated to be values of 0.9 m · s −1 , 0.00003 g · cm −3 , and 0.00002, respectively. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ 13 ∞ values for the temperature range of this study. The uncertainties in the determinations of γ 13 ∞ and ΔH 1 E,∞ values are 5% and 10%, respectively. Selectivity values at infinite dilution S 12 ∞ for hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, hexane/hex-1-ene, and hexane/ethanol separations have been calculated. These have been compared against values obtained from COSMO-RS predictions

  5. Explicit formulas for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki-Bujnowski, G.

    1975-01-01

    The problem is to obtain explicit algebraic formulas of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for high values of angular momentum. The method of solution is an algebraic method based on the Racah formula using the FORMAC programming language. (Auth.)

  6. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  7. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  8. Solving Variable Coefficient Fourth-Order Parabolic Equation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solving Variable Coefficient Fourth-Order Parabolic Equation by Modified initial guess Variational ... variable coefficient fourth order parabolic partial differential equations. The new method shows rapid convergence to the exact solution.

  9. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  10. A neural network based approach for determination of optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warncke, D; Lewis, E; Leahy, M; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of light in biological tissue depends on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The aim of this project is the determination of these two optical properties using spatially resolved reflectance measurements. The sensor system consists of five laser sources at different wavelengths, an optical fibre probe and five photodiodes. For these kinds of measurements it has been shown that an often used solution of the diffusion equation can not be applied. Therefore a neural network is being developed to extract the needed optical properties out of the reflectance data. Data sets for the training, validation and testing process are provided by Monte Carlo Simulations.

  11. Reflection on Solutions in the Form of Refutation Texts versus Problem Solving: The Case of 8th Graders Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi; Safadi, Ekhlass; Meidav, Meir

    2017-01-01

    This study compared students' learning in troubleshooting and problem solving activities. The troubleshooting activities provided students with solutions to conceptual problems in the form of refutation texts; namely, solutions that portray common misconceptions, refute them, and then present the accepted scientific ideas. They required students…

  12. A comparison between two global optimization algorithms (genetic and differential evolution) to calculate the reflection coefficients in fractured media; Uma comparacao entre dois algoritmos de otimizacao global (algoritmo genetico e evolucao diferencial) para inversao de coeficientes de reflexao em meios fraturados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzeler, Francisco Joclean Alves

    1999-06-01

    In this work, we extract the elastic stiffness and mass density from an multi azimuthal qP-wave reflection coefficients at an interface separating two anisotropic media with monoclinic symmetry with at least one of its planes of symmetry parallel to the interface. This objective was reach by forward and inverse modeling. We calculate the q-P-wave reflection for three models (I, II, III) of anisotropic equivalent medium: isotropic medium above a TIH medium; TIV medium above a TIH medium; and orthorhombic medium above a TIH medium. The TIH medium is equivalent an isotropic fractured medium with equivalent elastic stiffness and mass density calculated by the Hudson formulation. The reflection coefficients used was on its exact form and was generated for models I, II and III in multi-azimuthal/incidence angles and contaminated by gaussian noise. In the inverse modeling we work with GA and with DE algorithms to calculate the inversion parameter (5 elastic stiffness and mass density for bottom media and Vs of upper isotropic media) by minimization of 12 norm of difference between the true and synthetic reflection coefficient. We assume that we know the parameter of the upper media of the three models, except Vs for model one in especial case of inversion of upper media.The parameter to be determined by inverse modeling are parametrized in model space for values that is in according with the value of the observed velocity of propagation of elastic waves in the earth crust, and the resolution of measure, and constraints of elastic stability of the solid media. The GA and DE algorithms reached good inversion to the models with at least three azimuthal angles, (0 deg C, 45 deg C and 90 deg C) and incidence angles of 34 deg C for model I, and 50 deg C inverted only by GA for models II and III; and the especial case take by DE that need at least 44 deg C to invert the model I with the Vs of the upper media. From this results we can see the potential to determine from q

  13. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  14. Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bi-Cheng; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been used to calculate the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp) Mg by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. The minimum energy pathways and the saddle point configurations during solute migration are calculated with the climbing image nudged elastic band method. Vibrational properties are obtained using the quasi-harmonic Debye model with inputs from first-principles calculations. An improved generalized gradient approximation of PBEsol is used in the present first-principles calculations, which is able to well describe both vacancy formation energies and vibrational properties. It is found that the solute diffusion coefficients in hcp Mg are roughly inversely proportional to the bulk modulus of the dilute alloys, which reflects the solutes' bonding to Mg. Transition metal elements with d electrons show strong interactions with Mg and have large diffusion activation energies. Correlation effects are not negligible for solutes Ca, Na, Sr, Se, Te, and Y, in which the direct solute migration barriers are much smaller than the solvent (Mg) migration barriers. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in remarkable agreement with available experimental data in the literature.

  15. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide using g.l.c. at T=(298.15, 313.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Marciniak, Andrzej; Marciniak, MaIgorzata; Domanska, Urszula

    2005-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ (where 1 refers to the solute and 3 to the solvent), for both polar and non-polar solutes (alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol) in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [HMIM][Tf 2 N] at three temperatures T=(298.15, 313.15, and 333.15) K have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The interaction at the gas-liquid interface between the solutes and the solvent was examined by varying solvent liquid loading on the column. Corrected retention values, taking carrier gas and solute imperfections into account, were determined and used to calculate the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The results have been used to predict the solvent potential for the hexane/benzene separation from calculated selectivity values. The results were compared to γ 13 ∞ for similar systems found in the literature in an attempt to understand the effect of the nature of the cation and anion has on solute-solvent interactions. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values ΔH 1 E∞ were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range

  16. Bistability By Self-Reflection In A Saturable Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Franco, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of laser light through a saturable absorber is theoretically studied. Computed steady state solutions of the Maxwell equations describing the unidimensional propagation of a plane monochromatic wave without introducing the slowly-varying envelope approximation are presented showing how saturation effects can influence the absorption of the field. At a certain range of refractive index and extintion coefficients, computed solutions display a very susprising behaviour, and a self-reflected wave appears inside the absorber. This can be useful for a new kind of biestable device, similar to a standard bistable cavity but with the back mirror self-induced by the light.

  17. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  18. In?situ permeability from integrated poroelastic reflection coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Ghose, R.; Drijkoningen, C.G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the in?situ permeability of a porous layer in the subsurface is extremely difficult to obtain. We have observed that at the field seismic frequency band the poroelastic behavior for different seismic wavetypes can differ in such a way that their combination gives unique

  19. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  20. Elusive Learning—Using Learning Analytics to Support Reflective Sensemaking of Ill-Structured Ethical Problems: A Learner-Managed Dashboard Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yianna Vovides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of the 21st century, we have seen a surge of studies on the state of U.S. education addressing issues such as cost, graduation rates, retention, achievement, engagement, and curricular outcomes. There is an expectation that graduates should be able to enter the workplace equipped to take on complex and “messy” or ill-structured problems as part of their professional and everyday life. In the context of online learning, we have identified two key issues that are elusive (hard to capture and make visible: learning with ill-structured problems and the interaction of social and individual learning. We believe that the intersection between learning and analytics has the potential, in the long-term, to minimize the elusiveness of deep learning. A proposed analytics model is described in this article that is meant to capture and also support further development of a learner’s reflective sensemaking.

  1. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  2. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X-Waves incident normally on a planar interface between two lossless dielectric half-spaces are investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier transform. Then, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the beams are obtained in the spectral domain. Finally, the transmitted and reflected X-Waves are obtained via the inverse Bessel-Fourier transform carried out on the X-wave spectrum weighted with the corresponding coefficient. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  4. Investigation of 1-alkanols in organised solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bashir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conductometric behaviour of 1-alkanols (C5-C10 in organised solutions of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS is investigated. Interaction of each alkanol with anionic surfactant is reflected in terms of association constants, Kc. It is observed that self-assembly of SDBS is induced by the alkanol addition. The depression in critical micelle concentration (CMC of SDBS caused by each alkanol is translated to partition coefficient, Kc by using interaction coefficient. The dimensionless partition coefficient, Kx is utilized to highlight the energy efficiency of the solubilization process. The results indicate that even longer chain alkanols prefer interfacial area for their residence. The relative solubility of each alkanol is enhanced with increasing SDBS concentration. Such basic information could be vital for development of nano-scale assemblies for specific delivery of water soluble drugs.

  5. Effect of vital bleaching with solutions containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract as an additive on human enamel using reflectance spectrophotometer: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejai Vekaash, Chitra Janardhanan; Kumar Reddy, Tripuravaram Vinay; Venkatesh, Kondas Vijay

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the color change in human enamel bleached with three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, containing pineapple extract as an additive in two different timings, using reflectance spectrophotometer. The study aimed to investigate the bleaching efficacy on natural teeth using natural enzymes. Baseline color values of 10 randomly selected artificially stained incisors were obtained. The specimens were divided into three groups of 20 teeth each: Group 1 - 30% hydrogen peroxide, Group II - 20% hydrogen peroxide, and Group III - 10% hydrogen peroxide. One half of the tooth was bleached with hydrogen peroxide, and other was bleached with hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract for 20 min (Subgroup A) and 10 min (Subgroup B). The results were statistically analyzed using student's t -test. The mean ΔE values of Group IA (31.62 ± 0.9), Group IIA (29.85 ± 1.2), and Group IIIA (28.65 ± 1.2) showed statistically significant higher values when compared to the mean Δ E values of Group 1A (25.02 ± 1.2), Group IIA (22.86 ± 1.1), and Group IIIA (16.56 ± 1.1). Identical results were obtained in Subgroup B. The addition of pineapple extract to hydrogen peroxide resulted in effective bleaching.

  6. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  7. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  8. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  9. Measurement of Retinalamin diffusion coefficient in human sclera by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Zubkova, Elena A.; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2008-12-01

    The use of cytomedines (such as Retinalamin) in clinical practice has shown high effectiveness of the medicaments in ophthalmology. The study of diffusion of Retinalamin in scleral tissue is important for estimation of a drug dose delivered into inner tissue of eye, time of drug action, etc. In vitro measurements of spectral reflectance of sclera interacting with aqueous solution of Retinalamin have been carried out. Ten human sclera samples were included in the study. The results of the experiments have shown that penetration of Retinalamin into scleral tissue leads to the decrease of scleral reflectance due to optical immersion. Estimation of diffusion coefficient of studied solution has been made on the basis of analysis of optical reflectance dynamics of the sclera samples. The diffusion coefficient of Retinalamin in human scleral tissue was evaluated as (1.82±0.14)×10 -6 cm 2/s. The results are important for treatment of partial optic atrophy observed at primary open-angle glaucoma and others eye diseases.

  10. A prosposed mechanism for the inactivation of atopic allergens in dilute solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    A study has been made of the ultra-violet absorption spectra of purified atopic allergens at pH 2 and pH 12. The colour change of atopen solutions from deep brown in alakali to light brown or yellow in acid is reflected in the spectra by considerably higher extinction coefficients in alkali. By

  11. Reaction rate calculations via transmission coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Alder, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission coefficient of a wavepacket traversing a potential barrier can be determined by steady state calculations carried out in imaginary time instead of by real time dynamical calculations. The general argument is verified for the Eckart barrier potential by a comparison of transmission coefficients calculated from real and imaginary time solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The correspondence demonstrated here allows a formulation for the reaction rate that avoids difficulties due to both rare events and explicitly time dependent calculations. 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Synthesis of leucite, sanidine and a melt of sanidine at 930-10300C and 2 Kb: partition coefficients of Rb, Ca, Sr and Ba between these phases and hydrothermal solution of KCl. Geological utilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, A.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    This work shows the results of hydrothermal experiments to determine the distribution coefficients of alcali and alcaline earth elements in trace concentrations between sanidine and liquids of same composition and between leucite and liquid. At 2 Kb pressure and 930 0 C for sanidine, 930 0 and 1030 0 C for leucite and 1030 0 C for a melt of sanidine composition the concentration of trace elements (TE) in the coexisting potassium bearing aqueous fluid phase was varied between 10 -1 to 10 -6 mole to one mol of K + . By use of radioactive tracers (Rb 86 , Ca 45 , Sr 85 , Ba 133 ) the concentrations in TE of the aqueous phase, the solids and melts has been determined. This indirect method will give a good aproximation of the behaviour of TE between a melt and crystallising solids. These aprotimations lead to following conclusions: a) during the crystallisation of leucite, this phase incorporates large quantities of Ba and Rb, depleting the residual melt in those elements. Sr and Ca, on the other hand are enriched in the residual melt. b) the crystallisation of sanidine depletes even more the residual melt in Ba, Sr shows similias behaviour, Rb and Ca, however, are enriched in the residual melt phase. (author) [pt

  13. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  14. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  15. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  16. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  17. Evaluation of downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Yellepeddi, Sarma B.; Jones, Burton

    2016-01-01

    to comprehend the diffuse attenuation coefficient and its relationship with in situ properties. Two apparent optical properties, spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), are calculated from vertical

  18. Accounting for Antenna in Half-Space Fresnel Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Alterio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of retrieving the Fresnel reflection coefficients of a half-space medium starting from measurements collected under a reflection mode multistatic configuration is dealt with. According to our previous results, reflection coefficient estimation is cast as the inversion of linear operator. However, here, we take a step ahead towards more realistic scenarios as the role of antennas (both transmitting and receiving is embodied in the estimation procedure. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the method for different types of half-space media.

  19. On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...

  20. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  1. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK: RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Q.; Hui-Hai Liu; Molz, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D m e , a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D m e values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F D (defined as the ratio of D m e to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D m ] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F D value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F D value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F D value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation

  2. A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) using pico-droplets generated by inkjet printers and its applicability for aerosol analysis with SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Hauschild, S.; Amberger, M.A.; Lammel, G.; Streli, C.; Foerster, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions on particulate aerosol samples using pico-droplets for elemental determinations with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is described. It enables short analysis times without influencing the sample structure and avoids time consuming scanning of the sample with the exciting beam in SR-TXRF analysis. Droplets of picoliter volume (∼ 5-130 pL) were generated with commercially available and slightly modified inkjet printers operated with popular image processing software. The size of the dried droplets on surfaces of different polarity namely silicone coated and untreated quartz reflectors, was determined for five different printer types and ten different cartridge types. The results show that droplets generated by inkjet printers are between 50 and 200 μm in diameter (corresponding to volumes of 5 to 130 pL) depending on the cartridge type, which is smaller than the width of the synchrotron beam used in the experiments (< 1 mm at an energy of 17 keV at the beamline L at HASYLAB, Hamburg). The precision of the printing of a certain amount of a single element standard solution was found to be comparable to aliquoting with micropipettes in TXRF, where for 2.5 ng of cobalt relative standard deviations of 12% are found. However, it could be shown that the printing of simple patterns is possible, which is important when structured samples have to be analysed

  3. Lattice cell diffusion coefficients. Definitions and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of equivalent diffusion coefficients for regular lattices of heterogeneous cells have been given by several authors. The paper begins by reviewing these different definitions and the unification of their derivation. This unification makes clear how accurately each definition (together with appropriate cross-section definitions to preserve the eigenvalue) represents the individual reaction rates within the cell. The approach can be extended to include asymmetric cells and whereas before, the buckling describing the macroscopic flux shape was real, here it is found to be complex. A neutron ''drift'' coefficient as well as a diffusion coefficient is necessary to produce the macroscopic flux shape. The numerical calculation of the various different diffusion coefficients requires the solutions of equations similar to the ordinary transport equation for an infinite lattice. Traditional reactor physics codes are not sufficiently flexible to solve these equations in general. However, calculations in certain simple cases are presented and the theoretical results quantified. In difficult geometries, Monte Carlo techniques can be used to calculate an effective diffusion coefficient. These methods relate to those already described provided that correlation effects between different generations of neutrons are included. Again, these effects are quantified in certain simple cases. (author)

  4. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  5. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  6. Monoenergetic particle transport in a semi-infinite medium with reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    Next to neutron or photon transport in infinite geometry, particle transport in semi-infinite geometry is probably the most investigated transport problem. When the mean free path for particle interaction is small compared to the physical dimension of the scattering medium, the infinite or semi-infinite geometry assumption is reasonable for a variety of applications. These include nondestructive testing, photon transport in plant canopies, and inverse problems associated with well logging. Another important application of the transport solution in a semi-infinite medium is as a benchmark to which other more approximate methods can be compared. In this paper, the transport solution in a semi-infinite medium with both diffuse and specular reflection at the free surface is solved analytically and numerically evaluated. The approach is based on a little-known solution obtained by Sobelev for the problem with specular reflection, which itself originates from the classical albedo problem solution without reflection. Using Sobelev's solution as a partial Green's function, the exiting flux for diffuse reflection can be obtained. In this way, the exiting flux for a half-space with both constant diffuse and specular reflection coefficients is obtained for the first time. This expression can then be extended to the complex plane to obtain the interior flux as an inverse Laplace transform, which is numerically evaluated

  7. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  8. Measurement of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15) K using gas + liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, Indra; Govender, Byron Bradley; Osman, Khalid; Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Nelson, Wayne Michael; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measured in the ionic liquid [EMIM] + [MDEGSO 4 ] − . • 28 organic solutes investigated at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15) K using glc. • Selectivities for selected hexane/benzene separations compared to other IL’s and solvents. • IL shows higher selectivities than conventional solvents such as NMP, NFM, and sulfolane. -- Abstract: In this study, the interactions between volatile organic compounds and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate [EMIM] + [MDEGSO 4 ] − were investigated using gas + liquid chromatography measurements. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ 13 ∞ were determined for 28 polar and non-polar organic solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, and ketones) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate at T = (308.15, 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15) K. Packed columns with phase loadings of 0.27 and 0.37 mass fraction of the IL in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature. Density and refractive index values were also measured for the pure IL at P = 0.1 MPa and at the experimental temperatures. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ 13 ∞ values. The uncertainties in the activity coefficient at infinite dilution were critically evaluated and estimated on average to be ±5.3%. Selectivity values at infinite dilution S ij ∞ for the hexane/benzene separation were also calculated at T = 308.15 K. The selectivity S ij ∞ value of the IL investigated in this study is approximately 3.7 times greater than that for NMP, 2.6 times greater than that for NFM, and 2.3 times greater than that for sulfolane. These results indicate the potential use of this IL in extractive separation processes

  9. Reflection of neutrons from a helicoidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Ignatovich, V.K.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical solution for neutron reflection and transmission of magnetic mirrors with helicoidal magnetization is found. The dependence of neutron speed of reflection and transmission curves is shown. Resonant properties of helicoidal systems are found

  10. Diffusion coefficient calculations for cylindrical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam-Hime, M.

    1983-03-01

    An accurate and general diffusion coefficient calculation for cylindrical cells is described using isotropic scattering integral transport theory. This method has been particularly applied to large regular lattices of graphite-moderated reactors with annular coolant channels. The cells are divided into homogeneous zones, and a zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a collision probability problem. The reflection of neutrons at the cell boundary is accounted for by the conservation of the neutron momentum. The uncorrected diffusion coefficient Benoist's definition is used, and the described formulation does not neglect any effect. Angular correlation terms, energy coupling non-uniformity and anisotropy of the classical flux are exactly taken into account. Results for gas-graphite typical cells are given showing the importance of these approximations

  11. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  13. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the inequality is sharp for the inverse of the Koebe function k(z) = z/(1 − z)2. An alternative approach to the inverse coefficient problem for functions in the class S has been investigated by Schaeffer and Spencer [27] and FitzGerald [6]. Although, the inverse coefficient problem for the class S has been completely solved ...

  14. Infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations with continuous coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhaojun; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions to a class of 1-dimensional infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) under the conditions that the coefficients are continuous and have linear growths. We also obtain the existence of a minimal solution. Furthermore, we study the existence and uniqueness theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions of infinite time interval BSDEs with non-uniformly Lipschitz coefficients. It should be pointed out that the assumptions of this result is weaker than that of Theorem 3.1 in Zong (Turkish J Math 37:704-718, 2013).

  15. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  16. Variation of the distribution coefficient (Kd) of selenium in soils under various microbial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.; Leclerc, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) evaluate whether the K d value of selenium is dependent upon the soil microbial activity and (ii) define the limitation of the use of the K d concept to describe selenium behaviour in soils when assessing the long-term radiological waste disposal risk. K d coefficients, as well as information on selenite speciation in the soil-solution, were derived from short- and long-term batch experiments with a calcareous silty clay soil in various microbial states. Soil microbial activity induced (i) an increase of the K d value from 16 l kg -1 in sterile conditions to 130 l kg -1 when the soil was amended with glucose and nitrate, and (ii) changes in selenium speciation both in the solution (presence of seleno-species other than free Se(IV)) and in the solid phase (Se linked to microorganisms). Although the K d coefficient adequately reflects the initial fractionation between soil-solid and soil-solution, it does not allow for speciation and microbial processes, which could affect reversibility, mobility and the long-term accumulation and uptake into crops

  17. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiper, J. Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  18. Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, R.

    1990-11-01

    This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)

  19. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  20. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  1. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  2. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  3. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  4. Reliability of reflectance measures in passive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva de André, Carmen Diva; Afonso de André, Paulo; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Carvalho de Oliveira, Regiani; Singer, Julio M.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of optical reflectance in passive filters impregnated with a reactive chemical solution may be transformed to ozone concentrations via a calibration curve and constitute a low cost alternative for environmental monitoring, mainly to estimate human exposure. Given the possibility of errors caused by exposure bias, it is common to consider sets of m filters exposed during a certain period to estimate the latent reflectance on n different sample occasions at a certain location. Mixed models with sample occasions as random effects are useful to analyze data obtained under such setups. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the mean of the m measurements is an indicator of the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates. Our objective is to determine m in order to obtain a pre-specified reliability of the estimates, taking possible outliers into account. To illustrate the procedure, we consider an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, University of São Paulo, Brazil (LPAE/FMUSP), where sets of m = 3 filters were exposed during 7 days on n = 9 different occasions at a certain location. The results show that the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates for each occasion obtained under homoskedasticity is km = 0.74. A residual analysis suggests that the within-occasion variance for two of the occasions should be different from the others. A refined model with two within-occasion variance components was considered, yielding km = 0.56 for these occasions and km = 0.87 for the remaining ones. To guarantee that all estimates have a reliability of at least 80% we require measurements on m = 10 filters on each occasion.

  5. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  6. Reflection of ion acoustic waves by the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Kuehl, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The reflection coefficient R for linear monochromatic ion acoustic waves incident on the transonic layer and sheath from the plasma interior is calculated. The treatment differs from previous analyses in that (1) the exact zero-order ion density and velocity profiles for a planar, bounded plasma are used, and the zero-order charge separation is not neglected, and (2) the first-order quantities near the transonic layer are considered in detail, including first-order charge separation, whereby it is found that no coupling to the beam modes exists, and that the functional form of the first-order solution is completely determined. It is shown that the upper bound for Vertical BarRVertical Bar is (1)/(3) . The largest reflection occurs for frequencies which are small compared with the ionization frequency, and generally decreases with increasing frequency. By Fourier superposition, the reflection of a pulse is computed. For a narrow incident pulse, the reflected pulse is greatly distorted and is small compared with the incident pulse. For a broad pulse, the reflected pulse is similar in shape to the incident pulse, and has a magnitude which is approximately (1)/(3) of the incident pulse

  7. Kinetic coefficients for quark-antiquark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyz, W.; Florkowski, W.

    1986-03-01

    The quark-antiquark plasma near equilibrium is studied. The results are based on the Heinz kinetic equations with the Boltzmann collision operator approximated by a relaxation term with the relaxation time, τ, treated as a small parameter. Linear in τ solutions of these equations are used to calculate the transport coefficients: the non-abelian version of Ohm's law, and the shear and volume viscosities. We introduce new chemical potentials which determine the color density matrix of quarks (antiquarks). Gradients of these potentials generate color currents. 12 refs. (author)

  8. Probabilistic optimization of safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; Devictor, N.; Magistris, F. de

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a reliability-based method for the optimization of safety coefficients defined and used in design codes. The purpose of the optimization is to determine the partial safety coefficients which minimize an objective function for sets of components and loading situations covered by a design rule. This objective function is a sum of distances between the reliability of the components designed using the safety coefficients and a target reliability. The advantage of this method is shown on the examples of the reactor vessel, a vapour pipe and the safety injection circuit. (authors)

  9. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node

  10. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  11. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  12. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  13. Unsteady aerodynamic coefficients obtained by a compressible vortex lattice method.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady solutions for the aerodynamic coefficients of a thin airfoil in compressible subsonic or supersonic flows are studied. The lift, the pitch moment, and pressure coefficients are obtained numerically for the following motions: the indicial response (unit step function) of the airfoil, i.e., a sudden change in the angle of attack; a thin airfoil penetrating into a sharp edge gust (for several gust speed ratios); a thin airfoil penetrating into a one-minus-cosine gust and sinusoidal gust...

  14. Overview of models allowing calculation of activity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussaud, C.; Sorel, C

    2004-07-01

    Activity coefficients must be estimated to accurately quantify the extraction equilibrium involved in spent fuel reprocessing. For these calculations, binary data are required for each electrolyte over a concentration range sometimes exceeding the maximum solubility. The activity coefficients must be extrapolated to model the behavior of binary supersaturated aqueous solution. According to the bibliography, the most suitable models are based on the local composition concept. (authors)

  15. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  16. Coefficients of tracer transfer through membranes. Pt. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabialska, A; Hawlicka, E; Plonka, A [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    The doubled value of the tracer transfer coefficient in the self-diffusion process is equal to the sum of tracer transfer coefficients in the diffusion and interfusion processes. The fundamental phenomenological relation can be deduced for the coefficients of tracer transfer between two phases of electrolyte solutions spearated by a virtual boundary. Indeed, the doubled value of the tracer mobility in the self-diffusion experiment (no concentration gradient of the traced substance) is equal to the sum of the tracer mobilities in the diffusion (tracer movement along with the concentration gradient of the traced substance) and interfusion experiments (tracer movement against the concentration gradient of the traced substance). Thus the doubled value of the tracer transfer coefficient in the self-diffusion process should be equal to the sum of tracer transfer coefficients in the diffusion and interfusion processes. The experimental verification of that fundamental relation is presented.

  17. Activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazem, M.E.; Newman, J.

    1984-01-01

    Dilute-solution transport equations with constant activity coefficients are commonly used to model semiconductors. These equations are consistent with a Boltzmann distribution and are invalid in regions where the species concentration is close to the respective site concentration. A more rigorous treatment of transport in a semiconductor requires activity coefficients which are functions of concentration. Expressions are presented for activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors for which conduction- and valence-band energy levels are given by the respective bandedge energy levels. These activity coefficients are functions of concentration and are thermodynamically consistent. The use of activity coefficients in macroscopic transport relationships allows a description of electron transport in a manner consistent with the Fermi-Dirac distribution

  18. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  19. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  20. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients

  1. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  2. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  3. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  4. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Pojonk, Oliver; Rosic, Bojana V.; Zander, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  5. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  6. Relationship between the Kubelka-Munk scattering and radiative transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thennadil, Suresh N

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) and the transport scattering coefficient is obtained through a semi-empirical approach. This approach gives the same result as that given by Gate [Appl. Opt.13, 236 (1974)] when the incident beam is diffuse. This result and those given by Star et al. [Phys. Med. Biol.33, 437 (1988)] and Brinkworth [Appl. Opt.11, 1434 (1972)] are compared with the exact solution of the radiative transfer equation over a large range of optical properties. It is found that the latter expressions, which include an absorption component, do not give accurate results over the range considered. Using the semi-empirical approach, the relationship between the K-M and the transport scattering coefficient is derived for the case where the incident light is collimated. It is shown that although the K-M equation is derived based on diffuse incident light, it can also represent very well the reflectance from a slab of infinite thickness when the incident light is collimated. However, in this case the relationship between the coefficients has to include a function that is dependent on the anisotropy factor. Analysis indicates that the K-M transform achieves the objective of obtaining a measure that gives the ratio of absorption to scattering effects for both diffuse and collimated incident beams over a large range of optical properties.

  7. In vivo determination of the optical properties of muscle with time-resolved reflectance using a layered model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, A.; Glanzmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of determining the optical coefficients of muscle in the extremities with in vivo time-resolved reflectance measurements using a layered model. A solution of the diffusion equation for two layers was fitted to three-layered Monte Carlo calculations simulating the skin, the subcutaneous fat and the muscle. Relative time-resolved reflectance data at two distances were used to derive the optical coefficients of the layers. We found for skin and subcutaneous fat layer thicknesses (l 2 ) of up to 10 mm that the estimated absorption coefficients of the second layer of the diffusion model have differences of less than 20% compared with those of the muscle layer of the Monte Carlo simulations if the thickness of the first layer of the diffusion model is also fitted. If l 2 is known, the differences are less than 5%, whereas the use of a semi-infinite model delivers differences of up to 55%. Even if l 2 is only approximately known the absorption coefficient of the muscle can be determined accurately. Experimentally, the time-resolved reflectance was measured on the forearms of volunteers at two distances from the incident beam by means of a streak camera. The thicknesses of the tissues involved were determined by ultrasound. The optical coefficients were derived from these measurements by applying the two-layered diffusion model, and results in accordance with the theoretical studies were observed. (author)

  8. Coefficient of Friction of Human Corneal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tawnya; Aeschlimann, Rudolf; Tosatti, Samuele; Toubouti, Youssef; Kakkassery, Joseph; Osborn Lorenz, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    A novel property evaluation methodology was used to determine the elusive value for the human corneal coefficient of friction (CoF). Using a microtribometer on 28 fresh human donor corneas with intact epithelia, the CoF was determined in 4 test solutions (≥5 corneas/solution): tear-mimicking solution (TMS) in borate-buffered saline (TMS-PS), TMS in phosphate-buffered saline (TMS-PBS), TMS with HEPES-buffered saline (TMS-HEPES), and tear-like fluid in PBS (TLF-PBS). Mean (SD) CoF values ranged from 0.006 to 0.015 and were 0.013 (0.010) in TMS-PS, 0.006 (0.003) in TMS-PBS, 0.014 (0.005) in TMS-HEPES, and 0.015 (0.009) in TLF-PBS. Statistically significant differences were shown for TMS-PBS versus TLF (P = 0.0424) and TMS-PBS versus TMS-HEPES (P = 0.0179), but not for TMS-PBS versus TMS-PS (P = 0.2389). Successful measurement of the fresh human corneal tissue CoF was demonstrated, with values differing in the evaluated buffer solutions, within this limited sample size.

  9. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  10. Photon albedo coefficients as functions of μ/Zeff parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of photon reflection from planar targets for normal photon incidence and for different shielding materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper, in the range of the initial photon energies from 20 keV to 300 keV. Calculations of photon reflection parameters based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport have been performed using MCNP4C code. Integral reflection coefficients, presented as functions of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material, show universal behaviour for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain.

  11. Power coefficient anomaly in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H

    1980-12-15

    Operation of the JOYO experimental fast reactor with the MK-I core has been divided into two phases: (1) 50 MWt power ascension and operation; and (2) 75 MWt power ascension and operation. The 50 MWt power-up tests were conducted in August 1978. In these tests, the measured reactivity loss due to power increases from 15 MWt to 50 MWt was 0.28% ..delta.. K/K, and agreed well with the predicted value of 0.27% ..delta.. K/K. The 75 MWt power ascension tests were conducted in July-August 1979. In the process of the first power increase above 50 MWt to 65 MWt conducted on July 11, 1979, an anomalously large negative power coefficient was observed. The value was about twice the power coefficient values measured in the tests below 50 MW. In order to reproduce the anomaly, the reactor power was decreased and again increased up to the maximum power of 65 MWt. However, the large negative power coefficient was not observed at this time. In the succeeding power increase from 65 MWt to 75 MWt, a similar anomalous power coefficient was again observed. This anomaly disappeared in the subsequent power ascensions to 75 MWt, and the magnitude of the power coefficient gradually decreased with power cycles above the 50 MWt level.

  12. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  13. Chondroitin sulfate reduces the friction coefficient of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Ines M; Chahine, Nadeen O; Kaplun, Michael; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS)-C on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage. The main hypothesis is that CS decreases the friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Corollary hypotheses are that viscosity and osmotic pressure are not the mechanisms that mediate the reduction in the friction coefficient by CS. In Experiment 1, bovine articular cartilage samples (n=29) were tested in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or in PBS containing 100mg/ml of CS following 48h incubation in PBS or in PBS+100mg/ml CS (control specimens were not subjected to any incubation). In Experiment 2, samples (n=23) were tested in four different solutions: PBS, PBS+100mg/ml CS, and PBS+polyethylene glycol (PEG) (133 or 170mg/ml). In Experiment 3, samples (n=18) were tested in three solutions of CS (0, 10 and 100mg/ml). Frictional tests (cartilage-on-glass) were performed under constant stress (0.5MPa) for 3600s and the time-dependent friction coefficient was measured. Samples incubated or tested in a 100mg/ml CS solution exhibited a significantly lower equilibrium friction coefficient than the respective PBS control. PEG solutions delayed the rise in the friction coefficient relative to the PBS control, but did not reduce the equilibrium value. Testing in PBS+10mg/ml of CS did not cause any significant decrease in the friction coefficient. In conclusion, CS at a concentration of 100mg/ml significantly reduces the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage and this mechanism is neither mediated by viscosity nor osmolarity. These results suggest that direct injection of CS into the joint may provide beneficial tribological effects.

  14. Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.

  15. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  16. Thermal Coefficient of Redox Potential of Alkali Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Yuya; Hinuma, Yoyo; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2018-05-01

    The thermal coefficient (α) of redox potential (V) is a significant physical quantity that converts the thermal energy into electric energy. In this short note, we carefully determined α of alkali metals (A = Li and Na) against electrolyte solution. The obtained α is much larger than that expected from the specific heat (CpA) of solid A and depends on electrolyte solution. These observations indicate that the solvent has significant effect on α.

  17. Anti-reflective polymer-nanocomposite coatings fabricated by RIR-MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravalu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Haglund, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing demand for functional polymeric optical coatings for plastic substrates. In the case of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, this is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. We synthesized a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrixassisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE). An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and PMMA, alternating with a low-index solution of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with relative transmission over 94%, scattering less than 5% and a reflection coefficient below 0.8% across the visible range.

  18. The adsorption coefficient (KOC) of chlorpyrifos in clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimah Muhamad; Nashriyah Mat; Tan Yew Ai; Ismail Sahid

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adsorption coefficient (KOC) of chlorpyrifos in clay soil by measuring the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kads(f)) and desorption coefficient (1/n value) of chlorpyrifos. It was found that the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kads(f)) and the linear regression (r2) of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm for chlorpyrifos in the clay soil were 52.6 L/kg and 0.5244, respectively. Adsorption equilibrium time was achieved within 24 hours for clay soil. This adsorption equilibrium time was used to determine the effect of concentration on adsorption. The adsorption coefficient (KOC) of clay soil was found to be 2783 L/kg with an initial concentration solution of 1 μg/g, soil-solution ratio (1:5) at 300 C when the equilibrium between the soil matrix and solution was 24 hours. The Kdes decreased over four repetitions of the desorption process. The chlorpyrifos residues may be strongly adsorbed onto the surface of clay. (Author)

  19. Reactor kinetics revisited: a coefficient based model (CBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratemi, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a nuclear reactor kinetics model based on Guelph expansion coefficients calculation ( Coefficients Based Model, CBM), for n groups of delayed neutrons is developed. The accompanying characteristic equation is a polynomial form of the Inhour equation with the same coefficients of the CBM- kinetics model. Those coefficients depend on Universal abc- values which are dependent on the type of the fuel fueling a nuclear reactor. Furthermore, such coefficients are linearly dependent on the inserted reactivity. In this paper, the Universal abc- values have been presented symbolically, for the first time, as well as with their numerical values for U-235 fueled reactors for one, two, three, and six groups of delayed neutrons. Simulation studies for constant and variable reactivity insertions are made for the CBM kinetics model, and a comparison of results, with numerical solutions of classical kinetics models for one, two, three, and six groups of delayed neutrons are presented. The results show good agreements, especially for single step insertion of reactivity, with the advantage of the CBM- solution of not encountering the stiffness problem accompanying the numerical solutions of the classical kinetics model. (author)

  20. Coefficient Inverse Problem for Poisson's Equation in a Cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solov'ev, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse problem of determining the coefficient on the right-hand side of Poisson's equation in a cylindrical domain is considered. The Dirichlet boundary value problem is studied. Two types of additional information (overdetermination) can be specified: (i) the trace of the solution to the

  1. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are ...

  2. Discrete singular convolution for the generalized variable-coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical solutions of the generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation are obtained using a discrete singular convolution and a fourth order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method for space and time discretisation, respectively. The theoretical convergence of the proposed method is rigorously ...

  3. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. The products included the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd_490) and for the visible range (Kd_PAR), and euphotic depth (Zeu, corresponding to 1% of the surface incident photosynthetically available radiation or PAR). Above-water hyperspectral reflectance data collected over optically shallow waters of the Florida Keys between June 1997 and August 2011 were used to help understand algorithm performance over optically shallow waters. The in situ data covered a variety of water types in South Florida and the Caribbean Sea, ranging from deep clear waters, turbid coastal waters, and optically shallow waters (Kd_490 range of ~0.03 – 1.29m-1). An algorithm based on Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) showed the best performance (RMSD turbidity or shallow bottom contamination. Similar results were obtained when only in situ data were used to evaluate algorithm performance. The excellent agreement between satellite-derived remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and in situ Rrs suggested that

  4. Activity coefficients from molecular simulations using the OPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Maximilian; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2017-10-01

    A method for determining activity coefficients by molecular dynamics simulations is presented. It is an extension of the OPAS (osmotic pressure for the activity of the solvent) method in previous work for studying the solvent activity in electrolyte solutions. That method is extended here to study activities of all components in mixtures of molecular species. As an example, activity coefficients in liquid mixtures of water and methanol are calculated for 298.15 K and 323.15 K at 1 bar using molecular models from the literature. These dense and strongly interacting mixtures pose a significant challenge to existing methods for determining activity coefficients by molecular simulation. It is shown that the new method yields accurate results for the activity coefficients which are in agreement with results obtained with a thermodynamic integration technique. As the partial molar volumes are needed in the proposed method, the molar excess volume of the system water + methanol is also investigated.

  5. Determination of ion diffusion coefficients by the electromigration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, G.D.; Milanov, M.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Ivanov, P.I.; Priemyshev, A.N.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for measuring ion diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions is developed. The value of the diffusion coefficient can be determined from the linear relationship between the square standard deviation of the electrophoretic zone and the time from the start of the diffusion process. Using the device for horizontal zone electrophoresis in a free electrolyte, a series of diffusion experiments are performed with no-carrier-added radionuclides in microconcentrations (10 -9 - 10 -10 M). Diffusion coefficients of 111 In(III), 175 Hf(IV) and 237 Pu(VI) ions at 25 0 C are determined in nitric acid media. Simultaneous determination of the diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility allows one to calculate the effective charge of the investigated ions in accordance with the Nernst-Einstein law

  6. Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Majid; Mohammadi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The compounds Na 2 B 4 O 7 , H 3 BO 3 , CdCl 2 and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the γ rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H 3 BO 3 with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds

  7. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  8. Determination of continuous complex refractive index dispersion of biotissue based on internal reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The complex refractive index dispersion (CRID), which contains the information on the refractive index dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, is an important optical parameter of biotissue. However, it is hard to perform the CRID measurement on biotissues due to their high scattering property. Continuous CRID measurement based on internal reflection (CCRIDM-IR) is introduced. By using a lab-made apparatus, internal reflectance spectra of biotissue samples at multiple incident angles were detected, from which the continuous CRIDs were calculated based on the Fresnel formula. Results showed that in 400- to 750-nm range, hemoglobin solution has complicated dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, while other biotissues have normal dispersion properties, and their extinction coefficients do not vary much with different wavelengths. The normal dispersion can be accurately described by several coefficients of dispersion equations (Cauchy equation, Cornu equation, and Conrady equation). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the continuous CRID of scattering biotissue over a continuous spectral region is measured, and we hereby have proven that CCRIDM-IR is a good method for continuous CRID research of biotissue.

  9. Calibration factor or calibration coefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs was set up in order to establish links between SSDL members and the international measurement system. At the end of 2001, there were 73 network members in 63 Member States. The SSDL network members provide calibration services to end-users at the national or regional level. The results of the calibrations are summarized in a document called calibration report or calibration certificate. The IAEA has been using the term calibration certificate and will continue using the same terminology. The most important information in a calibration certificate is a list of calibration factors and their related uncertainties that apply to the calibrated instrument for the well-defined irradiation and ambient conditions. The IAEA has recently decided to change the term calibration factor to calibration coefficient, to be fully in line with ISO [ISO 31-0], which recommends the use of the term coefficient when it links two quantities A and B (equation 1) that have different dimensions. The term factor should only be used for k when it is used to link the terms A and B that have the same dimensions A=k.B. However, in a typical calibration, an ion chamber is calibrated in terms of a physical quantity such as air kerma, dose to water, ambient dose equivalent, etc. If the chamber is calibrated together with its electrometer, then the calibration refers to the physical quantity to be measured per electrometer unit reading. In this case, the terms referred have different dimensions. The adoption by the Agency of the term coefficient to express the results of calibrations is consistent with the 'International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology' prepared jointly by the BIPM, IEC, ISO, OIML and other organizations. The BIPM has changed from factor to coefficient. The authors believe that this is more than just a matter of semantics and recommend that the SSDL network members adopt this change in terminology. (author)

  10. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  11. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse attenuation coefficient in presence of non uniform profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E; Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo simulation of the vertical depth structure of the downward attenuation coefficient (K sub(d)), and the irradiance reflectance (R) for a given profile of chlorophyll. The results are in quantitaive agreement...

  13. Measurement of the distribution coefficient between soil and Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada V, S.; Hernandez P, M.

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of the distribution coefficient of Cs-137 is currently performed by batch method between radioisotope solution and which was collected from the Mexican Disposal Site, near the town of Maquixco, in the state of Mexico. The Kd values were obtained in activity concentration of Cs-137 of 100 Bq. The solution is shaken for seven days at 25 o C when the maximum amount of radionuclide is absorbed by the soil. The radionuclide in solution is measured by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from batch method show that the distribution coefficients were from 144 to 660 ml/g for fine soil particles. This work is currently done as part of the site characterization studies for the disposal of low level rad-waste. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  15. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  16. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Malkawi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.

  17. Four-Mirror Freeform Reflective Imaging Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Central Objectives: The research involves a revelation of the solution space for revolutionary families of four-mirror freeform reflective imaging systems. A...

  18. A generalized fractional sub-equation method for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Bo; He, Yinnian; Wei, Leilei; Zhang, Xindong

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a generalized fractional sub-equation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space–time fractional Gardner equation with variable coefficients. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient and powerful mathematical tool for solving many other fractional differential equations in mathematical physics. -- Highlights: ► Study of fractional differential equations with variable coefficients plays a role in applied physical sciences. ► It is shown that the proposed algorithm is effective for solving fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. ► The obtained solutions may give insight into many considerable physical processes.

  19. Correlation coefficients in neutron β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1978-01-01

    The various angular and polarisation coefficients in neutron decay are the principal sources of information on the β-interaction. Measurements of the electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient (a), the neutron-spin-electron-momentum correlation coefficient (A), the neutron-spin-neutrino-momentum correlation coefficient (B), and the triple correlation coefficient D and time-reversal invariance are reviewed and the results discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  1. Characterization of the effective electrostriction coefficients in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, A. L.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Chauvy, P.-F.; Setter, N.

    2001-06-01

    Electromechanical properties of a number of ferroelectric films including PbZrxTi1-xO3(PZT), 0.9PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3(PMN-PT), and SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT) are investigated using laser interferometry combined with conventional dielectric measurements. Effective electrostriction coefficients of the films, Qeff, are determined using a linearized electrostriction equation that couples longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, d33, with the polarization and dielectric constant. It is shown that, in PZT films, electrostriction coefficients slightly increase with applied electric field, reflecting the weak contribution of non-180° domains to piezoelectric properties. In contrast, in PMN-PT and SBT films electrostriction coefficients are field independent, indicating the intrinsic nature of the piezoelectric response. The experimental values of Qeff are significantly smaller than those of corresponding bulk materials due to substrate clamping and possible size effects. Electrostriction coefficients of PZT layers are shown to depend strongly on the composition and preferred orientation of the grains. In particular, Qeff of (100) textured rhombohedral films (x=0.7) is significantly greater than that of (111) layers. Thus large anisotropy of the electrostrictive coefficients is responsible for recently observed large piezoelectric coefficients of (100) textured PZT films. Effective electrostriction coefficients obtained by laser interferometry allow evaluation of the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric films based solely on the dielectric parameters and thus are very useful in the design and fabrication of microsensors and microactuators.

  2. Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.

  3. Self-similar optical pulses in competing cubic-quintic nonlinear media with distributed coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefang; Tian Qing; Wang Yueyue; Dai Chaoqing; Wu Lei

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the self-similar propagation of optical pulses within the framework of the generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed coefficients. By appropriately choosing the relations between the distributed coefficients, we not only retrieve the exact self-similar solitonic solutions, but also find both the approximate self-similar Gaussian-Hermite solutions and compact solutions. Our analytical and numerical considerations reveal that proper choices of the distributed coefficients could make the unstable solitons stable and could restrict the nonlinear interaction between the neighboring solitons.

  4. Theory of the electric current transmission coefficient in the superconductor-insulator-superconductor geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navani, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tunneling in the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S'-I-S) geometry, where the two superconductors are not necessarily the same, is studied theoretically. Two different models of the S'-I-S geometry - which we call the ''initial model'' and the ''improved model'' are discussed. For the initial model the potential barrier is flat. In the improved model, however, the differing material properties of the three regions - S', I, and S - are taken into account in an approximate fashion. In addition, applied, contact, and image potentials in the insulator are included. The solid state material properties that are taken to be different are the effective electronic masses in the three regions and the Fermi energies in the two superconductors. The quasiparticle wave functions in the S', I, and S regions are determined for both models as solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. The electric current transmission coefficients (also the reflection coefficient for the initial model) are derived and their behavior is extensively analyzed. Their forms in the thick barrier limit - where L greater than or approximately equal to 5 A - are related to the BCS densities of states. The tunneling current density is found to depend strongly on the tunneling angle. A relation between the angular position of the tunneling current peak and the barrier thickness is given. Finally, it is shown that the choice of insulator material effects the tunneling current, and the effect is greater the thicker the insulating film

  5. Commuting quantum traces: the case of reflection algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avan, Jean [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Modelization, University of Cergy, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, F-95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Doikou, Anastasia [Theoretical Physics Laboratory of Annecy-Le-Vieux, LAPTH, BP 110, Annecy-Le-Vieux, F-74941 (France)

    2004-02-06

    We formulate a systematic construction of commuting quantum traces for reflection algebras. This is achieved by introducing two dual sets of generalized reflection equations with associated consistent fusion procedures. Products of their respective solutions yield commuting quantum traces.

  6. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  7. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  8. Intelligent fiber optic sensor for solution concentration examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Michal; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the working principles of intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for solution concentration examination. The sensor head is the ending of the large core polymer optical fiber. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on Fresnel reflection and reflection on suspended matter when the head is submersed in solution. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal includes head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence is measured. This way the viscosity turbidity and refraction coefficient has an effect on measured signal. The signal forthcoming from head is processed electrically in opto-electronic interface. Then it is feed to neural network. The novelty of presented sensor is implementation of neural network that works in generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on opto-electronic signal conversion precision and neural network learning accuracy. Therefore, the number and quality of points used for learning process is very important. The example sensor application for examination of liquid soap concentration in water is presented in the paper.

  9. Wave Reflection in 3D Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent experiments carried out in wave basin on breakwaters with armour layer of rocks and cubes, this paper examines the dependence of the reflection coefficient on wave directional spreading and obliquity. Results suggest that long-crested and short-crested waves give similar reflectio...

  10. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  11. Thor, a thorium-reflected plutonium-metal critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.; Paxton, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Critical specifications of Thor, an old assembly of thorium-reflected plutonium, have been refined. These specifications are brought together with void coefficients, Rossi-alpha values, fission traverses, and spectral indices

  12. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  13. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  14. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-07-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  15. The influence of hydrogen bonding on partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nádia Melo; Kenny, Peter W.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Prokopczyk, Igor M.; Ribeiro, Jean F. R.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Sartori, Geraldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    This Perspective explores how consideration of hydrogen bonding can be used to both predict and better understand partition coefficients. It is shown how polarity of both compounds and substructures can be estimated from measured alkane/water partition coefficients. When polarity is defined in this manner, hydrogen bond donors are typically less polar than hydrogen bond acceptors. Analysis of alkane/water partition coefficients in conjunction with molecular electrostatic potential calculations suggests that aromatic chloro substituents may be less lipophilic than is generally believed and that some of the effect of chloro-substitution stems from making the aromatic π-cloud less available to hydrogen bond donors. Relationships between polarity and calculated hydrogen bond basicity are derived for aromatic nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen. Aligned hydrogen bond acceptors appear to present special challenges for prediction of alkane/water partition coefficients and this may reflect `frustration' of solvation resulting from overlapping hydration spheres. It is also shown how calculated hydrogen bond basicity can be used to model the effect of aromatic aza-substitution on octanol/water partition coefficients.

  16. Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier

    2012-07-01

    We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.

  17. Transport coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow through a four-cusp channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Parise, J.A.R.; Souza Mendes, P.R. de.

    1986-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow in a four-cusp channel were determined. A numerical solution was developed for laminar flow an and experimental study for turbulent flow was carried out. Systematic variations of the Reynolds number were done in the range 900-30000. The results show that the heat transfer coefficients for the four-cusp channel are much lower than the coefficients for the circular tube. (author) [pt

  18. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  19. Lipschitz stability for an inverse hyperbolic problem of determining two coefficients by a finite number of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilina, L.; Cristofol, M.; Li, S.; Yamamoto, M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem of reconstructing two spatially varying coefficients in an acoustic equation of hyperbolic type using interior data of solutions with suitable choices of initial condition. Using a Carleman estimate, we prove Lipschitz stability estimates which ensure unique reconstruction of both coefficients. Our theoretical results are justified by numerical studies on the reconstruction of two unknown coefficients using noisy backscattered data.

  20. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  1. Measuring principles of frictional coefficients in cartilaginous tissues and its substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Janssen, C.F.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Lanir, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The frictional properties of cartilaginous tissues, such as the hydraulic permeability, the electro-osmotic permeability, the diffusion coefficients of various ions and solutes, and the electrical conductance, are vital data to characterise the extracellular environment in which chondrocytes reside.

  2. Analysis and computation of the elastic wave equation with random coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We consider the stochastic initial-boundary value problem for the elastic wave equation with random coefficients and deterministic data. We propose a stochastic collocation method for computing statistical moments of the solution or statistics

  3. A simple application of the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    As a simple application of the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism, useful for beginners, the vacuum symmetry (Schwarzschild) solution is found. The calculations also show that all spherically symmetric metrics are Petrov type D. (author)

  4. Oscillation Criteria in First Order Neutral Delay Impulsive Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, M. B.; Donev, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the oscillatory properties of first order neutral delay impulsive differential equations and corresponding to them inequalities with constant coefficients. The established sufficient conditions ensure the oscillation of every solution of this type of equations.

  5. VODE, Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.N.; Hindmarsh, A.C.; Byrne, G.D.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: VODE is a package of subroutines for the numerical solution of the initial-value problem for systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. The package can be used for either stiff or non-stiff systems. In the stiff case, the Jacobian matrix is treated as full or banded. An algorithm is included for saving and reusing the Jacobian matrix under certain conditions. If storage is limited, this option may be suppressed. 2 - Method of solution - VODE uses the variable-order, variable- coefficient Adams-Moulton method for non-stiff systems and the variable-order, fixed-leading-coefficient Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) method for stiff systems

  6. Estimation of the effective distribution coefficient from the solubility constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An updated version of RESRAD has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy to derive site-specific soil guidelines for residual radioactive material. In this updated version, many new features have been added to the, RESRAD code. One of the options is that a user can input a solubility constant to limit the leaching of contaminants. The leaching model used in the code requires the input of an empirical distribution coefficient, K d , which represents the ratio of the solute concentration in soil to that in solution under equilibrium conditions. This paper describes the methodology developed to estimate an effective distribution coefficient, Kd, from the user-input solubility constant and the use of the effective K d for predicting the leaching of contaminants

  7. Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoeberg, Lars E.

    1989-01-01

    New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.

  8. A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)

  9. Diffusion-Coefficients of Sulfate and Methane in Marine-Sediments - Influence of Porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IVERSEN, N.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1993-01-01

    diffusion coefficients can be related to the diffusion coefficient in free solution by D(s) = D(o)/theta2, where theta is the tortuosity of the sediment. The sediment tortuosity calculated from this equation showed a linear relationship with sediment porosity (phi) over the porosity range of 0.4-0.9. From...

  10. Determination of blood oxygenation in the brain by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy: influence of the skin, skull, and meninges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Liu, Hanli; Wang, Lihong; Tittel, Frank K.; Chance, Britton; Jacques, Steven L.

    1994-07-01

    Near infrared light has been used for the determination of blood oxygenation in the brain but little attention has been paid to the fact that the states of blood oxygenation in arteries, veins, and capillaries differ substantially. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations for a heterogeneous system were conducted, and near infrared time-resolved reflectance measurements were performed on a heterogeneous tissue phantom model. The model was made of a solid polyester resin, which simulates the tissue background. A network of tubes was distributed uniformly through the resin to simulate the blood vessels. The time-resolved reflectance spectra were taken with different absorbing solutions filled in the network. Based on the simulation and experimental results, we investigated the dependence of the absorption coefficient obtained from the heterogeneous system on the absorption of the actual absorbing solution filled in the tubes. We show that light absorption by the brain should result from the combination of blood and blood-free tissue background.

  11. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  12. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  13. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  14. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  15. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  16. Osmotic and activity coefficients of triorganophosphates in n-octane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1982-01-01

    Vapour pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients for tributylphosphate (TBP), tricresylphosphate (TCP), and triethylhexylphosphate (THEP) in n-octane at 30, 40, 50, and 60 0 C and at molalities up to 0.3 mol/kg. Activity coefficients and excess thermodynamic properties (unsymmetrical definition) were calculated from these osmotic coefficients. At 30 0 C, the excess Gibbs free energies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg n-octane were -42 J, -66 J, and -20 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. The more ideal behavior of the TEHP-octane system is attributed to the increasing importance of hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions as the chain length is increased. The excess enthalpies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg of solvent were -100 J, and -300 J, and -150 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. Thus, association of these solutes arises primarily from entropic effects. Our data could generally be accommodated adequately by postulating association of monomers into dimmers. The exception was TCP at lower temperatures, where more complex models were required

  17. Exact Solutions for Two Equation Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Lin, Zhao; Da-Jun, Zhang; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Bilinear forms and double-Wronskian solutions are given for two hierarchies, the (2+1)-dimensional breaking Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and the negative order AKNS hierarchy. According to some choices of the coefficient matrix in the Wronskian condition equation set, we obtain some kinds of solutions for these two hierarchies, such as solitons, Jordan block solutions, rational solutions, complexitons and mixed solutions. (general)

  18. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  19. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  20. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  1. Determination of aluminium and beryllium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry with the use of chromaticity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.M.; Ershova, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Immobilized Eriochrome Cyanine R was used for the direct trace determination of aluminium and beryllium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry. Anion exchanger AV-17, silica gel Silochrom C-120, Chromaton N-Super, silica gel C 18 , and cellulose were examined as supports. Optimal sorption conditions were found. The dependence of chromaticity functions (chromaticity coordinates, lightness, color saturation, yellowness, and whiteness) on different factors was studied. Advantages of the use of chromaticity functions rather than the diffuse reflectance coefficient were demonstrated. A method is developed for the separate determination of aluminium and beryllium using cellulose as the support; the method was used for the analysis of real samples and tested with standard samples. When solution samples of 50 and 100 ml were used, the determination limit was 0.004 μg/ml for aluminium and 0.0002 μg/ml for beryllium, respectively [ru

  2. Isopiestic investigation of the osmotic coefficients of MgBr{sub 2}(aq) and study of bromide salts solubility in the (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) system at T = 323.15 K. Thermodynamic model of solution behaviour and (solid + liquid) equilibria in the MgBr{sub 2}(aq), and (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) systems to high concentration and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Christomir, E-mail: christov@svr.igic.bas.b [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ul. ' Acad. G. Bonchev' , bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-03-15

    The isopiestic method has been used to determine the osmotic coefficients of the binary solutions MgBr{sub 2}(aq) (from 0.4950 to 2.5197 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) at the temperature T = 323.15 K. Sodium chloride solutions have been used as isopiestic reference standards. The solubility of the bromide minerals in the mixed system (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) has been investigated at T = 323.15 K by the physico-chemical analysis method. In addition to simple salts {l_brace}KBr(cr) and MgBr{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O(cr){r_brace}, equilibrium crystallization of the highly incongruent double salt with stoichiometric composition 1:1:6 {l_brace}bromcarnallite: KBr . MgBr{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O(cr){r_brace} was also established. The results obtained from the isopiestic and solubility measurements have been combined with all other experimental thermodynamic quantities available in the literature (osmotic coefficients, and solubility of the bromide mineral) to construct a chemical model that calculates solute and solvent activities and (solid + liquid) equilibria in the MgBr{sub 2}(aq) binary, and (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) mixed systems from dilute to high solution concentration within the (273.15 to 438.15) K temperature range. The solubility modelling approach based on fundamental Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. It was found, that the standard for 2-1 type of electrolytes approach with three ({beta}{sup (0)}, {beta}{sup (1)}, and C{sup {phi}}) single electrolyte ion interaction parameters gives excellent agreement with osmotic coefficients from T = (298.15 to 373.45) K; up to saturation at 298.15 K, and up to m(MgBr{sub 2}) = 5.83 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 373.45 K, and with MgBr{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O(cr) equilibrium pure water solubility data within the (273.15 to 438.15) K temperature range and up to {approx}8.5 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} used in parameterization. The model for the ternary system gives very good

  3. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Hardy, D. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Favennec, Y., E-mail: yann.favennec@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Rousseau, B. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Hecht, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7598, inria de Paris, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  4. Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L S; Bian, B J

    2005-01-01

    We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well

  5. Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. S.; Bian, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well.

  6. Dealing with equality and benefit for water allocation in a lake watershed: A Gini-coefficient based stochastic optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C.; Qin, X. S.; Chen, Y.; Guo, H. C.

    2018-06-01

    A Gini-coefficient based stochastic optimization (GBSO) model was developed by integrating the hydrological model, water balance model, Gini coefficient and chance-constrained programming (CCP) into a general multi-objective optimization modeling framework for supporting water resources allocation at a watershed scale. The framework was advantageous in reflecting the conflicting equity and benefit objectives for water allocation, maintaining the water balance of watershed, and dealing with system uncertainties. GBSO was solved by the non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithms-II (NSGA-II), after the parameter uncertainties of the hydrological model have been quantified into the probability distribution of runoff as the inputs of CCP model, and the chance constraints were converted to the corresponding deterministic versions. The proposed model was applied to identify the Pareto optimal water allocation schemes in the Lake Dianchi watershed, China. The optimal Pareto-front results reflected the tradeoff between system benefit (αSB) and Gini coefficient (αG) under different significance levels (i.e. q) and different drought scenarios, which reveals the conflicting nature of equity and efficiency in water allocation problems. A lower q generally implies a lower risk of violating the system constraints and a worse drought intensity scenario corresponds to less available water resources, both of which would lead to a decreased system benefit and a less equitable water allocation scheme. Thus, the proposed modeling framework could help obtain the Pareto optimal schemes under complexity and ensure that the proposed water allocation solutions are effective for coping with drought conditions, with a proper tradeoff between system benefit and water allocation equity.

  7. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of solute elements in Si solutions using first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, K.; Matsumiya, T.; Sawada, H.; Kawakami, K.

    2003-01-01

    The method is presented to predict the activity coefficients and the interaction parameters of the solute elements in infinite dilute Si solutions by the use of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. In this method, the regular solution model is assumed. The calculated activity coefficients in solid Si are converted to those in molten Si by the use of the solid-liquid partition coefficients. Furthermore, the interaction parameters in solid Si solutions are calculated and compared with reported experimental values of those in liquid Si solutions. The results show that the calculated activity coefficients and interaction parameters of Al, Fe, Ti and Pb in Si solutions are in good agreement with the tendency of the experiments. However, the calculations have some quantitative discrepancy from the experiments. It is expected that consideration of the excess entropy would reduce this discrepancy

  8. Reflected forward-backward SDEs and obstacle problems with boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a class of forward-backward stochastic differential equations with reflecting boundary conditions (FBSDER for short. More precisely, we consider the case in which the forward component of the FBSDER is restricted to a fixed, convex region, and the backward component will stay, at each fixed time, in a convex region that may depend on time and is possibly random. The solvability of such FBSDER is studied in a fairly general way. We also prove that if the coefficients are all deterministic and the backward equation is one-dimensional, then the adapted solution of such FBSDER will give the viscosity solution of a quasilinear variational inequality (obstacle problem with a Neumann boundary condition. As an application, we study how the solvability of FBSDERs is related to the solvability of an American game option.

  9. Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Philipp H.

    1981-10-01

    Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  10. Quality-factor and reflection-coefficient estimation using surface-wave ghost reflections from subvertical structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, Deyan; Ruigrok, Elmer; Ghose, Ranajit; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper

    Seismic interferometry can retrieve the Green's function between receivers from the cross-correlation and summation of recordings from a boundary of surrounding sources. Having the sources only along a boundary is sufficient if the medium is lossless. If the medium is dissipative, the retrieved

  11. Joule-Thomson Coefficient for Strongly Interacting Unitary Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Kai; Chen Jisheng; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson effect reflects the interaction among constituent particles of macroscopic system. For classical ideal gas, the corresponding Joule-Thomson coefficient is vanishing while it is non-zero for ideal quantum gas due to the quantum degeneracy. In recent years, much attention is paid to the unitary Fermi gas with infinite two-body scattering length. According to universal analysis, the thermodynamical law of unitary Fermi gas is similar to that of non-interacting ideal gas, which can be explored by the virial theorem P = 2E/3V. Based on previous works, we further study the unitary Fermi gas properties. The effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the nonlinear levels crossing effects in a strongly interacting medium. The changing behavior of the rescaled Joule-Thomson coefficient according to temperature manifests a quite different behavior from that for ideal Fermi gas. (general)

  12. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  13. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  14. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  15. New definition of the cell diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.

    1975-01-01

    As was shown in a recent work by Gelbard, the usually applied Benoist definition of the cell diffusion coefficient gives two different values if two different definitions of the cell are made. A new definition is proposed that preserves the neutron balance for the homogenized lattice and that is independent of the cell definition. The resulting diffusion coefficient is identical with the main term of Benoist's diffusion coefficient

  16. Inversion of reflection for the one-dimensional Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerk, G.L.; Davies, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    It is a general result of one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics that the coefficient of reflection (reflected flux) is the same irrespective of the direction of traversing a potential barrier, a result that is independent of the barrier shape. In this note, the authors consider the transmission coefficient instead, and derive a strong result, namely that the transmission amplitude is independent of the direction of barrier traversal. That is, the transmission amplitude has the same complex phase as well as being unchanged in magnitude by changing the barrier around. This process was called inversion of reflection. 2 refs

  17. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  18. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  19. Transfer coefficients in ultracold strongly coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    We use both analytical and molecular dynamic methods for electron transfer coefficients in an ultracold plasma when its temperature is small and the coupling parameter characterizing the interaction of electrons and ions exceeds unity. For these conditions, we use the approach of nearest neighbor to determine the average electron (ion) diffusion coefficient and to calculate other electron transfer coefficients (viscosity and electrical and thermal conductivities). Molecular dynamics simulations produce electronic and ionic diffusion coefficients, confirming the reliability of these results. The results compare favorably with experimental and numerical data from earlier studies.

  20. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate......This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  1. Coefficients of singularities and mixed methods for the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problem for the Stokes operator on a polygon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettab, M.; Lubuma, M.S.

    1990-08-01

    The behaviour of the weak solution of the Stokes problem on a polygon is considered with emphasis on the maximal regularity of the solution and on global formulae for the coefficients of singularities. This regularity leads to a slow convergent mixed finite element method of fractional order less than one while the use of the above formulae provides better approximations for the solution and for the coefficients. (author). 32 refs

  2. Reflective array modeling for reflective and directional SAW transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D P

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new approximate method for analyzing reflective SAW transducers, with much of the convenience of the coupled-mode (COM) method but with better accuracy. Transduction accuracy is obtained by incorporating the accurate electrostatic solution, giving for example correct harmonics, and allowance for electrode width variation, in a simple manner. Results are shown for a single-electrode transducer, Natural SPUDT and DART SPUDT, each using theoretically derived parameters. In contrast to the COM, the RAM can give accurate results for short or withdrawal-weighted transducers and for wide analysis bandwidth.

  3. Electro-optic study of PZT ferroelectric ceramics using modulation of reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazkov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optic coefficients of variations in the refractive index of PZT and PLZT ceramic materials induced by ac electric field are estimated using modulation of reflected light. The electro-optic coefficients of PLZT ceramics measured with the aid of conventional birefringence using the phase shift of transmitted radiation and the proposed method of birefringence using the modulation of reflected light are compared.

  4. Measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara Batista de

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient (α) in pure isobutane obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by one electrode (anode) of high resistivity glass (ρ = 2 x 10 12 Ω.cm). The method applied was the Pulsed Townsend, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam onto a metallic electrode (cathode). The electric currents measured with the chamber operating in both ionization and avalanche regimes were used to calculate the gaseous multiplication coefficient by the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields. The validation of the technique was provided by the measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The α coefficients in isobutane were measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td. The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte software (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available in the literature, recently obtained in our group. This comparison showed that the results are concordant within the experimental errors. (author)

  5. Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Majid [Isfahan Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRT), Reactor and Accelerators Research and Development School, Atomic Energy Organization (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_jalali@entc.org.ir; Mohammadi, Ali [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Km. 6, Ravand Road, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The compounds Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, CdCl{sub 2} and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the {gamma} rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds.

  6. Distribution coefficient Kd in surface soils collected in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kds), which are the ratio of an element concentration in a soil solid phase to that in a solution phase, for 32 elements in Andosols, Wet Andosols and Gleyed Andosols collected throughout Aomori Prefecture were determined. A dried soil sample was mixed with a 10-fold amount of pure water in a PPCO centrifuge tube, and then gently shaken for 24 h. The Kd values were obtained by measurement of element concentrations in solid and solution phases (batch method). The Kd values in this work were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the IAEA reported values, and their 95% confidence intervals were within two orders of magnitude. Most Kd values of elements were decreasing with increasing electrical conductivity of the solution phase. The Kd of Ca had a good correlation with that of Sr. However, the correlation between the Kds of K and Cs was not good. The Kd values were also determined by another method. The soil solutions were separated from the fresh soil samples by means of high speed centrifuging. The Kd values were calculated from the element concentration in solid phase and soil solution (centrifugation method). The Kd values obtained by the centrifugation method agreed within one order of magnitude with those by the batch method, and both variation patterns in elements correlated well. (author)

  7. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in many historical and comparative overviews of the works, in which there is an analytical discussion of the dominant pedagogical theories in the twentieth century, John Dewey (Dewey, 1933 is referred to as the founder and creator of the concept of reflection (reflective thought and knowledge in practice. Reflection as a concept is understood as the forms and the form of problem solving, as well as continuously thinking about the causes of problems in situations in situ, including active and systematically and consistently changing connecting ideas with solutions to the problems and situations that preceded them (Hatton & Smith, 1995. Reflective thinking is the most general level to tackle practical problems, allowing the ''recommended'' doubts and confusion before proposing possible solutions to the problem. Dewey wrote about a reflective action which refers to the use of solutions to the problem and to thinking through the course of the action. in later works of the authors who have dealt with this problem, an unambiguous link can be observed between the so-called ''professional'' action and the reflection on action which, in this cyclical relationship, leads to visible changes (Zeichner & Gore, 1984. Already at first glance, this implies a connection with experiential learning and adult position of observation and reflection in various models of experiential learning, which will be discussed later. it would be useful to compare this method with a cyclic action of routine as an expression of impulse, tradition and authority. Reflective action, as opposed to the routine, is a consistently and carefully thought-out action (practice reflection, which is an ''awakened'' knowledge and belief, and that is an expression of openness, accountability and commitment. We are ready for reflection, says Schon, when the ''knowledge-in-action'' - a kind of knowledge that professionals notice when it is acted spontaneously - occurs suddenly and unintentionally

  8. The osmotic second virial coefficient and the Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, J.M.; Breil, Martin Peter

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficient is a key parameter in light scattering, protein crystallisation. self-interaction chromatography, and osmometry. The interpretation of the osmotic second virial coefficient depends on the set of independent variables. This commonly includes the independent...... variables associated with the Kirkwood-Buff, the McMillan-Mayer, and the Lewis-Randall solution theories. In this paper we analyse the osmotic second virial coefficient using a Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework which is similar to the McMillan-Mayer framework with the exception that pressure rather than volume...... is an independent variable. A Taylor expansion is applied to the osmotic pressure of a solution where one of the solutes is a small molecule, a salt for instance, that equilibrates between the two phases. Other solutes are retained. Solvents are small molecules that equilibrate between the two phases...

  9. Breather management in the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Malomed, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Huang, Tingwen [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar)

    2015-04-15

    We investigate breather solutions of the generalized derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation with variable coefficients, which is used in the description of femtosecond optical pulses in inhomogeneous media. The solutions are constructed by means of the similarity transformation, which reduces a particular form of the generalized DNLS equation into the standard one, with constant coefficients. Examples of bright and dark breathers of different orders, that ride on finite backgrounds and may be related to rogue waves, are presented. - Highlights: • Exact solutions of a generalized derivative NLS equation are obtained. • The solutions are produced by means of a transformation to the usual integrable equation. • The validity of the solutions is verified by comparing them to numerical counterparts. • Stability of the solutions is checked by means of direct simulations. • The model applies to the propagation of ultrashort pulses in optical media.

  10. Resummed coefficient function for the shape function

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, U.

    2001-01-01

    We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  12. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  13. Anomaly coefficients: Their calculation and congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of anomaly coefficients is presented. For su(n) some explicit and general expressions are given for these. In particular, certain congruences are discovered and investigated among the leading anomaly coefficients. As an application of these congruences, the absence of global six-dimensional gauge anomalies is shown

  14. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  15. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  16. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  17. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  18. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  19. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...

  20. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  1. Recurrences and explicit formulae for the expansion and connection coefficients in series of Bessel polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doha, E H; Ahmed, H M

    2004-01-01

    A formula expressing explicitly the derivatives of Bessel polynomials of any degree and for any order in terms of the Bessel polynomials themselves is proved. Another explicit formula, which expresses the Bessel expansion coefficients of a general-order derivative of an infinitely differentiable function in terms of its original Bessel coefficients, is also given. A formula for the Bessel coefficients of the moments of one single Bessel polynomial of certain degree is proved. A formula for the Bessel coefficients of the moments of a general-order derivative of an infinitely differentiable function in terms of its Bessel coefficients is also obtained. Application of these formulae for solving ordinary differential equations with varying coefficients, by reducing them to recurrence relations in the expansion coefficients of the solution, is explained. An algebraic symbolic approach (using Mathematica) in order to build and solve recursively for the connection coefficients between Bessel-Bessel polynomials is described. An explicit formula for these coefficients between Jacobi and Bessel polynomials is given, of which the ultraspherical polynomial and its consequences are important special cases. Two analytical formulae for the connection coefficients between Laguerre-Bessel and Hermite-Bessel are also developed

  2. Elements of comparison between different inert matrix fuels towards plutonium use and safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, St.; Porta, J.

    2000-08-01

    This work deals with the CERMET fuels, chosen for their good behaviour under irradiation and their high thermal conductivity. The kinetic coefficients have been particularly studied. Comparisons have been made with other solutions using other composite fuels in particular the solid solutions and the ROX solution. The core control requiring an heterogeneous assembly, we propose an assembly whose characteristics are compared with those of the APA reference. (O.M.)

  3. Near zero reflection by nanostructured anti-reflection coating design for Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fandi, Mohamed; Makableh, Yahia F.; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rabady, Rabi

    2018-05-01

    The nanostructure design of near zero reflection coating for Si substrates by using ZnO Nanoneedles (ZnONN) is performed and optimized for the visible spectral range. The design investigates the ZnONN tip to body ratio effect on the anti-reflection coating properties. Different tip to body ratios are used on Si substrates. Around zero reflection is achieved by the Nanoneedles structure design presented in this work, leading to minimal reflection losses from the Si surface. The current design evolves a solution to optical losses and surface contamination effects associated with Si solar cells.

  4. Interpretation of soil-to-plant transfer on the basis of soil solution chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembrechts, J.F.; Van Loon, L.R.; Van Ginkel, J.H.; Desmet, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil-to-plant translocation of a radionuclide depends on its availability on the one hand and on the efficiency of the uptake process on the other. Criticism on the use of transfer coefficients for the description of translocation mainly concerns the fact that the complex variety of processes, a.o. dependent on plant characteristics and soil type and treatment, is integrated in a single ratio. For the interpretation of the effect of counter-measures the static transfer coefficient proved to be hard to handle and knowledge of the separate underlying processes and their time dependence showed to be indispensible. Based upon translocation experiments with technetium, cobalt, strontium and zinc transfer was shown to be primarily related to the concentration of the plant available fraction in the soil solution as well as to the soil solution chemistry in general. The transfer factor of the first three elements expressed in the basis of soil solution activity (ml/g), was observed to decrease when the nutrient content of the soil solution -- reflected by its conductivity -- increased. The characteristics of the soil matrix (solid phase) furthermore showed to be of secondary importance for the explanation of the observed accumulation. Since the interstitial soil liquid phase mediates between solid phase and plant root, reliable interpretations of soil-to-plant transfer might as a rule be based on a separate study of the effect of soil properties on availability on the one hand of the uptake from nutrient solutions on the other

  5. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  6. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  7. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  8. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  9. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....

  10. Virial Coefficients for the Liquid Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Micheal; Kim, Saesun

    2014-03-01

    We begin with a geometric model of hard colliding spheres and calculate probability densities in an iterative sequence of calculations that lead to the pair correlation function. The model is based on a kinetic theory approach developed by Shinomoto, to which we added an interatomic potential for argon based on the model from Aziz. From values of the pair correlation function at various values of density, we were able to find viral coefficients of liquid argon. The low order coefficients are in good agreement with theoretical hard sphere coefficients, but appropriate data for argon to which these results might be compared is difficult to find.

  11. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  12. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  13. Mathematical modelling of thin films growth and calculation of coefficients reflection, transmission and absorption waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istratov, A. V.; Gerke, M. N.

    2018-01-01

    Progress in nano- and microsystem technology is directly related to the development of thin-film technologies. At the present time, thin metal films can serve as the basis for the creation of new instruments for nanoelectronics. One of the important parameters of thin films affecting the characteristics of devices is their optical properties. That is why the island structures, whose optical properties, can change in a wide range depending on their morphology, are of increasing interest. However, despite the large amount of research conducted by scientists from different countries, many questions about the optimal production and use of thin films remain unresolved.

  14. First-order reflection/transmission coefficients for unconverted plane P waves in weakly anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 3 (2010), s. 1443-1454 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  15. Weak-contrast reflection/transmission coefficients in weakly anisotropic elastic media; P-wave incidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 2 (1999), s. 553-562 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/96/0968 Grant - others:INCO-Copernicus(XE) IC15 CT96 200 Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.620, year: 1999

  16. Sound excitation at reflection of two electromagnetic waves from dence semibounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livdan, D.O.; Muratov, V.I.; Shuklin, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of two electromagnetic waves reflection by semibounded plasma which is nontransparent for each of these waves is solved. The reflection coefficients are obtained for normally incident waves. It is shown that the moduli of the reflection coefficients differ from the unit and this is due to the interaction of the external raiation with the acoustic wave excited in plasma. The energy flux in plasma is calculated

  17. Quantum reflection in the linearly downward potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnan, N.; Krunavakarn, B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the motion of a particle in one dimension under the influence of the linearly downward potential well is studied within the context of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The attention is paid on the paradoxical phenomenon of the reflection of a particle that is in contrast between classical and quantum physics. Classically, the reflection effect occurs only at a potential barrier. To demonstrate such counter-intuitive phenomenon, the Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the reflection coefficient in the scattering state by considering an incident particle that is represented by a monochromatic plane wave having an energy E > 0, propagates freely from left to right, pass through the potential well. The continuity conditions at boundaries give the desired result that is expressed in terms of the Airy functions which depends on the incident energy E, the strength jV 0 j and the range L of the well. The value of the reflection coefficient R lies in the interval 0 < R < 1, and its behavior is the decreasing function with respect to the range L.

  18. Recurrence relations between transformation coefficients of hyperspherical harmonics and their application to Moshinsky coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1976-01-01

    Closed formulae and recurrence relations for the transformation of a two-body harmonic oscillator wave function to the hyperspherical formalism are given. With them Moshinsky or Smirnov coefficients are obtained from the transformation coefficients of hyperspheric harmonics. For these coefficients the diagonalization method of Talman and Lande reduces to simple recurrence relations which can be used directly to compute them. New closed formulae for these coefficients are also derived: they are needed to compute the two simplest coefficients which determine the sign for the recurrence relation. (Auth.)

  19. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  20. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations