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Sample records for solute mass equivalent

  1. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.

    2013-01-01

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule

  2. Mass Equivalent Pantographs for Synthesis of Balanced Focal Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Lenarcic, Jadran; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Force balance is an important property in the design of high-speed high precision machinery to reduce base vibrations and also for the design of inherently safe large movable structures. This paper presents the synthesis of inherently balanced overconstrained focal mechanisms with mass equivalent

  3. Probabilistic Compositional Models: solution of an equivalence problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2013), s. 590-601 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Probabilistic model * Compositional model * Independence * Equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kratochvil-0391079.pdf

  4. A study on assessment of bone mass from aluminum-equivalent image by digital imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duck; Choi, Eui Hwan

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluated the method for quantitative assessment of bone mass from aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxyapatite by using digital imaging system consisted of Power Macintosh 7200/120, 15-inch color monitor, and GT-9000 scanner with transparency unit. After aluminum-equivalent image made from correlation between aluminum thickness and grey scale, the accuracy of conversion to mass from aluminum-equivalent value was evaluated. Measured bone mass was compared with converted bone mass from aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxyapatite block by correlation formula between aluminum-equivalent value of hydroxy apatite block and hydroxyapatite mass. The results of this study were as follows : 1. Correlation between aluminum thickness and grey level for obtaining aluminum-equivalent image was high positively associated (r2=0.99). Converted masses from aluminum-equivalent value were very similar to measured masses. There was, statistically, no significant difference (P<0.05) between them. 2. Correlation between hydroxyapatite aluminum-equivalent and hydroxyapatite mass was shown to linear relation (r2 =0.95). 3. Converted masses from aluminum-equivalent value of 3 dry mandible segments were similar to measured masses. The difference between the exposure directions was not significantly different (P<0.05).

  5. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  6. Test masses for the G-POEM test of the weak equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D; Popescu, Eugeniu M

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of the test masses that are used in the 'ground-based principle of equivalence measurement' test of the weak equivalence principle. The main features of the design are the incorporation of corner cubes and the use of mass removal and replacement to create pairs of test masses with different test substances. The corner cubes allow for the vertical separation of the test masses to be measured with picometer accuracy by SAO's unique tracking frequency laser gauge, while the mass removal and replacement operations are arranged so that the test masses incorporating different test substances have nominally identical gravitational properties. (papers)

  7. Mass transfer between waste canister and water seeping in rock fractures. Revisiting the Q-equivalent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Liu Longcheng; Moreno, Luis

    2010-03-01

    Models are presented for solute transport between seeping water in fractured rock and a copper canister embedded in a clay buffer. The migration through an undamaged buffer is by molecular diffusion only as the clay has so low hydraulic conductivity that water flow can be neglected. In the fractures and in any damaged zone seeping water carries the solutes to or from the vicinity of the buffer in the deposition hole. During the time the water passes the deposition hole molecular diffusion aids in the mass transfer of solutes between the water/buffer interface and the water at some distance from the interface. The residence time of the water and the contact area between the water and the buffer determine the rate of mass transfer between water and buffer. Simple analytical solutions are presented for the mass transfer in the seeping water. For complex migration geometries simplifying assumptions are made that allow analytical solutions to be obtained. The influence of variable apertures on the mass transfer is discussed and is shown to be moderate. The impact of damage to the rock around the deposition hole by spalling and by the presence of a cemented and fractured buffer is also explored. These phenomena lead to an increase of mass transfer between water and buffer. The overall rate of mass transfer between the bulk of the water and the canister is proportional to the overall concentration difference and inversely proportional to the sum of the mass transfer resistances. For visualization purposes the concept of equivalent flowrate is introduced. This entity can be thought as of the flowrate of water that will be depleted of its solute during the water passage past the deposition hole. The equivalent flowrate is also used to assess the release rate of radionuclides from a damaged canister. Examples are presented to illustrate how various factors influence the rate of mass transfer

  8. Mass transport in polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, F. J. M.; Leyte, J. C.

    1999-02-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients of the three components of a salt-free heavy-water solution of polymethacrylic acid, completely neutralized with tetra-methylammonium hydroxide, were measured over a broad concentration range. Three concentration regions were observed for the self-diffusion of both the polyions and the counterions. At polyion concentrations below 0.01 mol monomer kg-1, the dilute concentration regime for the polymer, the polyion self-diffusion coefficient approaches the self-diffusion coefficient of a freely diffusing rod upon dilution. At polyelectrolyte concentrations above 0.1 mol monomer kg-1, the self-diffusion coefficients of the solvent, the counterions and the polymer decreased with concentration, suggesting that this decrease is due to a topological constraint on the motions of the components. In the intermediate-concentration region, the self-diffusion coefficients of the polyions and the counterions are independent of the concentration. The polyion dynamic behaviour is, in the intermediate- and high-concentration regions, reasonably well described by that of a hard sphere, with a radius of 3.7 nm. A correct prediction for the solvent dynamics is given by the obstruction effect of this hard sphere on the solvent. The relative counterion self-diffusion coefficient is predicted almost quantitatively over the entire concentration range with the Poisson-Boltzmann-Smoluchowski model for the spherical cell, provided that the sphere radius and the number of charges are chosen appropriately (approximately the number of charges in a persistence length). Using this model, the dependence of the counterion self-diffusion coefficient on the ionic strength, polyion concentration and counterion radius is calculated quantitatively over a large concentration range.

  9. An equivalent method for optimization of particle tuned mass damper based on experimental parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying

    2018-04-01

    A particle tuned mass damper (PTMD) is a creative combination of a widely used tuned mass damper (TMD) and an efficient particle damper (PD) in the vibration control area. The performance of a one-storey steel frame attached with a PTMD is investigated through free vibration and shaking table tests. The influence of some key parameters (filling ratio of particles, auxiliary mass ratio, and particle density) on the vibration control effects is investigated, and it is shown that the attenuation level significantly depends on the filling ratio of particles. According to the experimental parametric study, some guidelines for optimization of the PTMD that mainly consider the filling ratio are proposed. Furthermore, an approximate analytical solution based on the concept of an equivalent single-particle damper is proposed, and it shows satisfied agreement between the simulation and experimental results. This simplified method is then used for the preliminary optimal design of a PTMD system, and a case study of a PTMD system attached to a five-storey steel structure following this optimization process is presented.

  10. Numerical fluid solutions for nonlocal electron transport in hot plasmas: Equivalent diffusion versus nonlocal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Flux limitation and preheat are important processes in electron transport occurring in laser produced plasmas. The proper calculation of both of these has been a subject receiving much attention over the entire lifetime of the laser fusion project. Where nonlocal transport (instead of simple single flux limit) has been modeled, it has always been with what we denote the equivalent diffusion solution, namely treating the transport as only a diffusion process. We introduce here a new approach called the nonlocal source solution and show it is numerically viable for laser produced plasmas. It turns out that the equivalent diffusion solution generally underestimates preheat. Furthermore, the advance of the temperature front, and especially the preheat, can be held up by artificial 'thermal barriers'. The nonlocal source method of solution, on the other hand more accurately describes preheat and can stably calculate the solution for the temperature even if the heat flux is up the gradient.

  11. Investigation of Equivalent Unsprung Mass and Nonlinear Features of Electromagnetic Actuated Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits active control and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. However, the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension introduces a significant extra mass on the unsprung mass due to the inertia of the rotating components of the actuator. The magnitude of the introduced unsprung mass is studied based on a gearbox type actuator and a ball screw type actuator. The geometry of the suspension and the actuator also influence the equivalent unsprung mass significantly. The suspension performance simulation or control logic derived should take this equivalent unsprung mass into account. Besides, an extra force should be compensated due to the nonlinear features of the suspension structure and it is studied. The active force of the actuator should compensate this extra force. The discovery of this paper provides a fundamental for evaluating the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension performance and control strategy derived as well as controlling the electromagnetic actuated active suspension more precisely.

  12. Breakdown of the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy for a quantum body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Andrei G.

    2016-01-01

    We determine active gravitational mass operator of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom - within the semiclassical approach to the Einstein equation for a gravitational field. We show that the expectation value of the mass is equivalent to energy for stationary quantum states. On the other hand, it occurs that, for quantum superpositions of stationary states with constant expectation values of energy, the expectation values of the gravitational mass exhibit time-dependent oscillations. This breaks the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy and can be observed as a macroscopic effect for a macroscopic ensemble of coherent quantum states of the atoms. The corresponding experiment could be the first direct observation of quantum effects in General Relativity. (paper)

  13. Equivalence principle, CP violations, and the Higgs-like boson mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the violation of the equivalence principle induced by a massive gravivector, i.e., the partner of the graviton in N>1 supergravity. The present limits on this violation allow us to obtain a lower bound on the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field that gives the gravivector its mass. We consider also the effective neutral kaon mass difference induced by the gravivector and compare the result with the experimental data on the CP-violation parameter ε

  14. Breakdown of the equivalence between gravitational mass and energy for a composite quantum body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Andrei G

    2014-01-01

    The simplest quantum composite body, a hydrogen atom, is considered in the presence of a weak external gravitational field. We define an operator for the passive gravitational mass of the atom in the post-Newtonian approximation of the general relativity and show that it does not commute with its energy operator. Nevertheless, the equivalence between the expectation values of the mass and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported by and moving in the Earth's gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite

  15. Does the Equivalence between Gravitational Mass and Energy Survive for a Composite Quantum Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Lebed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We define passive and active gravitational mass operators of the simplest composite quantum body—a hydrogen atom. Although they do not commute with its energy operator, the equivalence between the expectation values of passive and active gravitational masses and energy is shown to survive for stationary quantum states. In our calculations of passive gravitational mass operator, we take into account not only kinetic and Coulomb potential energies but also the so-called relativistic corrections to electron motion in a hydrogen atom. Inequivalence between passive and active gravitational masses and energy at a macroscopic level is demonstrated to reveal itself as time-dependent oscillations of the expectation values of the gravitational masses for superpositions of stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level reveals itself as unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by macroscopic ensemble of hydrogen atoms, moved by small spacecraft with constant velocity in the Earth’s gravitational field. We suggest the corresponding experiment on the Earth’s orbit to detect this radiation, which would be the first direct experiment where quantum effects in general relativity are observed.

  16. Does the Equivalence between Gravitational Mass and Energy Survive for a Quantum Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed A. G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the simplest quantum composite body, a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a weak external gravitational field. We show that passive gravitational mass operator of the atom in the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the equivalence between the expectations values of passive gravitational mass and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equiva- lence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level for station- ary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite.

  17. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained

  18. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıç, Emre, E-mail: emre.kilic@tum.de; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.

  19. Redox-Phen solution: A water equivalent dosimeter for UVA, UVB and X-rays radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, A.; Ciribolla, C.; Lazzeri, L.; d'Errico, F.

    2018-06-01

    Polysulphone films are the only type of UV passive dosimeters that are widely adopted for research and personal monitoring. Even though many studies concentrated on the development and characterization of these films, they still present some shortcomings. The more important limitations of them are that they can measure only UVB radiations and that they change color at 330 nm, requiring special equipment to read them. To overcome these limitations we developed an aqueous dosimeter that is sensitive to UVA, UVB and X-rays named Redox-Phen solution. This dosimeter is inexpensive and water equivalent, being made of more than 99 wt% of water. It changes color in the visible region upon irradiation, thus it can be measured via simple optical method, and an evaluation of the exposition can be made also by naked eyes.

  20. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between the resulting quadrupolar force on the body and the difference between the net and the monopolar forces acting on it, underscoring the utility of the approach. A dynamical technique for experimentally obtaining the mass quadrupole tensors of EP test masses is discussed, and a means of validating the results is noted

  1. Solution space assessment for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    literature study and analysis of solution space characteristics a number of metrics are described which can be used for solution space assessment. They are divided into five caterories: Profitability, Utilization, Variety Demand satisfaction, Architecture and Responsiveness. The metrics and be applied as KPI’s...

  2. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    CERN Document Server

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between th...

  3. A mass conservative numerical solution of vertical water flow and mass transport equations in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.; Lee, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the problem of one-dimensional, vertical flow of water and mass transport of conservative-nonconservative solutes in unsaturated porous media. Numerical approximations based on different forms of the governing equation, although they are equivalent in continuous forms, can result in remarkably different solutions in an unsaturated flow problem. Solutions given by a simple Galerkin method based on the h-based Richards equation yield a large mass balance error and an underestimation of the infiltration depth. With the employment of the ROMV (restoration of main variable) concept in the discretization step, the mass conservative numerical solution algorithm for water flow has been derived. The resulting computational schemes for water flow and mass transport are applied to sandy soil. The ROMV method shows good mass conservation in water flow analysis, whereas it seems to have a minor effect on mass transport. However, it may relax the time-step size restriction and so ensure an improved calculation output. (author)

  4. Metric solution of a spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on a particular class of asymptotically flat and stationary metric solutions called the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato class are reviewed about its derivation and properties. For a further study, an almost complete list of the papers worked on the Tomimatsu-Sato metrics is given. (Auth.)

  5. Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Gutierrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fracture systems have strong influence on the overall mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses due to their relatively lower stiffness and shear strength than those of the rock matrix. Understanding the effects of fracture geometrical distribution, such as length, spacing, persistence and orientation, is important for quantifying the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses. The relation between fracture geometry and the mechanical characteristics of the fractured rock mass is complicated due to the fact that the fracture geometry and mechanical behaviors of fractured rock mass are strongly dependent on the length scale. In this paper, a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the effects of fracture distribution on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses over a wide range of fracture lengths. To account for the stochastic nature of fracture distributions, three different simulation techniques involving Oda's elastic compliance tensor, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS, and suitable probability density functions (PDFs were employed to represent the elastic compliance of fractured rock masses. To yield geologically realistic results, parameters for defining fracture distributions were obtained from different geological fields. The influence of the key fracture parameters and their relations to the overall elastic behavior of the fractured rock mass were studied and discussed. A detailed study was also carried out to investigate the validity of the use of a representative element volume (REV in the equivalent continuum representation of fractured rock masses. A criterion was also proposed to determine the appropriate REV given the fracture distribution of the rock mass.

  6. Verification of the weak equivalence principle of supports and heavy masses using SQUIDs; Ueberpruefung des schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips von Traegern und schwerer Masse mittels Squids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodel, W.; Nietzsche, S.; Neubert, R. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation

    2003-07-01

    The weak equivalence principle is one of the fundamental hypotheses of general relativity and one of the key elements of our physical picture of the world, but since Galileo there has been no satisfactory way of verifying it. The new SQUID technology may offer a solution. The contribution presents the experiments of Jena University. Applications are envisaged, e.g., in the STEP space mission of the NASA/ESA. [German] Das Schwache Aequivalenzprinzip ist eine der grundlegenden Hypothesen der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie und damit einer der Grundpfeiler unseres physikalischen Weltbildes. Obwohl es seit den ersten Experimenten von Galileo Galilei am Schiefen Turm zu Pisa im Jahre 1638 bis heute schon zahlreiche und immer praeziser werdende Messungen zur Ueberpruefung der Aequivalenz von schwerer und traeger Masse gegeben hat, ist die strenge Gueltigkeit dieses fundamentalen Prinzips experimentell vergleichsweise unzureichend bestimmt. Neuere Methoden, wie der Einsatz SQUID-basierter Messtechnik und die Durchfuehrung von Experimenten auf Satelliten, lassen Verbesserungen schon in naher Zukunft erwarten, so dass theoretische Ueberlegungen zur Vereinigung aller uns bekannten physikalischen Wechselwirkungen, die eine Verletzung des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips voraussagen, experimentell eingegrenzt werden koennten. Der Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die an der Universitaet Jena entwickelte SQUID-basierte Messtechnik zum Test des Aequivalenzprinzips und fasst die bisher bei Freifallversuchen am Fallturm Bremen erzielten experimentellen Ergebnisse zusammen. Ein Ausblick auf die geplante Raumfahrtmission STEP der NASA/ESA zum Praezisionstest des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips schliesst den Beitrag ab. (orig.)

  7. Bridging the knowledge gap: An analysis of Albert Einstein's popularized presentation of the equivalence of mass and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit

    2014-11-01

    This article presents an analysis of a scientific article written by Albert Einstein in 1946 for the general public that explains the equivalence of mass and energy and discusses the implications of this principle. It is argued that an intelligent popularization of many advanced ideas in physics requires more than the simple elimination of mathematical formalisms and complicated scientific conceptions. Rather, it is shown that Einstein developed an alternative argument for the general public that bypasses the core of the formal derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy to provide a sense of derivation based on the history of science and the nature of scientific inquiry. This alternative argument is supported and enhanced by variety of explanatory devices orchestrated to coherently support and promote the reader's understanding. The discussion centers on comparisons to other scientific expositions written by Einstein for the general public. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Installation with magnetic suspension of test bodies for measurement of small forces. Verification of equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalebin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Torsion installation with magnetic suspension of test bodies for detection of small forces is considered. Installation application for verification of equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass in the case of test body incidence on the Earth (Etvesh experiment) and in the case of their incidene on the Sun (Dicke experiment) is discussed. The total mass of test bodies, produced in the form of cylinders with 3 cm radius, equals 50 kg (one lead body and one copper body); beam radius of test bodies equals 3 cm (the cylinders are tight against one another); ferrite cylinder with 3 cm radius and 10 cm height is used for their suspension in magnetic field. Effect of thermal noise and electromagnetic force disturbances on measurement results is considered. Conducted calculations show that suggested installation enables to improve the accuracy of verifying mentioned equivalence at least by one order and upwards. This suggests that such installation is a matter of interest for experiments on small force detection

  9. The Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of spinning mass solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    The closed form with an arbitrary positive integer distortion parameter delta of the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of spinning mass solutions, i.e., stationary axisymmetric, asymptotically flat exact solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations Rsub(μγ) = 0 is presented. The generalization of the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of solutions to the case of the arbitrary positive non-integral distortion parameter delta is conjectured. Some analytic properties of the family of solutions are studied. It is shown that all ring singularities are of first order and all ergosurfaces are simple zeros of metric functions f. The charged Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of solutions is also given in the closed form with an arbitrary positive integer distortion parameter delta. It is shown that the Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula of the Kerr-Newman field or the delta = 1 member of the present family of solutions also holds true in the case of the charged Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of solutions with an arbitary odd integer delta. (Auth.)

  10. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Oligomers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Azurin Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, L.; Williamson, H.; Sýkora, Jan; Hof, Martin; Gray, H. B.; Brutschy, B.; Vlček, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 16 (2011), s. 4790-4800 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10124; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * oligomers * pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin solutions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  11. Equivalent Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.

    1982-01-01

    We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)

  12. On the generation of magnetostatic solutions from gravitational two-soliton solutions of a stationary mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, A. [B.K.C. College, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)

    2017-11-15

    In the paper, magnetostatic solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations are generated from the gravitational two-soliton solutions of a stationary mass. Using the soliton technique of Belinskii and Zakharov (Sov Phys JETP 48:985, 1978, Sov Phys JETP 50:1, 1979), we construct diagonal two-soliton solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations for an axially symmetric stationary space-time and investigate some properties of the generated stationary gravitational metric. Magnetostatic solutions corresponding to the generated stationary gravitational solutions are then constructed using the transformation technique of Das and Chaudhuri (Pramana J Phys 40:277, 1993). The mass and the dipole moment of the source are evaluated. In our analysis we make use of a second transformation (Chaudhuri in Pramana J Phys 58:449, 2002), probably for the first time in the literature, to generate magnetostatic solutions from the stationary gravitational two-soliton solutions which give us simple and straightforward expressions for the mass and the magnetic dipole moment. (orig.)

  13. Global multiresolution models of surface wave propagation: comparing equivalently regularized Born and ray theoretical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Lapo

    2006-10-01

    I invert a large set of teleseismic phase-anomaly observations, to derive tomographic maps of fundamental-mode surface wave phase velocity, first via ray theory, then accounting for finite-frequency effects through scattering theory, in the far-field approximation and neglecting mode coupling. I make use of a multiple-resolution pixel parametrization which, in the assumption of sufficient data coverage, should be adequate to represent strongly oscillatory Fréchet kernels. The parametrization is finer over North America, a region particularly well covered by the data. For each surface-wave mode where phase-anomaly observations are available, I derive a wide spectrum of plausible, differently damped solutions; I then conduct a trade-off analysis, and select as optimal solution model the one associated with the point of maximum curvature on the trade-off curve. I repeat this exercise in both theoretical frameworks, to find that selected scattering and ray theoretical phase-velocity maps are coincident in pattern, and differ only slightly in amplitude.

  14. On the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass of extended bodies in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that in any metric theory of gravitation passessing conservation laws for energy-momentum of the substance and gravitational field taken together, the motion of centre of extended body mass occurs not according to the geodesic Riemann space-time. The centre of mass of the extended body during its motion about the orbit makes a vibrational movement in relation to supporting geodesic. Application of obtained general formulas to the Sun-Earth system and the use of experimental results on the Moon location with the regard of other experiments has shown with high accuracy of 10 -10 that the relation of gravitational passive Earth mass to its inert mass does not equal to 1 differing from it about 10 -8 . The Earth at its orbital motion makes a vibrational movement in relation to supporting geodesic with a period of 1 hour and amplitude not less than 10 -2 sm. the deviation of the Earth mass center motion from geodesic movement can be found in a corresponding experiment having a postnewton accuracy degree

  15. Long-range correlations, geometrical structure, and transport properties of macromolecular solutions. The equivalence of configurational statistics and geometrodynamics of large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A

    2007-12-04

    A special theory of Brownian relativity was previously proposed to describe the universal picture arising in ideal polymer solutions. In brief, it redefines a Gaussian macromolecule in a 4-dimensional diffusive spacetime, establishing a (weak) Lorentz-Poincaré invariance between liquid and polymer Einstein's laws for Brownian movement. Here, aimed at inquiring into the effect of correlations, we deepen the extension of the special theory to a general formulation. The previous statistical equivalence, for dynamic trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of macromolecules, and rather obvious in uncorrelated systems, is enlarged by a more general principle of equivalence, for configurational statistics and geometrodynamics. Accordingly, the three geodesic motion, continuity, and field equations could be rewritten, and a number of scaling behaviors were recovered in a spacetime endowed with general static isotropic metric (i.e., for equilibrium polymer solutions). We also dealt with universality in the volume fraction and, unexpectedly, found that a hyperscaling relation of the form, (average size) x (diffusivity) x (viscosity)1/2 ~f(N0, phi0) is fulfilled in several regimes, both in the chain monomer number (N) and polymer volume fraction (phi). Entangled macromolecular dynamics was treated as a geodesic light deflection, entaglements acting in close analogy to the field generated by a spherically symmetric mass source, where length fluctuations of the chain primitive path behave as azimuth fluctuations of its shape. Finally, the general transformation rule for translational and diffusive frames gives a coordinate gauge invariance, suggesting a widened Lorentz-Poincaré symmetry for Brownian statistics. We expect this approach to find effective applications to solutions of arbitrarily large molecules displaying a variety of structures, where the effect of geometry is more explicit and significant in itself (e.g., surfactants, lipids, proteins).

  16. Consistency of the Mach principle and the gravitational-to-inertial mass equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Kh.K.; Chubykalo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Kinematics of the system, composed of two bodies, interacting with each other according to inverse-square law, was investigated. It is shown that the Mach principle, earlier rejected by the general relativity theory, can be used as an alternative for the absolute space concept, if it is proposed, that distant star background dictates both inertial and gravitational mass of a body

  17. EQUIVALENT WIDTHS FROM THE 3D-HST SURVEY: EVOLUTION WITH REDSHIFT AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Kriek, Mariska

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8 1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star-forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to specific star formation rate (sSFR) is model dependent because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ∼ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1 + z) 3.2 , nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.

  18. Solution algorithms for a PN-1 - Equivalent SN angular discretization of the transport equation in one-dimensional spherical coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warsa, J. S.; Morel, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Angular discretizations of the S N transport equation in curvilinear coordinate systems may result in a streaming-plus-removal operator that is dense in the angular variable or that is not lower-triangular. We investigate numerical solution algorithms for such angular discretizations using relationships given by Chandrasekhar to compute the angular derivatives in the one-dimensional S N transport equation in spherical coordinates with Gauss quadrature. This discretization makes the S N transport equation P N-1 - equivalent, but it also makes the sweep operator dense at every spatial point because the N angular derivatives are expressed in terms of the N angular fluxes. To avoid having to invert the sweep operator directly, we must work with the angular fluxes to solve the equations iteratively. We show how we can use approximations to the sweep operator to precondition the full P N-1 equivalent S N equations. We show that these pre-conditioners affect the operator enough such that convergence of a Krylov iterative method improves. (authors)

  19. Analysis of metals in solution using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Berkel, G.J.; McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ES-MS) has gained most of its recent attention because of the ability to produce multiply charged ions from very large biomolecules making them amenable to analysis by most modern mass spectrometers. However, ES-MS is equally well suited for compounds of low or moderate molecular weight that are difficult to volatilize intact by others methods. Moreover, the early work of Fenn and co-workers (1,2) and recent reports by Kebarle and co-workers (3,4) attest to the applicability of ES-MS to the study of the gas-phase chemistry of multiply solvated or coordinated metal ions. The utility of ES-MS for the analysis of metals in solution derives in part from the facility with which the metal ions are solvated by or form complexes with the ES solvent or other reagents added to the solvent. Solvation and complexation can be a hindrance, however, in the analytical application of ES-MS to the analysis of metals in solution, especially solutions of metals in water. The data presented here demonstrate that many of the problems in the ES-MS analysis of metals can be overcome by complexing the metals with crown ethers and/or extracting the metals from water into an organic phase using crown ethers. 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. Validity of M-3Y force equivalent G-matrix elements for calculations of the nuclear structure in heavy mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lan; Huang Weizhi; Zhou Baosen

    1996-01-01

    Using the matrix elements of M-3Y force as the equivalent G-matrix elements, the spectra of 210 Pb, 206 Pb, 206 Hg and 210 Po are calculated in the framework of the Folded Diagram Method. The results show that such equivalent matrix elements are suitable for microscopic calculations of the nuclear structure in heavy mass region

  1. Global stability and exact solution of an arbitrary-solute nonlinear cellular mass transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, James D

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of the cellular state as a function of extracellular concentrations and temperatures has been of interest to physiologists for nearly a century. One of the most widely used models in the field is one where mass flux is linearly proportional to the concentration difference across the membrane. These fluxes define a nonlinear differential equation system for the intracellular state, which when coupled with appropriate initial conditions, define the intracellular state as a function of the extracellular concentrations of both permeating and nonpermeating solutes. Here we take advantage of a reparametrization scheme to extend existing stability results to a more general setting and to a develop analytical solutions to this model for an arbitrary number of extracellular solutes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Origin of Mass. Mass and Mass-Energy Equation from Classical-Mechanics Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-Johansson, J. X.; Johansson, P-I.

    2005-01-01

    We establish the classical wave equation for a particle formed of a massless oscillatory elementary charge generally also traveling, and the resulting electromagnetic waves, of a generally Doppler-effected angular frequency $\\w$, in the vacuum in three dimensions. We obtain from the solutions the total energy of the particle wave to be $\\eng=\\hbarc\\w$, $2\\pi \\hbarc$ being a function expressed in wave-medium parameters and identifiable as the Planck constant. In respect to the train of the wav...

  3. Foods for a Mission to Mars: Equivalent System Mass and Development of a Multipurpose Small-Scale Seed Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolph, J.; Chen, G.; Weiss, I.; Perchonok, D. M.; Wijeratne, W.; Fortune, S.; Corvalan, C.; Campanella, O.; Okos, M.; Mauer, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    The candidate crops for planetary food systems include: wheat, white and sweet potatoes, soybean, peanut, strawberry, dry bean including le ntil and pinto, radish, rice, lettuce, carrot, green onion, tomato, p eppers, spinach, and cabbage. Crops such as wheat, potatoes, soybean, peanut, dry bean, and rice can only be utilized after processing, while others are classified as ready-to-eat. To process foods in space, the food processing subsystem must be capable of producing a variety of nutritious, acceptable, and safe edible ingredients and food produ cts from pre-packaged and resupply foods as well as salad crops grown on the transit vehicle or other crops grown on planetary surfaces. D esigning, building, developing, and maintaining such a subsystem is b ound to many constraints and restrictions. The limited power supply, storage locations, variety of crops, crew time, need to minimize waste , and other equivalent system mass (ESM) parameters must be considere d in the selection of processing equipment and techniques.

  4. Equivalent Widths from the 3D-HST Survey: Evolution with Redshift and Dependence on Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 1.5 with those of ground-based surveys at lower and higher redshift, we can consistently determine the evolution of the EW(Hα) distribution from z = 0 to z = 2.2. We find that at all masses the characteristic EW(Hα) is decreasing toward the present epoch, and that at each redshift the EW(Hα) is lower for high-mass galaxies. We find EW(Hα) ~(1 + z)1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star-forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to specific star formation rate (sSFR) is model dependent because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ~ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1 + z)3.2, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 12177, 12328.

  5. Mass Customisation and Highly Individualised Solutions. Stretching Mass Customisation Beyond the Traditional Paradigm of Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2007-01-01

    and consumption patterns. The reference to a paradigm shift helps emphasising the inherent limits of industrial production and the elements of changes brought about by the possibility to generate highly individualised solutions. The concept of mass customisation was introduced to extend the domain of industrial...... production beyond its original limitations, however it is strongly linked to the paradigm of industrial production and not always usable to support and explain new ways of organising value creation. This paper proposes an analysis of this paradigm shift through three cases, which emphasise some elements...... of mass customisation that are still relevant to the new paradigm. At the same time the paper emphasises the limits of this concept and the need for a new perspective view to interpret the ongoing change in production and consumption systems....

  6. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manko, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the vacuum Einstein equations representing the exterior gravitational field of a stationary axisymmetric mass with an arbitrary mass-multipole structure is presented

  7. All 36 exactly solvable solutions of eigenvalues for nuclear electric quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian and equivalent rigid asymmetric rotor with expanded characteristic equation listing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, Lorenz Harry, E-mail: lnz2004@mindspring.com [University of Pittsburgh (United States)

    2012-05-15

    This paper derives all 36 analytical solutions of the energy eigenvalues for nuclear electric quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian and equivalent rigid asymmetric rotor for polynomial degrees 1 through 4 using classical algebraic theory. By the use of double-parameterization the full general solution sets are illustrated in a compact, symmetric, structural, and usable form that is valid for asymmetry parameter {eta} is an element of (- {infinity}, + {infinity}). These results are useful for code developers in the area of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC), Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) and rotational spectroscopy who want to offer exact solutions whenever possible, rather that resorting to numerical solutions. In addition, by using standard linear algebra methods, the characteristic equations of all integer and half-integer spins I from 0 to 15, inclusive are represented in a compact and naturally parameterized form that illustrates structure and symmetries. This extends Nielson's listing of characteristic equations for integer spins out to I = 15, inclusive.

  8. Spatially unresolved SED fitting can underestimate galaxy masses: a solution to the missing mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorba, Robert; Sawicki, Marcin

    2018-05-01

    We perform spatially resolved, pixel-by-pixel Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting on galaxies up to z ˜ 2.5 in the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF). Comparing stellar mass estimates from spatially resolved and spatially unresolved photometry we find that unresolved masses can be systematically underestimated by factors of up to 5. The ratio of the unresolved to resolved mass measurement depends on the galaxy's specific star formation rate (sSFR): at low sSFRs the bias is small, but above sSFR ˜ 10-9.5 yr-1 the discrepancy increases rapidly such that galaxies with sSFRs ˜ 10-8 yr-1 have unresolved mass estimates of only one-half to one-fifth of the resolved value. This result indicates that stellar masses estimated from spatially unresolved data sets need to be systematically corrected, in some cases by large amounts, and we provide an analytic prescription for applying this correction. We show that correcting stellar mass measurements for this bias changes the normalization and slope of the star-forming main sequence and reduces its intrinsic width; most dramatically, correcting for the mass bias increases the stellar mass density of the Universe at high redshift and can resolve the long-standing discrepancy between the directly measured cosmic SFR density at z ≳ 1 and that inferred from stellar mass densities (`the missing mass problem').

  9. The updated bottom up solution applied to atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAGs). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionizatio...

  10. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a charged spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, A.; Manko, V.S.; Denisova, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing the exterior gravitational field of a charged rotating axisymmetric mass possessing an arbitrary set of multipole moments is presented explicitly

  11. Examination and Manipulation of Protein Surface Charge in Solution with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Deborah S.; Van Ryswyk, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful tool for examining the charge of proteins in solution. The charge can be manipulated through choice of solvent and pH. Furthermore, solution-accessible, protonated lysine side chains can be specifically tagged with 18-crown-6 ether to form noncovalent adducts. Chemical derivatization…

  12. CO2 Mass transfer model for carbonic anhydrase-enhanced aqueous MDEA solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Neerup, Randi

    2018-01-01

    In this study a CO2 mass transfer model was developed for carbonic anhydrase-enhanced MDEA solutions based on a mechanistic kinetic enzyme model. Four different enzyme models were compared in their ability to predict the liquid side mass transfer coefficient at temperatures in the range of 298...

  13. Cancellation of the central singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Pierre; D'Agostini, G.

    2015-03-01

    We reconsider the classical Schwarzschild solution in the context of a Janus cosmological model. We show that the central singularity can be eliminated through a simple coordinate change and that the subsequent transit from one fold to the other is accompanied by mass inversion. In such scenario matter swallowed by black holes could be ejected as invisible negative mass and dispersed in space.

  14. Heat and mass transfer at adiabatic evaporation of binary zeotropic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, M. S.; Makarova, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a laminar flow of three-component gas at adiabatic evaporation of binary solutions from a flat plate are presented. The studies were carried out for the perfect solution of ethanol/methanol and zeotrope solutions of water/acetone, benzene/acetone, and ethanol/acetone. The liquid-vapor equilibrium is described by the Raoult law for the ideal solution and Carlson-Colburn model for real solutions. The effect of gas temperature and liquid composition on the heat and diffusion flows, and temperature of vapor-gas mixture at the interface is analyzed. The formula for calculating the temperature of the evaporation surface for the binary liquid mixtures using the similarity of heat and mass transfer was proposed. Data of numerical simulations are in a good agreement with the results of calculations based on the proposed dependence for all examined liquid mixtures in the considered range of temperatures and pressures.

  15. Ranked solutions to a class of combinatorial optimizations—with applications in mass spectrometry based peptide sequencing and a variant of directed paths in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Timothy P.; Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2005-08-01

    Typical combinatorial optimizations are NP-hard; however, for a particular class of cost functions the corresponding combinatorial optimizations can be solved in polynomial time using the transfer matrix technique or, equivalently, the dynamic programming approach. This suggests a way to efficiently find approximate solutions-find a transformation that makes the cost function as similar as possible to that of the solvable class. After keeping many high-ranking solutions using the approximate cost function, one may then re-assess these solutions with the full cost function to find the best approximate solution. Under this approach, it is important to be able to assess the quality of the solutions obtained, e.g., by finding the true ranking of the kth best approximate solution when all possible solutions are considered exhaustively. To tackle this statistical issue, we provide a systematic method starting with a scaling function generated from the finite number of high-ranking solutions followed by a convergent iterative mapping. This method, useful in a variant of the directed paths in random media problem proposed here, can also provide a statistical significance assessment for one of the most important proteomic tasks-peptide sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry data. For directed paths in random media, the scaling function depends on the particular realization of randomness; in the mass spectrometry case, the scaling function is spectrum-specific.

  16. Infrared fixed point solution for the top quark mass and unification of couplings in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Carena, M.; Pokorski, S.; Wagner, C.E.M.

    1993-08-01

    We analyze the implications of the infrared quasi fixed point solution for the top quark mass in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. This solution could explain in a natural way the relatively large value of the top quark mass and, if confirmed experimentally, may be suggestive of the onset of nonperturbative physics at very high energy scales. In the framework of grand unification, the expected bottom quark -- tau lepton Yukawa coupling unification is very sensitive to the fixed point structure of the top quark mass. For the presently allowed values of the electroweak parameters and the bottom quark mass, the Yukawa coupling unification implies that the top quark mass must be within ten percent of its fixed point values

  17. Mass transfer processes and field-scale transport of organic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusseau, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of mass transfer processes, such as sorption/desorption and mass transfer between immiscible liquids and water, on the transport of organic solutes is discussed. Rate-limited sorption of organic solutes caused by a diffusion-constrained mechanism is shown to be significant under laboratory conditions. The significance of the impact of nonequilibrium sorption on field-scale transport is scale dependent. The impact of organic liquids on mass transfer and transport of organic solutes depends upon the nature of the solute and the nature and form of the organic liquid. For example, while retardation of nonionic solutes is decreased in mixed-solvent systems, (i.e. systems comprised of water and a miscible organic liquid or an immiscible liquid present in concentrations below phase separation), the retardation of organic acids may, in some cases, increase with addition of a cosolvent. While the presence of an immiscible liquid existing as a mobile phase will reduce retention of organic solutes, the presence of residual saturation of an immiscible liquid can significantly increase retention. A model is presented that incorporates the effects of retention resulting from residual saturation, as well as nonequilibrium sorption, on the transport of organic solutes. (Author) (70 refs., 3 figs.)

  18. Nanopteron solutions of diatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou lattices with small mass-ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Aaron; Wright, J. Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Consider an infinite chain of masses, each connected to its nearest neighbors by a (nonlinear) spring. This is a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou lattice. We prove the existence of traveling waves in the setting where the masses alternate in size. In particular we address the limit where the mass ratio tends to zero. The problem is inherently singular and we find that the traveling waves are not true solitary waves but rather ;nanopterons;, which is to say, waves which are asymptotic at spatial infinity to very small amplitude periodic waves. Moreover, we can only find solutions when the mass ratio lies in a certain open set. The difficulties in the problem all revolve around understanding Jost solutions of a nonlocal Schrödinger operator in its semi-classical limit.

  19. U-233 fuelled low critical mass solution reactor experiment PURNIMA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Chandramoleshwar, K.; Pasupathy, C.S.; Rasheed, K.K.; Subba Rao, K.

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous U-233 uranyl nitrate solution fuelled BeO reflected, low critical mass reactor has been built at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Christened PURNIMA II, the reactor was used for the study of the variation of critical mass as a function of fuel solution concentration to determine the minimum critical mass achievable for this geometry. Other experiments performed include the determination of temperature coefficient of reactivity, study of time behaviour of photoneutrons produced due to interaction between decaying U-233 fission product gammas and the beryllium reflector and reactor noise measurements. Besides being the only operational U-233 fuelled reactor at present, PURNIMA II also has the distinction of having attained the lowest critical mass of 397 g of fissile fuel for any operating reactor at the current time. The paper briefly describes the facility and gives an account of the experiments performed and results achieved. (author)

  20. How fast can a black hole eat. [Equation stationary spherically symmetric solutions, Thompson scattering, mass flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.

  1. Thermo-mechanical analysis of FG nanobeam with attached tip mass: an exact solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Jafari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Present disquisition proposes an analytical solution method for exploring the vibration characteristics of a cantilever functionally graded nanobeam with a concentrated mass exposed to thermal loading for the first time. Thermo-mechanical properties of FGM nanobeam are supposed to change through the thickness direction of beam based on the rule of power-law (P-FGM). The small-scale effect is taken into consideration based on nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. Linear temperature rise (LTR) through thickness direction is studied. Existence of centralized mass in the free end of nanobeam influences the mechanical and physical properties. Timoshenko beam theory is employed to derive the nonlocal governing equations and boundary conditions of FGM beam attached with a tip mass under temperature field via Hamilton's principle. An exact solution procedure is exploited to achieve the non-dimensional frequency of FG nanobeam exposed to temperature field with a tip mass. A parametric study is led to assess the efficacy of temperature changes, tip mass, small scale, beam thickness, power-law exponent, slenderness and thermal loading on the natural frequencies of FG cantilever nanobeam with a point mass at the free end. It is concluded that these parameters play remarkable roles on the dynamic behavior of FG nanobeam subjected to LTR with a tip mass. The results for simpler states are confirmed with known data in the literature. Presented numerical results can serve as benchmarks for future thermo-mechanical analyses of FG nanobeam with tip mass.

  2. Transport Visualization for Studying Mass Transfer and Solute Transport in Permeable Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Haggerty

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting mass transfer coupled with solute transport in permeable media is central to several energy-related programs at the US Department of Energy (e.g., CO 2 sequestration, nuclear waste disposal, hydrocarbon extraction, and groundwater remediation). Mass transfer is the set of processes that control movement of a chemical between mobile (advection-dominated) domains and immobile (diffusion- or sorption-dominated) domains within a permeable medium. Consequences of mass transfer on solute transport are numerous and may include (1) increased sequestration time within geologic formations; (2) reduction in average solute transport velocity by as much as several orders of magnitude; (3) long ''tails'' in concentration histories during removal of a solute from a permeable medium; (4) poor predictions of solute behavior over long time scales; and (5) changes in reaction rates due to mass transfer influences on pore-scale mixing of solutes. Our work produced four principle contributions: (1) the first comprehensive visualization of solute transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media; (2) the beginnings of a theoretical framework that encompasses both macrodispersion and mass transfer within a single set of equations; (3) experimental and analytical tools necessary for understanding mixing and aqueous reaction in heterogeneous, granular porous media; (4) a clear experimental demonstration that reactive transport is often not accurately described by a simple coupling of the convection-dispersion equation with chemical reaction equations. The work shows that solute transport in heterogeneous media can be divided into 3 regimes--macrodispersion, advective mass transfer, and diffusive mass transfer--and that these regimes can be predicted quantitatively in binary media. We successfully predicted mass transfer in each of these regimes and verified the prediction by completing quantitative visualization experiments in each of the regimes, the

  3. The calculus and the design of a miniature quadrupole mass filter: a selected solution from different types of mass analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C.; Ioanoviciu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Chis, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mass spectrometers are very precise tools used in chemical and isotopic analysis for environmental surveillance. Traditionally environmental analysis is done by sampling the soil, air or water and taking the sample back to the laboratory for analysis. To avoid the difficulties related with the sample alteration during the sampling process and the transport the analysis 'in situ' is to be preferred. This type of analysis combines the sampling and analysis and produces an analytical result almost instantly. Fast-response detection methods are highly desirable in cases where relatively short-lived species are to be examined. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzers can be miniaturized, but some are better suited for miniaturization than others. We studied comparatively different types of mass analyzers that can be miniaturized, especially quadrupole, magnetic sector and time of flight types, in view to select from all these, the best solution for our purpose, the application to the 'in situ' environmental monitoring and inspection, analytical process control. We investigated and calculated the properties of some geometrical arrangements that we reported, one of these being a double focusing mass analyzer with electric deflector and magnetic deflector combined in a reversed geometry. From the different calculated versions we selected the following one, with the characteristic parameters: n = 62, f = 2 MHz, L = 0.07 m, r 0 = 2.616 x 10 -3 m, E z = 5 V, R housing = 3.5 r 0 , V m = 1000 V, R max = 200, M max = 200 u. Starting from these mechanical and electrical parameters we calculated and designed a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer. A theoretical study of the ion trajectories in the quadrupole analyzer by matrix formalism as well as by using Mathieu functions was made. Using the program SIMION 6, the trajectories inside the quadrupole filter were also simulated. The calculus of the ion trajectories starts by numerically solving of the Mathieu type equation

  4. Shape space figure-8 solution of three body problem with two equal masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guowei

    2017-06-01

    In a preprint by Montgomery (https://people.ucsc.edu/~rmont/Nbdy.html), the author attempted to prove the existence of a shape space figure-8 solution of the Newtonian three body problem with two equal masses (it looks like a figure 8 in the shape space, which is different from the famous figure-8 solution with three equal masses (Chenciner and Montgomery 2000 Ann. Math. 152 881-901)). Unfortunately there is an error in the proof and the problem is still open. Consider the α-homogeneous Newton-type potential, 1/rα, using action minimization method, we prove the existence of this solution, for α \\in (1, 2) ; for α=1 (the Newtonian potential), an extra condition is required, which unfortunately seems hard to verify at this moment.

  5. Ranked solutions to a class of combinatorial optimizations - with applications in mass spectrometry based peptide sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Timothy; Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    Typical combinatorial optimizations are NP-hard; however, for a particular class of cost functions the corresponding combinatorial optimizations can be solved in polynomial time. This suggests a way to efficiently find approximate solutions - - find a transformation that makes the cost function as similar as possible to that of the solvable class. After keeping many high-ranking solutions using the approximate cost function, one may then re-assess these solutions with the full cost function to find the best approximate solution. Under this approach, it is important to be able to assess the quality of the solutions obtained, e.g., by finding the true ranking of kth best approximate solution when all possible solutions are considered exhaustively. To tackle this statistical issue, we provide a systematic method starting with a scaling function generated from the fininte number of high- ranking solutions followed by a convergent iterative mapping. This method, useful in a variant of the directed paths in random media problem proposed here, can also provide a statistical significance assessment for one of the most important proteomic tasks - - peptide sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry data.

  6. Analytical solution and simplified analysis of coupled parent-daughter steady-state transport with multirate mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Haggerty

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, a steady-state analytical solution of concentrations of a parent solute reacting to a daughter solute, both of which are undergoing transport and multirate mass transfer, is presented. Although the governing equations are complicated, the resulting solution can be expressed in simple terms. A function of the ratio of concentrations, In (daughter...

  7. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  8. The equivalence theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, H.

    1990-01-01

    The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs

  9. Mass transfer performance comparison of two commonly used liquid desiccants: LiBr and LiCl aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.H.; Yi, X.Q.; Jiang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Mass transfer performance of two commonly used liquid desiccants, LiBr aqueous solution and LiCl aqueous solution, is compared in this paper on the basis of the same solution temperature and surface vapor pressure. According to the analysis of the analytical solutions of heat and mass transfer processes, the key performance influencing factors are heat capacity ratio of air to desiccant m * and mass transfer unit NTU m . The heat capacities of the two liquid desiccants are about the same at same volumetric flow rate, and LiBr solution has higher density and smaller specific heat capacity. The variance of mass transfer unit with different operating conditions and liquid desiccants are derived based on the experimental results. In the condition of the same desiccant mass flow rate, the dehumidification performance of LiCl solution is better, and the regeneration performance of LiBr solution is a little better or almost the same as that of LiCl solution. In the condition of the same desiccant volumetric flow rate, the dehumidification performance of LiCl solution is a little better or about the same compared with LiBr solution, and the regeneration performance of LiBr solution is better. The COPs of the liquid desiccant systems using these two desiccants are similar; while LiCl solution costs 18% lower than LiBr solution at current Chinese price.

  10. Eutectic fusion used for the survey of transport of mass in metallic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savane, Y.S.; Katty, S.; Balde, M.L.; Cisse, S.; Rogov, V.I.

    1997-09-01

    The phenomenon of eutectic fusion could be used for the survey of transport of mass in metallic solutions, which allows to determine the part of the ionic conductibility in the solutions. The survey done in the system In 2 Bi Bi-In at a temperature of 72 deg. C with a current of 4A allowed to find a ionic current of 2,6.10 -3 which constitutes about 0,07% of the total current. So the part of ionic conductibility in the eutectic fusion of the system In 2 Bi Bi-In is of 0,07%. (author)

  11. Mass and spin of double dual solutions in Poincare gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.; Wallner, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Mass and spin are derived for a class of exact solutions of the Poincare gauge (PG) theory of gravity, provided the curvature fulfills a modified double-duality ansatz. It is executed a (3+1)-decomposition and clarified and semplified the structure of the energy-momentum and spin complexes. In case the quadratic PG Lagrangian contains the curvature-square pieces in the Yang-Mills fashion, the (3+1)-decomposition provides rather detailed information on admissible solutions. The PG energy-momentum complex turns out to be intimately related to the von Freud complex of general relativity

  12. A Solution of the Convective-Diffusion Equation for Solute Mass Transfer inside a Capillary Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Godongwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model of substrate mass transfer through the lumen of a membrane bioreactor. The model is a solution of the convective-diffusion equation in two dimensions using a regular perturbation technique. The analysis accounts for radial-convective flow as well as axial diffusion of the substrate specie. The model is applicable to the different modes of operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR systems (e.g., dead-end, open-shell, or closed-shell mode, as well as the vertical or horizontal orientation. The first-order limit of the Michaelis-Menten equation for substrate consumption was used to test the developed model against available analytical results. The results obtained from the application of this model, along with a biofilm growth kinetic model, will be useful in the derivation of an efficiency expression for enzyme production in an MBR.

  13. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  14. Asymptotic iteration method solutions to the d-dimensional Schroedinger equation with position-dependent mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuk, F.; Tekin, S.; Boztosun, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the exact solutions of the d-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a position-dependent mass m(r)=1/(1+ζ 2 r 2 ) is presented for a free particle, V(r)=0, by using the method of point canonical transformations. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding wavefunctions for the effective potential which is to be a generalized Poeschl-Teller potential are obtained within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method.

  15. Mass transfer of a neutral solute in porous microchannel under streaming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; De, Sirshendu

    2014-03-01

    The mass transport of a neutral solute in a porous wall, under the influence of streaming field, has been analyzed in this study. The effect of the induced streaming field on the electroviscous effect of the fluid for different flow geometries has been suitably quantified. The overall electroosmotic velocity profile and expression for streaming field have been obtained analytically using the Debye-Huckel approximation, and subsequently used in the analysis for the mass transport. The analysis shows that as the solution Debye length increases, the strength of the streaming field and, consequently, the electroviscous effect diminishes. The species transport equation has been coupled with Darcy's law for quantification of the permeation rate across the porous wall. The concentration profile inside the mass transfer boundary layer has been solved using the similarity transformation, and the Sherwood number has been calculated from the definition. In this study, the variation of the permeation rate and solute permeate concentration has been with the surface potential, wall retention factor and osmotic pressure coefficient has been demonstrated for both the circular as well as rectangular channel cross-section. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Persistent junk solutions in time-domain modeling of extreme mass ratio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Scott E.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Lau, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of metric perturbation theory for nonspinning black holes, extreme mass ratio binary systems are described by distributionally forced master wave equations. Numerical solution of a master wave equation as an initial boundary value problem requires initial data. However, because the correct initial data for generic-orbit systems is unknown, specification of trivial initial data is a common choice, despite being inconsistent and resulting in a solution which is initially discontinuous in time. As is well known, this choice leads to a burst of junk radiation which eventually propagates off the computational domain. We observe another potential consequence of trivial initial data: development of a persistent spurious solution, here referred to as the Jost junk solution, which contaminates the physical solution for long times. This work studies the influence of both types of junk on metric perturbations, waveforms, and self-force measurements, and it demonstrates that smooth modified source terms mollify the Jost solution and reduce junk radiation. Our concluding section discusses the applicability of these observations to other numerical schemes and techniques used to solve distributionally forced master wave equations.

  17. Algebraic solutions of shape-invariant position-dependent effective mass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Naila, E-mail: naila.amir@live.com, E-mail: naila.amir@seecs.edu.pk [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Shahid, E-mail: sic80@hotmail.com, E-mail: siqbal@sns.nust.edu.pk [School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    Keeping in view the ordering ambiguity that arises due to the presence of position-dependent effective mass in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian, a general scheme for obtaining algebraic solutions of quantum mechanical systems with position-dependent effective mass is discussed. We quantize the Hamiltonian of the pertaining system by using symmetric ordering of the operators concerning momentum and the spatially varying mass, initially proposed by von Roos and Lévy-Leblond. The algebraic method, used to obtain the solutions, is based on the concepts of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance. In order to exemplify the general formalism a class of non-linear oscillators has been considered. This class includes the particular example of a one-dimensional oscillator with different position-dependent effective mass profiles. Explicit expressions for the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions in terms of generalized Hermite polynomials are presented. Moreover, properties of these modified Hermite polynomials, like existence of generating function and recurrence relations among the polynomials have also been studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results for the linear harmonic oscillator are recovered.

  18. Periodic travelling and non-travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with imaginary mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2008-01-01

    Exact solutions, including the periodic travelling and non-travelling wave solutions, are presented for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with imaginary mass. Some arbitrary functions are permitted in the periodic non-travelling wave solutions, which contribute to various high dimensional nonlinear structures

  19. Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent model and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E E L; Barrett, M R T; Freeman-Parry, L; Bojar, R A; Clench, M R

    2018-04-01

    Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent (LSE) model and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to identify lipids directly involved as potential biomarkers. These biomarkers may be used to determine whether an in vivo wound is going to heal for example if infected. An in vitro LSE model was wounded with a scalpel blade and assessed at day 4 post-wounding by histology and MALDI-MSI. Samples were sectioned at wound site and were either formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histology or snapped frozen (FF) for MSI analysis. The combination of using an in vitro wounded skin model with MSI allowed the identification of lipids involved in the skin barrier repair/wound healing process. The technique was able to highlight lipids directly in the wound site and distinguish differences in lipid distribution between the epidermis and wound site. This novel method of coupling an in vitro LSE with MSI allowed in-depth molecular analysis of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process. The technique allowed the identification of lipids directly involved in the skin barrier repair/wound healing process, indicating these biomarkers may be potentially be used within the clinic. These biomarkers will help to determine, which stage of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process the wound is in to provide the best treatment. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Augmentation of DAA Staggered – Solution Equations in Underwater Shock Problems for Singular Structural Mass Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. DeRuntz Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solution of underwater shock fluid – structure interaction problems using boundary element/finite element techniques became tractable through the development of the family of Doubly Asymptotic Approximations (DAA. Practical implementation of the method has relied on the so-called augmentation of the DAA equations. The fluid and structural systems are respectively coupled by the structural acceleration vector in the surface normal direction on the right hand side of the DAA equations, and the total pressure applied to the structural equations on its right hand side. By formally solving for the acceleration vector from the structural system and substituting it into its place in the DAA equations, the augmentation introduces a term involving the inverse of the structural mass matrix. However there exist at least two important classes of problems in which the structural mass matrix is singular. This paper develops a method to carry out the augmentation for such problems using a generalized inverse technique.

  1. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin A, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m 2 /g and 0.6395 m 2 /g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm 2 and 12.47 sites/nm 2 . The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions, investigated

  2. Falling paper: Navier-Stokes solutions, model of fluid forces, and center of mass elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Umberto; Wang, Z Jane

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the problem of falling paper by solving the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations subject to the motion of a free-falling body at Reynolds numbers around 10(3). The aerodynamic lift on a tumbling plate is found to be dominated by the product of linear and angular velocities rather than velocity squared, as appropriate for an airfoil. This coupling between translation and rotation provides a mechanism for a brief elevation of center of mass near the cusplike turning points. The Navier-Stokes solutions further provide the missing quantity in the classical theory of lift, the instantaneous circulation, and suggest a revised model for the fluid forces.

  3. Chain propagator, mass, and universality in polymer solutions from Brownian relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A.

    2005-01-01

    A Lagrangian theory for single chains in polymer solutions is addressed via a recent Brownian relativity. By employing generalized diffusive coordinates, statements of covariance and diffusivity invariance result into free particle Lagrangians, where mass turns out to rise as a universal spacetime property. It descends from lowering diffusivity (or curving spacetime), so identifying a mechanism which conceptually resemble those ruling macromolecular scaling laws. An extended chain propagator recovers the Gaussian end-to-end distribution and, in the limits of time-like and space-like orbits, the dualism for diffusive paths and polymer random-walks

  4. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  5. Direct solution introduction using conventional nebulizers with a short torch for plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Craig S.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A new torch, a shortened version of a standard demountable torch, is proposed for facilitating direct injection of liquid samples into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using conventional and micro-pneumatic nebulizers. The proposed arrangement reduces the cost of the direct injector nebulizer by a factor of 5, typically from $2000 to $400, although a different torch is required. The analytical performance of the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch arrangement is compared to that obtained with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer interfaced to the conventional torch. Optimum operating conditions for the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch arrangement are generally similar to those of the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer: high RF power (1500 W), low nebulizer gas flow rates (0.09 L/min) and low solution uptake rates (5-85 μL/min). Sensitivity with the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch system at 85 μL/min is improved by a factor of 2.4 on average compared to the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer, while precision values (%RSD) and detection limits are generally comparable or slightly degraded (on average by a factor of 1.7), respectively. Sensitivity is also better at lower solution uptake rates (5 μL/min) by factors ranging from 2 ( 82 Se) to 7 ( 59 Co) compared to the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer. Additionally, the %RSD values are better at 5 μL/min, ranging from 3.5% to 6.0% for the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch combination compared to 4.7 to 9.1% for the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer. The utility of the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch arrangement is demonstrated through the microscale flow injection analysis of Cr-DNA adducts and the analysis of four certified reference materials (Lyphochek urine metals control, SRM 1515: Apple Leaves, SRM 1570a: Spinach Leaves, SRM 1577b: Bovine Liver). Peak to peak precision values (N = 3) for the microscale flow injection analysis

  6. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Vaporization study on vanadium-oxygen solid solution by mass spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, W.; Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji

    1986-01-01

    The vapor pressures over vanadium-oxygen solid solution (0.001 ≤ O/V ≤ 0.145) were measured by mass-spectrometric method in the temperature range of 1,855 ∼ 2,117 K. The main vapor species were observed to be V(g) and VO(g). The vapor pressure of V(g) is higher than that of VO(g) over the solid solutions with all O/V ratios except for O/V = 0.145. The vapor pressure of V(g) is nearly independent of O/V ratio. The vapor pressure of VO(g) decreases with decreasing O/V ratio. The oxygen partial pressure was calculated as a function of temperature and O/V ratio from the vapor pressures of V(g) and VO(g), from which the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of oxygen in the solid solution were determined. The partial molar enthalpy of oxygen was observed to be independent of composition, suggesting the presence of very weak interaction between interstitial oxygens. The compositional dependence of the partial molar entropy of oxygen can be explained by assuming the occupation of the octahedral site in bcc vanadium lattice by the interstitial oxygens. The excess partial molar entropy of oxygen was compared with the value derived from the sum of the contributions from the volume expansion, electronic heat capacity and vibrational terms. (author)

  8. Mass spectrometric studies of the complexing behaviour of actinide ions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steppert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As the long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel is governed by Plutonium and the Minor Actinides, these elements are focussed on for investigations in the framework of safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories. To shed more light on the selectivity of the partitioning ligands BTP and BTBP towards the extraction of trivalent actinides, the complexes these ligands form with lanthanides in octanolic solution were characterized. The differences in the extraction efficiencies among the different lanthanides were traced back to the varying preferential formation of Ln(BTP)3 complexes, depending on the ionic radius of the lanthanides. Additionally it was shown that depending on the sterical demand of BTBP ligands nitrate anions coordinate in the first coordination shell of Eu(BTBP)2-complexes. As the behavior of Plutonium under geochemical conditions is of particular interest for the safety assessment of potential nuclear waste repositories, the second part of the thesis focuses on the hydrolysis and colloid formation behavior of aqueous Plutonium solutions. The solution species of Zirconium(IV) as analogue for Plutonium(IV) as well as of Uranium(VI) and Plutonium(VI) were characterized and quantified by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moreover the colloid-induced reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and the subsequent formation of colloidal species was investigated. [de

  9. The influence of mass transfer on solute transport in column experiments with an aggregated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul V.; Goltz, Mark N.; Summers, R. Scott; Crittenden, John C.; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    1987-06-01

    The spreading of concentration fronts in dynamic column experiments conducted with a porous, aggregated soil is analyzed by means of a previously documented transport model (DFPSDM) that accounts for longitudinal dispersion, external mass transfer in the boundary layer surrounding the aggregate particles, and diffusion in the intra-aggregate pores. The data are drawn from a previous report on the transport of tritiated water, chloride, and calcium ion in a column filled with Ione soil having an average aggregate particle diameter of 0.34 cm, at pore water velocities from 3 to 143 cm/h. The parameters for dispersion, external mass transfer, and internal diffusion were predicted for the experimental conditions by means of generalized correlations, independent of the column data. The predicted degree of solute front-spreading agreed well with the experimental observations. Consistent with the aggregate porosity of 45%, the tortuosity factor for internal pore diffusion was approximately equal to 2. Quantitative criteria for the spreading influence of the three mechanisms are evaluated with respect to the column data. Hydrodynamic dispersion is thought to have governed the front shape in the experiments at low velocity, and internal pore diffusion is believed to have dominated at high velocity; the external mass transfer resistance played a minor role under all conditions. A transport model such as DFPSDM is useful for interpreting column data with regard to the mechanisms controlling concentration front dynamics, but care must be exercised to avoid confounding the effects of the relevant processes.

  10. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, N. I.; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, U. S.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Mass discharge estimates are increasingly being used in the management of contaminated sites. Such estimates have proven useful for supporting decisions related to the prioritization of contaminated sites in a groundwater catchment. Potential management options can be categorised as follows: (1) leave as is, (2) clean up, or (3) further investigation needed. However, mass discharge estimates are often very uncertain, which may hamper the management decisions. If option 1 is incorrectly chosen soil and water quality will decrease, threatening or destroying drinking water resources. The risk of choosing option 2 is to spend money on remediating a site that does not pose a problem. Choosing option 3 will often be safest, but may not be the optimal economic solution. Quantification of the uncertainty in mass discharge estimates can therefore greatly improve the foundation for selecting the appropriate management option. The uncertainty of mass discharge estimates depends greatly on the extent of the site characterization. A good approach for uncertainty estimation will be flexible with respect to the investigation level, and account for both parameter and conceptual model uncertainty. We propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same site. The different conceptual models consider different source characterizations and hydrogeological descriptions. The idea is to include a set of essentially different conceptual models where each model is believed to be realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level of information. Parameter uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. For each conceptual model we calculate a transient mass discharge estimate with uncertainty bounds resulting from

  11. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    These analytical procedures are designed to show whether a given material meets the purchaser's specifications as to plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. The following procedures are described in detail: plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); free acid by titration in an oxalate solution; free acid by iodate precipitation-potentiometric titration method; uranium by Arsenazo I spectrophotometric method; thorium by thorin spectrophotometric method; iron by 1,10-phenanthroline spectrophotometric method; chloride by thiocyanate spectrophotometric method; fluoride by distillation-spectrophotometric method; sulfate by barium sulfate turbidimetric method; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; americium-241 by extraction and gamma counting; americium-241 by gamma counting; gamma-emitting fission products, uranium, and thorium by gamma-ray spectroscopy; rare earths by copper spark spectrochemical method; tungsten, niobium (columbium), and tantalum by spectrochemical method; simple preparation by spectrographic analysis for general impurities

  12. Hyperfunction solutions of the zero rest mass equations and representations of LIE groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, hyperfunctions have arisen in an essential way in separate results in mathematical physics and in representation theory. In the setting of the twistor program, Wells, with others, has extended the Penrose transform to hyperfunction solutions of the zero rest mass equations, showing that the fundamental isomorphisms hold for this larger space. Meanwhile, Schmid has shown the existence of a canonical globalization of a Harish-Chandra module, V, to a representation of the group. This maximal globalization may be realized as the completion of V in a locally convex vector space in the hyperfunction topology. This thesis shows that the former is a particular case of the latter where the globalization can be done by hand. This explicit globalization is then carried out for a more general case of the Radon transform on homogeneous spaces

  13. Revisiting the Fundamental Analytical Solutions of Heat and Mass Transfer: The Kernel of Multirate and Multidimensional Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2017-11-01

    There are two types of analytical solutions of temperature/concentration in and heat/mass transfer through boundaries of regularly shaped 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D blocks. These infinite-series solutions with either error functions or exponentials exhibit highly irregular but complementary convergence at different dimensionless times, td. In this paper, approximate solutions were developed by combining the error-function-series solutions for early times and the exponential-series solutions for late times and by using time partitioning at the switchover time, td0. The combined solutions contain either the leading term of both series for normal-accuracy approximations (with less than 0.003 relative error) or the first two terms for high-accuracy approximations (with less than 10-7 relative error) for 1-D isotropic (spheres, cylinders, slabs) and 2-D/3-D rectangular blocks (squares, cubes, rectangles, and rectangular parallelepipeds). This rapid and uniform convergence for rectangular blocks was achieved by employing the same time partitioning with individual dimensionless times for different directions and the product of their combined 1-D slab solutions. The switchover dimensionless time was determined to minimize the maximum approximation errors. Furthermore, the analytical solutions of first-order heat/mass flux for 2-D/3-D rectangular blocks were derived for normal-accuracy approximations. These flux equations contain the early-time solution with a three-term polynomial in √td and the late-time solution with the limited-term exponentials for rectangular blocks. The heat/mass flux equations and the combined temperature/concentration solutions form the ultimate kernel for fast simulations of multirate and multidimensional heat/mass transfer in porous/fractured media with millions of low-permeability blocks of varying shapes and sizes.

  14. Trace level detection of explosives in solution using leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90-630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion-molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion-molecule adduct species like [M+NO2](-), [M+NO3](-), [M+HCO3](-), [M+HCO4](-) were generated together with [M-H](-) peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions.

  15. Mass Housing Using GFRG Panels: A Sustainable, Rapid and Affordable Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Philip; Paul, Shinto; Krishna, S. R. Gouri; Menon, Devdas; Meher Prasad, A.

    2017-06-01

    This work gives an overview of research and development carried out at IIT Madras, using glass fibre reinforced gypsum (GFRG) panels, to provide an innovative solution for rapid and affordable mass housing. The GFRG panels (124 mm thick), made from recycled industrial waste gypsum (from the fertilizer industry), are prefabricated in 3 m × 12 m sizes with cellular cavities inside, which can be filled with reinforced concrete wherever required and can be used as walls as well as floor slabs. The tests carried out (over the past 12 years) establish the performance of GFRG building systems to resist gravity and lateral loads as a load-bearing system (without beams and columns) in multi-storeyed buildings up to 8-10 storeys, with adequate strength, serviceability, durability and ductility. A two-storeyed four-apartment demonstration building has also been successfully constructed in the IIT Madras campus and presently a mass housing scheme (40 apartment units) using this technology is being demonstrated at Nellore. A structural design code has also been approved by the Bureau of Indian Standards, based on the extensive studies carried out on GFRG building systems.

  16. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry

  17. Dynamics and mass transport of solutal convection in a closed porous media system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Baole; Akhbari, Daria; Hesse, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Most of the recent studies of CO2 sequestration are performed in open systems where the constant partial pressure of CO2 in the vapor phase results in a time-invariant saturated concentration of CO2 in the brine (Cs). However, in some closed natural CO2 reservoirs, e.g., Bravo Dome in New Mexico, the continuous dissolution of CO2 leads to a pressure drop in the gas that is accompanied by a reduction of Cs and thereby affects the dynamics and mass transport of convection in the brine. In this talk, I discuss the characteristics of convective CO2 dissolution in a closed system. The gas is assumed to be ideal and its solubility given by Henry's law. An analytical solution shows that the diffusive base state is no longer self-similar and that diffusive mass transfer declines rapidly. Scaling analysis reveals that the volume ratio of brine and gas η determines the behavior of the system. DNS show that no constant flux regime exists for η > 0 nevertheless, the quantity F /Cs2 remains constant, where F is the dissolution flux. The onset time is only affected by η when the Rayleigh number Ra is small. In this case, the drop in Cs during the initial diffusive regime significantly reduces the effective Ra and therefore delays the onset.

  18. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  19. Resin bead-thermal ionization mass spectrometry for determination of plutonium concentration in irradiated fuel dissolver solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sumana; Shah, R.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Pandey, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Determination of isotopic composition (IC) and concentration of plutonium (Pu) is necessary at various stages of nuclear fuel cycle which involves analysis of complex matrices like dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, nuclear waste stream etc. Mass spectrometry, e.g. thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are commonly used for determination of IC and concentration of plutonium. However, to circumvent matrix interferences, efficient separation as well as preconcentration of Pu is required prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Purification steps employing ion-exchange resins are widely used for the separation of Pu from dissolver solution or from mixture of other actinides e.g. U, Am. However, an alternative way is to selectively preconcentrate Pu on a resin bead, followed by direct loading of the bead on the filament of thermal ionization mass spectrometer

  20. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  1. Equivalence of two alternative approaches to Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenuel, B; Koeksal, K

    2006-01-01

    A recently developed simple approach for the exact/approximate solution of Schroedinger equations with constant/position-dependent mass, in which the potential is considered as in the perturbation theory, is shown to be equivalent to the one leading to the construction of exactly solvable potentials via the solution of second-order differential equations in terms of known special functions. The formalism in the former solves difficulties encountered in the latter in revealing the corrections explicitly to the unperturbed piece of the solutions whereas the other obviates cumbersome procedures used in the calculations of the former

  2. A continuum of periodic solutions to the planar four-body problem with two pairs of equal masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tiancheng; Xie, Zhifu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we apply the variational method with Structural Prescribed Boundary Conditions (SPBC) to prove the existence of periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the planar four-body problem with two pairs of equal masses m1 =m3 and m2 =m4. A path q (t) on [ 0 , T ] satisfies the SPBC if the boundaries q (0) ∈ A and q (T) ∈ B, where A and B are two structural configuration spaces in (R2)4 and they depend on a rotation angle θ ∈ (0 , 2 π) and the mass ratio μ = m2/m1 ∈R+. We show that there is a region Ω ⊆ (0 , 2 π) ×R+ such that there exists at least one local minimizer of the Lagrangian action functional on the path space satisfying the SPBC { q (t) ∈H1 ([ 0 , T ] ,(R2)4) | q (0) ∈ A , q (T) ∈ B } for any (θ , μ) ∈ Ω. The corresponding minimizing path of the minimizer can be extended to a non-homographic periodic solution if θ is commensurable with π or a quasi-periodic solution if θ is not commensurable with π. In the variational method with the SPBC, we only impose constraints on the boundary and we do not impose any symmetry constraint on solutions. Instead, we prove that our solutions that are extended from the initial minimizing paths possess certain symmetries. The periodic solutions can be further classified as simple choreographic solutions, double choreographic solutions and non-choreographic solutions. Among the many stable simple choreographic orbits, the most extraordinary one is the stable star pentagon choreographic solution when (θ , μ) = (4 π/5, 1). Remarkably the unequal-mass variants of the stable star pentagon are just as stable as the equal mass choreographies.

  3. Mass Evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and Altimetry: Accuracy Assessment and Solution Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality.

  4. Equivalence relations for the 9972-9975 SARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemer, K.A.; Frost, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogeneous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the -SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included

  5. Baby Shampoo versus Commercial Anti-fogging Solution to Prevent Fogging during Nasal Endoscopy: A Randomized Double-Blinded, Matched-Pair, Equivalent Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainansamit, Seksun; Piromchai, Patorn; Anantpinijwatna, Intira; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

    2015-08-01

    To compare the minimization of the fog condensation during nasal endoscopy between a commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo. This randomized double-blinded matched pair study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University during February 4, 2013 to March 14, 2013. The commercial anti-fogging solution (Ultrastop®) and baby shampoo solution (Johnson's® no more tear®) were compared. A computer generated randomization was performed to select the solution applying on the lens for nasal endoscopy of the right nasal cavity. The other solution was then used for the left one. Three passes of endoscopy were performed to examine the floor of the nose, the sphenoethmoidal recess and the middle meatus area which spent about 30 seconds for each time of endoscopy. The time to become foggy on the lens and the preferred solution assessed by the endoscopists were recorded. There were 71 eligible patients recruited in the study, 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%). There was no fogging during a 30-second nasal endoscopy either by baby shampoo or commercial anti-fogging solution. However, 9.86% (95% C12.75-16.97) of endoscopists preferred commercial anti-fogging agent, 7.04% (95% CI 0.94-13.14) preferred baby shampoo and 83.10% (95% CI 74.16-92.03) had equal satisfaction. Both agents had no statistically significant difference for preventing foggy on the lens. Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during nasal endoscopy and comparable with the commercial anti-fogging agent.

  6. A Mass Conservative Numerical Solution for Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media With Application to Unsaturated Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celia, Michael A.; Binning, Philip John

    1992-01-01

    that the algorithm produces solutions that are essentially mass conservative and oscillation free, even in the presence of steep infiltrating fronts. When the algorithm is applied to the case of air and water flow in unsaturated soils, numerical results confirm the conditions under which Richards's equation is valid....... Numerical results also demonstrate the potential importance of air phase advection when considering contaminant transport in unsaturated soils. Comparison to several other numerical algorithms shows that the modified Picard approach offers robust, mass conservative solutions to the general equations...

  7. The zero mass limit of Kerr and Kerr-(anti-)de-Sitter space-times: exact solutions and wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkandan, T.; Hortaçsu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Heun-type exact solutions emerge for both the radial and the angular equations for the case of a scalar particle coupled to the zero mass limit of both the Kerr and Kerr-(anti)de-Sitter spacetime. Since any type D metric has Heun-type solutions, it is interesting that this property is retained in the zero mass case. This work further refutes the claims that M going to zero limit of the Kerr metric is both locally and globally the same as the Minkowski metric.

  8. Approximate Solutions to the Dirac Equation with Effective Mass for the Manning-Rosen Potential in N Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, M.K.; Yasuk, F.

    2012-01-01

    The solutions of the effective mass Dirac equation for the Manning-Rosen potential with the centrifugal term are studied approximately in N dimension. The relativistic energy spectrum and two-component spinor eigenfunctions are obtained by the asymptotic iteration method. We have also investigated eigenvalues of the effective mass Dirac-Manning-Rosen problem for α = 0 or α = 1. In this case, the Manning-Rosen potential reduces to the Hulthen potential. (author)

  9. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  10. [Uncertainty evaluation of the determination of toxic equivalent quantity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Liu Aimin; Huang, Yeru

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil samples were analyzed by isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/HRMS), and the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) were calculated. The impacts of major source of measurement uncertainty are discussed, and the combined relative standard uncertainties were calculated for each 2, 3, 7, 8 substituted con- gener. Furthermore, the concentration, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty for TEQ of PCDD/Fs in a soil sample in I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF schemes are provided as an example. I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF are the evaluation schemes of toxic equivalent factor (TEF), and are all currently used to describe 2,3,7,8 sub- stituted relative potencies.

  11. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  12. Analytical Solution of the Schrödinger Equation with Spatially Varying Effective Mass for Generalised Hylleraas Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, S.; Maji, Smarajit; Meyur, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained exact solution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation for the generalised Hylleraas potential. The exact bound state energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are presented. The bound state eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of the hypergeometric functions. Results are also given for the special case of potential parameter.

  13. Uniqueness of Mass-Conserving Self-similar Solutions to Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation with Inverse Power Law Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurençot, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Uniqueness of mass-conserving self-similar solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation is shown when the coagulation kernel K is given by K(x,x_*)=2(x x_*)^{-α } , (x,x_*)\\in (0,∞)^2 , for some α >0.

  14. Statistically optimal estimation of Greenland Ice Sheet mass variations from GRACE monthly solutions using an improved mascon approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, J.; Ditmar, P.G.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved mascon approach to transform monthly spherical harmonic solutions based on GRACE satellite data into mass anomaly estimates in Greenland. The GRACE-based spherical harmonic coefficients are used to synthesize gravity anomalies at satellite altitude, which are then inverted

  15. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  16. An inexact Newton method for fully-coupled solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics

    1997-02-01

    The solution of the governing steady transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer in flowing fluids can be very difficult. These difficulties arise from the nonlinear, coupled, nonsymmetric nature of the system of algebraic equations that results from spatial discretization of the PDEs. In this manuscript the authors focus on evaluating a proposed nonlinear solution method based on an inexact Newton method with backtracking. In this context they use a particular spatial discretization based on a pressure stabilized Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation of the low Mach number Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport. The discussion considers computational efficiency, robustness and some implementation issues related to the proposed nonlinear solution scheme. Computational results are presented for several challenging CFD benchmark problems as well as two large scale 3D flow simulations.

  17. Astrophysically Satisfactory Solutions to Einstein's R-33 Gravitational Field Equations Exterior/Interior to Static Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formulate solutions to Einstein's geometrical field equations derived using our new approach. Our field equations exterior and interior to the mass distribution have only one unknown function determined by the mass or pressure distribution. Our obtained solutions yield the unknown function as generalizations of Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Thus, our solution puts Einstein's geometrical theory of gravity on same footing with Newton's dynamical theory; with the dependence of the field on one and only one unknown function comparable to Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Our results in this article are of much significance as the Sun and planets in the solar system are known to be more precisely oblate spheroidal in geometry. The oblate spheroidal geometries of these bodies have effects on their gravitational fields and the motions of test particles and photons in these fields.

  18. Mass transfer of ammonia escape and CO2 absorption in CO2 capture using ammonia solution in bubbling reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shuangchen; Chen, Gongda; Zhu, Sijie; Han, Tingting; Yu, Weijing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass transfer coefficient models of ammonia escape were built. • Influences of temperature, inlet CO 2 and ammonia concentration were studied. • Mass transfer coefficients of ammonia escape and CO 2 absorption were obtained. • Studies can provide the basic data as a reference guideline for process application. - Abstract: The mass transfer of CO 2 capture using ammonia solution in the bubbling reactor was studied; according to double film theory, the mass transfer coefficient models and interface area model were built. Through our experiments, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients were obtained, while the interface areas in unit volume were estimated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients of ammonia escaping during the experiment were 1.39 × 10 −5 –4.34 × 10 −5 mol/(m 3 s Pa), and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO 2 absorption were 2.86 × 10 −5 –17.9 × 10 −5 mol/(m 3 s Pa). The estimated interface area of unit volume in the bubbling reactor ranged from 75.19 to 256.41 m 2 /m 3 , making the bubbling reactor a viable choice to obtain higher mass transfer performance than the packed tower or spraying tower.

  19. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  20. Statistically optimal estimation of Greenland Ice Sheet mass variations from GRACE monthly solutions using an improved mascon approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, J.; Ditmar, P.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2018-03-01

    We present an improved mascon approach to transform monthly spherical harmonic solutions based on GRACE satellite data into mass anomaly estimates in Greenland. The GRACE-based spherical harmonic coefficients are used to synthesize gravity anomalies at satellite altitude, which are then inverted into mass anomalies per mascon. The limited spectral content of the gravity anomalies is properly accounted for by applying a low-pass filter as part of the inversion procedure to make the functional model spectrally consistent with the data. The full error covariance matrices of the monthly GRACE solutions are properly propagated using the law of covariance propagation. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate the importance of a proper data weighting and of the spectral consistency between functional model and data. The developed methodology is applied to process real GRACE level-2 data (CSR RL05). The obtained mass anomaly estimates are integrated over five drainage systems, as well as over entire Greenland. We find that the statistically optimal data weighting reduces random noise by 35-69%, depending on the drainage system. The obtained mass anomaly time-series are de-trended to eliminate the contribution of ice discharge and are compared with de-trended surface mass balance (SMB) time-series computed with the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO 2.3). We show that when using a statistically optimal data weighting in GRACE data processing, the discrepancies between GRACE-based estimates of SMB and modelled SMB are reduced by 24-47%.

  1. Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for a hard-core potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shihai; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2005-01-01

    The exact solutions of two-dimensional Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for a hard-core potential are obtained. The eigenvalues related to the position-dependent masses μ 1 and μ 2 , the potential well depth V 0 and the effective range r 0 can be calculated by the boundary condition. We generalize this quantum system to three-dimensional case. The special cases for l=0,1 are studied in detail. For l=0 and c=0, we find that the energy levels will increase with the parameters μ 2 , V 0 and r 0 if μ 1 >μ 2

  2. Sea level changes from monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    We present mass change time series at basin scale for both Greenland and Antarctica, de-rived from GRACE data, and use these data to find the associated global sea level changes. We use two independent methods for GRACE ice mass loss estimation, including use of different GIA models and estimatio...

  3. High-temperature, Knudsen cell-mass spectroscopic studies on lanthanum oxide/uranium dioxide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; McEachern, R.; LeBlanc, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Knudsen cell-mass spectroscopic experiments were carried out with lanthanum oxide/uranium oxide solid solutions (1%, 2% and 5% (metal at.% basis)) to assess the volatilization characteristics of rare earths present in irradiated nuclear fuel. The oxidation state of each sample used was conditioned to the 'uranium dioxide stage' by heating in the Knudsen cell under an atmosphere of 10% CO 2 in CO. The mass spectra were analyzed to obtain the vapour pressures of the lanthanum and uranium species. It was found that the vapour pressure of lanthanum oxide follows Henry's law, i.e., its value is directly proportional to its concentration in the solid phase. Also, the vapour pressure of lanthanum oxide over the solid solution, after correction for its concentration in the solid phase, is similar to that of uranium dioxide. (authors)

  4. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  5. Numerical solution of integral equations, describing mass spectrum of vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Nikonov, E.G.; Sidorov, A.V.; Skachkov, N.B.; Khoromskij, B.N.

    1988-01-01

    The description of the numerical algorithm for solving quasipotential integral equation in impulse space is presented. The results of numerical computations of the vector meson mass spectrum and the leptonic decay width are given in comparison with the experimental data

  6. Exact solutions to the center-of-mass problem in a model theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Forest, T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A model theory, standard time-independent perturbation theory in a harmonic oscillator shell model basis, is used to investigate various aspects of the center-of-mass problem. In this model it is shown that the center-of-mass problem can be solved by projection techniques, but that the way in which one projects is crucial. The appropriate projection functions are found to be const x R/sup -3/2/ for wave function projection and 1 for density projection. The former illustrates, among other things, that the center-of-mass problem cannot be solved by simply eliminating the spurious components of the wave function. The latter agrees with the Gartenhaus-Schwartz prescription. Also, explicit center-of-mass corrections are calculated

  7. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  8. Atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge: A versatile ion source for atomic and molecular mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Andrew J. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405 (United States); Williams, Kelsey L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242 (United States); Hieftje, Gary M. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405 (United States); Shelley, Jacob T., E-mail: shellj@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge (SCGD) has been evaluated as an ion source for atomic, molecular, and ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The SCGD consists of a direct-current plasma, supported in the ambient air in the absence of gas flows, and sustained upon the surface of a flowing liquid cathode. Analytes introduced in the flowing liquid, as an ambient gas, or as a solid held near the plasma are vaporized and ionized by interactions within or near the discharge. Introduction of acidic solutions containing metal salts produced bare elemental ions as well as H{sub 2}O, OH{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} adducts. Detection limits for these elemental species ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppb, working curves spanned more than 4 orders of linear dynamic range, and precision varied between 5 and 16% relative standard deviation. Small organic molecules were also efficiently ionized from solution, and both the intact molecular ion and fragments were observed in the resulting SCGD mass spectra. Fragmentation of molecular species was found to be tunable; high discharge currents led to harder ionization, while low discharge currents produced stronger molecular-ion signals. Ambient gases and solids, desorbed by the plasma from a glass probe, were also readily ionized by the SCGD. Indeed, strong analyte signals were obtained from solid samples placed at least 2 cm from the plasma. These findings indicate that the SCGD might be useful also for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Combined with earlier results that showed the SCGD is useful for ionization of labile biomolecules, the results here indicate that the SCGD is a highly versatile ion source capable of providing both elemental and molecular mass-spectral information. - Highlights: • Solution-cathode glow discharge used as an ionization source for mass spectrometry. • SCGD-MS can provide atomic as well as intact molecular mass spectra. • Atomic limits of detection range

  9. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  10. Exact solution of thermal radiation on vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on unsteady flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate in the presence of variable temperature and uniform mass flux is considered. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised linearly with time and the mass is diffused from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, concentration and temperature are studied for different physical parameters like the phase angle, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt.

  11. Mild solutions to a measure-valued mass evolution problem with flux boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.H.M.; Hille, S.C.; Muntean, A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the well-posedness and approximation of mild solutions to a class of linear transport equations on the unit interval [0,1][0,1] endowed with a linear discontinuous production term, formulated in the space M([0,1])M([0,1]) of finite Borel measures. Our working technique includes a

  12. Monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance at basin scale – and their associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    There are still discrepancies in published ice sheet mass balance results, even between ones based on the same data sets. It can be difficult to conclude from where the discrepancies arise, and it is therefore important to cross calibrate methods, data and models in order to determine...

  13. A possible solution of the flavor problem and radiative neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss two important problems of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), namely the flavor problem and the reason for the smallness of neutrino masses. The first one might be related to the origin of non-abelian discrete flavor symmetries. We discuss the possibility of obtaining them from an underlying continuous flavor symmetry, i.e. SU(2) or SU(3) through spontaneous symmetry breaking. Moreover, we investigate their possible origin from an orbifold compactification. We discuss all non-abelian discrete symmetries, which can arise from an orbifold T 2 /Z N . They are A 4 , S 4 , D 4 , D 3 , and D 6 . We present the idea of combining the breaking of an orbifold GUT and the flavor symmetry arising from the orbifold. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d SUSY SO(10) x S 4 . For the second problem, we propose a one-loop neutrino mass model in the left-right symmetric framework. We observe the transmitted hierarchy from the charged lepton masses to the right-handed neutrino masses, which we call ''Radiative Transmission of Lepton Flavor Hierarchy''. Finally, we study the phenomenological aspects of the model such as lepton flavor violation (LFV), flavor number violation (FNV), and flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs). (orig.)

  14. A possible solution of the flavor problem and radiative neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss two important problems of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), namely the flavor problem and the reason for the smallness of neutrino masses. The first one might be related to the origin of non-abelian discrete flavor symmetries. We discuss the possibility of obtaining them from an underlying continuous flavor symmetry, i.e. SU(2) or SU(3) through spontaneous symmetry breaking. Moreover, we investigate their possible origin from an orbifold compactification. We discuss all non-abelian discrete symmetries, which can arise from an orbifold T{sup 2}/Z{sub N}. They are A{sub 4}, S{sub 4}, D{sub 4}, D{sub 3}, and D{sub 6}. We present the idea of combining the breaking of an orbifold GUT and the flavor symmetry arising from the orbifold. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d SUSY SO(10) x S{sub 4}. For the second problem, we propose a one-loop neutrino mass model in the left-right symmetric framework. We observe the transmitted hierarchy from the charged lepton masses to the right-handed neutrino masses, which we call ''Radiative Transmission of Lepton Flavor Hierarchy''. Finally, we study the phenomenological aspects of the model such as lepton flavor violation (LFV), flavor number violation (FNV), and flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs). (orig.)

  15. Augmentation of DAA Staggered – Solution Equations in Underwater Shock Problems for Singular Structural Mass Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    DeRuntz Jr., John A.

    2005-01-01

    The numerical solution of underwater shock fluid – structure interaction problems using boundary element/finite element techniques became tractable through the development of the family of Doubly Asymptotic Approximations (DAA). Practical implementation of the method has relied on the so-called augmentation of the DAA equations. The fluid and structural systems are respectively coupled by the structural acceleration vector in the surface normal direction on the right hand side of the DAA equa...

  16. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, Mads; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2012-01-01

    site. The different conceptual models consider different source characterizations and hydrogeological descriptions. The idea is to include a set of essentially different conceptual models where each model is believed to be realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level...... the appropriate management option. The uncertainty of mass discharge estimates depends greatly on the extent of the site characterization. A good approach for uncertainty estimation will be flexible with respect to the investigation level, and account for both parameter and conceptual model uncertainty. We...... propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same...

  17. Electroerosion of metal in aqueous solution for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltz, Douglas; Boileau, Michael; Reinfelds, Gundars

    2003-01-01

    When high current (1-10 A cm -2 ) is applied between two conductive samples (metals) in aqueous solution, electroerosion occurs on the surface as a result of electrolysis and possibly collisions of dissolved ions with the metal surface. The power supply for the electroerosion apparatus in this work was a modified spark source unit. Current could be varied in intervals of 2.5, 5 and 10 A in either half-wave (unipolar) or full-wave (bipolar) output. The electroeroded metal forms a colloidal suspension in aqueous solution with particle sizes of the order of 1-10 μm and possibly larger. The suspension is readily dissolved using a small amount (100 μl) of concentrated acid (HCl or HNO 3 ) prior to analysis. Electroerosion of steel and brass in aqueous solution is described both for rapid sample dissolution and as a solid sampling approach for ICP-MS. Some of the electroerosion properties described in this paper include rates of erosion as a function of gap between the conductive samples and solution conductivity. Rates of electroerosion decreased from 120 to 30 μg s -1 as the gap was increased from 2 to 5 mm. Rates of electroerosion also increased significantly from 200 to 1000 μg s -1 as the conductivity of the electroerosion solution increased from 0.01 to 0.05 M NaCl. Interfacing the electroerosion apparatus to an ICP-MS was straight forward, as no special equipment was required. Therefore, the electroerosion apparatus can be used for rapid 'on-line' sample dissolution prior to introduction into an ICP. ICP-MS time profiles of selected metals in stainless steel 308L illustrate the behavior of 52 Cr + , 55 Mn + and 60 Ni + during a typical electroerosion cycle. Aspiration of the colloidal suspension into the ICP did not appear to load the plasma significantly, however, all of the metals produced noisy signals (±10%). A glass concentric nebulizer was used without clogging, so it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of the colloidal suspension caused this effect

  18. Electroerosion of metal in aqueous solution for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Douglas; Boileau, Michael; Reinfelds, Gundars

    2003-07-01

    When high current (1-10 A cm -2) is applied between two conductive samples (metals) in aqueous solution, electroerosion occurs on the surface as a result of electrolysis and possibly collisions of dissolved ions with the metal surface. The power supply for the electroerosion apparatus in this work was a modified spark source unit. Current could be varied in intervals of 2.5, 5 and 10 A in either half-wave (unipolar) or full-wave (bipolar) output. The electroeroded metal forms a colloidal suspension in aqueous solution with particle sizes of the order of 1-10 μm and possibly larger. The suspension is readily dissolved using a small amount (100 μl) of concentrated acid (HCl or HNO 3) prior to analysis. Electroerosion of steel and brass in aqueous solution is described both for rapid sample dissolution and as a solid sampling approach for ICP-MS. Some of the electroerosion properties described in this paper include rates of erosion as a function of gap between the conductive samples and solution conductivity. Rates of electroerosion decreased from 120 to 30 μg s -1 as the gap was increased from 2 to 5 mm. Rates of electroerosion also increased significantly from 200 to 1000 μg s -1 as the conductivity of the electroerosion solution increased from 0.01 to 0.05 M NaCl. Interfacing the electroerosion apparatus to an ICP-MS was straight forward, as no special equipment was required. Therefore, the electroerosion apparatus can be used for rapid 'on-line' sample dissolution prior to introduction into an ICP. ICP-MS time profiles of selected metals in stainless steel 308L illustrate the behavior of 52Cr +, 55Mn + and 60Ni + during a typical electroerosion cycle. Aspiration of the colloidal suspension into the ICP did not appear to load the plasma significantly, however, all of the metals produced noisy signals (±10%). A glass concentric nebulizer was used without clogging, so it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of the colloidal suspension caused this effect.

  19. Electroerosion of metal in aqueous solution for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, Douglas E-mail: dgoltz@uwinnipeg.ca; Boileau, Michael; Reinfelds, Gundars

    2003-07-18

    When high current (1-10 A cm{sup -2}) is applied between two conductive samples (metals) in aqueous solution, electroerosion occurs on the surface as a result of electrolysis and possibly collisions of dissolved ions with the metal surface. The power supply for the electroerosion apparatus in this work was a modified spark source unit. Current could be varied in intervals of 2.5, 5 and 10 A in either half-wave (unipolar) or full-wave (bipolar) output. The electroeroded metal forms a colloidal suspension in aqueous solution with particle sizes of the order of 1-10 {mu}m and possibly larger. The suspension is readily dissolved using a small amount (100 {mu}l) of concentrated acid (HCl or HNO{sub 3}) prior to analysis. Electroerosion of steel and brass in aqueous solution is described both for rapid sample dissolution and as a solid sampling approach for ICP-MS. Some of the electroerosion properties described in this paper include rates of erosion as a function of gap between the conductive samples and solution conductivity. Rates of electroerosion decreased from 120 to 30 {mu}g s{sup -1} as the gap was increased from 2 to 5 mm. Rates of electroerosion also increased significantly from 200 to 1000 {mu}g s{sup -1} as the conductivity of the electroerosion solution increased from 0.01 to 0.05 M NaCl. Interfacing the electroerosion apparatus to an ICP-MS was straight forward, as no special equipment was required. Therefore, the electroerosion apparatus can be used for rapid 'on-line' sample dissolution prior to introduction into an ICP. ICP-MS time profiles of selected metals in stainless steel 308L illustrate the behavior of {sup 52}Cr{sup +}, {sup 55}Mn{sup +} and {sup 60}Ni{sup +} during a typical electroerosion cycle. Aspiration of the colloidal suspension into the ICP did not appear to load the plasma significantly, however, all of the metals produced noisy signals ({+-}10%). A glass concentric nebulizer was used without clogging, so it is likely that the

  20. On the Control of Solute Mass Fluxes and Concentrations Below Fields Irrigated With Low-Quality Water: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, David

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to test the capability of irrigation water-based and soil-based approaches to control nitrate and chloride mass fluxes and concentrations below the root zone of agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). Using numerical simulations of flow and transport in relatively a fine-textured, unsaturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domain, scenarios examined include: (i) irrigating with TWW only (REF); (ii) irrigation water is substituted between TWW and desalinized water (ADW); (iii) soil includes a capillary barrier (CB) and irrigating with TWW only (CB + TWW); and (iv) combination of (ii) and a CB (CB + ADW). Considering groundwater quality protection, plausible goals are: (i) to minimize solute discharges leaving the root zone, and, (ii) to maximize the probability that solute concentrations leaving the root zone will not exceed a prescribed, critical value. Results of the analyses suggest that in the case of a seasonal crop (a corn field) subject to irrigations only, with respect to the first goal, the CB + TWW and CB + ADW scenarios provide similar, excellent results, better than the ADW scenario; with respect to the second goal, however, the CB + ADW scenario gave substantially better results than the CB + TWW scenario. In the case a multiyear, perennial crop (a citrus orchard), subject to a sequence of irrigation and rainfall periods, for both solutes, and, particularly, nitrate, with respect to the two goals, both the ADW and CB + ADW scenarios perform better than the CB + TWW scenario. As compared with the REF and CB + TWW scenarios, the ADW and CB + ADW scenarios substantially reduce nitrogen mass fluxes to the groundwater and to the atmosphere, and, essentially, did not reduce nitrogen mass fluxes to the trees. Similar results, even better, were demonstrated for a relatively coarse-textured, spatially heterogeneous soil.

  1. Fitness function and nonunique solutions in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting: crosserror between surface roughness and mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Sormunen, J; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    Nonunique solutions of the x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting problem were studied by modelling layer structures with neural networks and designing a fitness function to handle the nonidealities of measurements. Modelled atomic-layer-deposited aluminium oxide film structures were used in the simulations to calculate XRR curves based on Parratt's formalism. This approach reduced the dimensionality of the parameter space and allowed the use of fitness landscapes in the study of nonunique solutions. Fitness landscapes, where the height in a map represents the fitness value as a function of the process parameters, revealed tracks where the local fitness optima lie. The tracks were projected on the physical parameter space thus allowing the construction of the crosserror equation between weakly determined parameters, i.e. between the mass density and the surface roughness of a layer. The equation gives the minimum error for the other parameters which is a consequence of the nonuniqueness of the solution if noise is present. Furthermore, the existence of a possible unique solution in a certain parameter range was found to be dependent on the layer thickness and the signal-to-noise ratio

  2. Evidence of mass exchange between inside and outside of sonoluminescing bubble in aqueous solution of terbium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jinfu, E-mail: liang.shi2007@163.com [School of Physics and Electronic Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Chen, Weizhong, E-mail: wzchen@nju.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Xun; Yang, Jing; Chen, Zhan [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-12-16

    Highlights: • Time-resolved spectra of SBSL were obtained for Tb{sup 3+} ions emission lines. • Mass exchange between inside and outside of SL bubble was probed via Tb{sup 3+} ions lines. • The argon rectification hypothesis was tested by time-resolved spectra of SBSL. • The rate of mass exchange inside an SBSL bubble increases with increasing sound pressure. - Abstract: Spectra of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) were obtained for Tb{sup 3+} ions emission lines from bubbles in an aqueous solution of terbium chloride (TbCl{sub 3}). The spectra provide experimental evidence to prove that an air bubble driven by strong ultrasound will not eventually become a rectified pure argon bubble, which is not as predicted by the argon rectification hypothesis. The time-resolved spectra of SBSL show a mass exchange of material such as Tb{sup 3+} ions between the inside and outside of the bubble. With increasing sound pressure, the rate of mass exchange and the SBSL intensity increases.

  3. Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González–Díaz (paper)

  4. An economic route to mass production of graphene oxide solution for preparing graphene oxide papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Yan-Jia; Tsai, Bo-Da; Huang, Wu-Jang, E-mail: wjhuang@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide paper can be prepared from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials. • Graphene oxide paper can be used as a phase change materials for thermal storage. • To prepare graphene oxide paper from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials could highly reduce the cost. - Abstract: Graphene oxide paper (GOP) is a composite material fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) solution. In addition, it can be a novel and potential material for application on the separation of water vapor from gaseous steam or larger alkali ions from aqueous solution. GOP could be used as electricity and thermal storage materials. The preparation of GO commonly uses high purity natural or artificial graphite. It is difficult to prepare GOP from artificial graphite powder due to the cost of $1,450 US/ton. In this study, we tried to prepare GOPs from homemade graphene sheets containing carbon materials (GSCCMs) and evaluate the thermal properties of GSCCM derived GOPs. Results show that GSCCM derived GOPs have a higher phase transition temperature, and the average mesophase phase change enthalpy is 9.41 J/g, which is 2.87 times higher than graphite derived GOP. Therefore, to prepare GOP from GSCCMs could highly reduce the cost.

  5. What are the current solutions for interfacing supercritical fluid chromatography and mass spectrometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillarme, Davy; Desfontaine, Vincent; Heinisch, Sabine; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2018-04-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is considered today as one of the most popular detection methods, due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. In particular, this detector has become the gold standard for the analysis of complex mixtures such as biological samples. The first successful SFC-MS hyphenation was reported in the 80's, and since then, several ionization sources, mass analyzers and interfacing technologies have been combined. Due to the specific physicochemical properties and compressibility of the SFC mobile phase, directing the column effluent into the ionization source is more challenging than in LC. Therefore, some specific interfaces have to be employed in SFC-MS, to i) avoid (or at least limit) analytes precipitation due to CO 2 decompression, when the SFC mobile phase is not anymore under backpressure control, ii) achieve adequate ionization yield, even with a low proportion of MeOH in the mobile phase and iii) preserve the chromatographic integrity (i.e. maintaining retention, selectivity, and efficiency). The goal of this review is to describe the various SFC-MS interfaces and highlight the most favorable ones in terms of reliability, flexibility, sensitivity and user-friendliness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  7. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds

  8. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The

  9. On the operator equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.

    1978-06-01

    A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined

  10. Extension of the analytical window for characterizing aromatic compounds in oils using a comprehensive suite of high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and double bond equivalence versus carbon number plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Birdwell, Justin E.; Hur, Manhoi; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) were used to study the aromatic fractions of crude oil and oil shale pyrolysates (shale oils). The collected data were compared and combined in the double bond equivalence (DBE) versus carbon number plot to obtain a more complete understanding of the composition of the oil fractions. The numbers of peaks observed by each technique followed the order 2D GC–MS plots of DBE and carbon number showed an extended range of higher values relative to the other methods. For the aromatic fraction of an oil shale pyrolysate generated by the Fischer assay, only a few nitrogen-containing compounds were observed by 2D GC–MS but a large number of these compounds were detected by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS. This comparison clearly shows that the data obtained from these three techniques can be combined to more completely characterize oil composition. The data obtained by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS agreed well with one another, and the combined DBE versus carbon number plot provided more complete coverage of compounds present in the fractions. In addition, the chemical structure information provided by 2D GC–MS could be matched with the chemical formulas in the DBE versus carbon number plots, providing information not available in ultrahigh-resolution MS results. It was therefore concluded that the combination of 2D GC–MS, Orbitrap MS, and FT-ICR MS in the DBE versus carbon number space facilitates structural assignment of heavy oil components.

  11. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  12. Mass transfer and thermodynamic modeling of carbon dioxide absorption into MEA aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaemi Ahad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, thermodynamic and absorption rate of carbon dioxide in monoethanolamine (MEA solution was investigated. A correlation based on both liquid and a gas phase variable for carbon dioxide absorption rate was presented using the π-Buckingham theorem. The correlation was constructed based on dimensionless numbers, including carbon dioxide loading, carbon dioxide partial pressure, film parameter and the ratio of liquid phase film thickness and gas phase film thickness. The film parameter is used to apply the effect of chemical reactions on absorption rate. A thermodynamic model based on the extended-UNIQUAC equations for the activity coefficients coupled with the Virial equation of state for representing the non-ideality of the vapor phase was used to predict the CO2 solubility in the CO2-MEA-H2O system. The average absolute error of the results for the correlation was 6.4%, which indicates the accuracy of the proposed correlation.

  13. Analysis of a rhenium-osmium solid-solution spike by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.M.; Dickin, A.P.; McNutt, R.H.; McAndrew, J.I.; Beneteau, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The rhenium-osmium decay scheme ( 187 Re → 187 Os) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the genesis of, and directly date, ultramafic rock, sulphide and platinum ore deposits. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a viable method for Os isotopic analysis as it provides the high temperatures necessary to ionise Os. The sample can be introduced into the ICP mass spectrometer either by conventional nebulisation or by distillation using an Os ''generator''. Generator-mode analysis is superior to nebulisation because (i) the total number of counts is two orders of magnitude higher for a given sample size and (ii) Os oxidises readily to volatile OsO 4 , which has a boiling-point lower than most Re compounds, so that Os can be efficiently separated from 187 Re. The importance of Os loss during sample preparation was minimised by combining the sample powder with a powdered Re-Os isotopic spike prior to any chemical treatment. The spike is in a nickel sulphide matrix and was made by a thioacetamide co-precipitation of Os, Re and Ni followed by a fire assay. The 190 Os/ 192 Os ratio in this preparation is 51.5 ± 0.9, the 187 Os 188 Os ratio is 0.063 ± 0.006 and the 185 Re/ 187 Re ratio is 17.04 - + 0.41. These values are within the error limits quoted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Techsnabexport, the suppliers of the metallic spikes. Parameters that significantly influence the Os analyses include the oxidising agent and the run temperature. The oxidising agent H 5 IO 6 is preferred to H 2 O 2 or HNO 3 as it has the highest electrode potential, provides a prolonged, consistent reaction and is more stable when stored. Chilling the sample and the H 5 IO 6 , initially retards uncontrolled OsO 4 emission. Heat applied later in the run releases OsO 4 and helps maintain a high count rate. Thus, OsO 4 can be generated in a steady, controllable and reproducible manner. (author)

  14. Evaluate the accuracy of the numerical solution of hydrogeological problems of mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina G.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrogeological task on quantifying pollution of aquifers the error are starting add up with moment organization of regime observation network as a source of information on the pollution of groundwater in order to evaluate migration options for future prognosis calculations. Optimum element regime observation network should consist of three drill holes on the groundwater flow at equal distances from one another and transversely to the flow of the three drill holes, and at equal distances. If the target of observation drill holes coincides with the stream line on which will then be decided by direct migration task, the error will be minimal. The theoretical basis and results of numerical experiments to assess the accuracy of direct predictive tasks planned migration of groundwater in the area of full water saturation. For the vadose zone, we consider problems of vertical salt transport moisture. All studies were performed by comparing the results of fundamental and approximate solutions in a wide range of characteristics of the processes, which are discussed in relation to ecological and hydrogeological conditions of mining regions on the example of the Western Donbass.

  15. Stable Isotope Analyses of water and Aqueous Solutions by Conventional Dual-inlet Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Juske [ORNL; Kendall, C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA

    2004-01-01

    The foundation of various analytical methods for the stable isotope composition of water and other aqueous samples (natural abundance, {sup 1}H : {sup 2}H (D) = 99.985 : 0.015 atom%, and {sup 16}O : {sup 17}O : {sup 18}O = 99.762 : 0.038 : 0.200 atom%) was established during the Manhatten Project in the U.S.A., when large amounts of heavy water were produced for nuclear reactors (see Kirshenbaum, 1951, for a detailed account). From early on, there was great interest in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water, because they are the ideal tracers of water sources and reactions. The increased analytical precisions made possible by the subsequent development of modern gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometers with dual-inlets and multi-collectors, have caused the proliferation of new analytical methods and applications for the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water. These stable isotopes have found wide applications in basic as well as applied sciences (chemistry, geology, hydrology, biology, medical sciences, and food sciences). This is because water is ubiquitous, is an essential and predominant ingredient of living organisms, and is perhaps the most reactive compound in the Earth.

  16. Investigating the synthesis of ligated metal clusters in solution using a flow reactor and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Astrid; Laskin, Julia; Johnson, Grant E

    2014-09-18

    The scalable synthesis of ligated subnanometer metal clusters containing an exact number of atoms is of interest due to the highly size-dependent catalytic, electronic, and optical properties of these species. While significant research has been conducted on the batch preparation of clusters through reduction synthesis in solution, the processes of metal complex reduction as well as cluster nucleation, growth, and postreduction etching are still not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate a prototype temperature-controlled flow reactor for qualitatively studying cluster formation in solution at steady-state conditions. Employing this technique, methanol solutions of a chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold precursor, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane capping ligand, and borane-tert-butylamine reducing agent were combined in a mixing tee and introduced into a heated capillary with a known length. In this manner, the temperature dependence of the relative abundance of different ionic reactants, intermediates, and products synthesized in real time was characterized qualitatively using online mass spectrometry. A wide distribution of doubly and triply charged cationic gold clusters was observed as well as smaller singly charged organometallic complexes. The results demonstrate that temperature plays a crucial role in determining the relative population of cationic gold clusters and, in general, that higher temperature promotes the formation of doubly charged clusters and singly charged organometallic complexes while reducing the abundance of triply charged species. Moreover, the distribution of clusters observed at elevated temperatures is found to be consistent with that obtained at longer reaction times at room temperature, thereby demonstrating that heating may be used to access cluster distributions characteristic of different stages of batch reduction synthesis in solution.

  17. Mass transfer simulation of nanofiltration membranes for electrolyte solutions through generalized Maxwell-Stefan approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshyargar, Vahid; Fadaei, Farzad; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed for simulation of ion transport through nanofiltration membranes. The model is based on the Maxwell-Stefan approach and takes into account steric, Donnan, and dielectric effects in the transport of mono and divalent ions. Theoretical ion rejection for multi-electrolyte mixtures was obtained by numerically solving the 'hindered transport' based on the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equation for the flux of ions. A computer simulation has been developed to predict the transport in the range of nanofiltration, a numerical procedure developed linearization and discretization form of the governing equations, and the finite volume method was employed for the numerical solution of equations. The developed numerical method is capable of solving equations for multicomponent systems of n species no matter to what extent the system shows stiffness. The model findings were compared and verified with the experimental data from literature for two systems of Na 2 SO 4 +NaCl and MgCl 2 +NaCl. Comparison showed great agreement for different concentrations. As such, the model is capable of predicting the rejection of different ions at various concentrations. The advantage of such a model is saving costs as a result of minimizing the number of required experiments, while it is closer to a realistic situation since the adsorption of ions has been taken into account. Using this model, the flux of permeates and rejections of multi-component liquid feeds can be calculated as a function of membrane properties. This simulation tool attempts to fill in the gap in methods used for predicting nanofiltration and optimization of the performance of charged nanofilters through generalized Maxwell-Stefan (GMS) approach. The application of the current model may weaken the latter gap, which has arisen due to the complexity of the fundamentals of ion transport processes via this approach, and may further facilitate the industrial development of

  18. Quantum statistical effects in the mass transport of interstitial solutes in a crystalline solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C. H.; Wen, Haohua

    2017-09-01

    The impact of quantum statistics on the many-body dynamics of a crystalline solid at finite temperatures containing an interstitial solute atom (ISA) is investigated. The Mori-Zwanzig theory allows the many-body dynamics of the crystal to be formulated and solved analytically within a pseudo-one-particle approach using the Langevin equation with a quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) based on the Debye model. At the same time, the many-body dynamics is also directly solved numerically via the molecular dynamics approach with a Langevin heat bath based on the quantum FDR. Both the analytical and numerical results consistently show that below the Debye temperature of the host lattice, quantum statistics significantly impacts the ISA transport properties, resulting in major departures from both the Arrhenius law of diffusion and the Einstein-Smoluchowski relation between the mobility and diffusivity. Indeed, we found that below one-third of the Debye temperature, effects of vibrations on the quantum mobility and diffusivity are both orders-of-magnitude larger and practically temperature independent. We have shown that both effects have their physical origin in the athermal lattice vibrations derived from the phonon ground state. The foregoing theory is tested in quantum molecular dynamics calculation of mobility and diffusivity of interstitial helium in bcc W. In this case, the Arrhenius law is only valid in a narrow range between ˜300 and ˜700 K. The diffusivity becomes temperature independent on the low-temperature side while increasing linearly with temperature on the high-temperature side.

  19. JASPAS programme task JC-4: Isotopic and isotope dilution analysis of spent fuel solutions by resin bead mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Terakado, S.; Kuno, Y.

    1988-05-01

    The use of resin beads for mass spectrometry of U and Pu has been extensively developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA and tested in a number of intercomparison experiments between the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) of the IAEA and the Power Reactor and Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) - Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) in Japan. Resin beads represent a convenient way to concentrate the U and Pu in spent fuel dissolver solution samples from reprocessing facilities, with the added advantage that fission product elements and other actinides such as Am are removed. Measurements on the resin bead samples at SAL were performed on the ORNL-designed 2-Stage Mass Spectrometer. For the dried tracer samples, the U measurements were obtained on the VG54E instrument and the Pu results were obtained with the Finnigan MAT 261 of SAL. PNC/TRP used a VG54 mass spectrometer and obtained their mass fractionation correction factor for the resin bead measurements from the mixed tracer plus chemical standard resin bead samples. The Safeguards Laboratory (NMCC) used their MAT 260 instrument and obtained the fractionation correction factor from resin bead standards provided with the TIGR-82 programme. Both PNC/TRP and NMCC reported problems with obtaining a sufficient ion beam intensity with the resin bead samples. This problem was overcome by both labs and further improvements in the loading and measurement techniques can be expected to yield even better results. It has been demonstrated that the resin bed sampling method can provide results of sufficient quality for safeguards purposes. 2 refs, 3 figs, 16 tabs

  20. Equivalency relations for mixtures of nuclides in shipping casks 9972-9975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemer, K.A.; Frost, R.L.; Williamson, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogenous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included

  1. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  2. Numerical simulation of flow and mass transfer for large KDP crystal growth via solution-jet method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huawei; Li, Mingwei; Hu, Zhitao; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Zhiwei

    2018-06-01

    A novel technique of growing large crystals of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) named solution-jet method is proposed. The aim is to increase supersaturation on the pyramidal face, especially for crystal surface regions close to the rotation axis. The fluid flow and surface supersaturation distribution of crystals grown under different conditions were computed using the finite-volume method. Results indicate that the time-averaged supersaturation of the pyramidal face in the proposed method significantly increases and the supersaturation difference from the crystal center to edge clearly decreases compared with the rotating-crystal method. With increased jet velocity, supersaturation on the pyramidal face steadily increases. Rotation rate considerably affects the magnitude and distribution of the prismatic surface supersaturation. With increased crystal size, the mean value of surface supersaturation averaged over the pyramid gradually decreases; conversely, standard deviation increases, which is detrimental to crystal growth. Moreover, the significant roles played by natural and forced convection in the process of mass transport are discussed. Results show that further increased jet velocity to 0.6 m/s renders negligible the effects of natural convection around the pyramid. The simulation for step propagation indicates that solution-jet method can promote a steady step migration and enhance surface morphology stability, which can improve the crystal quality.

  3. Deviation from the kinetic law of mass action for reactions induced by binary encounters in liquid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexey A

    2007-01-01

    In considering the irreversible chemical reaction A+B→ C+B in liquid solutions two many-particle approaches to the derivation of binary non-Markovian kinetic equations are compared: simple superposition decoupling and a method of extracting 'pair' channels from three-particle correlation evolution. It is shown that both methods provide an almost identical description of this reaction. However, in studies of reversible reactions in liquid solutions only the channel extraction method gives a correct physically clear description of the reaction though it consists of a sequence of steps: the development of integral encounter theory (IET), effective pairs approximation (EPA), modified encounter theory (MET), and the final regular form (RF) of kinetic equations. It is shown that the rate equations often encountered in the literature correspond to the independence of transient channels of 'scattering' in the bimolecular reversible reaction (A+B -B), while the independent transient channel of 'decay' in the reversible reactionA+B -C is defined solely by time integral convolution. In the general case transient channels in non-Markovian theory are not independent, and their interference manifests itself as a non-Markovian inhomogeneous source in binary non-Markovian kinetic equations in regular form. Based on the derived equations new universal kinetics (independent of models) of chemical equilibrium attainment have been obtained. It is shown that these kinetics can differ essentially from the kinetics corresponding to the kinetic law of mass action of formal chemical kinetics

  4. Non-similar solutions for unsteady flow over a yawed cylinder with non-uniform mass transfer through a slot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Revathi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.

  5. Verified solutions for the gravitational attraction to an oblate spheroid: Implications for planet mass and satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.; Criss, Everett M.

    2018-03-01

    Forces external to the oblate spheroid shape, observed from planetary to galactic scales, are demonstrably non-central, which has important ramifications for planetary science. We simplify historic formulae and derive new analytical solutions for the gravitational potential and force outside a constant density oblate. Numerical calculations that sum point mass contributions in a >109 element mesh confirm our equations. We show that contours of constant force and potential about oblate bodies are closely approximated by two confocal families whose foci (f) respectively are (9/10)½ae and (3/5)½ae for a body with f = ae. This leads to useful approximations that address internal density variations. We demonstrate that the force on a general point is not directed towards the oblate's center, nor are forces simply proportional to the inverse square of that distance, despite forces in the equatorial and axial directions pointing towards the center. Our results explain complex dynamics of galactic systems. Because most planets and stars have an aspect ratio >0.9, the spherical approximation is reasonable except for orbits within ∼2 body radii. We show that applying the "generalized" potential, which assumes central forces, yields J2 values half those expected for oblate bodies, and probably underestimates masses of Uranus and Neptune by ∼0.2%. We show that the inner Saturnian moons are subject to non-central forces, which may affect calculations of their orbital precession. Our new series should improve interpretation of flyby data.

  6. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  8. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  9. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  10. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  11. Solution-mass transfer and grain boundary sliding in mafic shear zones - comparison between experiments and nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    Grain size sensitive creep (GSSC) mechanisms are widely recognized to be the most efficient deformation mechanisms in shear zones. With or without initial fracturing and fluid infiltration, the onset of heterogeneous nucleation leading to strong grain size reduction is a frequently described process for the initiation of GSSC. Phase mixing due to reaction and heterogeneous nucleation during GSSC impedes grain growth, sustaining small grain sizes as a prerequisite for GSSC. Here we present rock deformation experiments on 'wet' plagioclase - pyroxene mixtures at T=800°C, P=1.0 and 1.5GPa and strain rates of 2e-5 - 2e-6 1/s, performed with a Griggs-type solid medium deformation apparatus. Microstructural criteria are used to show that both, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and solution-mass transfer processes are active and are interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating processes. Displacement is localized within shear bands formed by fine-grained ( 300 - 500nm) plagioclase (Pl) and the syn-kinematic reaction products amphibole (Amph), quartz (Qz) and zoisite (Zo). We compare our experiments with a natural case - a sheared mafic pegmatite (P-T during deformation 0.7 - 0.9 GPa, 610 - 710 °C; Getsinger et al., 2013) from Northern Norway. Except for the difference in grain size of the experimental and natural samples, microstructures are strikingly alike. The experimental and natural P- and especially T-conditions are very similar. Consequently, extrapolation from experiments to nature must be made without a significant 'temperature-time' trade-off, which is normally taken advantage of when relating experimental to natural strain rates. We will discuss under which assumptions extrapolation to nature in our case is likely feasible. Syn-kinematic reactions during GBS and solution-mass transport are commonly interpreted to result in an ordered (anticlustered) phase mixture. However, phase mixing in our case is restricted: Mixing is extensive between Pl + Zo + Qz and

  12. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulikov, Alexei O.; Meili, Markus

    2003-01-01

    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for 137 Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a) potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ('carrier') of caesium; (b) the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c) the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of 137 Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the 137 Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the 137 Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects

  13. Mass and heat transfer between evaporation and condensation surfaces: Atomistic simulation and solution of Boltzmann kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Kryukov, Alexei P; Levashov, Vladimir Yu; Shishkova, Irina N; Anisimov, Sergey I

    2018-04-16

    Boundary conditions required for numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (BKE) for mass/heat transfer between evaporation and condensation surfaces are analyzed by comparison of BKE results with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Lennard-Jones potential with parameters corresponding to solid argon is used to simulate evaporation from the hot side, nonequilibrium vapor flow with a Knudsen number of about 0.02, and condensation on the cold side of the condensed phase. The equilibrium density of vapor obtained in MD simulation of phase coexistence is used in BKE calculations for consistency of BKE results with MD data. The collision cross-section is also adjusted to provide a thermal flux in vapor identical to that in MD. Our MD simulations of evaporation toward a nonreflective absorbing boundary show that the velocity distribution function (VDF) of evaporated atoms has the nearly semi-Maxwellian shape because the binding energy of atoms evaporated from the interphase layer between bulk phase and vapor is much smaller than the cohesive energy in the condensed phase. Indeed, the calculated temperature and density profiles within the interphase layer indicate that the averaged kinetic energy of atoms remains near-constant with decreasing density almost until the interphase edge. Using consistent BKE and MD methods, the profiles of gas density, mass velocity, and temperatures together with VDFs in a gap of many mean free paths between the evaporation and condensation surfaces are obtained and compared. We demonstrate that the best fit of BKE results with MD simulations can be achieved with the evaporation and condensation coefficients both close to unity.

  14. Solution of Einstein's Geometrical Gravitational Field Equations Exterior to Astrophysically Real or Hypothetical Time Varying Distributions of Mass within Regions of Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a profound and complete analytical solution to Einstein’s gravitational field equations exterior to astrophysically real or hypothetical time varying distribu- tions of mass or pressure within regions of spherical geometry. The single arbitrary function f in our proposed exterior metric tensor and constructed field equations makes our method unique, mathematically less combersome and astrophysically satisfactory. The obtained solution of Einstein’s gravitational field equations tends out to be a gen- eralization of Newton’s gravitational scalar potential exterior to the spherical mass or pressure distribution under consideration

  15. Solution of Effective-Mass Dirac Equation with Scalar-Vector and Pseudoscalar Terms for Generalized Hulthén Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuğ Arda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We find the exact bound state solutions and normalization constant for the Dirac equation with scalar-vector-pseudoscalar interaction terms for the generalized Hulthén potential in the case where we have a particular mass function m(x. We also search the solutions for the constant mass where the obtained results correspond to the ones when the Dirac equation has spin and pseudospin symmetry, respectively. After giving the obtained results for the nonrelativistic case, we search then the energy spectra and corresponding upper and lower components of Dirac spinor for the case of PT-symmetric forms of the present potential.

  16. Contribution of electro-spray mass spectrometry to the study of the organic species and metal-ligand complexes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, L.; Piveteau, B.

    2000-01-01

    Electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has quickly become a versatile method of qualitative analysis of a wide variety of species in solution. This technique (with positive and negative ionization modes) is used to analyze organic solutions in the frame of the DIAMEX process. Degraded solvent had been studied without any preliminary sample treatment (separation or derivation) and neutral complexes 'uranyl nitrate - malonamide' had been observed. (authors)

  17. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  18. Gravity-Assist Trajectories to the Ice Giants: An Automated Method to Catalog Mass-or Time-Optimal Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kyle M.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an automated method of calculating mass (or time) optimal gravity-assist trajectories without a priori knowledge of the flyby-body combination. Since gravity assists are particularly crucial for reaching the outer Solar System, we use the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, as example destinations for this work. Catalogs are also provided that list the most attractive trajectories found over launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038. The tool developed to implement this method, called the Python EMTG Automated Trade Study Application (PEATSA), iteratively runs the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG), a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in-house trajectory optimization tool. EMTG finds gravity-assist trajectories with impulsive maneuvers using a multiple-shooting structure along with stochastic methods (such as monotonic basin hopping) and may be run with or without an initial guess provided. PEATSA runs instances of EMTG in parallel over a grid of launch dates. After each set of runs completes, the best results within a neighborhood of launch dates are used to seed all other cases in that neighborhood---allowing the solutions across the range of launch dates to improve over each iteration. The results here are compared against trajectories found using a grid-search technique, and PEATSA is found to outperform the grid-search results for most launch years considered.

  19. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z eff ), electron density (ρ e ), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μ en /ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ) tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( en /ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  20. Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2001-01-01

    We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data

  1. Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.

  2. Free Fall and the Equivalence Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton's law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field.…

  3. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Dezhong; He Bin

    2003-01-01

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping

  4. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Dezhong [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu City, 610054, Sichuan Province (China); He Bin [The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-11-07

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  6. Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.

  7. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  8. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  9. EPISODIC ACCRETION AT EARLY STAGES OF EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS: A SOLUTION FOR THE OBSERVED LUMINOSITY SPREAD IN H-R DIAGRAMS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present evolutionary models for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs taking into account episodic phases of accretion at early stages of the evolution, a scenario supported by recent large surveys of embedded protostars. An evolution including short episodes of vigorous accretion followed by longer quiescent phases can explain the observed luminosity spread in H-R diagrams of star-forming regions at ages of a few Myr, for objects ranging from a few Jupiter masses to a few tenths of a solar mass. The gravitational contraction of these accreting objects strongly departs from the standard Hayashi track at constant T eff . The best agreement with the observed luminosity scatter is obtained if most of the accretion shock energy is radiated away. The obtained luminosity spread at 1 Myr in the H-R diagram is equivalent to what can be misinterpreted as an ∼10 Myr age spread for non-accreting objects. We also predict a significant spread in radius at a given T eff , as suggested by recent observations. These calculations bear important consequences for our understanding of star formation and early stages of evolution and on the determination of the initial mass function for young (≤ a few Myr) clusters. Our results also show that the concept of a stellar birthline for low-mass objects has no valid support.

  10. Solubilisation des hydrocarbures dans les solutions micellaires Influence de la structure et de la masse moléculaire Solubilization of Hydrocarbons in Micellar Solutions Influence of Structure and Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baviere M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La solubilisation des hydrocarbures par les solutions de tensio-actifs utilisés pour la récupération améliorée du pétrole est directement liée à l'efficacité interfaciale de ces solutions. D'autant plus élevée que la tension interfaciale entre la phase micellaire et l'huile est plus basse, elle dépend fortement de la nature de l'hydrocarbure. Dans certains cas, celui-ci est responsable de comportements de phase inhabituels. On examine d'abord dans cet article la méthodologie généralement utilisée pour caractériser les propriétés interfaciales des mélanges eau-huile-tensio-actifs. Elle est fondée, à partir des travaux de Winsor et de quelques auteurs après lui, sur le concept d'énergies de cohésion entre les diverses entités moléculaires présentes et sur le rapport entre ces énergies. Cette approche permet d'orienter le choix des paramètres pour optimiser les formulations du point de vue de la solubilisation et de la tension interfaciale. Les comportements de phase d'hydrocarbures modèles, alcanes et alkylbenzènes, sont ensuite comparés et discutés, ainsi que ceux d'huiles brutes de stockage. Il apparaît notamment que, dans les mélanges d'hydrocarbures, le paramètre d'optimisation (ici la masse moléculaire du tensio-actif varie de façon non linéaire avec les proportions du mélange. Les performances obtenues avec les huiles brutes de masses moléculaires voisines dépendent sensiblement de la composition. Cependant l'influence propre de la structure et de la masse moléculaire des différentes espèces n'a pas encore été établie. A cet égard l'huile de Daqing constitue un cas intéressant : la solubilisation est extrêmement faible, bien que les tensions interfaciales soient relativement basses. D'après des essais préliminaires de fractionnement de ce brut, les résines pourraient être à l'origine de ce comportement. La poursuite des travaux vise à préciser l'effet des fractions lourdes des bruts

  11. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  12. ICP magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry and the precise measurement of isotopic compositions using nebulization of solutions and laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, A.N.; Lee, D-C.; Christensen, J.N.; Yi, W.; Hall, C.M.; Jones, C.E.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Freedman, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sources offer considerable advantages over thermal sources because the high ionization efficiency facilitates measurements of relatively high sensitivity for elements such as Hf or Sn, which can be difficult to measure precisely with thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The mass discrimination (bias) is larger than for TIMS, favours the heavier ions, and decreases in magnitude with increasing mass. However, in contrast to TIMS, this discrimination is largely independent of the chemical or physical properties of the element or the duration of the analysis. This has been demonstrated to high precision with a double focussing multiple collector magnetic sector mass spectrometer with an ICP source. The principle of this instrument is briefly described. The potential of the instrument for high precision isotopic measurements of a very broad range of elements, using solution aspiration or laser ablation, is indicated. 15 refs

  13. A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method to measure a selected panel of uremic retention solutes derived from endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loor, Henriette de; Poesen, Ruben [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Nephrology, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Leger, Wout; Dehaen, Wim [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Division of Molecular Design and Synthesis, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Augustijns, Patrick [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Drug Delivery and Disposition, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Evenepoel, Pieter [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Nephrology, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Meijers, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.meijers@uzleuven.be [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Nephrology, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-09-14

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease, which is, at least partly, mediated by the accumulation of so-called uremic retention solutes. Although there has been an increasing interest in the behavior of these solutes, derived from both the endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism, methods to simultaneously and accurately measure a broad panel of relevant uremic retention solutes remain scarce. We developed a highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. A high throughput sample preparation was used with extraction of analytes from 50 μl serum using Ostro plate technology. For most solutes, stable isotopes labelled metabolites were used as internal standards. Chromatography was achieved using an Acquity UPLC CSH Fluoro Phenyl column. The total run time was 8 min, the mobile phase was a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water and pure methanol at a flow rate of 0.5 ml min{sup −1}. Detection was performed using a tandem mass spectrometer with alternated positive and negative electrospray ionization. Calibration curves were linear for all solutes. Precision was assessed according to the NCCLS EP5-T guideline, being below 15% for all metabolites. Mean recoveries were between 83 and 104% for all metabolites. The validated method was successfully applied in a cohort of 488 patients with CKD. We developed and validated a sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of 15 uremic retention solutes derived from endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism. This method allows for studying the behavior and relevance of these solutes in patients with CKD. - Highlights: • Simultaneous quantification of fifteen relevant uremic retention solutes. • Comprehensive validation, highly sensitive and high through-put LC-MSMS method. • Comparison of different blood tubes. • Freeze-thaw stability. • Successful implementation in a

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  15. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  16. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  17. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  18. Condensed, solution and gas phase behaviour of mono- and dinuclear 2,6-diacetylpyridine (dap) hydrazone copper complexes probed by X-ray, mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Brenno A D; Viana, Barbara F L; Rodrigues, Thyago S; Lalli, Priscila M; Eberlin, Marcos N; da Silva, Wender A; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Gatto, Claudia C

    2013-08-28

    We describe the synthesis of novel mononuclear and dinuclear copper complexes and an investigation of their behaviour in solution using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS) and in the solid state using X-ray crystallography. The complexes were synthesized from two widely used diacetylpryridine (dap) ligands, i.e. 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(benzoic acid hydrazone) and 2,6-diacetylpyridinebis(2-aminobenzoic acid hydrazone). Theoretical calculations (DFT) were used to predict the complex geometries of these new structures, their equilibrium in solution and energies associated with the transformations.

  19. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  20. New recommendations for dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)

  1. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  2. Glacier mass variations from recent ITSG-Grace solutions: Experiences with the point-mass modeling technique in the framework of project SPICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimond, S.; Klinger, B.; Krauss, S.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Eicker, A.; Zemp, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, remotely sensed observations have become one of the most ubiquitous and valuable sources of information for glacier monitoring. In addition to altimetry and interferometry data (as observed, e.g., by the CryoSat-2 and TanDEM-X satellites), time-variable gravity field data from the GRACE satellite mission has been used by several authors to assess mass changes in glacier systems. The main challenges in this context are i) the limited spatial resolution of GRACE, ii) the gravity signal attenuation in space and iii) the problem of isolating the glaciological signal from the gravitational signatures as detected by GRACE.In order to tackle the challenges i) and ii), we thoroughly investigate the point-mass modeling technique to represent the local gravity field. Instead of simply evaluating global spherical harmonics, we operate on the normal equation level and make use of GRACE K-band ranging data (available since April 2002) processed at the Graz University of Technology. Assessing such small-scale mass changes from space-borne gravimetric data is an ill-posed problem, which we aim to stabilize by utilizing a Genetic Algorithm based Tikhonov regularization. Concerning issue iii), we evaluate three different hydrology models (i.e. GLDAS, LSDM and WGHM) for validation purposes and the derivation of error bounds. The non-glaciological signal is calculated for each region of interest and reduced from the GRACE results.We present mass variations of several alpine glacier systems (e.g. the European Alps, Svalbard or Iceland) and compare our results to glaciological observations provided by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) and alternative inversion methods (surface density modeling).

  3. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  4. Analysis of hydroxamate siderophores in soil solution using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry with on-line sample preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Madelen A; Bylund, Dan

    2015-10-01

    A liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was developed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze 13 hydroxamate siderophores (ferrichrome, ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, ferrichrysin, ferricrocin, ferrioxamine B, D1 , E and G, neocoprogen I and II, coprogen and triacetylfusarinine C). Samples were preconcentrated on-line by a switch-valve setup prior to analyte separation on a Kinetex C18 column. Gradient elution was performed using a mixture of an ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile. Total analysis time including column conditioning was 20.5 min. Analytes were fragmented by applying collision-induced dissociation, enabling structural identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Limit of detection values for the selected ion monitoring method ranged from 71 pM to 1.5 nM with corresponding values of two to nine times higher for the multiple reaction monitoring method. The liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method resulted in a robust and sensitive quantification of hydroxamate siderophores as indicated by retention time stability, linearity, sensitivity, precision and recovery. The analytical error of the methods, assessed through random-order, duplicate analysis of soil samples extracted with a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer and methanol, appears negligible in relation to between-sample variations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The cases of non-equivalence between English and Lithuanian: a corpus based solution. Ekvivalentiškumo nebuvimo problemos ir jų sprendimai anglų ir lietuvių kalbose pasitelkiant tekstynų tyrimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Cvilikaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Šiame straipsnyje pristatomas leksinių ertmių reiškinys bei jo potipis – morfologinės ertmės. Morfologinių ertmių, kurios atsiranda dėl tam tikrų dviejų kalbų derivacijos potencialų skirtumų (šiame straipsnyje – neigiamos reikšmės perteikimas priešdėlių pagalba anglų ir lietuvių kalbose, analizė parodė, kaip tokia morfologinio pobūdžio sąvokų leksikalizacijos stoka įtakoja vertimą, t. y. domėtasi, kaip morfologinės ertmės perteikiamos vertimo kalboje. Straipsnyje pirmiausia aptariami vertimo atvejai dvikalbiame anglų–lietuvių kalbų žodyne. Pastebėta, kad tokiais atvejais dažniausiai vartojami vertimo metodai yra vertimas sinonimų grupe bei aprašomasis vertimas. Aptariamos su tokiu reikšmės perteikimu susijusios problemos. Žodynų vertimai palyginti su vertimais tekstuose, kurie gauti pasitelkus Lygiagretųjį anglų – lietuvių kalbų tekstyną. Tokių dviejų šaltinių vertimų palyginimas užbaigiamas diskusija apie išplėstinio vertimo vieneto sąvoką ir tekstynų medžiagos panaudojimą vertime bei šiuolaikinėje leksikografijoje. ----- Machine translation systems, machine-readable dictionaries or other computer-oriented electronic lexical resources present a challenging task in the case of the Lithuanian language. Many of them are related to the problem of non-equivalence resulting from cultural and systemic differences and thus existing on various levels of a language – lexical, morphological and syntactic. This paper focuses on instances of non-equivalence between Lithuanian and English on the morphologicallevel. More specifically, the resolution of non-equivalence problems caused by morphological gaps between English and Lithuanian is investigated. Morphological gaps represent a type of lexicalgaps, which are understood as lack of direct lexicalisation for a certain concept.

  6. Tide Gauge Records Reveal Improved Processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Time-Variable Mass Solutions over the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Landerer, Felix W.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2018-05-01

    Monthly ocean bottom pressure solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), derived using surface spherical cap mass concentration (MC) blocks and spherical harmonics (SH) basis functions, are compared to tide gauge (TG) monthly averaged sea level data over 2003-2015 to evaluate improved gravimetric data processing methods near the coast. MC solutions can explain ≳ 42% of the monthly variance in TG time series over broad shelf regions and in semi-enclosed marginal seas. MC solutions also generally explain ˜5-32 % more TG data variance than SH estimates. Applying a coastline resolution improvement algorithm in the GRACE data processing leads to ˜ 31% more variance in TG records explained by the MC solution on average compared to not using this algorithm. Synthetic observations sampled from an ocean general circulation model exhibit similar patterns of correspondence between modeled TG and MC time series and differences between MC and SH time series in terms of their relationship with TG time series, suggesting that observational results here are generally consistent with expectations from ocean dynamics. This work demonstrates the improved quality of recent MC solutions compared to earlier SH estimates over the coastal ocean, and suggests that the MC solutions could be a useful tool for understanding contemporary coastal sea level variability and change.

  7. Molar mass, radius of gyration and second virial coefficient from new static light scattering equations for dilute solutions: application to 21 (macro)molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien, Bertrand; Ying, Ruifeng

    2009-05-11

    New static light scattering (SLS) equations for dilute binary solutions are derived. Contrarily to the usual SLS equations [Carr-Zimm (CZ)], the new equations have no need for the experimental absolute Rayleigh ratio of a reference liquid and solely rely on the ratio of scattered intensities of solutions and solvent. The new equations, which are based on polarizability equations, take into account the usual refractive index increment partial differential n/partial differential rho(2) complemented by the solvent specific polarizability and a term proportional to the slope of the solution density rho versus the solute mass concentration rho(2) (density increment). Then all the equations are applied to 21 (macro)molecules with a wide range of molar mass (0.2equations clearly achieve a better agreement with supplier M values. For macromolecules (M>500 kg mol(-1)), for which the scattered intensity is no longer independent of the scattering angle, the new equations give the same value of the radius of gyration as the CZ equation and consistent values of the second virial coefficient.

  8. Integrals of periodic motion and periodic solutions for classical equations of relativistic string with masses at ends. I. Integrals of periodic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Boundary equations for the relativistic string with masses at ends are formulated in terms of geometrical invariants of world trajectories of masses at the string ends. In the three-dimensional Minkowski space E 2 1 , there are two invariants of that sort, the curvature K and torsion κ. Curvatures of trajectories of the string ends with masses are always constant, K i =γ/m i (i=1,2), whereas torsions κ i obey a system of differential equations with deviating arguments. For these equations with periodic κ i (τ+nl)=κ(τ), constants of motion are obtained (part 1) and exact solutions are presented (part 2) for periods l and 2l where l is the string length in the plane of parameters τ and σ(σ 1 =0, σ 2 =l). 7 refs

  9. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  10. Kerr-Taub-NUT General Frame, Energy, and Momentum in Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal G. L. Nashed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new exact solution describing a general stationary and axisymmetric object of the gravitational field in the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR is derived. The solution is characterized by three parameters “the gravitational mass M, the rotation a, and the NUT L.” The vierbein field is axially symmetric, and the associated metric gives the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Calculation of the total energy using two different methods, the gravitational energy momentum and the Riemannian connection 1-form Γα̃β, is carried out. It is shown that the two methods give the same results of energy and momentum. The value of energy is shown to depend on the mass M and the NUT parameter L. If L is vanishing, then the total energy reduced to the energy of Kerr black hole.

  11. Effects of overlapping electric double layer on mass transport of a macro-solute across porous wall of a micro/nanochannel for power law fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Mondal, Mrinmoy; De, Sirshendu

    2017-05-01

    Effects of overlapping electric double layer and high wall potential on transport of a macrosolute for flow of a power law fluid through a microchannel with porous walls are studied in this work. The electric potential distribution is obtained by coupling the Poisson's equation without considering the Debye-Huckel approximation. The numerical solution shows that the center line potential can be 16% of wall potential at pH 8.5, at wall potential -73 mV and scaled Debye length 0.5. Transport phenomena involving mass transport of a neutral macrosolute is formulated by species advective equation. An analytical solution of Sherwood number is obtained for power law fluid. Effects of fluid rheology are studied in detail. Average Sherwood number is more for a pseudoplastic fluid compared to dilatant upto the ratio of Poiseuille to electroosmotic velocity of 5. Beyond that, the Sherwood number is independent of fluid rheology. Effects of fluid rheology and solute size on permeation flux and concentration of neutral solute are also quantified. More solute permeation occurs as the fluid changes from pseudoplastic to dilatant. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Jain, H.C.; Gurba, P.B.; Babbar, R.K.; Udagatti, S.V.; Moorthy, A.D.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239 Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239 Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242 Pu or 244 Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239 Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239 Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  13. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  14. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  15. Oxygenation in carbonate microbialites and associated facies after the end-Permian mass extinction: Problems and potential solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kershaw

    2018-01-01

    The oxygenation state of post-end-Permian extinction shallow marine facies continues to present a challenge of interpretation, and requires high-resolution sampling and careful attention to small-scale changes, as well as loss of rock through pressure solution, as the next step to resolve the issue.

  16. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M

    2016-01-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause fo...... in industry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  17. Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in a solution: Including mass transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqshenas, S R; Ford, I J; Saffari, N

    2018-01-14

    Effects of acoustic waves on a phase transformation in a metastable phase were investigated in our previous work [S. R. Haqshenas, I. J. Ford, and N. Saffari, "Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation," J. Chem. Phys. 145, 024315 (2016)]. We developed a non-equimolar dividing surface cluster model and employed it to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation induced by an acoustic field in a mass-conserved system. In the present work, we developed a master equation based on a hybrid Szilard-Fokker-Planck model, which accounts for mass transportation due to acoustic waves. This model can determine the kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters including the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. It was solved numerically to calculate the kinetics of an isothermal sonocrystallisation process in a system with mass transportation. The simulation results show that the effect of mass transportation for different excitations depends on the waveform as well as the imposed boundary conditions and tends to be noticeable in the case of shock waves. The derivations are generic and can be used with any acoustic source and waveform.

  18. Experimental Study of the Effect for Water Depth on the Mass Transfer of Passive Solar Still Chemical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayadh M. Abed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on a passive solar distiller in the Tikrit city on (latitude line"34 36o north, longitude line "45 43o east, and purpose of that study to raise the efficiency and productivity of the solar distiller. And then design the monoclinic solar distiller and add reflector plate and a solar concentrate. The Practical tests were conducted at a rate of every half-hour from the beginning of February to the beginning of the month of June. The study began by comparing the solar distiller that contain the concentrates and without contain it. Then study the influence of adding coal and chemical solutions, like blue Thymol solution and blue bromophenol solution to see the additions effect on the productivity and efficiency of distiller, and also The study was conducted to see the effect of the water depth on the productivity of distiller with take four water depths within the basin are (2,1.5,1,0.5 cm of water. The tests were conducted in weather conditions close. and the results of the study, That distilled added his concentrates improved its productivity by 46% and efficiency increases 43% with non-use of concentrates, and coal increased efficiency by 36% and productivity improved up to 38%, the addition of  blue Thymol solution increases the efficiency by 19% and productivity by 16%, as well as bromophenol solution  increase productivity by 23% and improve efficiency by 25%, when comparing the additions found that the best one is coal. Through the study of the depth of the water show that increases productivity and efficiency by reducing the depth of the water in the basin distiller. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.13

  19. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Recent studies of O-type stars have demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed. Fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g., P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the Hα emission. Wind inhomogeneity (so-called "clumping") may be the main cause of this discrepancy. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented 3D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. Methods: In the first step, the analyses started with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit to the observed Hα emission lines best. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e., P v) we then applied our 3D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths ("macroclumping"), a non-void interclump medium, and a velocity dispersion inside the clumps. The ionization stratifications and underlying photospheric spectra were adopted from the PoWR models. The properties of the wind clumps were constrained by fitting the observed resonance line profiles. Results: Our results show that with the mass-loss rates that fit Hα (and other Balmer and He ii lines), the UV resonance lines (especially the unsaturated doublet of P v) can also be reproduced with no problem when macroclumping is taken into account. There is no need to artificially reduce the mass-loss rates or to assume a subsolar phosphorus abundance or an extremely high clumping factor, unlike what was claimed by other authors. These consistent mass-loss rates are lower by a factor of 1.3 to 2.6, compared to the mass-loss rate recipe from Vink et al. Conclusions: Macroclumping resolves the previously reported discrepancy between Hα and P v mass-loss diagnostics. Based on

  20. FEM Analyses for T-H-M-M Coupling Processes in Dual-Porosity Rock Mass under Stress Corrosion and Pressure Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The models of stress corrosion and pressure solution established by Yasuhara et al. were introduced into the 2D FEM code of thermo-hydro-mechanical-migratory coupling analysis for dual-porosity medium developed by the authors. Aiming at a hypothetical model for geological disposal of nuclear waste in an unsaturated rock mass from which there is a nuclide leak, two computation conditions were designed. Then the corresponding two-dimensional numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-migratory processes were carried out, and the states of temperatures, rates and magnitudes of aperture closure, pore and fracture pressures, flow velocities, nuclide concentrations and stresses in the rock mass were investigated. The results show: the aperture closure rates caused by stress corrosion are almost six orders higher than those caused by pressure solution, and the two kinds of closure rates climb up and then decline, furthermore tend towards stability; when the effects of stress corrosion and pressure solution are considered, the negative fracture pressures in near field rise very highly; the fracture aperture and porosity are decreases in the case 1, so the relative permeability coefficients reduce, therefore the nuclide concentrations in pore and fracture in this case are higher than those in case 2.

  1. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  2. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  3. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  4. Molar mass fractionation in aqueous two-phase polymer solutions of dextran and poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziliang; Li, Qi; Ji, Xiangling; Dimova, Rumiana; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-06-24

    Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in phase separated aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) of these two polymers, with a broad molar mass distribution for dextran and a narrow molar mass distribution for PEG, were separated and quantified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Tie lines constructed by GPC method are in excellent agreement with those established by the previously reported approach based on density measurements of the phases. The fractionation of dextran during phase separation of ATPS leads to the redistribution of dextran of different chain lengths between the two phases. The degree of fractionation for dextran decays exponentially as a function of chain length. The average separation parameters, for both dextran and PEG, show a crossover from mean field behavior to Ising model behavior, as the critical point is approached. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RADARS, a bioinformatics solution that automates proteome mass spectral analysis, optimises protein identification, and archives data in a relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Helen I; Fenyö, David; Beavis, Ronald C

    2002-01-01

    RADARS, a rapid, automated, data archiving and retrieval software system for high-throughput proteomic mass spectral data processing and storage, is described. The majority of mass spectrometer data files are compatible with RADARS, for consistent processing. The system automatically takes unprocessed data files, identifies proteins via in silico database searching, then stores the processed data and search results in a relational database suitable for customized reporting. The system is robust, used in 24/7 operation, accessible to multiple users of an intranet through a web browser, may be monitored by Virtual Private Network, and is secure. RADARS is scalable for use on one or many computers, and is suited to multiple processor systems. It can incorporate any local database in FASTA format, and can search protein and DNA databases online. A key feature is a suite of visualisation tools (many available gratis), allowing facile manipulation of spectra, by hand annotation, reanalysis, and access to all procedures. We also described the use of Sonar MS/MS, a novel, rapid search engine requiring 40 MB RAM per process for searches against a genomic or EST database translated in all six reading frames. RADARS reduces the cost of analysis by its efficient algorithms: Sonar MS/MS can identifiy proteins without accurate knowledge of the parent ion mass and without protein tags. Statistical scoring methods provide close-to-expert accuracy and brings robust data analysis to the non-expert user.

  6. Development of iodine based impinger solutions for the efficient capture of Hg{sup 0} using direct injection nebulization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, E.; Lee, T.G.; Biswas, P.; Zhuang, Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA). National Exposure Research Laboratory

    2001-09-15

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solution proved to be very efficient for Hg{sup 0} capture and was amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. Hg{sup 0} capture efficiency using aqueous iodine (I{sub 3}{sup -}) was comparable to Hg{sup 0} capture using acidified potassium permanganate impinger solutions which were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) with greater than 98% capture of Hg{sup 0} in the oxidizing impinger. Using DIN-ICP/MS, it was demonstrated for the first time that iodine can be generated just prior to impinger sampling for efficiently oxidizing Hg{sup 0} and retailing it in solution as HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Due to the increased interest in Hg speciation from combustion sources and the potential for using DIN-ICP/MS for multiple metals analyses, an impinger sampling train for gaseous Hg speciation and multiple metals analyses using DIN-ICP/MS analyses is presented. The unique feature of such a sampling train is that each impinger solution in the series is amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. A bituminous coal was combusted in a bench scale coal system, and gaseous Hg species (oxidized and elemental) were determined using the proposed impinger train. The DIN-ICP/Ms instrumental detection limit was 0.003 ppb, and MDLs ranged from 0.007 to 0.116 {mu}g/L (ppb) in a variety of impinger solutions used for Hg capture. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Aggregate development in C 60/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution and its mixture with water as revealed by extraction and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzyma, O. A.; Korobov, M. V.; Avdeev, M. V.; Garamus, V. M.; Snegir, S. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Aksenov, V. L.; Bulavin, L. A.

    2010-06-01

    The aggregate development in C 60/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 60/NMP) solution with time is studied by the extraction (hexane) and mass spectroscopy. It is shown that only molecular C 60 in NMP is extracted in hexane, which makes it possible to follow a change in the concentration of non-aggregated fullerene in C 60/NMP during the aggregate growth. It is concluded that almost all fullerene dissolved in NMP is in the aggregates after one month. The reorganization of the aggregates is detected when water is added to the aggregated solution C 60/NMP. Both methods prove that in this case individual fullerene molecules are detached from the aggregates, which contradicts somewhat to complete insolubility of C 60 in water.

  8. A mouse anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and improves muscle strength and contractility in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its humanized equivalent, domagrozumab (PF-06252616), increases muscle volume in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Andre, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Bansal, Prashant N; Wellen, Jeremy; Robertson, Andrew; Opsahl, Alan; Burch, Peter M; Bialek, Peter; Morris, Carl; Owens, Jane

    2017-11-09

    The treatments currently approved for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive skeletal muscle wasting disease, address the needs of only a small proportion of patients resulting in an urgent need for therapies that benefit all patients regardless of the underlying mutation. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of ligands and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Loss of myostatin has been shown to increase muscle mass and improve muscle function in both normal and dystrophic mice. Therefore, myostatin blockade via a specific antibody could ameliorate the muscle weakness in DMD patients by increasing skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby reducing patients' functional decline. A murine anti-myostatin antibody, mRK35, and its humanized analog, domagrozumab, were developed and their ability to inhibit several TGB-β ligands was measured using a cell-based Smad-activity reporter system. Normal and mdx mice were treated with mRK35 to examine the antibody's effect on body weight, lean mass, muscle weights, grip strength, ex vivo force production, and fiber size. The humanized analog (domagrozumab) was tested in non-human primates (NHPs) for changes in skeletal muscle mass and volume as well as target engagement via modulation of circulating myostatin. Both the murine and human antibodies are specific and potent inhibitors of myostatin and GDF11. mRK35 is able to increase body weight, lean mass, and muscle weights in normal mice. In mdx mice, mRK35 significantly increased body weight, muscle weights, grip strength, and ex vivo force production in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Further, tibialis anterior (TA) fiber size was significantly increased. NHPs treated with domagrozumab demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in lean mass and muscle volume and exhibited increased circulating levels of myostatin demonstrating target engagement. We demonstrated that the potent anti-myostatin antibody mRK35 and

  9. Tracking problems and possible solutions in the quantitative determination of small molecule drugs and metabolites in biological fluids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray; Majumdar, Tapan K

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, quantification of low molecular weight molecules using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in biological fluids has become a common procedure in many preclinical and clinical laboratories. This overview highlights a number of issues involving "small molecule drugs", bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which are frequently encountered during assay development. In addition, possible solutions to these issues are proposed with examples in some of the case studies. Topics such as chromatographic peak shape, carry-over, cross-talk, standard curve non-linearity, internal standard selection, matrix effect, and metabolite interference are presented. Since plasma is one of the most widely adopted biological fluid in drug discovery and development, the focus of this discussion will be limited to plasma analysis. This article is not intended to be a comprehensive overview and readers are encouraged to refer to the citations herein.

  10. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed; Remocion de As en solucion empleando biomasas no vivas de maleza acuatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A, M J

    2010-07-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m{sup 2}/g and 0.6395 m{sup 2}/g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm{sup 2} and 12.47 sites/nm{sup 2}. The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions

  11. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  12. Calculation of three-dimensional mass flow and temperature distributions of nuclear reactors using the hardy cross iterative global solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, A.J. da; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This work describes the thermalhydraulics code CROSS, designed for micro-computer calculation of heat and mass flow distributions in LWR nuclear reactor cores using the Hardy Cross method. Equations to calculate the pressure variations in the coolant channels are presented, along with derivation of a linear system of equations to calculate the energy balance. This system is solved through the Benachievicz method. A case study is presented, showing that the methodology developed in this work can be used in place of the forward marching multi-channel codes. (author) [pt

  13. Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, P.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10 -14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10 -15 ; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10 -18 . Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described

  14. Phases, periphases, and interphases equilibrium by molecular modeling. I. Mass equilibrium by the semianalytical stochastic perturbations method and application to a solution between (120) gypsum faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Jouanna, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The SASP (semianalytical stochastic perturbations) method is an original mixed macro-nano-approach dedicated to the mass equilibrium of multispecies phases, periphases, and interphases. This general method, applied here to the reflexive relation Ck⇔μk between the concentrations Ck and the chemical potentials μk of k species within a fluid in equilibrium, leads to the distribution of the particles at the atomic scale. The macroaspects of the method, based on analytical Taylor's developments of chemical potentials, are intimately mixed with the nanoaspects of molecular mechanics computations on stochastically perturbed states. This numerical approach, directly linked to definitions, is universal by comparison with current approaches, DLVO Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek, grand canonical Monte Carlo, etc., without any restriction on the number of species, concentrations, or boundary conditions. The determination of the relation Ck⇔μk implies in fact two problems: a direct problem Ck⇒μk and an inverse problem μk⇒Ck. Validation of the method is demonstrated in case studies A and B which treat, respectively, a direct problem and an inverse problem within a free saturated gypsum solution. The flexibility of the method is illustrated in case study C dealing with an inverse problem within a solution interphase, confined between two (120) gypsum faces, remaining in connection with a reference solution. This last inverse problem leads to the mass equilibrium of ions and water molecules within a 3 Å thick gypsum interface. The major unexpected observation is the repulsion of SO42- ions towards the reference solution and the attraction of Ca2+ ions from the reference solution, the concentration being 50 times higher within the interphase as compared to the free solution. The SASP method is today the unique approach able to tackle the simulation of the number and distribution of ions plus water molecules in such extreme confined conditions. This result is of prime

  15. What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible

  16. Equivalent molecular mass of cytosolic and nuclear forms of Ah receptor from Hepa-1 cells determined by photoaffinity labeling with 2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokipcak, R.D.; Okey, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The structure of the Ah receptor previously has been extensively characterized by reversible binding of the high affinity ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. We report the use of [ 3 H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as a photoaffinity ligand for Ah receptor from the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1c1c9. Both cytosolic and nuclear forms of Ah receptor could be specifically photoaffinity-labeled, which allowed determination of molecular mass for the two forms under denaturing conditions. After analysis by fluorography of polyacrylamide gels run in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, molecular mass for the cytosolic form of Ah receptor was estimated at 92,000 +/- 4,300 and that for the nuclear form was estimated at 93,500 +/- 3,400. Receptor in mixture of cytosol and nuclear extract (each labeled separately with [ 3 H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) migrated as a single band. These results are consistent with the presence of a common ligand-binding subunit of identical molecular mass in both cytosolic and nuclear complexes

  17. Measurement of isotopic composition of lanthanides in reprocessing process solutions by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Masanori; Jitsukata, Shu; Kuno, Takehiko; Yamada, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of fission products in process solutions and wastes in a reprocessing plant are valuable to proceed safety study of the solutions and research/development concerning treatment/disposal of the wastes. The amount of neodymium-148 is a reliable indication to evaluate irradiation history. The isotopic compositions of samarium and gadolinium in high radioactive wastes are referred to as essential data to evaluate environmental impact in geological repositories. However, pretreatment of analysis must be done with complicated chemical separation such as solvent extraction and ion exchange. The actual measurement data of isotopic compositions of lanthanides comparable to the one of actinides in spent fuel reprocessing process has not been obtained enough. Rapid and high sensitive analytical technique based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed for the measurement of isotopic compositions of lanthanides in spent fuel reprocessing solutions. HPLC/ICP-MS measurement system was customized for a glove-box to be applied to the radioactive solutions. The cation exchange chromatographic columns (Shim-pack IC-C1) and injection valve (20μL) were located inside of the glove-box except the chromatographic pump. The elements of lanthanide group were separated by a gradient program of HPLC with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid. Isotopic compositions of lanthanides in eluate was sequentially analyzed by a quadruple ICP-MS. Optimization of parameter of HPLC and ICP-MS measurement system was examined with standard solutions containing 14 lanthanide elements. The elements of lanthanides were separated by HPLC and detected by ICP-MS within 25 minutes. The detection limits of Nd-146, Sm-147 and Gd-157 were 0.37 μg L -1 , 0.69 μg L -1 and 0.47 μg L -1 , respectively. The analytical precision of the above three isotopes was better than 10% for standard solutions of 100 μg L -1 with

  18. An effective approach for restraining electrochemical corrosion of polycrystalline silicon caused by an HF-based solution and its application for mass production of MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunfei; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jinling; An, Ji; Yang, Fuhua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to effectively protect the structural material polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) from electrochemical corrosion, which often occurs when the MEMS device is released in HF-based solutions, especially when the device contains a noble metal. This corrosion seriously degrades the electrical and mechanical performance as well as the reliability of MEMS devices. In this method, a photoresist (PR) is employed to cover the noble metal, which is electrically coupled with the underlying polysilicon layer. This PR cover can effectually prevent an HF-based solution from diffusing through and arriving at the surface of the noble metal, thus cutting off the electrical current of the electrochemical corrosion reaction. The polysilicon is well protected for longer than 80 min in 49% concentrated HF solutions by a 3 µm-thick AZ 6130 PR film. This fabrication process is simple, reliable and suitable for mass production of high-end micromechanical disk resonators. Benefiting from the technology breakthrough mentioned above, a novel low-cost microfabrication method for disk resonators with high performance has been developed, and the VHF polysilicon disk resonators with resonance frequencies around 282 MHz and Q values larger than 2000 at atmosphere have been produced at wafer level. (paper)

  19. Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer and gas holdup using palm oil in stirred tank bioreactors with xanthan solutions as simulated viscous fermentation broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sauid, Suhaila; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Huey Ling, Tan; Veluri, Murthy V P S

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  20. Enhancement of Oxygen Mass Transfer and Gas Holdup Using Palm Oil in Stirred Tank Bioreactors with Xanthan Solutions as Simulated Viscous Fermentation Broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Mohd Sauid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h−1. It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  1. An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light

  2. The Application of Equivalence Theory to Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2017-01-01

    Through analyzing equivalence theory, the author tries to find a solution to the problems arising in the process of ad?vertising translation. These problems include cultural diversity, language diversity and special requirement of advertisement. The author declares that Nida''s functional equivalence is one of the most appropriate theories to deal with these problems. In this pa?per, the author introduces the principles of advertising translation and culture divergences in advertising translation, and then gives some advertising translation practices to explain and analyze how to create good advertising translation by using functional equivalence. At last, the author introduces some strategies in advertising translation.

  3. Apparent violation of the principle of equivalence and Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1980-01-01

    By means of the principle of equivalence it is deduced that the qualitative behavior of the Schwarzschild horizon about a uniformly accelerating particle. This result is confirmed for an exact solution of a uniformly accelerating object in the limit of small accelerations. For large accelerations the Schwarzschild horizon appears to violate the qualitative behavior established via the principle of equivalence. When similar arguments are extended to an observable such as the red shift between two observers, there is no departure from the results expected from the principle of equivalence. The resolution of the paradox is brought about by a compensating effect due to the Rindler horizon. (author)

  4. Analyse des kérosènes et des gas oils moyens par spectrométrie de masse à moyenne résolution Analysis of Kerosenes and Middle Distillates by Medium-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castex H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une méthode d'analyse par spectrométrie de masse des kérosènes et des distillats moyens dérivée de la norme ASTM D2425, a été développée. Elle utilise le même principe de calcul du carbone moyen pour déterminer le choix des matrices appropriées. Mais elle opère à moyenne résolution, effectuant ainsi le tri des différentes masses exactes d'hydrocarbures, composés soufrés et oxygénés et évitant de ce fait toute séparation préalable par chromatographie liquide (ASTM D2 549 . Les valeurs des matrices ont été modifiées en conséquence et le calcul du carbone moyen adapté à l'étude des coupes étroites et larges. A mass-spectrometry analysis method derived from the ASTM D2425 standard has been developed for kerosenes and middle distillates (185-345°C. It uses the same principle for calculating the mean carbon value to determine the appropriate matrices. But it works with medium reso-lution so as to sort out the different exact masses of hydrocarbons, sulfur and oxygenated compounds, thus avoiding any prior separation by liquid chromatography (ASTM D2549. Therefore, the matrix values have been modified, and the calculation of the mean carbon value has been adapted for analyzing narrow and wide distillation cuts.

  5. Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)

  6. Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in

  7. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  8. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  9. Classical states of an electric dipole in an external magnetic field: Complete solution for the center of mass and trapped states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atenas, Boris; Pino, Luis A. del; Curilef, Sergio, E-mail: scurilef@ucn.cl

    2014-11-15

    We study the classical behavior of an electric dipole in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Using the Lagrangian formulation, we obtain the equations of motion, whose solutions are represented in terms of Jacobi functions. We also identify two constants of motion, namely, the energy E and a pseudomomentumC{sup →}. We obtain a relation between the constants that allows us to suggest the existence of a type of bound states without turning points, which are called trapped states. These results are consistent with and complementary to previous results. - Highlights: • Bound states without turning points. • Lagrangian Formulation for an electric dipole in a magnetic field. • Motion of the center of mass and trapped states. • Constants of motion: pseudomomentum and energy.

  10. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-07-01

    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  11. A similar solution for an unsteady free convection flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with mass transfer and suction or injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1990-12-01

    A similar solution for the flow past a vertical plate started impulsively in its own plane in a viscous incompressible fluid is presented on taking into account the effects of variable suction and/or injection and mass transfer. To solve the momentum, energy and concentration equations, a time dependent length scale is introduced, which leads to the driving parameters γ(=G r /R σ 2 ) and γ*(=G r */R σ 2 ), where G r and G r * are respectively the Grashof and modified Grashof numbers while R σ is the Reynolds number. The resulting locally similar momentum equation is then solved by the method of superposition. The effects of the parameters and that of suction/injection on the flow and on the wall shear-stress of the plate are shown graphically for different values of Schmidt number and transpiration parameter. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs

  12. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  13. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  14. Approximate solutions of a nonlinear oscillator typified as a mass attached to a stretched elastic wire by the homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Belendez, T.; Neipp, C.; Hernandez, A.; Alvarez, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The homotopy perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation that governs the nonlinear oscillations of a system typified as a mass attached to a stretched elastic wire. The restoring force for this oscillator has an irrational term with a parameter λ that characterizes the system (0 ≤ λ ≤ 1). For λ = 1 and small values of x, the restoring force does not have a dominant term proportional to x. We find this perturbation method works very well for the whole range of parameters involved, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. Only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions and the maximal relative error for the approximate frequency is less than 2.2% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude. This error corresponds to λ = 1, while for λ < 1 the relative error is much lower. For example, its value is as low as 0.062% for λ = 0.5.

  15. Rapid and selective determination of free chlorine in aqueous solution using electrophilic addition to styrene by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakigawa, Kengo; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2013-01-15

    We developed a rapid and selective method for determination of free chlorine in aqueous solution by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the first time. Free chlorine was converted to styrene chlorohydrin using electrophilic addition to styrene in sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5). The chlorine derivative obtained was extracted with chloroform, and then analyzed by GC/MS. The calibration curve showed good linearity from 0.2-100 μg/mL (as available chlorine). The detection limit was 0.1 μg/mL, and the intra- and interday accuracy were measured at concentrations of 10, 50, and 75 μg/mL to be -1.3 to 6.9% (intraday) and 3.8-8.0% (interday) as % Bias. The precision was between 1.4 and 4.5% as % RSD. These results indicate that this method is a superior technique for the identification of free chlorine. This method was successfully applied to quantification in commercial samples and in samples of a criminal case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends.

  17. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  18. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  19. Water-equivalence of gel dosimeters for radiology medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, M; Vedelago, J.; Perez, P.; Chacon, D.; Mattea, F.; Velasquez, J.

    2017-10-01

    International dosimetry protocols are based on determinations of absorbed dose to water. Ideally, the phantom material should be water equivalent; that is, it should have the same absorption and scatter properties as water. This study presents theoretical, experimental and Monte Carlo modeling of water-equivalence of Fricke and polymer (NIPAM, PAGAT and itaconic acid ITABIS) gel dosimeters. Mass and electronic densities along with effective atomic number were calculated by means of theoretical approaches. Samples were scanned by standard computed tomography and high-resolution micro computed tomography. Photon mass attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers were examined by Monte Carlo simulations. Theoretical, Monte Carlo and experimental results confirmed good water-equivalence for all gel dosimeters. Overall variations with respect to water in the low energy radiology range (up to 130 k Vp) were found to be less than 3% in average. (Author)

  20. Water-equivalence of gel dosimeters for radiology medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M; Vedelago, J.; Perez, P. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola - CONICET, Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Cordoba (Argentina); Chacon, D.; Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, FAMAF, Laboratorio de Investigacion e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Velasquez, J., E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [ICOS Inmunomedica, Lago Puyehue 01745, Temuco (Chile)

    2017-10-15

    International dosimetry protocols are based on determinations of absorbed dose to water. Ideally, the phantom material should be water equivalent; that is, it should have the same absorption and scatter properties as water. This study presents theoretical, experimental and Monte Carlo modeling of water-equivalence of Fricke and polymer (NIPAM, PAGAT and itaconic acid ITABIS) gel dosimeters. Mass and electronic densities along with effective atomic number were calculated by means of theoretical approaches. Samples were scanned by standard computed tomography and high-resolution micro computed tomography. Photon mass attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers were examined by Monte Carlo simulations. Theoretical, Monte Carlo and experimental results confirmed good water-equivalence for all gel dosimeters. Overall variations with respect to water in the low energy radiology range (up to 130 k Vp) were found to be less than 3% in average. (Author)

  1. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  2. Testing the equivalence principle on a trampoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.

    2001-07-01

    We are developing a Galilean test of the equivalence principle in which two pairs of test mass assemblies (TMA) are in free fall in a comoving vacuum chamber for about 0.9 s. The TMA are tossed upward, and the process repeats at 1.2 s intervals. Each TMA carries a solid quartz retroreflector and a payload mass of about one-third of the total TMA mass. The relative vertical motion of the TMA of each pair is monitored by a laser gauge working in an optical cavity formed by the retroreflectors. Single-toss precision of the relative acceleration of a single pair of TMA is 3.5×10-12 g. The project goal of Δg/g = 10-13 can be reached in a single night's run, but repetition with altered configurations will be required to ensure the correction of systematic error to the nominal accuracy level. Because the measurements can be made quickly, we plan to study several pairs of materials.

  3. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Ruszczynska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g -1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g -1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g -1 in crude oil, -1 in gasoline, -1 in atmospheric oil, -1 in heavy vacuum oil and 140-300 ng g -1 in distillation residue

  4. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Ruszczyńska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa

    2005-03-01

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system, (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system, (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus, (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g - 1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g - 1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g - 1 in crude oil, oil, oil and 140-300 ng g - 1 in distillation residue.

  5. Equivalent nozzle in thermomechanical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1977-01-01

    When analyzing nuclear vessels, it is most important to study the behavior of the nozzle cylinder-cylinder intersection. For the elastic field, this analysis in three dimensions is quite easy using the method of finite elements. The same analysis in the non-linear field becomes difficult for designs in 3-D. It is therefore necessary to resolve a nozzle in two dimensions equivalent to a 3-D nozzle. The purpose of the present work is to find an equivalent nozzle both with a mechanical and thermal load. This has been achieved by the analysis in three dimensions of a nozzle and a nozzle cylinder-sphere intersection, of a different radius. The equivalent nozzle will be a nozzle with a sphere radius in a given ratio to the radius of a cylinder; thus, the maximum equivalent stress is the same in both 2-D and 3-D. The nozzle examined derived from the intersection of a cylindrical vessel of radius R=191.4 mm and thickness T=6.7 mm with a cylindrical nozzle of radius r=24.675 mm and thickness t=1.350 mm, for which the experimental results for an internal pressure load are known. The structure was subdivided into 96 finite, three-dimensional and isoparametric elements with 60 degrees of freedom and 661 total nodes. Both the analysis with a mechanical load as well as the analysis with a thermal load were carried out on this structure according to the Bersafe system. The thermal load consisted of a transient typical of an accident occurring in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, with a peak of the temperature (540 0 C) for the sodium inside the vessel with an insulating argon temperature constant at 525 0 C. The maximum value of the equivalent tension was found in the internal area at the union towards the vessel side. The analysis of the nozzle in 2-D consists in schematizing the structure as a cylinder-sphere intersection, where the sphere has a given relation to the

  6. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  7. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  8. Wijsman Orlicz Asymptotically Ideal -Statistical Equivalent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2013-01-01

    in Wijsman sense and present some definitions which are the natural combination of the definition of asymptotic equivalence, statistical equivalent, -statistical equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense. Finally, we introduce the notion of Cesaro Orlicz asymptotically -equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense and establish their relationship with other classes.

  9. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  10. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  11. Use of Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the characterization of complexes 'ligand - metallic cations' in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthon, Laurence; Zorz, Nicole; Lagrave, Stephanie; Gannaz, Benoit; Hill, Clement [CEA-Marcoule DEN-DRCP-SCPS-LCSE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste reprocessing, separation processes of minor actinides from fission products are developed by Cea. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the 'ligand/metallic cation' complexes, formed in the organic phases are characterized by electro-spray-mass-spectrometry (ESI-MS). This paper deals with the extraction of lanthanides (III) and americium (III) cations by an organic phase composed of a malonamide or / and a dialkyl phosphoric acid, diluted in an aliphatic diluent. For the dialkyl phosphoric acid, Ln(DEHP){sub 3}(HDEHP){sub 3} complexes are observed and in the presence of a large excess of Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, dinuclear species are also observed. For the malonamide extractant, it appears that the complexes formed in the organic phase are of the Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}D{sub x} type, with 2 {<=} x {<=} 4: their distributions depend on the ratio [Ln]/[DMDOHEMA]. When the two extractants are present in the organic phase, mixed 'Ln-malonamide-dialkyl phosphoric acid' species are observed. The influence of several parameters, such as extractant concentration, solute concentration, aqueous acidity and the nature of the cations (lanthanides or americium) are studied. (authors)

  12. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  13. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. Critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 [1] methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. The effective dose equivalent determined using ICRP-26 methods is significantly smaller than the dose equivalent determined by traditional methods. No existing personnel dosimeter or health physics instrument can determine effective dose equivalent. At the present time, the conversion of dosimeter response to dose equivalent is based on calculations for maximal or ''cap'' values using homogeneous spherical or cylindrical phantoms. The evaluated dose equivalent is, therefore, a poor approximation of the effective dose equivalent as defined by ICRP Publication 26. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Infrared equivalence of strongly and weakly coupled gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, P.

    1975-10-01

    Using the decoupling theorem of Apelquist and Carazzone, it is shown that in terms of Feynman diagrams the pure Yang-Mills theory is equivalent in the infrared limit to a theory (zero-mass renormalized), where the vector mesons are coupled fo fermions, and where the fermions do not decouple. By taking enough fermions it is then shown that even though the pure Yang-Mills theory is characterized by the lack of applicability of perturbation theory, nevertheless the effective coupling in the equivalent fermion description is very weak. The effective mass in the zero-mass renormalization blows up. In the fermion description, diagrams involving only vector mesons are suppressed relative to diagrams containing at least one fermion loop. (Auth.)

  15. Approximating the imbibition and absorption behavior of a distribution of matrix blocks by an equivalent spherical block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-03-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the effect of matrix block shape and matrix block size distribution on liquid imbibition and solute absorption in a fractured rock mass. It is shown that the behavior of an individual irregularly-shaped matrix block can be modeled with reasonable accuracy by using the results for a spherical matrix block, if one uses an effective radius a = 3V/A, where V is the volume of the block and A is its surface area. In the early-time regime of matrix imbibition, it is shown that a collection of blocks of different sizes can be modeled by a single equivalent block, with an equivalent radius of -1 > -1 , where the average is taken on a volumetrically-weighted basis. In an intermediate time regime, it is shown for the case where the radii are normally distributed that the equivalent radius is reasonably well approximated by the mean radius . In the long-time limit, where no equivalent radius can be rigorously defined, an asymptotic expression is derived for the cumulative diffusion as a function of the mean and the standard deviation of the radius distribution function

  16. Supersymmetric QED at finite temperature and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Unbroken supersymmetric QED is examined at finite temperature and it is shown that the scalar and spinor members of a chiral superfield acquire different temperature-dependent inertial masses. By considering the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor it is also shown that the T-dependent scalar-spinor gravitational masses are also no longer degenerate and, moreover, are different from their T-dependent inertial mass shifts implying a violation of the equivalence principle. The temperature-dependent corrections to the spinor (g-2) are also calculated and found not to vanish

  17. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  18. Conditions for equivalence of statistical ensembles in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Swagata; Chaudhuri, Gargi

    2012-01-01

    Statistical models based on canonical and grand canonical ensembles are extensively used to study intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. The underlying physical assumption behind canonical and grand canonical models is fundamentally different, and in principle agree only in the thermodynamical limit when the number of particles become infinite. Nevertheless, we show that these models are equivalent in the sense that they predict similar results if certain conditions are met even for finite nuclei. In particular, the results converge when nuclear multifragmentation leads to the formation of predominantly nucleons and low mass clusters. The conditions under which the equivalence holds are amenable to present day experiments.

  19. Simultaneous mass transfer of H2S and CO2 with complex chemical reactions in an aqueous di-isopropanolamine solution = Gleichzeitige absorption von H2S und CO2 in Wässriger Di-isopropanolaminlösung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauwhoff, P.M.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1985-01-01

    The absorption of H2S and CO2 into an aqueous di-isopropanolamine (DIPA) solution was studied experimentally and theoretically as an example of simultaneous mass transfer with complex reversible reactions. The absorption phenomena were classified into three regimes: (1) negligible mutual interaction

  20. Ions generated from uranyl nitrate solutions by electrospray ionization (ESI) and detected with Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie; Somogyi, Arpád; Herrmann, Kristin; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2006-02-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of uranyl nitrate solutions generates a wide variety of positively and negatively charged ions, including complex adducts of uranyl ions with methoxy, hydroxy, and nitrate ligands. In the positive ion mode, ions detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry are sensitive to instrumental tuning parameters such as quadrupole operating frequency and trapping time. Positive ions correspond to oligomeric uranyl nitrate species that can be characterized as having a general formula of [(UO(2))(n)(A)(m)(CH(3)OH)(s)](+) or [(UO(2))(n)(O)(A)(m)(CH(3)OH)(s)](+) with n = 1-4, m = 1-7, s = 0 or 1, and A = OH, NO(3), CH(3)O or a combination of these, although the formation of NO(3)-containing species is preferred. In the negative ion mode, complexes of the form [(UO(2))(NO(3))(m)](-) (m = 1-3) are detected, although the formation of the oxo-containing ions [(UO(2))(O)(n)(NO(3))(m)](-) (n = 1-2, m = 1-2) and the hydroxy-containing ions [(UO(2))(OH)(n)(NO(3))(m)](-) (n = 1-2, m = 0-1) are also observed. The extent of coordinative unsaturation of both positive and negative ions can be determined by ligand association/exchange and H/D exchange experiments using D(2)O and CD(3)OD as neutral reaction partners in the gas-phase. Positive ions are of varying stability and reactivity and may fragment extensively upon collision with D(2)O, CD(3)OD and N(2) in sustained off-resonance irradiation/collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) experiments. Electron-transfer reactions, presumably occurring during electrospray ionization but also in SORI-CID, can result in reduction of U(VI) to U(V) and perhaps even U(IV).

  1. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  2. Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)

  3. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  4. Two-group Current-equivalent Parameters for Control Rod Cells. Autocode Programme CRCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norinder, O; Nyman, K

    1962-06-15

    In two-group neutron diffusion calculations there is mostly necessary to describe the influence of control rods by equivalent homogeneous two-group parameters in regions about the control rods. The problem is solved for a control rod in a medium characterized by two-group parameters. The property of fast and thermal neutr. on current equivalence is selected to obtain equivalent two-group parameters for a homogeneous cell with the same radius as the control rod cell. For the parameters determined one obtains the same fast and thermal neutron current into the rod cell and the equivalent cell independent of the fast and thermal flux amplitudes on the cell boundaries. The equivalent parameters are obtained as a solution of a system of transcendental equations. A Ferranti Mercury Autocode performing the solution is described. Calculated equivalent parameters for control rods in a heavy water lattice are given for some representative cases.

  5. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  6. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  7. Investigation of Equivalent Circuit for PEMFC Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Kwang Jae

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in a PEMFC are dominated by the physical conditions and interface properties, and the reactions are expressed in terms of impedance. The performance of a PEMFC can be simply diagnosed by examining the impedance because impedance characteristics can be expressed by an equivalent electrical circuit. In this study, the characteristics of a PEMFC are assessed using the AC impedance and various equivalent circuits such as a simple equivalent circuit, equivalent circuit with a CPE, equivalent circuit with two RCs, and equivalent circuit with two CPEs. It was found in this study that the characteristics of a PEMFC could be assessed using impedance and an equivalent circuit, and the accuracy was highest for an equivalent circuit with two CPEs

  8. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable...

  9. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem

  10. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle, quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs the quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the nonuniversality of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the Sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can place stringent bounds on the violation of the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10 15 --10 16 if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem

  11. Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J

    2008-01-01

    Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators

  12. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Margarete

    1986-01-01

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  13. Development of dose equivalent meters based on microdosimetric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booz, J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the employment of microdosimetric dose-equivalent meters in radiation protection is described considering the advantages of introducing microdosimetric methods into radiation protection, the technical suitability of such instruments for measuring dose equivalent, and finally technical requirements, constraints and solutions together with some examples of instruments and experimental results. The advantage of microdosimetric methods in radiation protection is illustrated with the evaluation of dose-mean quality factors in radiation fields of unknown composition and with the methods of evaluating neutron- and gamma-dose fractions. - It is shown that there is good correlation between dose-mean lineal energy, anti ysub(anti D), and the ICRP quality factor. - Neutron- and gamma-dose fractions of unknown radiation fields can be evaluated with microdosimetric proportional counters without recurrence to other instruments and methods. The problems of separation are discussed. The technical suitability of microdosimetric instruments for measuring dose equivalent is discussed considering the energy response to neutrons and photons and the sensitivity in terms of dose-equivalent rate. Then, considering technical requirements, constraints, and solutions, the problem of the large dynamic range in LET, the large dynamic range in pulse rate, geometry of sensitive volume and electrodes, evaluation of dose-mean quality factors, calibration methods, and uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)

  14. A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachuk, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces.  An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch.   The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as  the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...

  15. Inertia and Double Bending of Light from Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Careful examination of light paths in an accelerated reference frame, with use of Special Relativity, can account fully for the observed bending of light in a gravitational field, not just half of it as reported in 1911. This analysis also leads to a Machian formulation of inertia similar to the one proposed by Einstein in 1912 and later derived from gravitational field equations in Minkowsky Space by Sciama in 1953. There is a clear inference from equivalence that there is some type of inertial mass increase in a gravitational field. It is the purpose of the current paper to suggest that equivalence provides a more complete picture of gravitational effects than previously thought, correctly predicting full light bending, and that since the theory of inertia is derivable from equivalence, any theory based on equivalence must take account of it. Einstein himself clearly was not satisfied with the status of inertia in GRT, as our quotes have shown. Many have tried to account for inertia and met with less than success, for example Davidson s integration of Sciama s inertia into GRT but only for a steady state cosmology [10], and the Machian gravity theory of Brans and Dicke [11]. Yet Mach s idea hasn t gone away, and now it seems that it cannot go away without also disposing of equivalence.

  16. Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace

    2017-11-01

    As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.

  17. Equivalence principle and quantum mechanics: quantum simulation with entangled photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S

    2018-01-15

    Einstein's equivalence principle (EP) states the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and corresponding inertial field in an accelerated reference frame. However, to what extent the EP remains valid in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is a controversial issue. To avoid violation of the EP, Bargmann's superselection rule forbids a coherent superposition of states with different masses. Here we suggest a quantum simulation of non-relativistic Schrödinger particle dynamics in non-inertial reference frames, which is based on the propagation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in curved and birefringent optical waveguides and Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference measurement. The photonic simulator can emulate superposition of mass states, which would lead to violation of the EP.

  18. Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seveso, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.seveso@unimi.it [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.

  19. Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2017-01-01

    We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.

  20. Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filk, T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0

  1. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  2. Theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    We review several theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics, while general relativity and its generalizations (Kaluza–Klein, …, string theory) suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related to deep, and mysterious, issues in fundamental physics. (paper)

  3. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  4. The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.

  5. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  6. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  7. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed

  8. Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAITSEV, DMITRI

    2001-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.

  9. Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumer, L.; Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1982-01-01

    A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed

  10. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....

  11. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  12. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  13. Antarctica, Greenland and Gulf of Alaska Land-Ice Evolution from an Iterated GRACE Global Mascon Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Sabaka, T. J.; Loomis, B. D.; Arendt, A. A.; McCarthy, J. J.; Camp, J.

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the ice mass evolution of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets (AIS and GIS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA) glaciers from a new GRACE global solution of equal-area surface mass concentration parcels (mascons) in equivalent height of water. The mascons were estimated directly from the reduction of the inter-satellite K-band range-rate (KBRR) observations, taking into account the full noise covariance, and formally iterating the solution. The new solution increases signal recovery while reducing the GRACE KBRR observation residuals. The mascons were estimated with 10 day and 1 arc degree equal-area sampling, applying anisotropic constraints. An ensemble empirical mode decomposition adaptive filter was applied to the mascon time series to compute annual mass balances. The details and causes of the spatial and temporal variability of the land-ice regions studied are discussed. The estimated mass trend over the total GIS, AIS and GOA glaciers for the time period 1 December 2003 to 1 December 2010 is -380 plus or minus 31 Gt a(exp -1), equivalent to -1.05 plus or minus 0.09 mma(exp -1) sea-level rise. Over the same time period we estimate the mass acceleration to be -41 plus or minus 27 Gt a(exp -2), equivalent to a 0.11 plus or minus 0.08 mm a(exp -2) rate of change in sea level. The trends and accelerations are dependent on significant seasonal and annual balance anomalies.

  14. Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    1999-01-01

    Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the

  15. On uncertainties in definition of dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The author has entertained always the doubt that in a neutron field, if the measured value of the absorbed dose with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber is 1.02±0.01 mGy, may the dose equivalent be taken as 10.2±0.1 mSv. Should it be 10.2 or 11, but the author considers it is 10 or 20. Even if effort is exerted for the precision measurement of absorbed dose, if the coefficient being multiplied to it is not precise, it is meaningless. [Absorbed dose] x [Radiation quality fctor] = [Dose equivalent] seems peculiar. How accurately can dose equivalent be evaluated ? The descriptions related to uncertainties in the publications of ICRU and ICRP are introduced, which are related to radiation quality factor, the accuracy of measuring dose equivalent and so on. Dose equivalent shows the criterion for the degree of risk, or it is considered only as a controlling quantity. The description in the ICRU report 1973 related to dose equivalent and its unit is cited. It was concluded that dose equivalent can be considered only as the absorbed dose being multiplied by a dimensionless factor. The author presented the questions. (K.I.)

  16. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  17. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  19. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  4. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  8. Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As

  9. What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...

  10. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank

  11. Superstrings fermionic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    1990-06-01

    The solutions proposed by the superstring theory are classified and compared. In order to obtain some of the equivalences, the demonstration is based on the coincidence of the excitation spectrum and the quantum numbers from different states. The fermionic representation of the heterotical strings is discussed. The conformal invariance and the supersymmetric results extended to two dimensions are investigated. Concerning the fermionic strings, the formalism and a phenomenological solution involving three families of quarks, chiral leptons and leptons from the E 6 gauge group are presented. The equivalence between real and complex fermions is discussed. The similarity between some of the solutions of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the orbifolds is considered. The formal calculation program developed for reproducing the theory's low energy spectra, in the fermionic string formalism is given [fr

  12. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  13. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  14. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  15. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  16. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Brecko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker. We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  17. Uniformly accelerating charged particles. A threat to the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, Stephen N.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a long debate about whether uniformly accelerated charges should radiate electromagnetic energy and how one should describe their worldline through a flat spacetime, i.e., whether the Lorentz-Dirac equation is right. There are related questions in curved spacetimes, e.g., do different varieties of equivalence principle apply to charged particles, and can a static charge in a static spacetime radiate electromagnetic energy? The problems with the LD equation in flat spacetime are spelt out in some detail here, and its extension to curved spacetime is discussed. Different equivalence principles are compared and some vindicated. The key papers are discussed in detail and many of their conclusions are significantly revised by the present solution. (orig.)

  18. Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.

  19. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of the designation of five new equivalent methods for...) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, five new equivalent methods, one for measuring...

  20. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY... equivalent methods, one for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 , one for measuring concentrations of PM 10...

  1. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  2. Geometry of the local equivalence of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, A; Kus, M, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-12-09

    We present a description of locally equivalent states in terms of symplectic geometry. Using the moment map between local orbits in the space of states and coadjoint orbits of the local unitary group, we reduce the problem of local unitary equivalence to an easy part consisting of identifying the proper coadjoint orbit and a harder problem of the geometry of fibers of the moment map. We give a detailed analysis of the properties of orbits of 'equally entangled states'. In particular, we show connections between certain symplectic properties of orbits such as their isotropy and coisotropy with effective criteria of local unitary equivalence. (paper)

  3. Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A

    2013-11-01

    Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.

  4. Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the isotopic abundance analysis of 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U in samples of hydrolysed uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by inductively coupled plasma source, multicollector, mass spectrometry (ICP-MC-MS). The method applies to material with 235U abundance in the range of 0.2 to 6 % mass. This test method is also described in ASTM STP 1344. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Investigation of radiological properties and water equivalency of PRESAGE dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka; Adamovics, John; Bosi, Stephen; Kim, Jung-Ha; Baldock, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRESAGE is a dosimeter made of polyurethane, which is suitable for 3D dosimetry in modern radiation treatment techniques. Since an ideal dosimeter is radiologically water equivalent, the authors investigated water equivalency and the radiological properties of three different PRESAGE formulations that differ primarily in their elemental compositions. Two of the formulations are new and have lower halogen content than the original formulation. Methods: The radiological water equivalence was assessed by comparing the densities, interaction probabilities, and radiation dosimetry properties of the three different PRESAGE formulations to the corresponding values for water. The relative depth doses were calculated using Monte Carlo methods for 50, 100, 200, and 350 kVp and 6 MV x-ray beams. Results: The mass densities of the three PRESAGE formulations varied from 5.3% higher than that of water to as much as 10% higher than that of water for the original formulation. The probability of photoelectric absorption in the three different PRESAGE formulations varied from 2.2 times greater than that of water for the new formulations to 3.5 times greater than that of water for the original formulation. The mass attenuation coefficient for the three formulations is 12%-50% higher than the value for water. These differences occur over an energy range (10-100 keV) in which the photoelectric effect is the dominant interaction. The collision mass stopping powers of the relatively lower halogen-containing PRESAGE formulations also exhibit marginally better water equivalency than the original higher halogen-containing PRESAGE formulation. Furthermore, the depth dose curves for the lower halogen-containing PRESAGE formulations are slightly closer to that of water for a 6 MV beam. In the kilovoltage energy range, the depth dose curves for the lower halogen-containing PRESAGE formulations are in better agreement with water than the original PRESAGE formulation. Conclusions: Based

  6. High-throughput screening of Si-Ni flux for SiC solution growth using a high-temperature laser microscope observation and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shingo; Onuma, Aomi; Kurashige, Kazuhisa; Kato, Tomohisa; Okumura, Hajime; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2013-06-10

    Screening of Si-based flux materials for solution growth of SiC single crystals was demonstrated using a thin film composition-spread technique. The reactivity and diffusion of carbon in a composition spread of the flux was investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling of the annealed flux thin film spread on a graphite substrate. The composition dependence of the chemical interaction between a seed crystal and flux materials was revealed by high-temperature thermal behavior observation of the flux and the subsequent morphological study of the surface after removing the flux using atomic force microscopy. Our new screening approach is shown to be an efficient process for understanding flux materials for SiC solution growth.

  7. On the equivalence of chaos control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaofan

    2003-01-01

    For a given chaotic system, different control systems can be constructed depending on which parameter is tuned or where the external input is added. We prove that two different feedback control systems are qualitatively equivalent if they are feedback linearizable

  8. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  9. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  10. interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jgmweri

    translatability in cultural diversity in terms equivalences such as –Vocabulary or lexical ..... A KSL interpreter who does not understand this English idiom may literally interpret it .... Nida, E.A. (1958) Analysis of meaning and dictionary making.

  11. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  12. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  13. S-equivalents lagrangians in generalized mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, L.J.; Silva, Edna G. da.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of s-equivalent lagrangians is considered in the realm of generalized mechanics. Some results corresponding to the ordinary (non-generalized) mechanics are extended to the generalized case. A theorem for the reduction of the higher order lagrangian description to the usual order is found to be useful for the analysis of generalized mechanical systems and leads to a new class of equivalence between lagrangian functions. Some new perspectives are pointed out. (Author) [pt

  14. On the equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnikov, V.V.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (g μν , Γ μν α ) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism

  15. Equivalence relations between deterministic and quantum mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    1988-01-01

    Several quantum mechanical models are shown to be equivalent to certain deterministic systems because a basis can be found in terms of which the wave function does not spread. This suggests that apparently indeterministic behavior typical for a quantum mechanical world can be the result of locally deterministic laws of physics. We show how certain deterministic systems allow the construction of a Hilbert space and a Hamiltonian so that at long distance scales they may appear to behave as quantum field theories, including interactions but as yet no mass term. These observations are suggested to be useful for building theories at the Planck scale

  16. Remarks on Fermion-Boson equivalence in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, A. de Souza; Natividade, C.P.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from a decomposition of the self-dual field in (2+1) dimensions, we build up an alternative quantum theory which consists of a self-dual model coupled to a Maxwell-generalized Chern-Simons theory. We discuss the fermion-boson equivalence of this quantum theory by comparing it to the Thirring model. Using these results we were able to compute the mass of the bosonized fermions up to third order in (1/m). Some problems related to the number of poles of the effective propagator are also addressed. (author)

  17. Equivalence between the semiclassical and effective approaches to gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszko, Ricardo; Accioly, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Semiclassical and effective theories of gravitation are quite distinct from each other as far as the approximation scheme employed is concerned. In fact, while in the semiclassical approach gravity is a classical field and the particles and/or remaining fields are quantized, in the effective approach everything is quantized, including gravity, but the Feynman amplitude is expanded in terms of the momentum exchanged between the particles and/or fields. In this paper, we show that these approaches, despite being radically different, lead to equivalent results if one of the masses under consideration is much greater than all the other energies involved.

  18. On the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de.

    1991-01-01

    We show the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models, in the sense that all Green's functions of one model can be obtained from those of the other, and that both models have the same effective Lagrangian density (and so they have equal partition functions associated with them). In particular, we show that the two models have the same chiral anomaly. Finally it is demonstrated that the Schwinger model can keep gauge invariance for an arbitrary mass, dispensing with an additional gauge group integration. (author)

  19. Remarks on Fermion-Boson equivalence in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, A de Souza [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Natividade, C P [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-06-01

    Starting from a decomposition of the self-dual field in (2+1) dimensions, we build up an alternative quantum theory which consists of a self-dual model coupled to a Maxwell-generalized Chern-Simons theory. We discuss the fermion-boson equivalence of this quantum theory by comparing it to the Thirring model. Using these results we were able to compute the mass of the bosonized fermions up to third order in (1/m). Some problems related to the number of poles of the effective propagator are also addressed. (author) 13 refs.

  20. Equivalent thermal conductivity of the storage basket with spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyokhina, Svitlana; Kostikov, Andriy

    2014-01-01

    Due to limitation of computation resources and/or computation time many thermal problems require to use simplified geometrical models with equivalent thermal properties. A new method for definition of equivalent thermal conductivity of spent nuclear fuel storage casks is proposed. It is based on solving the inverse heat conduction problem. For the proposed method two approaches for equivalent thermal conductivity definition were considered. In the first approach a simplified model in conjugate formulation is used, in the second approach a simplified model of solid body which allows an analytical solution is used. For safety ensuring during all time of spent nuclear fuel storage the equivalent thermal conductivity was calculated for different storage years. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivities can be used in thermal researches for dry spent nuclear fuel storage safety.

  1. Mass of the photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    Several experiments are discussed for which results are equivalent to the catching and weighing of a photon. It is noted that none of the experiments has proved the rest mass to be zero and that such a proof may be impossible. It is shown by such experiments that the rest mass is less than the limit of accuracy of the experiment. These limits have approached ever closer to zero, and the most recent values are exceedingly small

  2. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD 0 and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD 0 was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD 0 was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n could lead to

  3. The Goldstone equivalence theorem and AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Nikhil; Cantrell, Sean [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The Goldstone equivalence theorem allows one to relate scattering amplitudes of massive gauge fields to those of scalar fields in the limit of large scattering energies. We generalize this theorem under the framework of the AdS/CFT correspondence. First, we obtain an expression of the equivalence theorem in terms of correlation functions of creation and annihilation operators by using an AdS wave function approach to the AdS/CFT dictionary. It is shown that the divergence of the non-conserved conformal current dual to the bulk gauge field is approximately primary when computing correlators for theories in which the masses of all the exchanged particles are sufficiently large. The results are then generalized to higher spin fields. We then go on to generalize the theorem using conformal blocks in two and four-dimensional CFTs. We show that when the scaling dimensions of the exchanged operators are large compared to both their spins and the dimension of the current, the conformal blocks satisfy an equivalence theorem.

  4. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-07

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial

  5. Strength Estimation of Die Cast Beams Considering Equivalent Porous Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Shik [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    As a shop practice, a strength estimation method for die cast parts is suggested, in which various defects such as pores can be allowed. The equivalent porosity is evaluated by combining the stiffness data from a simple elastic test at the part level during the shop practice and the theoretical stiffness data, which are defect free. A porosity equation is derived from Eshelby's inclusion theory. Then, using the Mori-Tanaka method, the porosity value is used to draw a stress-strain curve for the porous material. In this paper, the Hollomon equation is used to capture the strain hardening effect. This stress-strain curve can be used to estimate the strength of a die cast part with porous defects. An elastoplastic theoretical solution is derived for the three-point bending of a die cast beam by using the plastic hinge method as a reference solution for a part with porous defects.

  6. The principle of equivalence reconsidered: assessing the relevance of the principle of equivalence in prison medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.

  7. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  8. Determination of moxifloxacin and its oxidation products with kinetic evaluation under potassium permanganate treatment in acidic solution by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Urszula; Zmudzki, Paweł; Zajdel, Paweł; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible ultra-performance LC method for the determination of moxifloxacin (MOXI) oxidation stability under permanganate treatment in acidic conditions (pH 3.0-6.0) was developed. Besides the MOXI peak [retention time (RT) = 2.58], four additional products (RT = 0.86, 0.91, 1.42, and 1.89) were observed in all conditions tested. The oxidation process followed second-order reaction kinetics and depended upon solution acidity. The highest reaction rate constant was observed at pH 3.0, and this value decreased as the pH was increased to 6.0. The oxidation products were characterized, and their fragmentation pathways, derived from MS/MS data, were proposed. Two of these products were identified as hydroxyl derivatives of MOXI and two others as their oxidation product analogs with molecular ions of 418.4 and 416.4 m/z, respectively.

  9. Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.

  10. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  11. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  12. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sundrum, Raman [Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  13. Segmented and "equivalent" representation of the cable equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrietti, F; Bernardini, G

    1984-11-01

    The linear cable theory has been applied to a modular structure consisting of n repeating units each composed of two subunits with different values of resistance and capacitance. For n going to infinity, i.e., for infinite cables, we have derived analytically the Laplace transform of the solution by making use of a difference method and we have inverted it by means of a numerical procedure. The results have been compared with those obtained by the direct application of the cable equation to a simplified nonmodular model with "equivalent" electrical parameters. The implication of our work in the analysis of the time and space course of the potential of real fibers has been discussed. In particular, we have shown that the simplified ("equivalent") model is a very good representation of the segmented model for the nodal regions of myelinated fibers in a steady situation and in every condition for muscle fibers. An approximate solution for the steady potential of myelinated fibers has been derived for both nodal and internodal regions. The applications of our work to other cases dealing with repeating structures, such as earthworm giant fibers, have been discussed and our results have been compared with other attempts to solve similar problems.

  14. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  15. Capitalizing Resolving Power of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation by Freezing and Precisely Slicing Centrifuged Solution: Enabling Identification of Complex Proteins from Mitochondria by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Density gradient centrifugation is widely utilized for various high purity sample preparations, and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU is often used for more resolution-demanding purification of organelles and protein complexes. Accurately locating different isopycnic layers and precisely extracting solutions from these layers play a critical role in achieving high-resolution DGU separations. In this technique note, we develop a DGU procedure by freezing the solution rapidly (but gently after centrifugation to fix the resolved layers and by slicing the frozen solution to fractionate the sample. Because the thickness of each slice can be controlled to be as thin as 10 micrometers, we retain virtually all the resolution produced by DGU. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we fractionate complex V from HeLa mitochondria using a conventional technique and this freezing-slicing (F-S method. The comparison indicates that our F-S method can reduce complex V layer thicknesses by ~40%. After fractionation, we analyze complex V proteins directly on a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twelve out of fifteen subunits of complex V are positively identified. Our method provides a practical protocol to identify proteins from complexes, which is useful to investigate biomolecular complexes and pathways in various conditions and cell types.

  16. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P C W

    2004-01-01

    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

  17. Using frequency equivalency in stability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Temirbulatov, R.A.; Tereshko, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for calculating oscillatory instability that involves using frequency equivalency is employed in carrying out the following proceedures: dividing an electric power system into subgroups; determining the adjustments to the automatic excitation control in each subsystem; simplifying the mathematical definition of the separate subsystems by using frequency equivalency; gradually re-tuning the automatic excitation control in the separate subsystems to account for neighboring subsystems by using their equivalent frequency characteristics. The methodology is to be used with a computer program to determine the gain in the stabilization channels of the automatic excitation control unit in which static stability of the entire aggregate of normal and post-breakdown conditions acceptable damping of transient processes are provided. The possibility of reducing the equation series to apply to chosen regions of the existing range of frequencies is demonstrated. The use of the methodology is illustrated in a sample study on stability in a Siberian unified power system.

  18. Cosmology with equivalence principle breaking in the dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, Jose Ariel; Nusser, Adi; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    A long-range force acting only between nonbaryonic particles would be associated with a large violation of the weak equivalence principle. We explore cosmological consequences of this idea, which we label ReBEL (daRk Breaking Equivalence principLe). A high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the distributions of baryons and dark matter confirms our previous findings that a ReBEL force of comparable strength to gravity on comoving scales of about 1 h -1 Mpc causes voids between the concentrations of large galaxies to be more nearly empty, suppresses accretion of intergalactic matter onto galaxies at low redshift, and produces an early generation of dense dark-matter halos. A preliminary analysis indicates the ReBEL scenario is consistent with the one-dimensional power spectrum of the Lyman-Alpha forest and the three-dimensional galaxy autocorrelation function. Segregation of baryons and DM in galaxies and systems of galaxies is a strong prediction of ReBEL. ReBEL naturally correlates the baryon mass fraction in groups and clusters of galaxies with the system mass, in agreement with recent measurements.

  19. The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gecsec, F.

    It will be shown that the equivalence problem for LL-regular grammars is decidable. Apart from extending the known result for LL(k) grammar equivalence to LLregular grammar equivalence, we obtain an alternative proof of the decidability of LL(k) equivalence. The equivalence prob]em for LL-regular

  20. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  1. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  2. Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phan; Tran Van Nhung

    1995-12-01

    We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in R n of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small ( * ) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large ( ** ). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy ( ** ). (author). 18 refs

  3. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  4. Measurements of the personal dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung

  5. Application of 1013 ohm Faraday cup current amplifiers for boron isotopic analyses by solution mode and laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Nicholas S; Sadekov, Aleksey Yu; Misra, Sambuddha

    2018-01-15

    Boron isotope ratios (δ 11 B values) are used as a proxy for seawater paleo-pH, amongst several other applications. The analytical precision can be limited by the detection of low intensity ion beams from limited sample amounts. High-gain amplifiers offer improvements in signal/noise ratio and can be used to increase measurement precision and reduce sample amounts. 10 13 ohm amplifier technology has previously been applied to several radiogenic systems, but has thus far not been applied to non-traditional stable isotopes. Here we apply 10 13 ohm amplifier technology for the measurement of boron isotope ratios using solution mode MC-ICP-MS and laser ablation mode (LA-)MC-ICP-MS techniques. Precision is shown for reference materials as well as for low-volume foraminifera samples. The baseline uncertainty for a 0.1 pA 10 B + ion beam is reduced to ohm amplifier technology is demonstrated to offer advantages for the determination of δ 11 B values by both MC-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS for small samples of biogenic carbonates, such as foraminifera shells. 10 13 ohm amplifier technology will also be of benefit to other non-traditional stable isotope measurements. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comprehensive determination of flavouring additives and nicotine in e-cigarette refill solutions. Part I: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszyk, Justyna; Kubica, Paweł; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-10-13

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of 42 flavouring compounds and nicotine in liquids for e-cigarettes. The chromatographic separation was performed using an Ace ® Ultracore™ SuperC18™ (100×2.1mm, 2.5μm) column in both acidic and alkaline pH conditions to separate all the compounds. A simple "dilute & shoot" approach was used for the sample preparation. The method validation was performed by evaluating key analytical parameters such as linearity, accuracy, selectivity, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The calibration curves showed good linearity within the specific ranges for the investigated compounds with correlation coefficients greater than 0.990 in each case. The recovery for all the investigated compounds varied from 89% to 110%. The intra- and inter-day precision were within the acceptable limits (±15%) at all tested concentrations. The applicability of the methods was examined by analysing 25 liquid samples from e-cigarettes commercially available on the Polish market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TORREFACTION OF CELLULOSE: VALIDITY AND LIMITATION OF THE TEMPERATURE/DURATION EQUIVALENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lv , Pin; Almeida , Giana; Perré , Patrick

    2012-01-01

    During torrefaction of biomass, equivalence between temperature and residence time is often reported, either in terms of the loss of mass or the alternation of properties. The present work proposes a rigorous investigation of this equivalence. Cellulose, as the main lignocellulosic biomass component, was treated under mild pyrolysis for 48 hours. Several couples of T-D (temperature-duration) points were selected from TGA curves to obtain mass losses of 11.6%, 25%, 50%, 74.4%, and 86.7%. The c...

  8. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen... INFORMATION: In accordance with regulations at 40 CFR Part 53, the EPA evaluates various methods for...

  9. Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific goal of the experiment is to test the equality of gravitational and inertial mass (i.e., to test the Principle of Equivalence) by measuring the independence of the rate of fall of bodies from their compositions. The measurement is accomplished by measuring the relative displacement (or equivalently acceleration) of two falling bodies of different materials which are the proof masses of a differential accelerometer spinning about an horizontal axis to modulate a possible violation signal. A non-zero differential acceleration appearing at the signal frequency will indicate a violation of the Equivalence Principle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the Eotvos ratio og/g (differential acceleration/common acceleration) with a targeted accuracy that is about two orders of magnitude better than the state of the art (presently at several parts in 10(exp 13). The analyses carried out during this first grant year have focused on: (1) evaluation of possible shapes for the proof masses to meet the requirements on the higher-order mass moment disturbances generated by the falling capsule; (2) dynamics of the instrument package and differential acceleration measurement in the presence of errors and imperfections; (3) computation of the inertia characteristic of the instrument package that enable a separation of the signal from the dynamics-related noise; (4) a revised thermal analysis of the instrument package in light of the new conceptual design of the cryostat; (5) the development of a dynamic and control model of the capsule attached to the gondola and balloon to define the requirements for the leveling mechanism (6) a conceptual design of the leveling mechanism that keeps the capsule aligned before release from the balloon; and (7) a new conceptual design of the customized cryostat and a preliminary valuation of its cost. The project also involves an international cooperation with the Institute of Space Physics (IFSI) in Rome, Italy. The group at IFSI

  10. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  11. Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...

  12. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  13. On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel

  14. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  15. Possibility and necessity measures and integral equivalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, T.; Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Stupňanová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2017), s. 62-72 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Integral equivalence * Necessity measure * Possibility measure * Survival function * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477092.pdf

  16. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  17. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. ... With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans ...

  19. Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649

  20. Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions

  1. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  2. Equivalence of rational representations of behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottimukkala, Sasanka; Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems. In general, the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel and image representations. Two kernel

  3. Strong quantum violation of the gravitational weak equivalence principle by a non-Gaussian wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P; Majumdar, A S; Sinha, S; Home, D; Mousavi, S V; Mozaffari, M R

    2012-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle of gravity is examined at the quantum level in two ways. First, the position detection probabilities of particles described by a non-Gaussian wave packet projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection are calculated. These probabilities exhibit mass dependence at both these points, thereby reflecting the quantum violation of the weak equivalence principle. Second, the mean arrival time of freely falling particles is calculated using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. Such a mass dependence is shown to be enhanced by increasing the non-Gaussianity parameter of the wave packet, thus signifying a stronger violation of the weak equivalence principle through a greater departure from Gaussianity of the initial wave packet. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanishes in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter. A selection of Bohm trajectories is exhibited to illustrate these features in the free fall case. (paper)

  4. Inflation, quintessence, and the origin of mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a unified picture both inflation and present dynamical dark energy arise from the same scalar field. The history of the Universe describes a crossover from a scale invariant “past fixed point” where all particles are massless, to a “future fixed point” for which spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry generates the particle masses. The cosmological solution can be extrapolated to the infinite past in physical time – the universe has no beginning. This is seen most easily in a frame where particle masses and the Planck mass are field-dependent and increase with time. In this “freeze frame” the Universe shrinks and heats up during radiation and matter domination. In the equivalent, but singular Einstein frame cosmic history finds the familiar big bang description. The vicinity of the past fixed point corresponds to inflation. It ends at a first stage of the crossover. A simple model with no more free parameters than ΛCDM predicts for the primordial fluctuations a relation between the tensor amplitude r and the spectral index n,r=8.19(1−n−0.137. The crossover is completed by a second stage where the beyond-standard-model sector undergoes the transition to the future fixed point. The resulting increase of neutrino masses stops a cosmological scaling solution, relating the present dark energy density to the present neutrino mass. At present our simple model seems compatible with all observational tests. We discuss how the fixed points can be rooted within quantum gravity in a crossover between ultraviolet and infrared fixed points. Then quantum properties of gravity could be tested both by very early and late cosmology.

  5. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs

  7. Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)

  8. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  9. The Logic of Equivalence in Academic Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of discourse to distinguish between the scientific field, where interrelationships among academic disciplines are taken as an object of research, and the widespread uses of ‘interdisciplinary’ and ‘interdisciplinarity’ in academic discourse more generally, typically for legitimation purposes. The assumption......-discourses meet. It is suggested that the logics of signification, and the tension between difference and equivalence, may be important tools for theorizing this borderland. It is argued that whereas the logic of equivalence and the production of empty signifiers appears to be of marginal interest...... to the scientific field, the logic of difference as a more complex articulation of elements, seems to be more in line with the ideals of academic discourse....

  10. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  11. Symmetry adaptation, operator equivalents and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Chatterjee, R.

    1977-12-01

    Basic quantities for symmetry adaptation are discussed in connection with molecular and solid state physics. This gives rise to a formalism whose the central elements are operator equivalents adapted to a point group. Such symmetry adapted operator equivalents are defined in terms of Schwinger operators so that they cover the off-diagonal and diagonal cases. Special emphasis is put on the applications of the formalism to magnetic resonance. More specifically, it is shown how to apply the formalism to the construction, the study of the transformation properties, and the determination of the eigenstates of a generalized spin hamiltonian. Numerous examples are given as well as key tables relative to the chain SO(3) for making easy the application of the formalism to electron paramagnetic resonance [fr

  12. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  13. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  14. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  15. Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#

  16. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S 0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  17. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  18. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems.\\ud For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  19. Diversity, variation and fairness: Equivalence in national level language assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The post-1994 South African constitution proudly affirms the language diversity of the country, as do subsequent laws, while ministerial policies, both at further and higher education level, similarly promote the use of all 11 official languages in education. However, such recognition of diversity presents several challenges to accommodate potential variation. In language education at secondary school, which is nationally assessed, the variety being promoted immediately raises issues of fairness and equivalence. The final high-stakes examination of learners’ ability in home language at the exit level of their pre-tertiary education is currently contentious in South Africa. It is known, for example, that in certain indigenous languages, the exit level assessments barely discriminate among learners with different abilities, while in other languages they do. For that reason, the Council for Quality Assurance in General and Further Education, Umalusi, has commissioned several reports to attempt to understand the nature of the problem. This article will deal with a discussion of a fourth attempt by Umalusi to solve the problem. That attempt, undertaken by a consortium of four universities, has already delivered six interim reports to this statutory body, and the article will consider some of their content and methodology. In their reconceptualisation of the problem, the applied linguists involved first sought to identify the theoretical roots of the current curriculum in order to articulate more sharply the construct being assessed. That provides the basis for a theoretical justification of the several solutions being proposed, as well as for the preliminary designs of modifications to current, and the introduction of new assessments. The impact of equivalence of measurement as a design requirement will be specifically discussed, with reference to the empirical analyses of results of a number of pilots of equivalent tests in different languages.

  20. Violation of the equivalence principle for stressed bodies in asynchronous relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Martins, R. de (Centro de Logica, Epistemologia e Historia da Ciencia, Campinas (Brazil))

    1983-12-11

    In the recently developed asynchronous formulation of the relativistic theory of extended bodies, the inertial mass of a body does not explicitly depend on its pressure or stress. The detailed analysis of the weight of a box filled with a gas and placed in a weak gravitational field shows that this feature of asynchronous relativity implies a breakdown of the equivalence between inertial and passive gravitational mass for stressed systems.

  1. TORREFACTION OF CELLULOSE: VALIDITY AND LIMITATION OF THE TEMPERATURE/DURATION EQUIVALENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During torrefaction of biomass, equivalence between temperature and residence time is often reported, either in terms of the loss of mass or the alternation of properties. The present work proposes a rigorous investigation of this equivalence. Cellulose, as the main lignocellulosic biomass component, was treated under mild pyrolysis for 48 hours. Several couples of T-D (temperature-duration points were selected from TGA curves to obtain mass losses of 11.6%, 25%, 50%, 74.4%, and 86.7%. The corresponding residues were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis. According to the FTIR results, a suitably accurate match to global T-D equivalence is exhibited up to 50% mass loss: in this domain, mass loss is well correlated to the treatment intensity (molecular composition of the residue except for slight differences in the production of C=C and C=O. For mass loss levels of 74.4% and 86.7%, distinct degradation mechanisms take place at different combinations of temperature and duration, and the correlation fails. Compared to the mass loss at 220°C and 250°C, the equivalent molecular composition can be achieved through treatment at 280°C with shorter treatment time and less depolymerization and oxidation. The main conclusion drawn is that mass loss can be used as a synthetic indicator of the treatment intensity in the temperature range of 220°C to 280°C up to a mass loss of 50%.

  2. Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme

  3. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  4. Designing sustainable concrete on the basis of equivalence performance: assessment criteria for safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order not to hampers innovations, the Dutch National Building Regulations (NBR), allow an alternative approval route for new building materials. It is based on the principles of equivalent performance which states that if the solution proposed can be proven to have the same level of safety,

  5. Neutrino oscillations in non-inertial frames and the violation of the equivalence principle neutrino mixing induced by the equivalence principle violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiase, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations are analyzed in an accelerating and rotating reference frame, assuming that the gravitational coupling of neutrinos is flavor dependent, which implies a violation of the equivalence principle. Unlike the usual studies in which a constant gravitational field is considered, such frames could represent a more suitable framework for testing if a breakdown of the equivalence principle occurs, due to the possibility to modulate the (simulated) gravitational field. The violation of the equivalence principle implies, for the case of a maximal gravitational mixing angle, the presence of an off-diagonal term in the mass matrix. The consequences on the evolution of flavor (mass) eigenstates of such a term are analyzed for solar (oscillations in the vacuum) and atmospheric neutrinos. We calculate the flavor oscillation probability in the non-inertial frame, which does depend on its angular velocity and linear acceleration, as well as on the energy of neutrinos, the mass-squared difference between two mass eigenstates, and on the measure of the degree of violation of the equivalence principle (Δγ). In particular, we find that the energy dependence disappears for vanishing mass-squared difference, unlike the result obtained by Gasperini, Halprin, Leung, and other physical mechanisms proposed as a viable explanation of neutrino oscillations. Estimations on the upper values of Δγ are inferred for a rotating observer (with vanishing linear acceleration) comoving with the earth, hence ω∝7.10 -5 rad/sec, and all other alternative mechanisms generating the oscillation phenomena have been neglected. In this case we find that the constraints on Δγ are given by Δγ≤10 2 for solar neutrinos and Δγ≤10 6 for atmospheric neutrinos. (orig.)

  6. RTL2RTL Formal Equivalence: Boosting the Design Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Achutha Kiran Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing design complexity driven by feature and performance requirements and the Time to Market (TTM constraints force a faster design and validation closure. This in turn enforces novel ways of identifying and debugging behavioral inconsistencies early in the design cycle. Addition of incremental features and timing fixes may alter the legacy design behavior and would inadvertently result in undesirable bugs. The most common method of verifying the correctness of the changed design is to run a dynamic regression test suite before and after the intended changes and compare the results, a method which is not exhaustive. Modern Formal Verification (FV techniques involving new methods of proving Sequential Hardware Equivalence enabled a new set of solutions for the given problem, with complete coverage guarantee. Formal Equivalence can be applied for proving functional integrity after design changes resulting from a wide variety of reasons, ranging from simple pipeline optimizations to complex logic redistributions. We present here our experience of successfully applying the RTL to RTL (RTL2RTL Formal Verification across a wide spectrum of problems on a Graphics design. The RTL2RTL FV enabled checking the design sanity in a very short time, thus enabling faster and safer design churn. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to any complex hardware design.

  7. Tissue Equivalents Based on Cell-Seeded Biodegradable Microfluidic Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Tao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is the formation of functional microvascular networks capable of sustaining tissue constructs. Complex tissues and vital organs require a means to support oxygen and nutrient transport during the development of constructs both prior to and after host integration, and current approaches have not demonstrated robust solutions to this challenge. Here, we present a technology platform encompassing the design, construction, cell seeding and functional evaluation of tissue equivalents for wound healing and other clinical applications. These tissue equivalents are comprised of biodegradable microfluidic scaffolds lined with microvascular cells and designed to replicate microenvironmental cues necessary to generate and sustain cell populations to replace dermal and/or epidermal tissues lost due to trauma or disease. Initial results demonstrate that these biodegradable microfluidic devices promote cell adherence and support basic cell functions. These systems represent a promising pathway towards highly integrated three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs for a wide range of clinical applications.

  8. Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA exclamation point s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports

  9. Equivalence of different formulations of the free Ramond string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdovic, B.

    1987-01-01

    We analyze the structure of Witten's formulation of the free Ramond string field theory and show that it is equivalent to other formulations. We establish explicit connections between their string fields. It is shown that the established connections eliminate all terms with mixed mass levels. (orig.)

  10. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  11. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  12. Array of piezoelectric energy harvesting by the equivalent impedance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, I C; Shu, Y C

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes to use the idea of equivalent impedance to investigate the electrical response of an array of piezoelectric oscillators endowed with distinct energy harvesting circuits. Three interface electronics systems are considered including standard AC/DC and parallel/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits. Various forms of equivalent load impedance are analytically obtained for different interfaces. The steady-state response of an array system is then shown to be determined by the matrix formulation of generalized Ohm’s law whose impedance matrix is explicitly expressed in terms of the load impedance. A model problem is proposed for evaluating the ability of power harvesting under various conditions. It is shown first that harvested power is increased dramatically for the case of small deviation in the system parameters. On the other hand, if the deviation in mass is relatively large, the result is changed from the power-boosting mode to wideband mode. In particular, the parallel-SSHI array system exhibits much more significant bandwidth improvement than the other two cases. Surprisingly, the series-SSHI array system shows the worst electrical response. Such an observation is opposed to our previous finding that an SSHI technique avails against the standard technique in the case based on a single piezoelectric energy harvester and the explanation is under investigation. (fast track communication)

  13. Further investigation on the precise formulation of the equivalence theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.; Kuang, Y.; Li, X.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a systematic analysis of the renormalization schemes in the general R ξ gauge, the precise formulation of the equivalence theorem for longitudinal weak boson scatterings is given both in the SU(2) L Higgs theory and in the realistic SU(2)xU(1) electroweak theory to all orders in the perturbation for an arbitrary Higgs boson mass m H . It is shown that there is generally a renormalization-scheme- and ξ-dependent modification factor C mod and a simple formula for C mod is obtained. Furthermore, a convenient particular renormalization scheme is proposed in which C mod is exactly unity. Results of C mod in other currently used schemes are also discussed especially on their ξ and m H dependence through explicit one-loop calculations. It is shown that in some currently used schemes the deviation of C mod from unity and the ξ dependence of C mod are significant even in the large-m H limit. Therefore care should be taken when applying the equivalence theorem

  14. A homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper any gravitational field (both in the Einsteinian case and in the Newtonian case) is described by the connection, called gravitational. A homogeneous static gravitational field is considered in the four-dimensional area z>0 of a space-time with Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, and t. Such field can be created by masses, disposed outside the area z>0 with a density distribution independent of x, y, and t. Remarkably, in the four-dimensional area z>0, together with the primitive background connection, the primitive gravitational connection has been derived. In concordance with the Principle of Equivalence all components of such gravitational connection are equal to zero in the uniformly accelerated frame system, in which the gravitational force of attraction is balanced by the inertial force. However, all components of such background connection are equal to zero in the resting frame system, but not in the accelerated frame system

  15. An equivalent fluid/equivalent medium approach for the numerical simulation of coastal landslides propagation: theory and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mazzanti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.

  16. Electrical equivalent circuit of an ion-exchange membrane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Victor V., E-mail: v_nikonenko@mail.r [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation); Kozmai, Anton E. [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-01

    Usually, the current flowing through an electrochemical cell is divided into the faradaic current going to an electrochemical interface reaction, and the current charging electric double layer (EDL). This division leads to the Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit with an EDL capacitance in one branch, and the faradaic impedance in the other, specific for each particular system. However, the physics of the separation of the impedance into faradaic and capacitive components for different electrochemical systems is not sufficiently clear. The most of derivations resulting in the formal construction of the Randles-Ershler or similar equivalent circuits are based on the a priori separation of the electroneutral and the double-layer regions. In this paper, we derive an equation for the impedance of a three-layer system consisted of an ion-exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion boundary layers (DBL) starting from the Poisson equation. The system is polarized by a constant electric current over which a small sinusoidal signal is applied. The equation shows that the impedance of the considered system can be formally interpreted via an equivalent circuit with a frequency dependent capacitance in one branch and a finite-length Warburg-type impedance in the other. To take into account this dependence, the impedance of the system may be presented as a series connection of five circuits. Three of them are consisted of a geometric capacitance connected in parallel with an ohmic resistance, respectively, for both diffusion layers and for the membrane bulk; the two others being the double-layer capacitance in parallel with the finite-length Warburg impedance for the left and the right interfaces, respectively. The comparison of the impedance spectra calculated within our analytical approach with those obtained by the full numerical solution of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations shows a good agreement. Different possible situations, which might arise in real systems

  17. Generating carbyne equivalents with photoredox catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Herraiz, Ana G.; Del Hoyo, Ana M.; Suero, Marcos G.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon has the unique ability to bind four atoms and form stable tetravalent structures that are prevalent in nature. The lack of one or two valences leads to a set of species—carbocations, carbanions, radicals and carbenes—that is fundamental to our understanding of chemical reactivity. In contrast, the carbyne—a monovalent carbon with three non-bonded electrons—is a relatively unexplored reactive intermediate; the design of reactions involving a carbyne is limited by challenges associated with controlling its extreme reactivity and the lack of efficient sources. Given the innate ability of carbynes to form three new covalent bonds sequentially, we anticipated that a catalytic method of generating carbynes or related stabilized species would allow what we term an ‘assembly point’ disconnection approach for the construction of chiral centres. Here we describe a catalytic strategy that generates diazomethyl radicals as direct equivalents of carbyne species using visible-light photoredox catalysis. The ability of these carbyne equivalents to induce site-selective carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage in aromatic rings enables a useful diazomethylation reaction, which underpins sequencing control for the late-stage assembly-point functionalization of medically relevant agents. Our strategy provides an efficient route to libraries of potentially bioactive molecules through the installation of tailored chiral centres at carbon-hydrogen bonds, while complementing current translational late-stage functionalization processes. Furthermore, we exploit the dual radical and carbene character of the generated carbyne equivalent in the direct transformation of abundant chemical feedstocks into valuable chiral molecules.

  18. Equivalent conserved currents and generalized Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized Noether theorem is presented, relating symmetries and equivalence classes of local) conservation laws in classical field theories; this is contrasted with the standard theorem. The concept of a ''Noether'' field theory is introduced, being a theory for which the generalized theorem applies; not only does this include the cases of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories, these structures are ''derived'' from the Noether property in a natural way. The generalized theorem applies to currents and symmetries that contain derivatives of the fields up to an arbitrarily high order

  19. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  20. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...

  1. Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Celik, N.; Cornejo Diaz, N.; Dlabac, A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Hult, M.; Jovanovic, S.; Lepy, M.-C.; Mihaljevic, N.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vidmar, G.

    2010-01-01

    Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases.

  2. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...

  3. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  4. Money and bonds: an equivalence theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana R. Kocherlakota

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers four models in which immortal agents face idiosyncratic shocks and trade only a single risk-free asset over time. The four models specify this single asset to be private bonds, public bonds, public money, or private money respectively. I prove that, given an equilibrium in one of these economies, it is possible to pick the exogenous elements in the other three economies so that there is an outcome-equivalent equilibrium in each of them. (The term ?exogenous variables? ref...

  5. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  6. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Muhammad Umer; Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B.; Dennis, John Ojur; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used

  7. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Muhammad Umer, E-mail: umermian@gmail.com; Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Dennis, John Ojur [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid [Faculty of Electronics Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, Khyber Pakhtunkhaw (Pakistan); Bazaz, Shafaat A. [Department of Computer Science, Center for Advance Studies in Engineering, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-07-22

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.

  8. Water and Solute Mass Transport in Soils Developed on glacial Drift: A Br Tracer Investigation Using Instrumented Soil Monoliths at an Agricultural Long Term Ecological Research Site (Kellogg Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Southern Michigan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Hamilton, S. K.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrologic processes control the residence time of water in the soil column. This is of central importance in understanding mineral weathering rates in terms of reaction kinetics and solute transport. In order to better quantify the coupling between water and solute mass transport and to better define controls on carbonate and aluminosilicates weathering rates, we have conducted bromide-tracer introduction experiments at four replicate soil monoliths (4 m3 volume) instrumented and managed by the KBS-LTER. Monolith soils are developed on the pitted outwash plain of the morainic system left by the last retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, around 12,000 years ago. Soil profiles from the monolith sections extend to 200 cm and they were sampled and characterized texturally and mineralogically. Quartz and feldspar are dominant throughout the soil profile, while carbonates and hornblende occur only in deeper soil horizons. The four replicate monoliths are instrumented with gas and soil water sampling devices (Prenart tension lysimeters) at various depths. The monoliths also have a large capacity tray at the bottom, which permits collection of water for weight and chemical determinations. A bromide tracer solution (as lithium bromide) was applied to coincide as closely as possible with a major snowmelt event (2/27/04). The saturated and unsaturated transport of bromide through the four monoliths was followed as a function of time and soil profile depth for the duration of the snowmelt as well as intermittent rain events. Because the soil was saturated at the time of bromide application, the bromide solution is expected to move rapidly through macropores, followed by slower movement into micropores. The unsaturated transport of bromide is largely controlled by the intensity and duration of the rains if it is dominated by piston flow as opposed to preferential channel flow. In general, the tracer moved through the shallow soils very quickly, which is shown by early sharp

  9. Pre-electrospray ionisation manifold methylation and post-electrospray ionisation manifold cleavage/ion cluster formation observed during electrospray ionisation of chloramphenicol in solutions of methanol and acetonitrile for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry employing a commercial quadrupole ion trap mass analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichilongo, Kwenga F; Famuyiwa, Samson O; Kibechu, Rose

    2011-01-01

    We have observed unusual mass spectra of chloramphenicol (CAP) in solutions of methanol or acetonitrile showing intense ions at m/z 297, m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339. The observed ions were different from those which are traditionally observed in the full scan ESI mass spectra of CAP with ions of m/z 321, m/z 323 and m/z 325. We have evidence to show that this process starts with offline methylation of CAP in solutions of methanol or acetonitrile to give m/z 339. Investigations using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that there is a methylene group somewhere within the CAP molecule but not attached to any of the carbon atoms when the CAP is dissolved in methanol or acetonitrile before infusion into the mass spectrometer. The possible locations of attachment were speculated to be the electronegative atoms apart from the chlorine atoms due to valence considerations. The methylene group is attached to the nitrogen atom and forms a bond as observed in the MS/MS spectra of m/z 297, m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339 which give m/z 183 as the base peak in all cases. Further experiments showed that there is cleavage of the methylated CAP molecule followed by cluster ion formation involving addition of methylene groups to the CAP fragment with m/z 183 to produce ions of m/z including m/z 297, m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339. This process occurs in the mass spectrometer in the region housing the tube lens and is triggered when the ions are accelerated through this region by application of a negative tube lens offset voltage. This region affords collision of the charged droplets with a collision gas in this case nitrogen to strip the droplets of their solvent molecules. Experiments to follow the intensities of m/z 183, m/z 311, m/z 321, m/z 323, m/z 325 and m/z 339 as the tube lens offset voltage was varied were done in which the intensities of m/z 311, m/z 325 and m/z 339 were observed to be at their peak when the tube lens offset voltage was set at -40 V. When

  10. Structure elucidation and quantification of impurities formed between 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol in an oral solution using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Cornett, Claus; Nyberg, Nils; Østergaard, Jesper; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-03-25

    Concentrated solutions containing 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol have been studied at temperatures of 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C as well as at 20°C. It has previously been reported that the commonly employed citric acid is a reactive excipient, and it is therefore important to thoroughly investigate a possible reaction between 6-aminocaproic acid and citric acid. The current study revealed the formation of 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid between 6-aminocaproic acid and citric acid by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Less than 0.03% of 6-aminocaproic acid was converted to 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid after 30 days of storage at 80°C. Degradation products of 6-aminocaproic acid were also observed after storage at the applied temperatures, e.g., dimer, trimer and cyclized 6-aminocaproic acid, i.e., caprolactam. No reaction products between D-sorbitol and 6-aminocaproic acid could be observed. 3-Hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid, dimer and caprolactam were also observed after storage at 20°C for 3 months. The findings imply that an oral solution of 6-aminocaproic acid is relatively stable at 20°C at the pH values 4.00 and 5.00 as suggested in the USP for oral formulations. Compliance with the ICH guideline Q3B is expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrable topological billiards and equivalent dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyushkina, V. V.; Fomenko, A. T.

    2017-08-01

    We consider several topological integrable billiards and prove that they are Liouville equivalent to many systems of rigid body dynamics. The proof uses the Fomenko-Zieschang theory of invariants of integrable systems. We study billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and their generalizations, generalized billiards, where the motion occurs on a locally planar surface obtained by gluing several planar domains isometrically along their boundaries, which are arcs of confocal quadrics. We describe two new classes of integrable billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics, namely, non-compact billiards and generalized billiards obtained by gluing planar billiards along non-convex parts of their boundaries. We completely classify non-compact billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and study their topology using the Fomenko invariants that describe the bifurcations of singular leaves of the additional integral. We study the topology of isoenergy surfaces for some non-convex generalized billiards. It turns out that they possess exotic Liouville foliations: the integral trajectories of the billiard that lie on some singular leaves admit no continuous extension. Such billiards appear to be leafwise equivalent to billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics in the Minkowski metric.

  12. Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it

    2009-04-01

    The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].

  13. One-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum, and energy addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.C.

    1976-09-01

    A one-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum and energy addition is discussed. An exact solution to the governing equations was found and from it a similarity parameter relating dimensionless mass, momentum and energy addition identified. This similarity parameter is used to make two flows having different dimensionless mass, momentum and energy additions equivalent. Application of the similarity parameter to the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment and the Sandia simulation of that experiment results in an expression relating the dimensionless mass addition of combustible gas required in the Sandia experiment to dimensionless energy addition in the LASL experiment. Results of the analysis indicate that the Sandia experiment can realistically simulate the energy addition in the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment

  14. Equivalence of Einstein and Jordan frames in quantized anisotropic cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sachin; Pal, Sridip; Banerjee, Narayan

    2018-06-01

    The present work shows that the mathematical equivalence of the Jordan frame and its conformally transformed version, the Einstein frame, so as far as Brans-Dicke theory is concerned, survives a quantization of cosmological models, arising as solutions to the Brans-Dicke theory. We work with the Wheeler-deWitt quantization scheme and take up quite a few anisotropic cosmological models as examples. We effectively show that the transformation from the Jordan to the Einstein frame is a canonical one and hence two frames furnish equivalent description of same physical scenario.

  15. Calculation of equivalent static loads and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo-Seok; Park, K.B.; Park, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    All the forces in the real world act dynamically on structures. Since dynamic loads are extremely difficult to handle in analysis and design, static loads are usually utilized with dynamic factors. Generally, the dynamic factors are determined from design codes or experience. Therefore, static loads may not give accurate solutions in analysis and design and structural engineers often come up with unreliable solutions. Two different methods are proposed for the transformation of dynamic loads into equivalent static loads (ESLs). One is an analytical method for exact ESLs and the other is an approximation method. The exact ESLs are calculated to generate identical response fields such as displacement and stress with those from dynamic loads at a certain time. Some approximation methods are proposed in engineering applications, which generate similar response fields from dynamic loads. They are divided into the displacement-based approach and the stress-based approach. The process is derived and evaluated mathematically. Standard examples are selected and solved by the proposed method and error analyses are conducted. Applications of the method to structural optimization are discussed

  16. SU-D-BRC-04: Development of Proton Tissue Equivalent Materials for Calibration and Dosimetry Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, E [Gainesville, FL (United States); Flampouri, S [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Lipnharski, I [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop new proton tissue equivalent materials (PTEM), urethane and fiberglass based, for proton therapy calibration and dosimetry studies. Existing tissue equivalent plastics are applicable only for x-rays because they focus on matching mass attenuation coefficients. This study aims to create new plastics that match mass stopping powers for proton therapy applications instead. Methods: New PTEMs were constructed using urethane and fiberglass resin materials for soft, fat, bone, and lung tissue. The stoichiometric analysis method was first used to determine the elemental composition of each unknown constituent. New initial formulae were then developed for each of the 4 PTEMs using the new elemental compositions and various additives. Samples of each plastic were then created and exposed to a well defined proton beam at the UF Health Proton Therapy Institute (UFHPTI) to validate its mass stopping power. Results: The stoichiometric analysis method revealed the elemental composition of the 3 components used in creating the PTEMs. These urethane and fiberglass based resins were combined with additives such as calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, and phenolic micro spheres to achieve the desired mass stopping powers and densities. Validation at the UFHPTI revealed adjustments had to be made to the formulae, but the plastics eventually had the desired properties after a few iterations. The mass stopping power, density, and Hounsfield Unit of each of the 4 PTEMs were within acceptable tolerances. Conclusion: Four proton tissue equivalent plastics were developed: soft, fat, bone, and lung tissue. These plastics match each of the corresponding tissue’s mass stopping power, density, and Hounsfield Unit, meaning they are truly tissue equivalent for proton therapy applications. They can now be used to calibrate proton therapy treatment planning systems, improve range uncertainties, validate proton therapy Monte Carlo simulations, and assess in-field and out

  17. Formal and physical equivalence in two cases in contemporary quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doreen

    2017-08-01

    The application of analytic continuation in quantum field theory (QFT) is juxtaposed to T-duality and mirror symmetry in string theory. Analytic continuation-a mathematical transformation that takes the time variable t to negative imaginary time-it-was initially used as a mathematical technique for solving perturbative Feynman diagrams, and was subsequently the basis for the Euclidean approaches within mainstream QFT (e.g., Wilsonian renormalization group methods, lattice gauge theories) and the Euclidean field theory program for rigorously constructing non-perturbative models of interacting QFTs. A crucial difference between theories related by duality transformations and those related by analytic continuation is that the former are judged to be physically equivalent while the latter are regarded as physically inequivalent. There are other similarities between the two cases that make comparing and contrasting them a useful exercise for clarifying the type of argument that is needed to support the conclusion that dual theories are physically equivalent. In particular, T-duality and analytic continuation in QFT share the criterion for predictive equivalence that two theories agree on the complete set of expectation values and the mass spectra and the criterion for formal equivalence that there is a "translation manual" between the physically significant algebras of observables and sets of states in the two theories. The analytic continuation case study illustrates how predictive and formal equivalence are compatible with physical inequivalence, but not in the manner of standard underdetermination cases. Arguments for the physical equivalence of dual theories must cite considerations beyond predictive and formal equivalence. The analytic continuation case study is an instance of the strategy of developing a physical theory by extending the formal or mathematical equivalence with another physical theory as far as possible. That this strategy has resulted in

  18. The equivalence of perfect fluid space-times and viscous magnetohydrodynamic space-times in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, B.O.J.

    1983-01-01

    The work of a previous article is extended to show that space-times which are the exact solutions of the field equations for a perfect fluid also may be exact solutions of the field equations for a viscous magnetohydrodynamic fluid. Conditions are found for this equivalence to exist and viscous magnetohydrodynamic solutions are found for a number of known perfect fluid space-times. (author)

  19. Borel equivalence relations structure and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kanovei, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the theory of Borel equivalence relations and related topics have been very active areas of research in set theory and have important interactions with other fields of mathematics, like ergodic theory and topological dynamics, group theory, combinatorics, functional analysis, and model theory. The book presents, for the first time in mathematical literature, all major aspects of this theory and its applications. This book should be of interest to a wide spectrum of mathematicians working in set theory as well as the other areas mentioned. It provides a systematic exposition of results that so far have been only available in journals or are even unpublished. The book presents unified and in some cases significantly streamlined proofs of several difficult results, especially dichotomy theorems. It has rather minimal overlap with other books published in this subject.

  20. Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.

  1. Multiplicities of states od equivalent fermion shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savukinas, A.Yu.; Glembotskij, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    Classification of states of three or four equivalent fermions has been studied, i.e. possible terms and their multiplicities have been determined. For this purpose either the group theory or evident expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients have been used. In the first approach the formulas obtained by other authors for the multiplicities of terms through the characters of the transformation matrices of bond moments have been used. This approach happens to be more general as compared with the second one, as expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients in many cases are not known. The multiplicities of separate terms have been determined. It has been shown that the number of terms of any multiplicity becomes constant when l or j is increased [ru

  2. Sample size allocation in multiregional equivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jason J Z; Yu, Ziji; Li, Yulan

    2018-06-17

    With the increasing globalization of drug development, the multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) has gained extensive use. The data from MRCTs could be accepted by regulatory authorities across regions and countries as the primary sources of evidence to support global marketing drug approval simultaneously. The MRCT can speed up patient enrollment and drug approval, and it makes the effective therapies available to patients all over the world simultaneously. However, there are many challenges both operationally and scientifically in conducting a drug development globally. One of many important questions to answer for the design of a multiregional study is how to partition sample size into each individual region. In this paper, two systematic approaches are proposed for the sample size allocation in a multiregional equivalence trial. A numerical evaluation and a biosimilar trial are used to illustrate the characteristics of the proposed approaches. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  4. Development of air equivalent gamma dose monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Mary; Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Karpagam, R.; Prasad, D.N.; Jakati, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes design and development of air equivalent gamma absorbed dose monitor. The monitor has gamma sensitivity of 84 pA/R/h for 60 Co source. The characterization of the monitor has been done to get energy dependence on gamma sensitivity and response to gamma radiation field from 1 R/hr to 5000 R/hr. The gamma sensitivity in the energy range of 0.06 to 1.25MeV relative to 137 Cs nuclide was within 2.5%. The linearity of the monitor response as a function of gamma field from 10 R/h to 3.8 kR/h was within 6%. The monitor has been designed for its application in harsh environment. It has been successfully qualified to meet environmental requirements of shock. (author)

  5. A new concept of equivalent homogenization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Pogoskekyan, Leonid; Kim, Young Il; Ju, Hyung Kook; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The offered concept covers both those of K. Koebke and K. Smith; both of them can be simulated within framework of new concept. Also, the offered concept covers Siemens KWU approach for baffle/reflector simulation, where the equivalent homogenized reflector XS are derived from the conservation of response matrix at the interface in 1D simi-infinite slab geometry. The IM and XS of new concept satisfy the same assumption about response matrix conservation in 1D semi-infinite slab geometry. It is expected that the new concept provides more accurate approximation of heterogeneous cell, especially in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are: improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith`s approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b) control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO{sub 2}/MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANDOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions. 9 figs., 7 refs. (Author).

  6. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  7. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for Von Neumann algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Brouwer (Rachel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ``Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if and only if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are

  8. Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Page 1 ... translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable ... ideal in translation is to achieve structural and semantic equivalence. Absolute equivalence between any two ...

  9. The equivalence principle in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss our understanding of the equivalence principle in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. We show that not only does the equivalence principle hold for the trajectories of quantum particles in a background gravitational field, but also that it is only because of this that the equivalence principle is even to be expected to hold for classical particles at all.

  10. Water equivalence of NIPAM based polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for x-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Bosi, Stephen; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Two new formulations of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based three dimensional (3D) gel dosimeters have recently been developed with improved sensitivity to x-ray CT readout, one without any co-solvent and the other one with isopropanol co-solvent. The water equivalence of the NIPAM gel dosimeters was investigated using different methods to calculate their radiological properties including: density, electron density, number of electrons per grams, effective atomic number, photon interaction probabilities, mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients, electron collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Monte Carlo modelling was also used to compare the dose response of these gel dosimeters with water for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams and for megavoltage electron beams. We found that the density and electron density of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter are more water equivalent with less than a 2.6% difference compared to a 5.7% difference for the isopropanol gel dosimeter. Both the co-solvent free and isopropanol solvent gel dosimeters have lower effective atomic numbers than water, differing by 2.2% and 6.5%, respectively. As a result, their photoelectric absorption interaction probabilities are up to 6% and 19% different from water, respectively. Compton scattering and pair production interaction probabilities of NIPAM gel with isopropanol differ by up to 10% from water while for the co-solvent free gel, the differences are 3%. Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter are up to 7% and 19% lower than water, respectively. Collisional and total mass stopping powers of both gel dosimeters differ by less than 2% from those of water. The dose response of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter is water equivalent (with 100 keV, correction factor is required for the gels. • For MV electron, correction factor needed for the gels to

  11. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  12. The one-dimensional normalised generalised equivalence theory (NGET) for generating equivalent diffusion theory group constants for PWR reflector regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.Z.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent diffusion theory PWR reflector model is presented, which has as its basis Smith's generalisation of Koebke's Equivalent Theory. This method is an adaptation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, of the Generalised Equivalence Theory (GET). Since the method involves the renormalisation of the GET discontinuity factors at nodal interfaces, it is called the Normalised Generalised Equivalence Theory (NGET) method. The advantages of the NGET method for modelling the ex-core nodes of a PWR are summarized. 23 refs

  13. Membrane voltage changes in passive dendritic trees: a tapering equivalent cylinder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznański, R R

    1988-01-01

    An exponentially tapering equivalent cylinder model is employed in order to approximate the loss of the dendritic trunk parameter observed from anatomical data on apical and basilar dendrites of CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. This model allows dendritic trees with a relative paucity of branching to be treated. In particular, terminal branches are not required to end at the same electrotonic distance. The Laplace transform method is used to obtain analytic expressions for the Green's function corresponding to an instantaneous pulse of current injected at a single point along a tapering equivalent cylinder with sealed ends. The time course of the voltage in response to an arbitrary input is computed using the Green's function in a convolution integral. Examples of current input considered are (1) an infinitesimally brief (Dirac delta function) pulse and (2) a step pulse. It is demonstrated that inputs located on a tapering equivalent cylinder are more effective at the soma than identically placed inputs on a nontapering equivalent cylinder. Asymptotic solutions are derived to enable the voltage response behaviour over both relatively short and long time periods to be analysed. Semilogarithmic plots of these solutions provide a basis for estimating the membrane time constant tau m from experimental transients. Transient voltage decrement from a clamped soma reveals that tapering tends to reduce the error associated with inadequate voltage clamping of the dendritic membrane. A formula is derived which shows that tapering tends to increase the estimate of the electrotonic length parameter L.

  14. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    We relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ''Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are bimodules. We present a similar result for von Neumann algebras. We show that von Neumann algebras form a bicategory, having Connes's correspondences as 1-morphisms, and (bounded) intertwiners as 2-morphisms. Further, we prove that two von Neumann algebras are Morita equivalent iff they are equivalent objects in the bicategory. The proofs make extensive use of the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory

  15. Electrothermal Equivalent Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Single Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Ilaria; Destrade, Michel; Duffy, Maeve; McHugh, Peter

    2018-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for modelling the interdependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electrothermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermomechanical tools can be applied. First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions. This validation includes the definition of equivalent active membrane properties that enable prediction of the action potential. Then, as a step toward fully coupled models, electromechanical coupling is implemented through the definition of equivalent piezoelectric properties of the nerve membrane using the thermal expansion coefficient, enabling prediction of the mechanical response of the nerve to the action potential. Results of the coupled electromechanical model are validated with previously published experimental results of deformation for squid giant axon, crab nerve fibre, and garfish olfactory nerve fibre. A simplified coupled electromechanical modelling approach is established through an electrothermal equivalent FE model of a nervous cell for biomedical applications. One of the key findings is the mechanical characterization of the neural activity in a coupled electromechanical domain, which provides insights into the electromechanical behaviour of nervous cells, such as thinning of the membrane. This is a first step toward modelling three-dimensional electromechanical alteration induced by trauma at nerve bundle, tissue, and organ levels.

  16. Simultaneous extraction and determination of phthalate esters in aqueous solution by yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon-molecularly imprinted composites based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuxin; Yan, Xiangyang; Liu, Shaomin

    2016-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive and accurate method for the simultaneous extraction and determination of five types of trace phthalate esters (PAEs) in environmental water and beverage samples using magnetic molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MMIP-SPE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. A novel type of molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon (Fe 3 O 4 @void@C-MIPs) was used as an efficient adsorbent for selective adsorption of phthalate esters based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The real samples were first preconcentrated by Fe 3 O 4 @void@C-MIPs, subsequently extracted by eluent and finally determined by GC-MS after magnetic separation. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, including the type and volume of the elution solvent, amount of adsorbent, extraction time, desorption time and pH of the sample solution, were investigated and optimized. Validation experiments indicated that the developed method presented good linearity (R 2 >0.9961), satisfactory precision (RSD<6.7%), and high recovery (86.1-103.1%). The limits of detection ranged from 1.6ng/L to 5.2ng/L and the enrichment factor was in the range of 822-1423. The results indicated that the novel method had the advantages of convenience, good sensitivity, and high efficiency, and it could also be successfully applied to the analysis of PAEs in real samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  19. Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    The equivalence principle, that is one of the main pillars of general relativity, is very well tested in the Solar system; however, its validity is more uncertain on cosmological scales, or when dark matter is concerned. This article shows that relativistic effects in the large-scale structure can be used to directly test whether dark matter satisfies Euler's equation, i.e. whether its free fall is characterised by geodesic motion, just like baryons and light. After having proposed a general parametrisation for deviations from Euler's equation, we perform Fisher-matrix forecasts for future surveys like DESI and the SKA, and show that such deviations can be constrained with a precision of order 10%. Deviations from Euler's equation cannot be tested directly with standard methods like redshift-space distortions and gravitational lensing, since these observables are not sensitive to the time component of the metric. Our analysis shows therefore that relativistic effects bring new and complementary constraints to alternative theories of gravity.

  20. SIGMA-NOTATION AND THE EQUIVALENCE OF P AND NP CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron I.Telpiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show that –notation, based on the positionalityprinciple, doesn’t just answer the question of equivalence of P and NP problemclasses, but also represents the key to the solution of (some more general problemsfrom the domain of multivalued logics. However, the achievement of such an aim inits full scope is hardly possible within the limits of this paper. Therefore, the followingplan shall be realized:Firstly, the logic algebra fragment necessary for the solution of the P and NPclasses equivalence problem shall be expounded.Secondly, the necessary symbols and definitions shall be introduced to show thatthe calculations in the domain of the multivalued logic can be directly executed withinthe framework of –notation.

  1. A Bayesian equivalency test for two independent binomial proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Shimokawa, Asanao; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyaoka, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, it is often necessary to perform an equivalence study. The equivalence study requires actively denoting equivalence between two different drugs or treatments. Since it is not possible to assert equivalence that is not rejected by a superiority test, statistical methods known as equivalency tests have been suggested. These methods for equivalency tests are based on the frequency framework; however, there are few such methods in the Bayesian framework. Hence, this article proposes a new index that suggests the equivalency of binomial proportions, which is constructed based on the Bayesian framework. In this study, we provide two methods for calculating the index and compare the probabilities that have been calculated by these two calculation methods. Moreover, we apply this index to the results of actual clinical trials to demonstrate the utility of the index.

  2. Applicability of ambient dose equivalent H*(d) in mixed radiation fields - a critical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Vana, N.

    2004-01-01

    For purposes of routine radiation protection, it is desirable to characterize the potential irradiation of individuals in terms of a single dose equivalent quantity that would exist in a phantom approximating the human body. The phantom of choice is the ICRU sphere made of 30 cm diameter tissue-equivalent plastic with a density of 1 g.cm-3 and a mass composition of 76.2 % O, 11.1 % C, 10.1 % H and 2.6 % N. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(d), was defined in ICRU report 51 as the dose equivalent that would be produced by an expanded and aligned radiation field at a depth d in the ICRU sphere. The recommended reference depths are 10 mm for strongly penetrating radiation and 0.07 mm for weakly penetrating radiation, respectively. As an operational quantity in radiation protection, H*(d) shall serve as a conservative and directly measurable estimate of protection quantities, e.g. effective dose E, which in turn are intended to give an indication of the risk associated with radiation exposure. The situation attains increased complexity in radiation environments being composed of a variety of charged and uncharged particles in a broad energetic spectrum. Radiation fields of similarly complex nature are, for example, encountered onboard aircraft and in space. Dose equivalent was assessed as a function of depth in quasi tissue-equivalent spheres by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters evaluated according to the high-temperature ratio (HTR) method. The presented experiments were performed both onboard aircraft and the Russian space station Mir. As a result of interaction processes within the phantom body, the incident primary spectrum may be significantly modified with increasing depth. For the radiation field at aviation altitudes we found the maximum of dose equivalent in a depth of 60 mm which conflicts with the 10 mm value recommended by ICRU. Contrary, for the space radiation environment the maximum dose equivalent was found at the surface of the sphere. This suggests that

  3. Applicability of Ambient Dose Equivalent H (d) in Mixed Radiation Fields - A Critical Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, R.; Hajek, M.; Bergerm, T.

    2004-01-01

    For purposes of routine radiation protection, it is desirable to characterize the potential irradiation of individuals in terms of a single dose equivalent quantity that would exist in a phantom approximating the human body. The phantom of choice is the ICRU sphere made of 30 cm diameter tissue-equivalent plastic with a density of 1 g/cm3 and a mass composition of 76.2% O, 11.1% C, 10.1% H and 2.6% N. Ambient dose equivalent, H(d), was defined in ICRU report 51 as the dose equivalent that would be produced by an expanded and aligned radiation field at a depth d in the ICRU sphere. The recommended reference depths are 10 mm for strongly penetrating radiation and 0.07 mm for weakly penetrating radiation, respectively. As an operational quantity in radiation protection, H(d) shall serve as a conservative and directly measurable estimate of protection quantities, e.g. effective dose E, which in turn are intended to give an indication of the risk associated with radiation exposure. The situation attains increased complexity in radiation environments being composed of a variety of charged and uncharged particles in a broad energetic spectrum. Radiation fields of similarly complex nature are, for example, encountered onboard aircraft and in space. Dose equivalent was assessed as a function of depth in quasi tissue-equivalent spheres by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters evaluated according to the high-temperature ratio (HTR) method. The presented experiments were performed both onboard aircraft and the Russian space station Mir. As a result of interaction processes within the phantom body, the incident primary spectrum may be significantly modified with increasing depth. For the radiation field at aviation altitudes we found the maximum of dose equivalent in a depth of 60 mm which conflicts with the 10 mm value recommended by ICRU. Contrary, for the space radiation environment the maximum dose equivalent was found at the surface of the sphere. This suggests that skin

  4. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  5. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  6. Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cole, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer

  7. Biomonitoring Equivalents for bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline. BE values are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for bisphenol A (BPA) from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). BE values were derived based on data on BPA urinary excretion in humans. The BE value corresponding to the oral provisional tolerable daily intake (pTDI) of 25 microg/kg-d from Health Canada is 1mg/L (1.3mg/g creatinine); value corresponding to the US EPA reference dose (RfD) and EFSA tolerable daily intake (TDI) estimates (both of which are equal to 50 microg/kg-d) is 2mg/L (2.6 mg/g creatinine). These values are estimates of the 24-h average urinary BPA concentrations that are consistent with steady-state exposure at the respective exposure guidance values. These BE values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of central tendency measures of population biomonitoring data for BPA in a risk assessment context and can assist in prioritization of the potential need for additional risk assessment efforts for BPA relative to other chemicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Water-equivalent solid sources prepared by means of two distinct methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Potiens Junior, Ademar

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory at IPEN is involved in developing radioactive water-equivalent solid sources prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide using two distinct methods for polymerization. One of them is the polymerization by high dose of 60 Co irradiation; in the other method the solid matrix-polyacrylamide is obtained from an aqueous solution composed by acrylamide, catalyzers and an aliquot of a radionuclide. The sources have been prepared in cylindrical geometry. In this paper, the study of the distribution of radioactive material in the solid sources prepared by both methods is presented. (author)

  9. Modification of equivalent charge method for the Roben three-dimensional problem in electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsukov, A.B.; Surenskij, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The approach of the Roben problem solution for the calculation of the potential of intermediate electrode of accelerating structure with HFQ focusing is considered. The solution is constructed on the basis of variational formulation of the equivalent charge method, where electrostatic problem is reduced to equations of root-mean-square residuals on the system conductors. The technique presented permits to solve efficiently the three-dimensional problems of electrostatics for rather complicated from geometrical viewpoint systems of electrodes. Processing time is comparable with methods of integral equations. 5 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan

    2012-04-01

    We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t(1),t(2))=-Cov[x(t(1)),x(t(2))]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-α(e(-γ|x-y|)-e(-γ(x+y))). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

  11. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  12. General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Cai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.

  13. Testing the strong equivalence principle with the triple pulsar PSR J 0337 +1715

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-04-01

    Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, the inertial mass, mI , the passive gravitational mass, mP, and the active gravitational mass, mA. It is assumed that, for any objects, mI=mP=mA in the Newtonian gravity, and mI=mP in the Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We study the possibility of carrying out new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J 0337 +1715 . Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, the equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses could be probed to 3 ×1 0-8 , improving the current constraints from lunar laser ranging on the post-Newtonian parameters that govern violations of mP=mI and mA=mP by thousands and millions, respectively. The test of mP=mA would represent the first test of Newton's third law with compact objects.

  14. Solar neutrino results and Violation of the Equivalence Principle An analysis of the existing data and predictions for SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, D; Sil, A; Majumdar, Debasish; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Sil, Arunansu

    2001-01-01

    Violation of the Equivalence Principle (VEP) can lead to neutrino oscillation through the non-diagonal coupling of neutrino flavor eigenstates with the gravitational field. The neutrino energy dependence of this oscillation probability is different from that of the usual mass-mixing neutrino oscillations. In this work we explore, in detail, the viability of the VEP hypothesis as a solution to the solar neutrino problem in a two generation scenario with both the active and sterile neutrino alternatives, choosing these states to be massless. To obtain the best-fit values of the oscillation parameters we perform a chi square analysis for the total rates of solar neutrinos seen at the Chlorine (Homestake), Gallium (Gallex and SAGE), Kamiokande, and SuperKamiokande (SK) experiments. We find that the goodness of these fits is never satisfactory. It markedly improves if the Chlorine data is excluded from the analysis, especially for VEP transformation to sterile neutrinos. The 1117-day SK data for recoil electron sp...

  15. The radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Are ''photon-equivalent'' doses really photon-equivalent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.; Ma, R.

    2001-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)

  16. Dynamic equivalence relation on the fuzzy measure algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghasemkhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to extend classical results from the measure theory and dynamical systems to the fuzzy subset setting. In this paper, the notion of  dynamic equivalence relation is introduced and then it is proved that this relation is an equivalence relation. Also, a new metric on the collection of all equivalence classes is introduced and it is proved that this metric is complete.

  17. Dose equivalent distributions in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Bailey, G.M.; McGregor, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The incident neutron dose equivalent in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility is measured by a calibrated remmeter. Dose equivalent rates and distributions are calculated by Monte Carlo techniques which take account of the secondary neutron flux from the collimator. Experiment and calculation are found to be in satisfactory agreement. The effective dose equivalent per exposure is determined by weighting organ doses, and the potential detriment per exposure is calculated from ICRP risk factors

  18. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  19. Application of the modified chi-square ratio statistic in a stepwise procedure for cascade impactor equivalence testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benjamin; Lee, Sau L; Delvadia, Renishkumar; Lionberger, Robert; Li, Bing V; Tsong, Yi; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2015-03-01

    Equivalence testing of aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) through multi-stage cascade impactors (CIs) is important for establishing bioequivalence of orally inhaled drug products. Recent work demonstrated that the median of the modified chi-square ratio statistic (MmCSRS) is a promising metric for APSD equivalence testing of test (T) and reference (R) products as it can be applied to a reduced number of CI sites that are more relevant for lung deposition. This metric is also less sensitive to the increased variability often observed for low-deposition sites. A method to establish critical values for the MmCSRS is described here. This method considers the variability of the R product by employing a reference variance scaling approach that allows definition of critical values as a function of the observed variability of the R product. A stepwise CI equivalence test is proposed that integrates the MmCSRS as a method for comparing the relative shapes of CI profiles and incorporates statistical tests for assessing equivalence of single actuation content and impactor sized mass. This stepwise CI equivalence test was applied to 55 published CI profile scenarios, which were classified as equivalent or inequivalent by members of the Product Quality Research Institute working group (PQRI WG). The results of the stepwise CI equivalence test using a 25% difference in MmCSRS as an acceptance criterion provided the best matching with those of the PQRI WG as decisions of both methods agreed in 75% of the 55 CI profile scenarios.

  20. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.