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Sample records for solute generalized langevin

  1. Generalized Langevin quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defendi, A.; Roncadelli, M.

    1994-01-01

    The recently proposed Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics yields the quantum mechanical propagator at imaginary time as a noise average which involves the solutions of a Langevin equation in configuration space with a Gaussian white noise. This strategy does not require any knowledge about the ground-state quantum dynamics and has been successful in dealing with certain as yet unsolved problems. Here we sketch a generalization of this approach which is based on a similar Langevin equation, whose drift however contains an arbitrary function. As it turns out, this freedom leads to a great simplification in the treatment of several quantum mechanical systems as compared to the original Langevin formulation (this point is illustrated by taking the forced harmonic oscillator as an example). We also show that when the above-mentioned arbitrary function obeys the imaginary-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation, then the new formulation of quantum dynamics exhibits a manifest connection with classical mechanics (at imaginary time). (orig.)

  2. Generalized Langevin Theory Of The Brownian Motion And The Dynamics Of Polymers In Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothova, J.; Lisy, V.

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with a generalization of the Rouse and Zimm bead-spring models of the dynamics of flexible polymers in dilute solutions. As distinct from these popular theories, the memory in the polymer motion is taken into account. The memory naturally arises as a consequence of the fluid and bead inertia within the linearized Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics. We begin with a generalization of the classical theory of the Brownian motion, which forms the basis of any theory of the polymer dynamics. The random force driving the Brownian particles is not the white one as in the Langevin theory, but “colored”, i.e., statistically correlated in time, and the friction force on the particles depends on the history of their motion. An efficient method of solving the resulting generalized Langevin equations is presented and applied to the solution of the equations of motion of polymer beads. The memory effects lead to several peculiarities in the time correlation functions used to describe the dynamics of polymer chains. So, the mean square displacement of the polymer coils contains algebraic long-time tails and at short times it is ballistic. It is shown how these features reveal in the experimentally observable quantities, such as the dynamic structure factors of the scattering or the viscosity of polymer solutions. A phenomenological theory is also presented that describes the dependence of these quantities on the polymer concentration in solution. (author)

  3. Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker-Planck equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali

    2009-07-07

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori-Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems.

  4. Numerical simulations of generalized Langevin equations with deeply asymptotic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jingdong; Li Rongwu; Wu Wei

    2004-01-01

    A unified algorithm for solving Langevin equations with deeply asymptotic parameters is proposed and tested. The method consists of identifying solvable linear friction and implementing the force evaluations by use of the Runge-Kutta method. We apply the present scheme to the periodic motion of an overdamped particle subjected to a multiplicative white noise. The accurate calculations for the temporal velocity of the particle and its correlation function can be realized by introducing an inertial term. It is shown that the fluctuation around the steady quantity increases with decreasing time step in the overdamped white-noise algorithm, however, a massive white-noise technique greatly reduces this spurious drift, and the result can converge to the correct value if the added inertia approaches zero. The other application is the simulation of generalized Langevin equation with an exponential memory friction, this allows us to treat a weak non-Markovian process

  5. On the non-stationary generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hugues; Voigtmann, Thomas; Schilling, Tanja

    2017-12-01

    In molecular dynamics simulations and single molecule experiments, observables are usually measured along dynamic trajectories and then averaged over an ensemble ("bundle") of trajectories. Under stationary conditions, the time-evolution of such averages is described by the generalized Langevin equation. By contrast, if the dynamics is not stationary, it is not a priori clear which form the equation of motion for an averaged observable has. We employ the formalism of time-dependent projection operator techniques to derive the equation of motion for a non-equilibrium trajectory-averaged observable as well as for its non-stationary auto-correlation function. The equation is similar in structure to the generalized Langevin equation but exhibits a time-dependent memory kernel as well as a fluctuating force that implicitly depends on the initial conditions of the process. We also derive a relation between this memory kernel and the autocorrelation function of the fluctuating force that has a structure similar to a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In addition, we show how the choice of the projection operator allows us to relate the Taylor expansion of the memory kernel to data that are accessible in MD simulations and experiments, thus allowing us to construct the equation of motion. As a numerical example, the procedure is applied to Brownian motion initialized in non-equilibrium conditions and is shown to be consistent with direct measurements from simulations.

  6. Critique of the Brownian approximation to the generalized Langevin equation in lattice dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diestler, D.J.; Riley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    We consider the classical motion of a harmonic lattice in which only those atoms in a certain subset of the lattice (primary zone) may interact with an external force. The formally exact generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for the primary zone is an appropriate description of the dynamics. We examine a previously proposed Brownian, or frictional damping, approximation that reduces the GLE to a set of coupled ordinary Langevin equations for the primary atoms. It is shown that the solution of these equations can contain undamped motion if there is more than one atom in the primary zone. Such motion is explicitly demonstrated for a model that has been used to describe energy transfer in atom--surface collisions. The inability of the standard Brownian approximation to yield an acceptable, physically meaningful result for primary zones comprising more than one atom suggests that the Brownian approximation may introduce other spurious dynamical effects. Further work on damping of correlated motion in lattices is needed

  7. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D., E-mail: sergei.ivanov@uni-rostock.de; Kühn, Oliver [Institute of Physics, Rostock University, Universitätsplatz 3, 18055 Rostock (Germany)

    2015-06-28

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom.

  8. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom

  9. Generalized Langevin dynamics of a nanoparticle using a finite element approach: Thermostating with correlated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, B.; Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.; Radhakrishnan, R.

    2011-09-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure is employed to study the thermal motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian stationary fluid medium with the generalized Langevin approach. We consider both the Markovian (white noise) and non-Markovian (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and Mittag-Leffler noise) processes. Initial locations of the particle are at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. At thermal equilibrium, the numerical results are validated by comparing the calculated translational and rotational temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical results. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of mean square displacements are compared with analytical results. In the non-Markovian Langevin approach, an appropriate choice of colored noise is required to satisfy the power-law decay in the velocity autocorrelation function at long times. The results obtained by using non-Markovian Mittag-Leffler noise simultaneously satisfy the equipartition theorem and the long-time behavior of the hydrodynamic correlations for a range of memory correlation times. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process does not provide the appropriate hydrodynamic correlations. Comparing our DNS results to the solution of an one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation, it is observed that where the thermostat adheres to the equipartition theorem, the characteristic memory time in the noise is consistent with the inherent time scale of the memory kernel. The performance of the thermostat with respect to equilibrium and dynamic properties for various noise schemes is discussed.

  10. Modeling single-file diffusion with step fractional Brownian motion and a generalized fractional Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2009-01-01

    Single-file diffusion behaves as normal diffusion at small time and as subdiffusion at large time. These properties can be described in terms of fractional Brownian motion with variable Hurst exponent or multifractional Brownian motion. We introduce a new stochastic process called Riemann–Liouville step fractional Brownian motion which can be regarded as a special case of multifractional Brownian motion with a step function type of Hurst exponent tailored for single-file diffusion. Such a step fractional Brownian motion can be obtained as a solution of the fractional Langevin equation with zero damping. Various kinds of fractional Langevin equations and their generalizations are then considered in order to decide whether their solutions provide the correct description of the long and short time behaviors of single-file diffusion. The cases where the dissipative memory kernel is a Dirac delta function, a power-law function and a combination of these functions are studied in detail. In addition to the case where the short time behavior of single-file diffusion behaves as normal diffusion, we also consider the possibility of a process that begins as ballistic motion

  11. Brownian motion of spins; generalized spin Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1990-03-01

    We derive the Langevin equations for a spin interacting with a heat bath, starting from a fully dynamical treatment. The obtained equations are non-Markovian with multiplicative fluctuations and concomitant dissipative terms obeying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In the Markovian limit our equations reduce to the phenomenological equations proposed by Kubo and Hashitsume. The perturbative treatment on our equations lead to Landau-Lifshitz equations and to other known results in the literature. (author). 16 refs

  12. Solving the generalized Langevin equation with the algebraically correlated noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Langevin equation with the memory kernel is solved. The stochastic force possesses algebraic correlations, proportional to 1/t. The velocity autocorrelation function and related quantities characterizing transport properties are calculated at the assumption that the system is in the thermal equilibrium. Stochastic trajectories are simulated numerically, using the kangaroo process as a noise generator. Results of this simulation resemble Levy walks with divergent moments of the velocity distribution. The motion of a Brownian particle is considered both without any external potential and in the harmonic oscillator field, in particular the escape from a potential well. The results are compared with memory-free calculations for the Brownian particle. (author)

  13. Langevin synchronization in a time-dependent, harmonic basin: An exact solution in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhe, A.; Voter, Arthur F.

    2018-02-01

    The trajectories of two particles undergoing Langevin dynamics while sharing a common noise sequence can merge into a single (master) trajectory. Here, we present an exact solution for a particle undergoing Langevin dynamics in a harmonic, time-dependent potential, thus extending the idea of synchronization to nonequilibrium systems. We calculate the synchronization level, i.e., the mismatch between two trajectories sharing a common noise sequence, in the underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes. Finally, we provide asymptotic expansions in various limiting cases and compare to the time independent case.

  14. Resonant behavior of the generalized Langevin system with tempered Mittag–Leffler memory kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Xudong; Deng, Weihua

    2018-05-01

    The generalized Langevin equation describes anomalous dynamics. Noise is not only the origin of uncertainty but also plays a positive role in helping to detect signals with information, termed stochastic resonance (SR). This paper analyzes the anomalous resonant behaviors of the generalized Langevin system with a multiplicative dichotomous noise and an internal tempered Mittag–Leffler noise. For a system with a fluctuating harmonic potential, we obtain the exact expressions of several types of SR such as the first moment, the amplitude and autocorrelation function for the output signal as well as the signal–noise ratio. We analyze the influence of the tempering parameter and memory exponent on the bona fide SR and the general SR. Moreover, it is detected that the critical memory exponent changes regularly with the increase of the tempering parameter. Almost all the theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations.

  15. NMR signals within the generalized Langevin model for fractional Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisý, Vladimír; Tóthová, Jana

    2018-03-01

    The methods of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance belong to the best developed and often used tools for studying random motion of particles in different systems, including soft biological tissues. In the long-time limit the current mathematical description of the experiments allows proper interpretation of measurements of normal and anomalous diffusion. The shorter-time dynamics is however correctly considered only in a few works that do not go beyond the standard memoryless Langevin description of the Brownian motion (BM). In the present work, the attenuation function S (t) for an ensemble of spin-bearing particles in a magnetic-field gradient, expressed in a form applicable for any kind of stationary stochastic dynamics of spins with or without a memory, is calculated in the frame of the model of fractional BM. The solution of the model for particles trapped in a harmonic potential is obtained in an exceedingly simple way and used for the calculation of S (t). In the limit of free particles coupled to a fractal heat bath, the results compare favorably with experiments acquired in human neuronal tissues. The effect of the trap is demonstrated by introducing a simple model for the generalized diffusion coefficient of the particle.

  16. Fine tuning classical and quantum molecular dynamics using a generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mariana; Kapil, Venkat; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-03-01

    Generalized Langevin Equation (GLE) thermostats have been used very effectively as a tool to manipulate and optimize the sampling of thermodynamic ensembles and the associated static properties. Here we show that a similar, exquisite level of control can be achieved for the dynamical properties computed from thermostatted trajectories. We develop quantitative measures of the disturbance induced by the GLE to the Hamiltonian dynamics of a harmonic oscillator, and show that these analytical results accurately predict the behavior of strongly anharmonic systems. We also show that it is possible to correct, to a significant extent, the effects of the GLE term onto the corresponding microcanonical dynamics, which puts on more solid grounds the use of non-equilibrium Langevin dynamics to approximate quantum nuclear effects and could help improve the prediction of dynamical quantities from techniques that use a Langevin term to stabilize dynamics. Finally we address the use of thermostats in the context of approximate path-integral-based models of quantum nuclear dynamics. We demonstrate that a custom-tailored GLE can alleviate some of the artifacts associated with these techniques, improving the quality of results for the modeling of vibrational dynamics of molecules, liquids, and solids.

  17. Self-consistent generalized Langevin-equation theory for liquids of nonspherically interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Aguilera, L. F.; Zubieta Rico, P. F.; Ruiz-Estrada, H.; Alarcón-Waess, O.

    2014-11-01

    A self-consistent generalized Langevin-equation theory is proposed to describe the self- and collective dynamics of a liquid of linear Brownian particles. The equations of motion for the spherical harmonics projections of the collective and self-intermediate-scattering functions, Fl m ,l m(k ,t ) and Flm ,l m S(k ,t ) , are derived as a contraction of the description involving the stochastic equations of the corresponding tensorial one-particle density nl m(k ,t ) and the translational (α =T ) and rotational (α =R ) current densities jlm α(k ,t ) . Similar to the spherical case, these dynamic equations require as an external input the equilibrium structural properties of the system contained in the projections of the static structure factor, denoted by Sl m ,l m(k ) . Complementing these exact equations with simple (Vineyard-like) approximate relations for the collective and the self-memory functions we propose a closed self-consistent set of equations for the dynamic properties involved. In the long-time asymptotic limit, these equations become the so-called bifurcation equations, whose solutions (the nonergodicity parameters) can be written, extending the spherical case, in terms of one translational and one orientational scalar dynamic order parameter, γT and γR, which characterize the possible dynamical arrest transitions of the system. As a concrete illustrative application of this theory we determine the dynamic arrest diagram of the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. In qualitative agreement with mode coupling theory, the present self-consistent equations also predict three different regions in the state space spanned by the macroscopic control parameters η (volume fraction) and T* (scaled temperature): a region of fully ergodic states, a region of mixed states, in which the translational degrees of freedom become arrested while the orientational degrees of freedom remain ergodic, and a region of fully nonergodic states.

  18. Self-consistent generalized Langevin-equation theory for liquids of nonspherically interacting particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Aguilera, L F; Zubieta Rico, P F; Ruiz-Estrada, H; Alarcón-Waess, O

    2014-11-01

    A self-consistent generalized Langevin-equation theory is proposed to describe the self- and collective dynamics of a liquid of linear Brownian particles. The equations of motion for the spherical harmonics projections of the collective and self-intermediate-scattering functions, F_{lm,lm}(k,t) and F_{lm,lm}^{S}(k,t), are derived as a contraction of the description involving the stochastic equations of the corresponding tensorial one-particle density n_{lm}(k,t) and the translational (α=T) and rotational (α=R) current densities j_{lm}^{α}(k,t). Similar to the spherical case, these dynamic equations require as an external input the equilibrium structural properties of the system contained in the projections of the static structure factor, denoted by S_{lm,lm}(k). Complementing these exact equations with simple (Vineyard-like) approximate relations for the collective and the self-memory functions we propose a closed self-consistent set of equations for the dynamic properties involved. In the long-time asymptotic limit, these equations become the so-called bifurcation equations, whose solutions (the nonergodicity parameters) can be written, extending the spherical case, in terms of one translational and one orientational scalar dynamic order parameter, γ_{T} and γ_{R}, which characterize the possible dynamical arrest transitions of the system. As a concrete illustrative application of this theory we determine the dynamic arrest diagram of the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. In qualitative agreement with mode coupling theory, the present self-consistent equations also predict three different regions in the state space spanned by the macroscopic control parameters η (volume fraction) and T* (scaled temperature): a region of fully ergodic states, a region of mixed states, in which the translational degrees of freedom become arrested while the orientational degrees of freedom remain ergodic, and a region of fully nonergodic states.

  19. Correlation functions for the fractional generalized Langevin equation in the presence of internal and external noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandev, Trifce; Metzler, Ralf; Tomovski, Živorad

    2014-01-01

    We study generalized fractional Langevin equations in the presence of a harmonic potential. General expressions for the mean velocity and particle displacement, the mean squared displacement, position and velocity correlation functions, as well as normalized displacement correlation function are derived. We report exact results for the cases of internal and external friction, that is, when the driving noise is either internal and thus the fluctuation-dissipation relation is fulfilled or when the noise is external. The asymptotic behavior of the generalized stochastic oscillator is investigated, and the case of high viscous damping (overdamped limit) is considered. Additional behaviors of the normalized displacement correlation functions different from those for the regular damped harmonic oscillator are observed. In addition, the cases of a constant external force and the force free case are obtained. The validity of the generalized Einstein relation for this process is discussed. The considered fractional generalized Langevin equation may be used to model anomalous diffusive processes including single file-type diffusion

  20. Understanding price discovery in interconnected markets: Generalized Langevin process approach and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Natalya A.; Horvath, Philip A.; Sinha, Amit K.

    2018-02-01

    While the literature on price discovery process and information flow between dominant and satellite market is exhaustive, most studies have applied an approach that can be traced back to Hasbrouck (1995) or Gonzalo and Granger (1995). In this paper, however, we propose a Generalized Langevin process with asymmetric double-well potential function, with co-integrated time series and interconnected diffusion processes to model the information flow and price discovery process in two, a dominant and a satellite, interconnected markets. A simulated illustration of the model is also provided.

  1. Generalized Langevin equation with colored noise description of the stochastic oscillations of accretion disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Leung, Chun Sing [Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong (China); Mocanu, Gabriela [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-05-15

    We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with their external medium based on a generalized Langevin equation with colored noise and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The former accounts for the general memory and retarded effects of the frictional force. The presence of the memory effects influences the response of the disk to external random interactions, and it modifies the dynamical behavior of the disk, as well as the energy dissipation processes. The generalized Langevin equation of the motion of the disk in the vertical direction is studied numerically, and the vertical displacements, velocities, and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The power spectral distribution of the disk luminosity is also obtained. As a possible astrophysical application of the formalism we investigate the possibility that the intra-day variability of the active galactic nuclei may be due to the stochastic disk instabilities. The perturbations due to colored/nontrivially correlated noise induce a complicated disk dynamics, which could explain some astrophysical observational features related to disk variability. (orig.)

  2. Generalized Langevin equation with colored noise description of the stochastic oscillations of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Leung, Chun Sing; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with their external medium based on a generalized Langevin equation with colored noise and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The former accounts for the general memory and retarded effects of the frictional force. The presence of the memory effects influences the response of the disk to external random interactions, and it modifies the dynamical behavior of the disk, as well as the energy dissipation processes. The generalized Langevin equation of the motion of the disk in the vertical direction is studied numerically, and the vertical displacements, velocities, and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The power spectral distribution of the disk luminosity is also obtained. As a possible astrophysical application of the formalism we investigate the possibility that the intra-day variability of the active galactic nuclei may be due to the stochastic disk instabilities. The perturbations due to colored/nontrivially correlated noise induce a complicated disk dynamics, which could explain some astrophysical observational features related to disk variability. (orig.)

  3. Generalized Langevin equation with colored noise description of the stochastic oscillations of accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Leung, Chun Sing; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with their external medium based on a generalized Langevin equation with colored noise and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The former accounts for the general memory and retarded effects of the frictional force. The presence of the memory effects influences the response of the disk to external random interactions, and it modifies the dynamical behavior of the disk, as well as the energy dissipation processes. The generalized Langevin equation of the motion of the disk in the vertical direction is studied numerically, and the vertical displacements, velocities, and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The power spectral distribution of the disk luminosity is also obtained. As a possible astrophysical application of the formalism we investigate the possibility that the intra-day variability of the active galactic nuclei may be due to the stochastic disk instabilities. The perturbations due to colored/nontrivially correlated noise induce a complicated disk dynamics, which could explain some astrophysical observational features related to disk variability.

  4. Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1989-03-01

    We first show that nonrelativistic quantum mechanics formulated at imaginary-(h/2 π) can formally be viewed as the Fokker-Planck description of a frictionless brownian motion, which occurs (in general) in an absorbing medium. We next offer a new formulation of quantum mechanics, which is basically the Langevin treatment of this brownian motion. Explicitly, we derive a noise-average representation for the transition probability W(X'',t''|X',t'), in terms of the solutions to a Langevin equation with a Gaussian white-noise. Upon analytic continuation back to real-(h/2 π),W(X'',t''|X',t') becomes the propagator of the original Schroedinger equation. Our approach allows for a straightforward application to quantum dynamical problems of the mathematical techniques of classical stochastic processes. Moreover, computer simulations of quantum mechanical systems can be carried out by using numerical programs based on the Langevin dynamics. (author). 19 refs, 1 tab

  5. Accelerating the convergence of path integral dynamics with a generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-02-01

    The quantum nature of nuclei plays an important role in the accurate modelling of light atoms such as hydrogen, but it is often neglected in simulations due to the high computational overhead involved. It has recently been shown that zero-point energy effects can be included comparatively cheaply in simulations of harmonic and quasiharmonic systems by augmenting classical molecular dynamics with a generalized Langevin equation (GLE). Here we describe how a similar approach can be used to accelerate the convergence of path integral (PI) molecular dynamics to the exact quantum mechanical result in more strongly anharmonic systems exhibiting both zero point energy and tunnelling effects. The resulting PI-GLE method is illustrated with applications to a double-well tunnelling problem and to liquid water.

  6. Accelerating the convergence of path integral dynamics with a generalized Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-02-28

    The quantum nature of nuclei plays an important role in the accurate modelling of light atoms such as hydrogen, but it is often neglected in simulations due to the high computational overhead involved. It has recently been shown that zero-point energy effects can be included comparatively cheaply in simulations of harmonic and quasiharmonic systems by augmenting classical molecular dynamics with a generalized Langevin equation (GLE). Here we describe how a similar approach can be used to accelerate the convergence of path integral (PI) molecular dynamics to the exact quantum mechanical result in more strongly anharmonic systems exhibiting both zero point energy and tunnelling effects. The resulting PI-GLE method is illustrated with applications to a double-well tunnelling problem and to liquid water.

  7. Inelastic X-ray scattering on liquid benzene analyzed using a generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Fukuyama, Nami; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Shinya; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2017-07-01

    The dynamic structure factor, S(Q,ω), of liquid benzene was measured by meV-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and analyzed using a generalized Langevin model with a memory function including fast, μ-relaxation and slow, structural, α-relaxation. The model well reproduced the experimental S(Q,ω) of liquid benzene. The dispersion relation of the collective excitation energy yields the high-frequency sound velocity for liquid benzene as related to the α-relaxation. The ratio of the high-frequency to the adiabatic sound velocity is approximately 1.5, larger to that of carbon tetrachloride and smaller than those of methanol and water, reflecting the nature of intermolecular interactions.

  8. Generalized Langevin equation: An efficient approach to nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2014-04-01

    The generalized Langevin equation (GLE) has been recently suggested to simulate the time evolution of classical solid and molecular systems when considering general nonequilibrium processes. In this approach, a part of the whole system (an open system), which interacts and exchanges energy with its dissipative environment, is studied. Because the GLE is derived by projecting out exactly the harmonic environment, the coupling to it is realistic, while the equations of motion are non-Markovian. Although the GLE formalism has already found promising applications, e.g., in nanotribology and as a powerful thermostat for equilibration in classical molecular dynamics simulations, efficient algorithms to solve the GLE for realistic memory kernels are highly nontrivial, especially if the memory kernels decay nonexponentially. This is due to the fact that one has to generate a colored noise and take account of the memory effects in a consistent manner. In this paper, we present a simple, yet efficient, algorithm for solving the GLE for practical memory kernels and we demonstrate its capability for the exactly solvable case of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a Debye bath.

  9. On the Asymptotic Behavior of the Kernel Function in the Generalized Langevin Equation: A One-Dimensional Lattice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Weiqi; Li, Xiantao

    2018-01-01

    We present some estimates for the memory kernel function in the generalized Langevin equation, derived using the Mori-Zwanzig formalism from a one-dimensional lattice model, in which the particles interactions are through nearest and second nearest neighbors. The kernel function can be explicitly expressed in a matrix form. The analysis focuses on the decay properties, both spatially and temporally, revealing a power-law behavior in both cases. The dependence on the level of coarse-graining is also studied.

  10. Stochastic quantization of topological field theory: generalized Langevin equation with memory kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2006-04-01

    We use the method of stochastic quantization in a topological field theory defined in an Euclidean space, assuming a Langevin equation with a memory kernel. We show that our procedure for the Abelian Chern-Simons theory converges regardless of the nature of the Chern-Simons coefficient. (author)

  11. Paul Langevin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions not only in physics but also in various other fields such as chemistry, biology and ... the required tools for the development of t~e special theory of relativity and would ... During the second world war Langevin became a vocal anti-.

  12. Brownian motion of classical spins: Anomalous dissipation and generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we derive the Langevin equation (LE) of a classical spin interacting with a heat bath through momentum variables, starting from the fully dynamical Hamiltonian description. The derived LE with anomalous dissipation is analyzed in detail. The obtained LE is non-Markovian with multiplicative noise terms. The concomitant dissipative terms obey the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The Markovian limit correctly produces the Kubo and Hashitsume equation. The perturbative treatment of our equations produces the Landau-Lifshitz equation and the Seshadri-Lindenberg equation. Then we derive the Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to LE and the concept of equilibrium probability distribution is analyzed.

  13. Kerr generalized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs

  14. Quantum theory of open systems based on stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basharov, A. M., E-mail: basharov@gmail.com [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

  15. Quantum theory of open systems based on stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author’s papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are “locked” inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

  16. Langevin dynamics for ramified structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Iomin, Alexander; Horsthemke, Werner; Campos, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    We propose a generalized Langevin formalism to describe transport in combs and similar ramified structures. Our approach consists of a Langevin equation without drift for the motion along the backbone. The motion along the secondary branches may be described either by a Langevin equation or by other types of random processes. The mean square displacement (MSD) along the backbone characterizes the transport through the ramified structure. We derive a general analytical expression for this observable in terms of the probability distribution function of the motion along the secondary branches. We apply our result to various types of motion along the secondary branches of finite or infinite length, such as subdiffusion, superdiffusion, and Langevin dynamics with colored Gaussian noise and with non-Gaussian white noise. Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement with the analytical results. The MSD for the case of Gaussian noise is shown to be independent of the noise color. We conclude by generalizing our analytical expression for the MSD to the case where each secondary branch is n dimensional.

  17. The Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeau, Yves; Piasecki, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    The existence of atoms has been long predicted by philosophers and scientists. The development of thermodynamics and of the statistical interpretation of its concepts at the end of the nineteenth century and in the early years of the twentieth century made it possible to bridge the gap of scales between the macroscopic world and the world of atoms. Einstein and Smoluchowski showed in 1905 and 1906 that the Brownian motion of particles of measurable size is a manifestation of the motion of atoms in fluids. Their derivation was completely different from each other. Langevin showed in 1908 how to put in a coherent framework the subtle effect of the randomness of the atomic world, responsible for the fluctuating force driving the motion of the Brownian particle and the viscosity of the "macroscopic" flow taking place around the same Brownian particle. Whereas viscous forces were already well understood at this time, the "Langevin" force appears there for the first time: it represents the fluctuating part of the interaction between the Brownian particle and the surrounding fluid. We discuss the derivation by Einstein and Smoluchowski as well as a previous paper by Sutherland on the diffusion coefficient of large spheres. Next we present Langevin's short note and explain the fundamental splitting into a random force and a macroscopic viscous force. This brings us to discuss various points, like the kind of constraints on Langevin-like equations. We insist in particular on the one arising from the time-reversal symmetry of the equilibrium fluctuations. Moreover, we discuss another constraint, raised first by Lorentz, which implies that, if the Brownian particle is not very heavy, the viscous force cannot be taken as the standard Stokes drag on an object moving at uniform speed. Lastly, we examine the so-called Langevin-Heisenberg and/or Langevin-Schrödinger equation used in quantum mechanics.

  18. Langevin- Science and vigilance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaude-Vincent, B.

    1987-01-01

    Paul Langevin personifies the figure of popular scientist, buried in the Pantheon, because he was in all great fights: to diffuse knowledge, for improvement and democratization of teaching, for justice and peace. Great theoretician of physics, comparable to Einstein whom he rejoined the approach, he was a fertile discoverer, author, in particular, of a proceeding to detect submarines. He fought politically, regardless of his career, in the ranges of pacifists and opponents of fascism. This book reveals, in his warm diversity, a badly known personality, in spite of the legend in his lifetime. (N.C.)

  19. Axisymmetric solution with charge in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunyan, G.G.; Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of generating solutions to the equations of general relativity from known solutions of the generalized theory of gravitation and vice versa is proved. An electrovac solution to Einstein's equations that describes a static axisymmetric gravitational field is found. 14 refs

  20. Lorentz Covariance of Langevin Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T.; Denicol, G.S.; Kodama, T.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic covariance of a Langevin type equation is discussed. The requirement of Lorentz invariance generates an entanglement between the force and noise terms so that the noise itself should not be a covariant quantity. (author)

  1. New solutions of Heun's general equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanyan, Artur; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2003-01-01

    We show that in four particular cases the derivative of the solution of Heun's general equation can be expressed in terms of a solution to another Heun's equation. Starting from this property, we use the Gauss hypergeometric functions to construct series solutions to Heun's equation for the mentioned cases. Each of the hypergeometric functions involved has correct singular behaviour at only one of the singular points of the equation; the sum, however, has correct behaviour. (letter to the editor)

  2. Properties of general relativistic kink solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.; Oliveira, L.C.S. de; Santos, F.C.

    1978-12-01

    Properties of the general relativistic kink solution of a nonlinear scalar field recently obtained, are discussed. It has been shown that the kink solution is stable against radical perturbations. Possible applications to Hadron physics from the geometrodynamic point of view are suggested [pt

  3. Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of the annual report is concerned with the external and internal organization of the ILL (Institut Laue-Langevin), and a general presentation of the activities of the ILL during 1975. A first part is concerned with measurement and control instruments: three axis spectrometers,, time-of-flight, crystallography, diffuse scattering, powder spectrometers, polarized neutrons, monochromators, nuclear physics. In the second part the fields of research are reviewed by College: theory, nuclear physics, excitations, structures, liquids, gas and amorphous materials, imperfections, physical biochemistry, and chemistry, reactor exploitation [fr

  4. Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the first volume of the Annual Report gives a general survey of the activities of the different sections of the ILL (Institut Laue-Langevin), this second volume titled Annex to the 1975 annual report is dealing in more details with the scientific work carried out at the ILL from November the 1st 1974 to October the 1st 1975. Scientific works for which reports are available are presented grouped as possible, by college: theory; nuclear physics; excitations; structures; liquids, gas and amorphous materials; imperfections; physical biochemistry; and chemistry [fr

  5. Numerical integration of the Langevin equation: Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; Buckholz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation techniques are derived for solving the ordinary Langevin equation of motion for a Brownian particle in the presence of an external force. These methods allow considerable freedom in selecting the size of the time step, which is restricted only by the rate of change in the external force. This approach is extended to the generalized Langevin equation which uses a memory function in the friction force term. General simulation techniques are derived which are independent of the form of the memory function. A special method requiring less storage space is presented for the case of the exponential memory function

  6. Applications of Boltzmann Langevin equation to nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Belkacem, M.; Stryjewski, J.; Ayik, S.

    1991-01-01

    An approximate method for obtaining numerical solutions of the Boltzmann-Langevin equation is proposed. The method is applied to calculate the time evolution of the mean value and dispersion of the quadrupole and octupole moments of the momentum distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and some consequences are discussed

  7. General solution of string inspired nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandos, I.A.; Ivanov, E.; Kapustnikov, A.A.; Ulanov, S.A.

    1998-07-01

    We present the general solution of the system of coupled nonlinear equations describing dynamics of D-dimensional bosonic string in the geometric (or embedding) approach. The solution is parametrized in terms of two sets of the left- and right-moving Lorentz harmonic variables providing a special coset space realization of the product of two (D-2) dimensional spheres S D-2 = SO(1,D-1)/SO(1,1)xSO(D-2) contained in K D-2 . (author)

  8. General solution of linear vector supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We give the general solution of the Ward identity for the linear vector supersymmetry which characterizes all topological models. Such a solution, whose expression is quite compact and simple, greatly simplifies the study of theories displaying a supersymmetric algebraic structure, reducing to a few lines the proof of their possible finiteness. In particular, the cohomology technology, usually involved for the quantum extension of these theories, is completely bypassed. The case of Chern-Simons theory is taken as an example

  9. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosinger, EE

    1987-01-01

    During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

  10. General Relativity solutions in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2018-06-01

    Recent gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers and a binary neutron star merger by LIGO and Virgo Collaborations associated with its optical counterpart constrain deviation from General Relativity (GR) both on strong-field regime and cosmological scales with high accuracy, and further strong constraints are expected by near-future observations. Thus, it is important to identify theories of modified gravity that intrinsically possess the same solutions as in GR among a huge number of theories. We clarify the three conditions for theories of modified gravity to allow GR solutions, i.e., solutions with the metric satisfying the Einstein equations in GR and the constant profile of the scalar fields. Our analysis is quite general, as it applies a wide class of single-/multi-field scalar-tensor theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter component, and any spacetime geometry including cosmological background as well as spacetime around black hole and neutron star, for the latter of which these conditions provide a necessary condition for no-hair theorem. The three conditions will be useful for further constraints on modified gravity theories as they classify general theories of modified gravity into three classes, each of which possesses i) unique GR solutions (i.e., no-hair cases), ii) only hairy solutions (except the cases that GR solutions are realized by cancellation between singular coupling functions in the Euler-Lagrange equations), and iii) both GR and hairy solutions, for the last of which one of the two solutions may be selected dynamically.

  11. Quantum Difference Langevin System with Nonlocal q-Derivative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surang Sitho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of boundary value problems for Langevin quantum difference systems. Some new existence and uniqueness results for coupled systems are obtained by using fixed point theorems. The existence and uniqueness of solutions are established by Banach’s contraction mapping principle, while the existence of solutions is derived by using Leray-Schauder’s alternative. The obtained results are well illustrated with the aid of examples.

  12. Langevin diffusions on the torus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Portugués, Eduardo; Sørensen, Michael; Mardia, Kanti V.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce stochastic models for continuous-time evolution of angles and develop their estimation. We focus on studying Langevin diffusions with stationary distributions equal to well-known distributions from directional statistics, since such diffusions can be regarded as toroidal analogues......) a likelihood based on the stationary distribution; (ii) toroidal adaptations of the Euler and Shoji–Ozaki pseudo-likelihoods; (iii) a likelihood based on a specific approximation to the transition density of the wrapped normal process. A simulation study compares, in dimensions one and two, the approximate...

  13. Bouncing solutions from generalized EoS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, F. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Matematicas, Santiago (Chile); Cruz, N.; Palma, G. [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-12-15

    We present an exact analytical bouncing solution for a closed universe filled with only one exotic fluid with negative pressure, obeying a generalized equation of state (GEoS) of the form p(ρ) = Aρ+Bρ{sup λ}, where A, B and λ are constants. In our solution A = -1/3, λ = 1/2, and B < 0 is kept as a free parameter. For particular values of the initial conditions, we find that our solution obeys the null energy condition (NEC), which allows us to reinterpret the matter source as that of a real scalar field, φ, with a positive kinetic energy and a potential V(φ). We numerically compute the scalar field as a function of time as well as its potential V(φ), and we find an analytical function for the potential that fits very accurately with the numerical data obtained. The shape of this potential can be well described by a Gaussian-type of function, and hence there is no spontaneous symmetry minimum of V(φ). We show numerically that the bouncing scenario is structurally stable in a small vicinity of the value A = -1/3. We also include the study of the evolution of the linear fluctuations due to linear perturbations in the metric. These perturbations show an oscillatory behavior near the bouncing and approach a constant at large scales. (orig.)

  14. The Boltzmann-Langevin Equation derived from the real-time path formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    We derive the Boltzmann-Langevin equation using Green's functions techniques in the real-time path formalism. We start from the Martin-Schwinger hierarchy and close it approximately at the two-body level. A careful discussion of the initial conditions for the free two-body Green's function provides the flexibility to recover the discarded correlations as fluctuations leading to the Langevin force. The derivation is generalized to the T-matrix approach which allows to prove that one can use the same effective interaction in the mean-field as well as in the collision term and Langevin force

  15. Generalized Langevin Equation Description of Stochastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dissipation theorems. The vertical ... luminosity is also obtained, and it is shown that it has non-standard values. The theoretical .... black hole (a), for A = 0.0015 and a = 0.03 (red curve), a = 0.1 (green curve) and a = 0.001. (black curve) ...

  16. A generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the one-dimensional diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The [α,β,γ]-Langevin equation describes the time evolution of a real stationary process with T-positivity (reflection positivity) originating in the axiomatic quantum field theory. For this [α,β,γ]-Langevin equation a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem is proved. We shall obtain, as its application, a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the one-dimensional non-linear diffusion process, which presents one solution of Ryogo Kubo's problem in physics. (orig.)

  17. Exact solution for the generalized Telegraph Fisher's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdusalam, H.A.; Fahmy, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we applied the factorization scheme for the generalized Telegraph Fisher's equation and an exact particular solution has been found. The exact particular solution for the generalized Fisher's equation was obtained as a particular case of the generalized Telegraph Fisher's equation and the two-parameter solution can be obtained when n=2.

  18. Langevin theory of anomalous Brownian motion made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Lisy, VladimIr; Glod, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 Ann. Phys. 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an 'infinitely more simple' description of Brownian motion than that by Einstein. The original Langevin approach has however strong limitations, which were rigorously stated after the creation of the hydrodynamic theory of Brownian motion (1945). Hydrodynamic Brownian motion is a special case of 'anomalous Brownian motion', now intensively studied both theoretically and in experiments. We show how some general properties of anomalous Brownian motion can be easily derived using an effective method that allows one to convert the stochastic generalized Langevin equation into a deterministic Volterra-type integro-differential equation for the mean square displacement of the particle. Within the Gibbs statistics, the method is applicable to linear equations of motion with any kind of memory during the evolution of the system. We apply it to memoryless Brownian motion in a harmonic potential well and to Brownian motion in fluids, taking into account the effects of hydrodynamic memory. Exploring the mathematical analogy between Brownian motion and electric circuits, which are at nanoscales also described by the generalized Langevin equation, we calculate the fluctuations of charge and current in RLC circuits that are in contact with the thermal bath. Due to the simplicity of our approach it could be incorporated into graduate courses of statistical physics. Once the method is established, it allows bringing to the attention of students and effectively solving a number of attractive problems related to Brownian motion.

  19. New compacton solutions and solitary wave solutions of fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lixin; Yin Jiuli

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equation C(m,n,p) and by using four direct ansatzs, we obtain abundant solutions: compactons (solutions with the absence of infinite wings), solitary patterns solutions having infinite slopes or cups, solitary waves and singular periodic wave solutions and obtain kink compacton solutions and nonsymmetry compacton solutions. We also study other forms of fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equation, and their compacton solutions are governed by linear equations

  20. Deriving Langevin equations in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Tavares, Romulo F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Warm inflation is an inflationary scenario where the interactions between the inflaton and other degrees of freedom are considered. The effective equation of motion for the inflaton is in general of the form of a Langevin equation, that includes both quantum and thermal effects and where these effects manifest in the form of dissipation and stochastic noise terms, which are related by a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation. The dissipation term is related to the interactions of the inflaton with other degrees of freedom of the thermal bath that can be obtained from the appropriate Feynman propagators. As the inflaton evolves into an expanding metric, these effects have to be taken into account when calculating the Green functions and consequently the Feynman propagators. In this work we present the considerations that must be made to calculate the Green functions in curved space (expanding metric) and in the presence of radiation in order to proper derive the effective evolution of the inflaton in the warm-inflation scenario. (author)

  1. General classical solutions in the noncommutative CPN-1 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T.

    2002-01-01

    We give an explicit construction of general classical solutions for the noncommutative CP N-1 model in two dimensions, showing that they correspond to integer values for the action and topological charge. We also give explicit solutions for the Dirac equation in the background of these general solutions and show that the index theorem is satisfied

  2. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  3. A general polynomial solution to convection–dispersion equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiao Wang

    concentration profiles and optimal solute transport parameters. Furthermore, the general .... requirement; in other words, if Is(t) is cumulated solute added in the column ..... National Natural Science Foundation of China. (Nos. 41530854 and ...

  4. Properties of general classical CPsup(n-1) solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    The general classical solutions with finite action of the CPsup(n-1) model are displayed. Various properties of the solutions such as topological charge, action, Baecklund like transformations and stability are discussed

  5. A Generalized Deduction of the Ideal-Solution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Teresa J.; Perez-del-Notario, Pedro; Raso, Miguel A.

    2006-01-01

    A new general procedure for deriving the Gibbs energy of mixing is developed through general thermodynamic considerations, and the ideal-solution model is obtained as a special particular case of the general one. The deduction of the Gibbs energy of mixing for the ideal-solution model is a rational one and viewed suitable for advanced students who…

  6. Quantum Non-Markovian Langevin Equations and Transport Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, V.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum diffusion equations featuring explicitly time-dependent transport coefficients are derived from generalized non-Markovian Langevin equations. Generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations and analytic expressions for calculating the friction and diffusion coefficients in nuclear processes are obtained. The asymptotic behavior of the transport coefficients and correlation functions for a damped harmonic oscillator that is linearly coupled in momentum to a heat bath is studied. The coupling to a heat bath in momentum is responsible for the appearance of the diffusion coefficient in coordinate. The problem of regression of correlations in quantum dissipative systems is analyzed

  7. Suitability of the double Langevin function for description of anhysteretic magnetization curves in NO and GO electrical steel grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steentjes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the match obtained using the classical Langevin function, the tanh function as well as a recently by the authors proposed double Langevin function with the measured anhysteretic magnetization curve of three different non-oriented electrical steel grades and one grain-oriented grade. Two standard non-oriented grades and a high-silicon grade (Si content of 6.5% made by CVD are analyzed. An excellent match is obtained using the double Langevin function, whereas the classical solutions are less appropriate. Thereby, problems such as those due to propagation of approximation errors observed in hysteresis modeling can be bypassed.

  8. Expectation-maximization of the potential of mean force and diffusion coefficient in Langevin dynamics from single molecule FRET data photon by photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kevin R; Yang, Haw; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2013-12-12

    The dynamics of a protein along a well-defined coordinate can be formally projected onto the form of an overdamped Lagevin equation. Here, we present a comprehensive statistical-learning framework for simultaneously quantifying the deterministic force (the potential of mean force, PMF) and the stochastic force (characterized by the diffusion coefficient, D) from single-molecule Förster-type resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments. The likelihood functional of the Langevin parameters, PMF and D, is expressed by a path integral of the latent smFRET distance that follows Langevin dynamics and realized by the donor and the acceptor photon emissions. The solution is made possible by an eigen decomposition of the time-symmetrized form of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation coupled with photon statistics. To extract the Langevin parameters from photon arrival time data, we advance the expectation-maximization algorithm in statistical learning, originally developed for and mostly used in discrete-state systems, to a general form in the continuous space that allows for a variational calculus on the continuous PMF function. We also introduce the regularization of the solution space in this Bayesian inference based on a maximum trajectory-entropy principle. We use a highly nontrivial example with realistically simulated smFRET data to illustrate the application of this new method.

  9. Simplified simulation of Boltzmann-Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.; Randrup, J.

    1994-01-01

    We briefly recall the Boltzmann-Langevin model of nuclear dynamics. We then summarize recent progress in deriving approximate analytical expressions for the associated transport coefficients and describe a numerical method for simulating the stochastic evolution of the phase-space density. (orig.)

  10. On the Langevin approach to particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In the Langevin description of Brownian motion, the action of the surrounding medium upon the Brownian particle is split up into a systematic friction force of Stokes type and a randomly fluctuating force, alternatively termed noise. That simple description accounts for several basic features of particle transport in a medium, making it attractive to teach at the undergraduate level, but its range of applicability is limited. The limitation is illustrated here by showing that the Langevin description fails to account realistically for the transport of a charged particle in a medium under crossed electric and magnetic fields and the ensuing Hall effect. That particular failure is rooted in the concept of the friction force rather than in the accompanying random force. It is then shown that the framework of kinetic theory offers a better account of the Hall effect. It is concluded that the Langevin description is nothing but an extension of Drude's transport model subsuming diffusion, and so it inherits basic limitations from that model. This paper thus describes the interrelationship of the Langevin approach, the Drude model and kinetic theory, in a specific transport problem of physical interest

  11. On a class of quantum Langevin equations and the question of approach to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, J.D.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a very simple 'open' quantum system, i.e. being in contact with the outer world. It is asked whether the motion of this system shows frictional behaviour in that it tends to thermal equilibrium. A partial positive answer is given to this question, more precisely, to the question if the solution of the quantum mechanical Langevin equation that describes the Lamb-model (a harmonic oscillator damped by coupling with a string), approaches an equilibrium state. In two sections, the classical and quantum Langevin equations are treated analogously. (Auth.)

  12. Schrödinger–Langevin equation with quantum trajectories for photodissociation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2017-02-15

    The Schrödinger–Langevin equation is integrated to study the wave packet dynamics of quantum systems subject to frictional effects by propagating an ensemble of quantum trajectories. The equations of motion for the complex action and quantum trajectories are derived from the Schrödinger–Langevin equation. The moving least squares approach is used to evaluate the spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration of the equations of motion. Computational results are presented and analyzed for the evolution of a free Gaussian wave packet, a two-dimensional barrier model, and the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl. The absorption spectrum of NOCl obtained from the Schrödinger–Langevin equation displays a redshift when frictional effects increase. This computational result agrees qualitatively with the experimental results in the solution-phase photochemistry of NOCl.

  13. Complex saddle points and the sign problem in complex Langevin simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Tanizaki, Yuya

    2016-01-01

    We show that complex Langevin simulation converges to a wrong result within the semiclassical analysis, by relating it to the Lefschetz-thimble path integral, when the path-integral weight has different phases among dominant complex saddle points. Equilibrium solution of the complex Langevin equation forms local distributions around complex saddle points. Its ensemble average approximately becomes a direct sum of the average in each local distribution, where relative phases among them are dropped. We propose that by taking these phases into account through reweighting, we can solve the wrong convergence problem. However, this prescription may lead to a recurrence of the sign problem in the complex Langevin method for quantum many-body systems.

  14. On the interpretations of Langevin stochastic equation in different coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, E.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Torres, L.; Alejos, O.

    2004-01-01

    The stochastic Langevin Landau-Lifshitz equation is usually utilized in micromagnetics formalism to account for thermal effects. Commonly, two different interpretations of the stochastic integrals can be made: Ito and Stratonovich. In this work, the Langevin-Landau-Lifshitz (LLL) equation is written in both Cartesian and Spherical coordinates. If Spherical coordinates are employed, the noise is additive, and therefore, Ito and Stratonovich solutions are equal. This is not the case when (LLL) equation is written in Cartesian coordinates. In this case, the Langevin equation must be interpreted in the Stratonovich sense in order to reproduce correct statistical results. Nevertheless, the statistics of the numerical results obtained from Euler-Ito and Euler-Stratonovich schemes are equivalent due to the additional numerical constraint imposed in Cartesian system after each time step, which itself assures that the magnitude of the magnetization is preserved

  15. Cosmology in three dimensions: steps towards the general solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D; Shaw, Douglas J; Tsagas, Christos G

    2006-01-01

    We use covariant and first-order formalism techniques to study the properties of general relativistic cosmology in three dimensions. The covariant approach provides an irreducible decomposition of the relativistic equations, which allows for a mathematically compact and physically transparent description of the three-dimensional spacetimes. Using this information we review the features of homogeneous and isotropic 3D cosmologies, provide a number of new solutions and study gauge invariant perturbations around them. The first-order formalism is then used to provide a detailed study of the most general 3D spacetimes containing perfect-fluid matter. Assuming the material content to be dust with comoving spatial 2-velocities, we find the general solution of the Einstein equations with a non-zero (and zero) cosmological constant and generalize known solutions of Kriele and the 3D counterparts of the Szekeres solutions. In the case of a non-comoving dust fluid we find the general solution in the case of one non-zero fluid velocity component. We consider the asymptotic behaviour of the families of 3D cosmologies with rotation and shear and analyse their singular structure. We also provide the general solution for cosmologies with one spacelike Killing vector, find solutions for cosmologies containing scalar fields and identify all the PP-wave 2 + 1 spacetimes

  16. General solution for first order elliptic systems in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshimba, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a system of 2n real-valued partial differential equations of first order, which under certain assumptions can be transformed to the so-called 'complex normal form', admits a general solution. 15 refs

  17. New exact solutions of the generalized Zakharov–Kuznetsov ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, new exact solutions, including soliton, rational and elliptic integral function solutions, for the generalized Zakharov–Kuznetsov modified equal-width equation are obtained using a new approach called the extended trial equation method. In this discussion, a new version of the trial equation method for the ...

  18. Minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Otadi, M.; Mosleh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy linear systems of equations, play a major role in several applications in various area such as engineering, physics and economics. In this paper, we investigate the existence of a minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear equation systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal solution existence are given. Also, some examples in engineering and economic are considered

  19. Exact and numerical solutions of generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Kaya, Dogan [Firat University, Department of Mathematics, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: dkaya36@yahoo.com

    2008-04-14

    In this Letter, we consider a system of generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov (gDS) equations which models one-dimensional nonlinear wave processes in two-component media. We find some exact solutions of gDS by using tanh function method and we also obtain a numerical solution by using the Adomian's Decomposition Method (ADM)

  20. Exact and numerical solutions of generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugurlu, Yavuz; Kaya, Dogan

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider a system of generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov (gDS) equations which models one-dimensional nonlinear wave processes in two-component media. We find some exact solutions of gDS by using tanh function method and we also obtain a numerical solution by using the Adomian's Decomposition Method (ADM)

  1. Langevin dynamics for vector variables driven by multiplicative white noise: A functional formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel Vera; Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss general multidimensional stochastic processes driven by a system of Langevin equations with multiplicative white noise. In particular, we address the problem of how time reversal diffusion processes are affected by the variety of conventions available to deal with stochastic integrals. We present a functional formalism to build up the generating functional of correlation functions without any type of discretization of the Langevin equations at any intermediate step. The generating functional is characterized by a functional integration over two sets of commuting variables, as well as Grassmann variables. In this representation, time reversal transformation became a linear transformation in the extended variables, simplifying in this way the complexity introduced by the mixture of prescriptions and the associated calculus rules. The stochastic calculus is codified in our formalism in the structure of the Grassmann algebra. We study some examples such as higher order derivative Langevin equations and the functional representation of the micromagnetic stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.

  2. Treatment of constraints in the stochastic quantization method and covariantized Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Kenji; Kimura, Tadahiko; Mochizuki, Riuji

    1993-01-01

    We study the treatment of the constraints in the stochastic quantization method. We improve the treatment of the stochastic consistency condition proposed by Namiki et al. by suitably taking into account the Ito calculus. Then we obtain an improved Langevin equation and the Fokker-Planck equation which naturally leads to the correct path integral quantization of the constrained system as the stochastic equilibrium state. This treatment is applied to an O(N) non-linear σ model and it is shown that singular terms appearing in the improved Langevin equation cancel out the δ n (0) divergences in one loop order. We also ascertain that the above Langevin equation, rewritten in terms of independent variables, is actually equivalent to the one in the general-coordinate transformation covariant and vielbein-rotation invariant formalism. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear fission with a Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, D.; Suraud, E.; Abe, Yasuhisa

    1992-01-01

    A microscopically derived Langevin equation is applied to thermally induced nuclear fission. An important memory effect is pointed out and discussed. A strong friction coefficient, estimated from microscopic quantities, tends to decrease the stationary limit of the fission rate and to increase the transient time. The calculations are performed with a collective mass depending on the collective variable and with a constant mass. Fission rates calculated at different temperatures are shown and compared with previous available results. (author) 23 refs.; 7 figs

  4. Yang-Mills analogs of general-relativistic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singlton, D.

    1998-01-01

    Some solutions of Yang-Mills equations, which can be found with the use of the general relativistic theory and Yang-Mills theory, are discussed. Some notes concerning possible physical sense of these solutions are made. Arguments showing that some of such solutions in the Yang-Mills theory (similar to the general relativistic ones) may be connected with the confinement phenomenon are given in particular. The motion of probe particles located into the phonon potential similar to the Schwarz-Child one is briefly discussed for this purpose [ru

  5. Exact solutions of generalized Zakharov and Ginzburg-Landau equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinliang; Wang Mingliang; Gao Kequan

    2007-01-01

    By using the homogeneous balance principle, the exact solutions of the generalized Zakharov equations and generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation are obtained with the aid of a set of subsidiary higher-order ordinary differential equations (sub-equations for short)

  6. Towards the general solution of the Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The author presents a new non-perturbative technique for finding arbitrary self-dual solutions to the Yang-Mills equations, and of describing massless fields minimally coupled to them. The approach uses techniques of complex analysis in several variables, and is complementary to Ward's: it is expected that a combination of the two techniques will yield general, non-self-dual solutions to the Yang-Mills equations. This has been verified to first order in perturbation theory

  7. Langevin Dynamics with Spatial Correlations as a Model for Electron-Phonon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, A.; Caro, M.; Caro, A.; Samolyuk, G.; Klintenberg, M.; Correa, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Stochastic Langevin dynamics has been traditionally used as a tool to describe nonequilibrium processes. When utilized in systems with collective modes, traditional Langevin dynamics relaxes all modes indiscriminately, regardless of their wavelength. We propose a generalization of Langevin dynamics that can capture a differential coupling between collective modes and the bath, by introducing spatial correlations in the random forces. This allows modeling the electronic subsystem in a metal as a generalized Langevin bath endowed with a concept of locality, greatly improving the capabilities of the two-temperature model. The specific form proposed here for the spatial correlations produces a physical wave-vector and polarization dependency of the relaxation produced by the electron-phonon coupling in a solid. We show that the resulting model can be used for describing the path to equilibration of ions and electrons and also as a thermostat to sample the equilibrium canonical ensemble. By extension, the family of models presented here can be applied in general to any dense system, solids, alloys, and dense plasmas. As an example, we apply the model to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of an electron-ion two-temperature Ni crystal.

  8. New solutions of Heun's general equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishkhanyan, Artur [Engineering Center of Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak (Armenia); Suominen, Kalle-Antti [Helsinki Institute of Physics, PL 64, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-02-07

    We show that in four particular cases the derivative of the solution of Heun's general equation can be expressed in terms of a solution to another Heun's equation. Starting from this property, we use the Gauss hypergeometric functions to construct series solutions to Heun's equation for the mentioned cases. Each of the hypergeometric functions involved has correct singular behaviour at only one of the singular points of the equation; the sum, however, has correct behaviour. (letter to the editor)

  9. Isotropic extensions of the vacuum solutions in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Martin-Moruno, Prado [Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand); Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Spacetimes described by spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are of paramount importance both in astrophysical applications and theoretical considerations. And among those, black holes are highlighted. In vacuum, Birkhoff's theorem and its generalizations to non-asymptotically flat cases uniquely fix the metric as the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter or Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter geometries, the vacuum solutions of the usual general relativity with zero, positive or negative values for the cosmological constant, respectively. In this work we are mainly interested in black holes in a cosmological environment. Of the two main assumptions of the cosmological principle, homogeneity is lost when compact objects are considered. Nevertheless isotropy is still possible, and we enforce this condition. Within this context, we investigate spatially isotropic solutions close - continuously deformable - to the usual vacuum solutions. We obtain isotropic extensions of the usual spherically symmetric vacuum geometries in general relativity. Exact and perturbative solutions are derived. Maximal extensions are constructed and their causal structures are discussed. The classes of geometries obtained include black holes in compact and non-compact universes, wormholes in the interior region of cosmological horizons, and anti-de Sitter geometries with excess/deficit solid angle. The tools developed here are applicable in more general contexts, with extensions subjected to other constraints. (author)

  10. Analytical Solution of General Bagley-Torvik Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Labecca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bagley-Torvik equation appears in viscoelasticity problems where fractional derivatives seem to play an important role concerning empirical data. There are several works treating this equation by using numerical methods and analytic formulations. However, the analytical solutions presented in the literature consider particular cases of boundary and initial conditions, with inhomogeneous term often expressed in polynomial form. Here, by using Laplace transform methodology, the general inhomogeneous case is solved without restrictions in boundary and initial conditions. The generalized Mittag-Leffler functions with three parameters are used and the solutions presented are expressed in terms of Wiman’s functions and their derivatives.

  11. Exactly solvable nonequilibrium Langevin relaxation of a trapped nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Domingos S P; Lira, Sérgio A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the nonequilibrium statistical properties of the relaxation dynamics of a nanoparticle trapped in a harmonic potential. We report an exact time-dependent analytical solution to the Langevin dynamics that arises from the stochastic differential equation of our system’s energy in the underdamped regime. By utilizing this stochastic thermodynamics approach, we are able to completely describe the heat exchange process between the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. As an important consequence of our results, we observe the validity of the heat exchange fluctuation theorem in our setup, which holds for systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium conditions. By extending our results for the case of N noninterating nanoparticles, we perform analytical asymptotic limits and direct numerical simulations that corroborate our analytical predictions. (paper)

  12. Stochastic sensitivity analysis and Langevin simulation for neural network learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koda, Masato

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical framework is proposed for the learning of a class of gradient-type neural networks with an additive Gaussian white noise process. The study is based on stochastic sensitivity analysis techniques, and formal expressions are obtained for stochastic learning laws in terms of functional derivative sensitivity coefficients. The present method, based on Langevin simulation techniques, uses only the internal states of the network and ubiquitous noise to compute the learning information inherent in the stochastic correlation between noise signals and the performance functional. In particular, the method does not require the solution of adjoint equations of the back-propagation type. Thus, the present algorithm has the potential for efficiently learning network weights with significantly fewer computations. Application to an unfolded multi-layered network is described, and the results are compared with those obtained by using a back-propagation method

  13. General scalar-tensor cosmology: analytical solutions via noether symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaeli, Erfan; Motaharfar, Meysam; Sepangi, Hamid Reza [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We analyze the cosmology of a general scalar-tensor theory which encompasses generalized Brans-Dicke theory, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, non-minimal derivative gravity, generalized Galilean gravity and also the general k-essence type models. Instead of taking into account phenomenological considerations we adopt a Noether symmetry approach, as a physical criterion, to single out the form of undetermined functions in the action. These specified functions symmetrize equations of motion in the simplest possible form which result in exact solutions. Demanding de Sitter, power-law and bouncing universe solutions in the absence and presence of matter density leads to exploring new as well as well-investigated models. We show that there are models for which the dynamics of the system allows a transition from a decelerating phase (matter dominated era) to an accelerating phase (dark energy epoch) and could also lead to general Brans-Dicke with string correction without a self-interaction potential. Furthermore, we classify the models based on a phantom or quintessence dark energy point of view. Finally, we obtain the condition for stability of a de Sitter solution for which the solution is an attractor of the system. (orig.)

  14. Another higher order Langevin algorithm for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This note provides an algorithm for integrating the Langevin equation which is second order. It introduces a term into the drift force which is a product of the Gaussian noise and a second derivative of the action. The specific application presented here is for nonabelian gauge theories interacting with fermions, e.g. QCD, for which it requires less memory than the Runge-Kutta algorithm of the same order. The memory and computational requirements of Euler, Runge-Kutta, and the present algorithm are compared. (orig.)

  15. Generalised and Fractional Langevin Equations-Implications for Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Chapman, S. C.; Chechkin, A.; Ford, I.; Klages, R.; Stainforth, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Energy Balance Models (EBMs) have a long heritage in climate science, including their use in modelling anomalies in global mean temperature. Many types of EBM have now been studied, and this presentation concerns the stochastic EBMs, which allow direct treatment of climate fluctuations and noise. Some recent stochastic EBMs (e.g. [1]) map on to Langevin's original form of his equation, with temperature anomaly replacing velocity, and other corresponding replacements being made. Considerable sophistication has now been reached in the application of multivariate stochastic Langevin modelling in many areas of climate. Our work is complementary in intent and investigates the Mori-Kubo "Generalised Langevin Equation" (GLE) which incorporates non-Markovian noise and response in a univariate framework, as a tool for modelling GMT [2]. We show how, if it is present, long memory simplifies the GLE to a fractional Langevin equation (FLE). Evidence for long range memory in global temperature, and the success of fractional Gaussian noise in its prediction [5] has already motivated investigation of a power law response model [3,4,5]. We go beyond this work to ask whether an EBM of FLE-type exists, and what its solutions would be. [l] Padilla et al, J. Climate (2011); [2] Watkins, GRL (2013); [3] Rypdal, JGR (2012); [4] Rypdal and Rypdal, J. Climate (2014); [5] Lovejoy et al, ESDD (2015).

  16. The general solution of a Nim-heap game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋林森; 卢澎涛

    2010-01-01

    As a combinatorial one,the game Nim turns out to be extremely useful in certain types of combinatorial game analysis.It has given the general solution of the game a Nim-heap game and the result has proved true.

  17. General solution of Bateman equations for nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetnar, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns the linear chain method of solving Bateman equations for nuclear transmutation in derivation of the general solution for linear chain with repeated transitions and thus elimination of existing numerical problems. In addition, applications of derived equations for transmutation trajectory analysis method is presented

  18. General analytical shakedown solution for structures with kinematic hardening materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baofeng; Zou, Zongyuan; Jin, Miao

    2016-09-01

    The effect of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behaviors of structure has been investigated by performing shakedown analysis for some specific problems. The results obtained only show that the shakedown limit loads of structures with kinematic hardening model are larger than or equal to those with perfectly plastic model of the same initial yield stress. To further investigate the rules governing the different shakedown behaviors of kinematic hardening structures, the extended shakedown theorem for limited kinematic hardening is applied, the shakedown condition is then proposed, and a general analytical solution for the structural shakedown limit load is thus derived. The analytical shakedown limit loads for fully reversed cyclic loading and non-fully reversed cyclic loading are then given based on the general solution. The resulting analytical solution is applied to some specific problems: a hollow specimen subjected to tension and torsion, a flanged pipe subjected to pressure and axial force and a square plate with small central hole subjected to biaxial tension. The results obtained are compared with those in literatures, they are consistent with each other. Based on the resulting general analytical solution, rules governing the general effects of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behavior of structure are clearly.

  19. Supersymmetric solutions of N =(1 ,1 ) general massive supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, N. S.; Nazari, Z.; Sarıoǧlu, Ö.

    2018-05-01

    We construct supersymmetric solutions of three-dimensional N =(1 ,1 ) general massive supergravity (GMG). Solutions with a null Killing vector are, in general, pp-waves. We identify those that appear at critical points of the model, some of which do not exist in N =(1 ,1 ) new massive supergravity (NMG). In the timelike case, we find that many solutions are common with NMG, but there is a new class that is genuine to GMG, two members of which are stationary Lifshitz and timelike squashed AdS spacetimes. We also show that in addition to the fully supersymmetric AdS vacuum, there is a second AdS background with a nonzero vector field that preserves 1 /4 supersymmetry.

  20. The general supersymmetric solution of topologically massive supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N; Sezgin, E

    2008-01-01

    We find the general fully nonlinear solution of topologically massive supergravity admitting a Killing spinor. It is of plane-wave type, with a null Killing vector field. Conversely, we show that all solutions with a null Killing vector are supersymmetric for one or the other choice of sign for the Chern-Simons coupling constant μ. If μ does not take the critical value, μ = ±1, these solutions are asymptotically regular on a Poincare patch, but do not admit a smooth global compactification with boundary S 1 x R. In the critical case, the solutions have a logarithmic singularity on the boundary of the Poincare patch. We derive a Nester-Witten identity, which allows us to identify the associated charges, but we conclude that the presence of the Chern-Simons term prevents us from making a statement about their positivity. The Nester-Witten procedure is applied to the BTZ black hole

  1. A New Solution for Einstein Field Equation in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh

    2006-05-01

    There are different solutions for Einstein field equation in general relativity that they have been proposed by different people the most important solutions are Schwarzchild, Reissner Nordstrom, Kerr and Kerr Newmam. However, each one of these solutions limited to special case. I've found a new solution for Einstein field equation which is more complete than all previous ones and this solution contains the previous solutions as its special forms. In this talk I will present my new metric for Einstein field equation and the Christofel symbols and Richi and Rieman tensor components for the new metric that I have calculated them by GR TENSOR software. As a result I will determine the actual movement of black holes which is different From Kerr black hole's movement. Finally this new solution predicts, existence of a new and constant field in the nature (that nobody can found it up to now), so in this talk I will introduce this new field and even I will calculate the amount of this field. SADEGH MOUSAVI, Amirkabir University of Technology.

  2. Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Caibin, E-mail: macbzeng@scut.edu.cn; Yang, Qigui, E-mail: qgyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, YangQuan, E-mail: ychen53@ucmerced.edu [MESA LAB, School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, 5200 N. Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings.

  3. Spherically symmetric solutions of general second-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, B.

    1988-01-01

    The general second-order gravity theory, whose Lagrangian includes higher powers of the curvature, is considered in arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that spherically symmetric solutions are static, except in certain, special, unphysical cases. Spherically symmetric solutions are found and classified. Each theory's solutions fall into a number of distinct branches, which may represent finite space with two singular boundaries, or an asymptotically either flat or (anti--)de Sitter space with one singular boundary. A theory may contain at most one branch of solutions in which all singularities are hidden by event horizons. Such horizons generally emit Hawking radiation, though in certain cases the horizon may have zero temperature. Black holes do not necessarily radiate away all their mass: they may terminate in a zero-temperature black hole, a naked singularity, or a hot black hole in equilibrium with a ''cosmological'' event horizon. The thermodynamics of black-hole solutions is discussed; entropy is found to be an increasing function of horizon area, and the first law is shown to hold

  4. New solutions of the generalized ellipsoidal wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Exton

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects and a contribution to the theory of new forms of solutions of an algebraic form of the generalized ellipsoidal wave equation are deduced by considering the Laplace transform of a soluble system of linear differential equations. An ensuing system of non-linear algebraic equations is shown to be consistent and is numerically implemented by means of the computer algebra package MAPLE V. The main results are presented as series of hypergeometric type of there and four variables which readily lend themselves to numerical handling although this does not indicate all of the detailedanalytic properties of the solutions under consideration.

  5. Smooth Gowdy-symmetric generalized Taub–NUT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Florian; Hennig, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    We study a class of S 3 -Gowdy vacuum models with a regular past Cauchy horizon which we call smooth Gowdy-symmetric generalized Taub–NUT solutions. In particular, we prove the existence of such solutions by formulating a singular initial value problem with asymptotic data on the past Cauchy horizon. We prove that also a future Cauchy horizon exists for generic asymptotic data, and derive an explicit expression for the metric on the future Cauchy horizon in terms of the asymptotic data on the past horizon. This complements earlier results about S 1 ×S 2 -Gowdy models. (paper)

  6. Generalized Asymptotically Almost Periodic and Generalized Asymptotically Almost Automorphic Solutions of Abstract Multiterm Fractional Differential Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. N’Guérékata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate generalized asymptotical almost periodicity and generalized asymptotical almost automorphy of solutions to a class of abstract (semilinear multiterm fractional differential inclusions with Caputo derivatives. We illustrate our abstract results with several examples and possible applications.

  7. Particular solutions of generalized Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhila B. Seilkhanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the generalized Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation $$ {u}_{tt}+\\frac{2\\gamma }{t}{{u}_{t}}={u}_{xx}+{u}_{yy} +\\frac{2\\alpha }{x}{{u}_{x}}+\\frac{2\\beta }{y}{{u}_y},\\quad x>0,\\;y>0,\\;t>0. $$ We construct particular solutions in an explicit form expressed by the Lauricella hypergeometric function of three variables. Properties of each constructed solutions have been investigated in sections of surfaces of the characteristic cone. Precisely, we prove that found solutions have singularity $1/r$ at $r\\to 0$, where ${{r}^2}={{( x-{{x}_0}}^2}+{{( y-{{y}_0}}^2}-{{( t-{{t}_0}}^2}$.

  8. On the General Analytical Solution of the Kinematic Cosserat Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2016-09-01

    Based on a Lie symmetry analysis, we construct a closed form solution to the kinematic part of the (partial differential) Cosserat equations describing the mechanical behavior of elastic rods. The solution depends on two arbitrary analytical vector functions and is analytical everywhere except a certain domain of the independent variables in which one of the arbitrary vector functions satisfies a simple explicitly given algebraic relation. As our main theoretical result, in addition to the construction of the solution, we proof its generality. Based on this observation, a hybrid semi-analytical solver for highly viscous two-way coupled fluid-rod problems is developed which allows for the interactive high-fidelity simulations of flagellated microswimmers as a result of a substantial reduction of the numerical stiffness.

  9. Numerical solution of pipe flow problems for generalized Newtonian fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this work we study the stationary laminar flow of incompressible generalized Newtonian fluids in a pipe with constant arbitrary cross-section. The resulting nonlinear boundary value problems can be written in a variational formulation and solved using finite elements and the augmented Lagrangian method. The solution of the boundary value problem is obtained by finding a saddle point of the augmented Lagrangian. In the algorithm the nonlinear part of the equations is treated locally and the solution is obtained by iteration between this nonlinear problem and a global linear problem. For the solution of the linear problem we use the SSOR preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The approximating problem is solved on a sequence of adaptively refined grids. A scheme for adjusting the value of the crucial penalization parameter of the augmented Lagrangian is proposed. Applications to pipe flow and a problem from the theory of capacities are given. (author) (34 refs.)

  10. On the General Analytical Solution of the Kinematic Cosserat Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.; Lyakhov, Dmitry; Gerdt, Vladimir P.; Hossain, Zahid; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.; Weber, Andreas G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Lie symmetry analysis, we construct a closed form solution to the kinematic part of the (partial differential) Cosserat equations describing the mechanical behavior of elastic rods. The solution depends on two arbitrary analytical vector functions and is analytical everywhere except a certain domain of the independent variables in which one of the arbitrary vector functions satisfies a simple explicitly given algebraic relation. As our main theoretical result, in addition to the construction of the solution, we proof its generality. Based on this observation, a hybrid semi-analytical solver for highly viscous two-way coupled fluid-rod problems is developed which allows for the interactive high-fidelity simulations of flagellated microswimmers as a result of a substantial reduction of the numerical stiffness.

  11. A database for extract solutions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Horvath, Zs.; Lukacs, B.

    1993-07-01

    The field of equations of General Relativity are coupled second order partial differential equations. Therefore no general method is known to generate solutions for prescribed initial and boundary conditions. In addition, the meaning of the particular coordinates cannot be known until the metric is not found. Therefore the result must permit arbitrary coordinate transformations, i.e. most kinds of approximating methods are improper. So exact solutions are necessary and each one is an individual product. For storage, retrieval and comparison database handling techniques are needed. A database of 1359 articles is shown (cross-referred at least once) published in 156 more important journals. It can be handled by dBase III plus on IBM PC's. (author) 5 refs.; 5 tabs

  12. Generalized Truncated Methods for an Efficient Solution of Retrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jose Domenech-Benlloch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the analytic solution of multiserver retrial queues including the impatience phenomenon. As there are not closed-form solutions to these systems, approximate methods are required. We propose two different generalized truncated methods to effectively solve this type of systems. The methods proposed are based on the homogenization of the state space beyond a given number of users in the retrial orbit. We compare the proposed methods with the most well-known methods appeared in the literature in a wide range of scenarios. We conclude that the proposed methods generally outperform previous proposals in terms of accuracy for the most common performance parameters used in retrial systems with a moderated growth in the computational cost.

  13. Quantum solutions for Prisoner's Dilemma game with general parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.W.; Jin, H.; Zhao, H.

    2008-01-01

    The quantum game of the Prisoner's Dilemma with general payoff matrix was studied in L. Marinatto and T. Weber's scheme presented in [Phys. Lett. A 272 (2000) 291, so that the results of two schemes of the quantum game can be compared. The Nash equilibria and the solutions of the game are obtained. They are related to initial state, matrix parameters and the intervals among the parameters. It can be concluded from the results that the quantum PD game in Marinatto and Weber's scheme matches the one in Eisert et al.'s scheme, one with general unitary operations.

  14. Automatic computation and solution of generalized harmonic balance equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton Jones, J. C.; Yaser, K. S. A.; Stevenson, J.

    2018-02-01

    Generalized methods are presented for generating and solving the harmonic balance equations for a broad class of nonlinear differential or difference equations and for a general set of harmonics chosen by the user. In particular, a new algorithm for automatically generating the Jacobian of the balance equations enables efficient solution of these equations using continuation methods. Efficient numeric validation techniques are also presented, and the combined algorithm is applied to the analysis of dc, fundamental, second and third harmonic response of a nonlinear automotive damper.

  15. Correlated continuous-time random walks—scaling limits and Langevin picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdziarz, Marcin; Metzler, Ralf; Szczotka, Wladyslaw; Zebrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze correlated continuous-time random walks introduced recently by Tejedor and Metzler (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 082002). We obtain the Langevin equations associated with this process and the corresponding scaling limits of their solutions. We prove that the limit processes are self-similar and display anomalous dynamics. Moreover, we extend the model to include external forces. Our results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations

  16. A general method for enclosing solutions of interval linear equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-717 ISSN 1862-4472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval linear equations * solution set * enclosure * absolute value inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2012

  17. Analytical Solution of General Bagley-Torvik Equation

    OpenAIRE

    William Labecca; Osvaldo Guimarães; José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2015-01-01

    Bagley-Torvik equation appears in viscoelasticity problems where fractional derivatives seem to play an important role concerning empirical data. There are several works treating this equation by using numerical methods and analytic formulations. However, the analytical solutions presented in the literature consider particular cases of boundary and initial conditions, with inhomogeneous term often expressed in polynomial form. Here, by using Laplace transform methodology, the general inhomoge...

  18. Magnetotail equilibrium theory - The general three-dimensional solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, J.

    1987-01-01

    The general magnetostatic equilibrium problem for the geomagnetic tail is reduced to the solution of ordinary differential equations and ordinary integrals. The theory allows the integration of the self-consistent magnetotail equilibrium field from the knowledge of four functions of two space variables: the neutral sheet location, the total pressure, the magnetic field strength, and the z component of the magnetic field at the neutral sheet.

  19. Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it

  20. The Langevin and generalised Langevin approach to the dynamics of atomic, polymeric and colloidal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Snook, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The Langevin and Generalised Langevin Approach To The Dynamics Of Atomic, Polymeric And Colloidal Systems is concerned with the description of aspects of the theory and use of so-called random processes to describe the properties of atomic, polymeric and colloidal systems in terms of the dynamics of the particles in the system. It provides derivations of the basic equations, the development of numerical schemes to solve them on computers and gives illustrations of application to typical systems.Extensive appendices are given to enable the reader to carry out computations to illustrate many of the points made in the main body of the book.* Starts from fundamental equations* Gives up-to-date illustration of the application of these techniques to typical systems of interest* Contains extensive appendices including derivations, equations to be used in practice and elementary computer codes

  1. Spinning solutions in general relativity with infinite central density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, P. D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents general relativistic numerical simulations of uniformly rotating polytropes. Equations are developed using MSQI coordinates, but taking a logarithm of the radial coordinate. The result is relatively simple elliptical differential equations. Due to the logarithmic scale, we can resolve solutions with near-singular mass distributions near their center, while the solution domain extends many orders of magnitude larger than the radius of the distribution (to connect with flat space-time). Rotating solutions are found with very high central energy densities for a range of adiabatic exponents. Analytically, assuming the pressure is proportional to the energy density (which is true for polytropes in the limit of large energy density), we determine the small radius behavior of the metric potentials and energy density. This small radius behavior agrees well with the small radius behavior of large central density numerical results, lending confidence to our numerical approach. We compare results with rotating solutions available in the literature, which show good agreement. We study the stability of spherical solutions: instability sets in at the first maximum in mass versus central energy density; this is also consistent with results in the literature, and further lends confidence to the numerical approach.

  2. Langevin equation method for the rotational Brownian motion and orientational relaxation in liquids: II. Symmetrical top molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, W T; Titov, S V

    2003-01-01

    A theory of orientational relaxation for the inertial rotational Brownian motion of a symmetric top molecule is developed using the Langevin equation rather than the Fokker-Planck equation. The infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the orientational correlation functions for the relaxation behaviour is derived by averaging the corresponding Euler-Langevin equations. The solution of this hierarchy is obtained using matrix continued fractions allowing the calculation of the correlation times and the spectra of the orientational correlation functions for typical values of the model parameters.

  3. On generalized Melvin solution for the Lie algebra E6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Ivashchuk, V.D.

    2017-01-01

    A multidimensional generalization of Melvin's solution for an arbitrary simple Lie algebra G is considered. The gravitational model in D dimensions, D ≥ 4, contains n 2-forms and l ≥ n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. The solution is governed by a set of n functions H s (z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials (the so-called fluxbrane polynomials). The polynomials H s (z), s = 1,.., 6, for the Lie algebra E 6 are obtained and a corresponding solution for l = n = 6 is presented. The polynomials depend upon integration constants Q s , s = 1,.., 6. They obey symmetry and duality identities. The latter ones are used in deriving asymptotic relations for solutions at large distances. The power-law asymptotic relations for E 6 -polynomials at large z are governed by the integer-valued matrix ν = A -1 (I + P), where A -1 is the inverse Cartan matrix, I is the identity matrix and P is a permutation matrix, corresponding to a generator of the Z 2 -group of symmetry of the Dynkin diagram. The 2-form fluxes Φ s , s = 1,.., 6, are calculated. (orig.)

  4. General method and exact solutions to a generalized variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ., Shangai; Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    A general method to uniformly construct exact solutions in terms of special function of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented by means of a more general ansatz and symbolic computation. Making use of the general method, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan (J. Phys. A., 36 (2003) 7009) and find other new and more general solutions, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solution, soliton solutions, soliton-like solutions and Jacobi, Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. A general variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation is chosen to illustrate the method. As a result, some new exact soliton-like solutions are obtained. planets. The numerical results are given in tables. The results are discussed in the conclusion

  5. Analytical Solution of a Generalized Hirota-Satsuma Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M.; Mabrouk, S.; Abd-el-Malek, M.

    A modified version of generalized Hirota-Satsuma is here solved using a two parameter group transformation method. This problem in three dimensions was reduced by Estevez [1] to a two dimensional one through a Lie transformation method and left unsolved. In the present paper, through application of symmetry transformation the Lax pair has been reduced to a system of ordinary equations. Three transformations cases are investigated. The obtained analytical solutions are plotted and show a profile proper to deflagration processes, well described by Degasperis-Procesi equation.

  6. Exact solutions of (3 + 1-dimensional generalized KP equation arising in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din

    Full Text Available In this work, we have obtained some exact solutions to (3 + 1-dimensional generalized KP Equation. The improved tanϕ(ξ2-expansion method has been introduced to construct the exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The obtained solutions include hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, exponential solutions, and rational solutions. Our study has added some new varieties of solutions to already available solutions. It is also worth mentioning that the computational work has been reduced significantly. Keywords: Improved tanϕ(ξ2-expansion method, Hyperbolic function solution, Trigonometric function solution, Rational solution, (3 + 1-dimensional generalized KP equation

  7. Complex Langevin simulation of real time quantum evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Kripfganz, J.

    1986-07-01

    Complex Langevin methods are used to study the time evolution of quantum mechanical wave packets. We do not need any Feynman ε regularization for the numerical evaluation of the double time path integral. (author)

  8. On the Langevin equation for stochastic quantization of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito.

    1989-10-01

    We study the Langevin equation for stochastic quantization of gravity. By introducing two independent variables with a second-class constraint for the gravitational field, we formulate a pair of the Langevin equations for gravity which couples with white noises. After eliminating the multiplier field for the second-class constraint, we show that the equations leads to stochastic quantization of gravity including an unique superspace metric. (author)

  9. From hard thermal loops to Langevin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedeker, Dietrich

    1999-01-01

    In hot non-Abelian gauge theories, processes characterized by the momentum scale g 2 T (such as electroweak baryon number violation in the very early universe) are non-perturbative. An effective theory for the soft (vertical bar p vertical bar ∼ g 2 T) field modes is obtained by integrating out momenta larger than than g 2 T. Starting from the hard thermal loop effective theory, which is the result of integrating out the scale T, it is shown how to integrate out the scale gT in an expansion in the gauge coupling g. At leading order in g, one obtains Vlasov-Boltzmann equations for the soft field modes, which contain a Gaussian noise and a collision term. The 2-point function of the noise and the collision term are explicitly calculated in a leading logarithmic approximation. In this approximation the Boltzmann equation is solved. The resulting effective theory for the soft field modes is described by a Langevin equation. It determines the parametric form of the hot baryon number violation rate as Γ = κg 10 log(1/g)gT 4 , and it allows for a calculation for κ on the lattice

  10. Langevin simulations of QCD, including fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, A.S.

    1986-02-01

    We encounter critical slow down in updating when xi/a -> infinite and in matrix inversion (needed to include fermions) when msub(q)a -> 0. A simulation that purports to solve QCD numerically will encounter these limits, so to face the challenge in the title of this workshop, we must cure the disease of critical slow down. Physically, this critical slow down is due to the reluctance of changes at short distances to propagate to large distances. Numerically, the stability of an algorithm at short wavelengths requires a (moderately) small step size; critical slow down occurs when the effective long wavelength step size becomes tiny. The remedy for this disease is an algorithm that propagates signals quickly throughout the system; i.e. one whose effective step size is not reduced for the long wavelength conponents of the fields. (Here the effective ''step size'' is essentially an inverse decorrelation time.) To do so one must resolve various wavelengths of the system and modify the dynamics (in CPU time) of the simulation so that all modes evolve at roughly the same rate. This can be achieved by introducing Fourier transforms. I show how to implement Fourier acceleration for Langevin updating and for conjugate gradient matrix inversion. The crucial feature of these algorithms that lends them to Fourier acceleration is that they update the lattice globally; hence the Fourier transforms are computed once per sweep rather than once per hit. (orig./HSI)

  11. Fast-forward Langevin dynamics with momentum flips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Mahdi; Wilkins, David M.; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Stochastic thermostats based on the Langevin equation, in which a system is coupled to an external heat bath, are popular methods for temperature control in molecular dynamics simulations due to their ergodicity and their ease of implementation. Traditionally, these thermostats suffer from sluggish behavior in the limit of high friction, unlike thermostats of the Nosé-Hoover family whose performance degrades more gently in the strong coupling regime. We propose a simple and easy-to-implement modification to the integration scheme of the Langevin algorithm that addresses the fundamental source of the overdamped behavior of high-friction Langevin dynamics: if the action of the thermostat causes the momentum of a particle to change direction, it is flipped back. This fast-forward Langevin equation preserves the momentum distribution and so guarantees the correct equilibrium sampling. It mimics the quadratic behavior of Nosé-Hoover thermostats and displays similarly good performance in the strong coupling limit. We test the efficiency of this scheme by applying it to a 1-dimensional harmonic oscillator, as well as to water and Lennard-Jones polymers. The sampling efficiency of the fast-forward Langevin equation thermostat, measured by the correlation time of relevant system variables, is at least as good as the traditional Langevin thermostat, and in the overdamped regime, the fast-forward thermostat performs much better, improving the efficiency by an order of magnitude at the highest frictions we considered.

  12. Fractional Brownian motion and motion governed by the fractional Langevin equation in confined geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Motivated by subdiffusive motion of biomolecules observed in living cells, we study the stochastic properties of a non-Brownian particle whose motion is governed by either fractional Brownian motion or the fractional Langevin equation and restricted to a finite domain. We investigate by analytic calculations and simulations how time-averaged observables (e.g., the time-averaged mean-squared displacement and displacement correlation) are affected by spatial confinement and dimensionality. In particular, we study the degree of weak ergodicity breaking and scatter between different single trajectories for this confined motion in the subdiffusive domain. The general trend is that deviations from ergodicity are decreased with decreasing size of the movement volume and with increasing dimensionality. We define the displacement correlation function and find that this quantity shows distinct features for fractional Brownian motion, fractional Langevin equation, and continuous time subdiffusion, such that it appears an efficient measure to distinguish these different processes based on single-particle trajectory data.

  13. Localization and Ballistic Diffusion for the Tempered Fractional Brownian-Langevin Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Xudong; Deng, Weihua

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the tempered fractional Brownian motion (tfBm), its ergodicity, and the derivation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Then we introduce the generalized Langevin equation with the tempered fractional Gaussian noise for a free particle, called tempered fractional Langevin equation (tfLe). While the tfBm displays localization diffusion for the long time limit and for the short time its mean squared displacement (MSD) has the asymptotic form t^{2H}, we show that the asymptotic form of the MSD of the tfLe transits from t^2 (ballistic diffusion for short time) to t^{2-2H}, and then to t^2 (again ballistic diffusion for long time). On the other hand, the overdamped tfLe has the transition of the diffusion type from t^{2-2H} to t^2 (ballistic diffusion). The tfLe with harmonic potential is also considered.

  14. Complex Langevin Simulations of QCD at Finite Density - Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D. K.; Kogut, J. B.

    2018-03-01

    We simulate lattice QCD at finite quark-number chemical potential to study nuclear matter, using the complex Langevin equation (CLE). The CLE is used because the fermion determinant is complex so that standard methods relying on importance sampling fail. Adaptive methods and gauge-cooling are used to prevent runaway solutions. Even then, the CLE is not guaranteed to give correct results. We are therefore performing extensive testing to determine under what, if any, conditions we can achieve reliable results. Our earlier simulations at β = 6/g2 = 5.6, m = 0.025 on a 124 lattice reproduced the expected phase structure but failed in the details. Our current simulations at β = 5.7 on a 164 lattice fail in similar ways while showing some improvement. We are therefore moving to even weaker couplings to see if the CLE might produce the correct results in the continuum (weak-coupling) limit, or, if it still fails, whether it might reproduce the results of the phase-quenched theory. We also discuss action (and other dynamics) modifications which might improve the performance of the CLE.

  15. A generalized trial solution method for solving the aerosol equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, S.; Simpson, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown how the introduction of orthogonal functions together with a time-dependent scaling factor may be used to develop a generalized trial solution method for tackling the aerosol equation. The approach is worked out in detail for the case where the initial particle size spectrum follows a γ-distribution, and it is shown to be a viable technique as long as the initial volume fraction of particulate material is not too large. The method is applied to several situations of interest, and is shown to give more accurate results (with marginally shorter computing times) than are given by the three-parameter log-normal or γ distribution trial functions. (author)

  16. Generalized nonlinear Proca equation and its free-particle solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, F.D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Plastino, A.R. [Universidad Nacional Buenos Aires-Noreoeste, CeBio y Secretaria de Investigacion, Junin (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a nonlinear extension of Proca's field theory for massive vector (spin 1) bosons. The associated relativistic nonlinear wave equation is related to recently advanced nonlinear extensions of the Schroedinger, Dirac, and Klein-Gordon equations inspired on the non-extensive generalized thermostatistics. This is a theoretical framework that has been applied in recent years to several problems in nuclear and particle physics, gravitational physics, and quantum field theory. The nonlinear Proca equation investigated here has a power-law nonlinearity characterized by a real parameter q (formally corresponding to the Tsallis entropic parameter) in such a way that the standard linear Proca wave equation is recovered in the limit q → 1. We derive the nonlinear Proca equation from a Lagrangian, which, besides the usual vectorial field Ψ{sup μ}(vector x,t), involves an additional field Φ{sup μ}(vector x,t). We obtain exact time-dependent soliton-like solutions for these fields having the form of a q-plane wave, and we show that both field equations lead to the relativistic energy-momentum relation E{sup 2} = p{sup 2}c{sup 2} + m{sup 2}c{sup 4} for all values of q. This suggests that the present nonlinear theory constitutes a new field theoretical representation of particle dynamics. In the limit of massless particles the present q-generalized Proca theory reduces to Maxwell electromagnetism, and the q-plane waves yield localized, transverse solutions of Maxwell equations. Physical consequences and possible applications are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Langevin equation in systems with also negative temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin, Marco; Puglisi, Andrea; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2018-04-01

    We discuss how to derive a Langevin equation (LE) in non standard systems, i.e. when the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian is not the usual quadratic function. This generalization allows to consider also cases with negative absolute temperature. We first give some phenomenological arguments suggesting the shape of the viscous drift, replacing the usual linear viscous damping, and its relation with the diffusion coefficient modulating the white noise term. As a second step, we implement a procedure to reconstruct the drift and the diffusion term of the LE from the time-series of the momentum of a heavy particle embedded in a large Hamiltonian system. The results of our reconstruction are in good agreement with the phenomenological arguments. Applying the method to systems with negative temperature, we can observe that also in this case there is a suitable LE, obtained with a precise protocol, able to reproduce in a proper way the statistical features of the slow variables. In other words, even in this context, systems with negative temperature do not show any pathology.

  18. Relations between the kinetic equation and the Langevin models in two-phase flow modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss PDF and stochastic models which are used in two-phase flow modelling. The aim of the present analysis is essentially to try to determine relations and consistency between different models. It is first recalled that different approaches actually correspond to PDF models written either in terms of the process trajectories or in terms of the PDF itself. The main difference lies in the choice of the independent variables which are retained. Two particular models are studied, the Kinetic Equation and the Langevin Equation model. The latter uses a Langevin equation to model the fluid velocities seen along particle trajectories. The Langevin model is more general since it contains an additional variable. It is shown that, in certain cases, this variable can be summed up exactly to retrieve the Kinetic Equation model as a marginal PDF. A joint fluid and solid particle PDF which includes the characteristics of both phases is proposed at the end of the paper. (author)

  19. A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Modified power method is applied to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. •Transfer matrix is introduced to generalize the modified power method. •All mode based population control is applied to get the higher eigenmodes. •Statistic fluctuation can be greatly reduced using accumulated tally results. •Fission source convergence is accelerated with higher mode solutions.

  20. New exact solutions of the generalized Zakharov–Kuznetsov ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    years, Liu and other researchers developed the trial equation method and its ... soliton, elliptic integral function and Jacobi elliptic function solutions. ... nonlinearity parameter, is a positive real number. ..... reduce to rational function solution.

  1. Classes of general axisymmetric solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Choudhury, T.

    1981-01-01

    An exact solution of the Einstein equations for a stationary axially symmetric distribution of mass composed of all types of multipoles is obtained. Following Ernst (1968), from this vacuum solution the corresponding solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations is derived. A solution of Einstein-Maxwell fields for a static axially symmetric system composed of all types of multipoles is also obtained. (author)

  2. General supersymmetric solutions of five-dimensional supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, Jan B.; Sabra, Wafic

    2005-01-01

    The classification of 1/4-supersymmetric solutions of five dimensional gauged supergravity coupled to arbitrary many abelian vector multiplets, which was initiated elsewhere, is completed. The structure of all solutions for which the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is null is investigated in both the gauged and the ungauged theories and some new solutions are constructed

  3. PARETO OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENERALIZED ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Multi-Objective Generalized Assignment Problem (MGAP with two objectives, where one objective is linear and the other one is non-linear, has been considered, with the constraints that a job is assigned to only one worker – though he may be assigned more than one job, depending upon the time available to him. An algorithm is proposed to find the set of Pareto optimal solutions of the problem, determining assignments of jobs to workers with two objectives without setting priorities for them. The two objectives are to minimise the total cost of the assignment and to reduce the time taken to complete all the jobs.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Multi-doelwit veralgemeende toekenningsprobleem (“multi-objective generalised assignment problem – MGAP” met twee doelwitte, waar die een lineêr en die ander nielineêr is nie, word bestudeer, met die randvoorwaarde dat ‘n taak slegs toegedeel word aan een werker – alhoewel meer as een taak aan hom toegedeel kan word sou die tyd beskikbaar wees. ‘n Algoritme word voorgestel om die stel Pareto-optimale oplossings te vind wat die taaktoedelings aan werkers onderhewig aan die twee doelwitte doen sonder dat prioriteite toegeken word. Die twee doelwitte is om die totale koste van die opdrag te minimiseer en om die tyd te verminder om al die take te voltooi.

  4. Wronskians, generalized Wronskians and solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2004-01-01

    A bridge going from Wronskian solutions to generalized Wronskian solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is built. It is then shown that generalized Wronskian solutions can be viewed as Wronskian solutions. The idea is used to generate positons, negatons and their interaction solutions to the KdV equation. Moreover, general positons and negatons are constructed through the Wronskian formulation. A few new exact solutions to the KdV equation are explicitly presented as examples of Wronskian solutions

  5. Hamiltonian models for the Madelung fluid and generalized Langevin equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonnenmacher, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    We present a Hamiltonian formulation of some type of an 'electromagnetic' Madelung fluid leading to a fluid mechanics interpretation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and to a subsidary condition to be required in order to make the correspondence between Schroedinger's quantum mechanics and Madelung's fluid mechanics unique. Then we discuss some problems related with the Brownian oscillator. Our aim is to start out with a Hamiltonian for the composite system with surrounding heat bath) and to finally arrive at a stochastic differential equation with completely determined statistical properties. (orig./HSI)

  6. Long-range correlations in Boltzmann-Langevin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1994-01-01

    The average phase-space density described by the Boltzmann-Langevin model can largely deviate from the one provided by the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck model, due to the non-linear evolution of density fluctuations. This aspect is investigated for long-wavelength, small density fluctuations in the framework of a memory incorporated Boltzmann-Langevin model. It is shown that the correlations associated with density fluctuations yield a collision term describing coupling between the collective vibrations and the single-particle degrees of freedom, which may play an important role in damping of collective motion in both the stable and unstable regions. (orig.)

  7. Time step rescaling recovers continuous-time dynamical properties for discrete-time Langevin integration of nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David A; Chodera, John D; Crooks, Gavin E

    2014-06-19

    When simulating molecular systems using deterministic equations of motion (e.g., Newtonian dynamics), such equations are generally numerically integrated according to a well-developed set of algorithms that share commonly agreed-upon desirable properties. However, for stochastic equations of motion (e.g., Langevin dynamics), there is still broad disagreement over which integration algorithms are most appropriate. While multiple desiderata have been proposed throughout the literature, consensus on which criteria are important is absent, and no published integration scheme satisfies all desiderata simultaneously. Additional nontrivial complications stem from simulating systems driven out of equilibrium using existing stochastic integration schemes in conjunction with recently developed nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Here, we examine a family of discrete time integration schemes for Langevin dynamics, assessing how each member satisfies a variety of desiderata that have been enumerated in prior efforts to construct suitable Langevin integrators. We show that the incorporation of a novel time step rescaling in the deterministic updates of position and velocity can correct a number of dynamical defects in these integrators. Finally, we identify a particular splitting (related to the velocity Verlet discretization) that has essentially universally appropriate properties for the simulation of Langevin dynamics for molecular systems in equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and path sampling contexts.

  8. Exact Solution of a Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation Dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Maniadis, P.; Tsironis, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    We present exact solutions for a nonlinear dimer system defined throught a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation that contains also an integrable Ablowitz-Ladik term. The solutions are obtained throught a transformation that maps the dimer into a double Sine-Gordon like ordinary nonlinear...... differential equation....

  9. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the ...

  10. New exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized F-expansion method with a computerized symbolic computation is used for constructing a new exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a source. As a result, many exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which include new periodic wave solution, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. The method is straightforward and concise, and it can also be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in physics

  11. Data harmonization of environmental variables: from simple to general solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baume, O.

    2009-04-01

    European data platforms often contain measurements from different regional or national networks. As standards and protocols - e.g. type of measurement devices, sensors or measurement site classification, laboratory analysis and post-processing methods, vary between networks, discontinuities will appear when mapping the target variable at an international scale. Standardisation is generally a costly solution and does not allow classical statistical analysis of previously reported values. As an alternative, harmonization should be envisaged as an integrated step in mapping procedures across borders. In this paper, several harmonization solutions developed under the INTAMAP FP6 project are presented. The INTAMAP FP6 project is currently developing an interoperable framework for real-time automatic mapping of critical environmental variables by extending spatial statistical methods to web-based implementations. Harmonization is often considered as a pre-processing step in statistical data analysis workflow. If biases are assessed with little knowledge about the target variable - in particular when no explanatory covariate is integrated, a harmonization procedure along borders or between regionally overlapping networks may be adopted (Skøien et al., 2007). In this case, bias is estimated as the systematic difference between line or local predictions. On the other hand, when covariates can be included in spatial prediction, the harmonization step is integrated in the whole model estimation procedure, and, therefore, is no longer an independent pre-processing step of the automatic mapping process (Baume et al., 2007). In this case, bias factors become integrated parameters of the geostatistical model and are estimated alongside the other model parameters. The harmonization methods developed within the INTAMAP project were first applied within the field of radiation, where the European Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP) - http://eurdep.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ - has

  12. Institutional Problems and Solutions of General Education in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiqing; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Embedding general education in the Chinese university education system is a considerably complex systemic project, and a lack of institutional arrangements beneficial to general education has always been a key barrier in implementation. Currently, the main institutional restricting factors for university general education include substantial…

  13. Exact solutions of strong gravity in generalized metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Smailagic, A.

    1981-05-01

    We consider classical solutions for the strong gravity theory of Salam and Strathdee in a wider class of metrics with positive, zero and negative curvature. It turns out that such solutions exist and their relevance for quark confinement is explored. Only metrics with positive curvature (spherical symmetry) give a confining potential in a simple picture of the scalar hadron. This supports the idea of describing the hadron as a closed microuniverse of the strong metric. (author)

  14. The Generalized Wronskian Solution to a Negative KdV-mKdV Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu-Qing; Chen Deng-Yuan; Hu Chao

    2012-01-01

    A negative KdV-mKdV hierarchy is presented through the KdV-mKdV operator. The generalized Wronskian solution to the negative KdV-mKdV equation is obtained. Some soliton-like solutions and a complexiton solution are presented explicitly as examples. (general)

  15. General classical solutions in the noncommutative CP{sup N-1} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.; Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T

    2002-10-31

    We give an explicit construction of general classical solutions for the noncommutative CP{sup N-1} model in two dimensions, showing that they correspond to integer values for the action and topological charge. We also give explicit solutions for the Dirac equation in the background of these general solutions and show that the index theorem is satisfied.

  16. Boltzmann-Langevin equation, dynamical instability and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng-Shou Zhang

    1993-02-01

    By using simulations of the Boltzmann-Langevin equation which incorporates dynamical fluctuations beyond usual transport theories and by coupling it with a coalescence model, we obtain information on multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions. From a calculation of the 40 Ca + 40 Ca system, we recover some trends of recent multifragmentation data

  17. New explicit spike solutions-non-local component of the generalized Mixmaster attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woei Chet

    2008-01-01

    By applying a standard solution-generating transformation to an arbitrary vacuum Bianchi type II solution, one generates a new solution with spikes commonly observed in numerical simulations. It is conjectured that the spike solutions are part of the generalized Mixmaster attractor

  18. Solving the AKNS Hierarchy by Its Bilinear Form: Generalized Double Wronskian Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fumei; Sun Yepeng; Cai Fuqing; Chen Dengyuan

    2008-01-01

    Through the Wronskian technique, a simple and direct proof is presented that the AKNS hierarchy in the bilinear form has generalized double Wronskian solutions. Moreover, by using a unified way, soliton solutions, rational solutions, Matveev solutions and complexitons in double Wronskian form for it are constructed.

  19. Classification of exact solutions to the generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandir, Yusuf; Gurefe, Yusuf; Misirli, Emine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with generalized evolution and derive some new results using the approach called the trial equation method. The obtained results can be expressed by the soliton solutions, rational function solutions, elliptic function solutions and Jacobi elliptic function solutions. In the discussion, we give a new version of the trial equation method for nonlinear differential equations.

  20. Elastic stars in general relativity: III. Stiff ultrarigid exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlovini, Max; Samuelsson, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present an equation of state for elastic matter which allows for purely longitudinal elastic waves in all propagation directions, not just principal directions. The speed of these waves is equal to the speed of light whereas the transversal type speeds are also very high, comparable to but always strictly less than that of light. Clearly such an equation of state does not give a reasonable matter description for the crust of a neutron star, but it does provide a nice causal toy model for an extremely rigid phase in a neutron star core, should such a phase exist. Another reason for focusing on this particular equation of state is simply that it leads to a very simple recipe for finding stationary rigid motion exact solutions to the Einstein equations. In fact, we show that a very large class of stationary spacetimes with constant Ricci scalar can be interpreted as rigid motion solutions with this matter source. We use the recipe to derive a static spherically symmetric exact solution with constant energy density, regular centre and finite radius, having a nontrivial parameter that can be varied to yield a mass-radius curve from which stability can be read off. It turns out that the solution is stable down to a tenuity R/M slightly less than 3. The result of this static approach to stability is confirmed by a numerical determination of the fundamental radial oscillation mode frequency. We also present another solution with outwards decreasing energy density. Unfortunately, this solution only has a trivial scaling parameter and is found to be unstable

  1. On the Painleve integrability, periodic wave solutions and soliton solutions of generalized coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guiqiong; Li Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    It is proven that generalized coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations possess the Painleve property for two particular choices of parameters, using the Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale method and Kruskal's simplification. Abundant families of periodic wave solutions are obtained by using the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method with the assistance of symbolic manipulation system, Maple. It is also shown that these solutions exactly degenerate to bright soliton, dark soliton and mixed dark and bright soliton solutions with physical interests

  2. The generalized tanh method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the generalized tanh method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, and we obtain solitons and exact solutions of some important equations of the mathematical physics.

  3. Travelling Solitary Wave Solutions for Generalized Time-delayed Burgers-Fisher Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xijun; Han Libo; Li Xi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, travelling wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation are studied. By using the first-integral method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, we obtain a class of travelling solitary wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation. A minor error in the previous article is clarified. (general)

  4. A general solution to some plane problems of micropolar elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, William E.; Byskov, Esben

    2008-01-01

    functions, the solution is obtained in terms of two analytic functions and a third function satisfying the modified homogeneous Helmholtz equation. Expressions for the two-dimensional components of displacement, stress, and couple stress, along with the resultant force on a contour, are presented.We observe...

  5. A Study for Obtaining New and More General Solutions of Special-Type Nonlinear Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong

    2007-01-01

    The generalized algebraic method with symbolic computation is extended to some special-type nonlinear equations for constructing a series of new and more general travelling wave solutions in terms of special functions. Such equations cannot be directly dealt with by the method and require some kinds of pre-processing techniques. It is shown that soliton solutions and triangular periodic solutions can be established as the limits of the Jacobi doubly periodic wave solutions.

  6. Explicit Solutions for Generalized (2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuhuai; Ma Zhimin; Li Yan

    2010-01-01

    The exact solutions of the generalized (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (Z-K) equation are explored by the method of the improved generalized auxiliary differential equation. Many explicit analytic solutions of the Z-K equation are obtained. The methods used to solve the Z-K equation can be employed in further work to establish new solutions for other nonlinear partial differential equations. (general)

  7. Travelling wave solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method

  8. A theory of general solutions of 3D problems in 1D hexagonal quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yang; Xu Sipeng; Zhao Baosheng

    2008-01-01

    A theory of general solutions of three-dimensional (3D) problems is developed for the coupled equilibrium equations in 1D hexagonal quasicrystals (QCs), and two new general solutions, which are called generalized Lekhnitskii-Hu-Nowacki (LHN) and Elliott-Lodge (E-L) solutions, respectively, are presented based on three theorems. As a special case, the generalized LHN solution is obtained from our previous general solution by introducing three high-order displacement functions. For further simplification, considering three cases in which three characteristic roots are distinct or possibly equal to each other, the generalized E-L solution shall take different forms, and be expressed in terms of four quasi-harmonic functions which are very simple and useful. It is proved that the general solution presented by Peng and Fan is consistent with one case of the generalized E-L solution, while does not include the other two cases. It is important to note that generalized LHN and E-L solutions are complete in z-convex domains, while incomplete in the usual non-z-convex domains

  9. Approximation solutions for indifference pricing under general utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, An; Pelsser, Antoon; Vellekoop, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of Taylor-based approximations, this paper presents results for pricing insurance contracts by using indifference pricing under general utility functions. We discuss the connection between the resulting "theoretical" indifference prices and the pricing rule-of-thumb that practitioners

  10. Approximate Solutions for Indifference Pricing under General Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of Taylor-based approximations, this paper presents results for pricing insurance contracts by using indifference pricing under general utility functions. We discuss the connection between the resulting "theoretical" indifference prices and the pricing rule-of-thumb that practitioners

  11. New Generalized Hyperbolic Functions to Find New Exact Solutions of the Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Pandir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We firstly give some new functions called generalized hyperbolic functions. By the using of the generalized hyperbolic functions, new kinds of transformations are defined to discover the exact approximate solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. Based on the generalized hyperbolic function transformation of the generalized KdV equation and the coupled equal width wave equations (CEWE, we find new exact solutions of two equations and analyze the properties of them by taking different parameter values of the generalized hyperbolic functions. We think that these solutions are very important to explain some physical phenomena.

  12. Langevin description of fission fragment charge distribution from excited nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, A V

    2002-01-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on a set of three-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate fission-fragment charge distribution of compound nucleus sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U. The following collective coordinates have been chosen - elongation coordinate, neck-thickness coordinate, and charge-asymmetry coordinate. The friction coefficient of charge mode has been calculated in the framework of one-body and two-body dissipation mechanisms. Analysis of the results has shown that Langevin approach is appropriate for investigation of isobaric distribution. Moreover, the dependences of the variance of the charge distribution on excitation energy and on the two-body viscosity coefficient has been studied

  13. Langevin approach to synchronization of hyperchaotic time-delay dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budini, Adrian A [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. E Bustillo Km 9.5, (8400) Bariloche (Argentina); Consortium of the Americas for Interdisciplinary Science and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2008-11-07

    In this paper, we characterize the synchronization phenomenon of hyperchaotic scalar nonlinear delay dynamics in a fully-developed chaos regime. Our results rely on the observation that, in that regime, the stationary statistical properties of a class of hyperchaotic attractors can be reproduced with a linear Langevin equation, defined by replacing the nonlinear delay force by a delta-correlated noise. Therefore, the synchronization phenomenon can be analytically characterized by a set of coupled Langevin equations. We apply this formalism to study anticipated synchronization dynamics subject to external noise fluctuations as well as for characterizing the effects of parameter mismatch in a hyperchaotic communication scheme. The same procedure is applied to second-order differential delay equations associated with synchronization in electro-optical devices. In all cases, the departure with respect to perfect synchronization is measured through a similarity function. Numerical simulations in discrete maps associated with the hyperchaotic dynamics support the formalism.

  14. The Sagnac effect and its interpretation by Paul Langevin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Gianni

    2017-11-01

    The French physicist Georges Sagnac is nowdays frequently cited by the engineers who work on devices such as ring-laser gyroscopes. These systems operate on the principle of the Sagnac effect. It is less known that Sagnac was a strong opponent to the theory of special relativity proposed by Albert Einstein. He set up his experiment to prove the existence of the aether discarded by the Einsteinian relativity. An accurate explanation of the phenomenon was provided by Paul Langevin in 1921.

  15. Stochastic TDHF and the Boltzman-Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    Outgoing from a time-dependent theory of correlations, we present a stochastic differential equation for the propagation of ensembles of Slater determinants, called Stochastic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock (Stochastic TDHF). These ensembles are allowed to develop large fluctuations in the Hartree-Fock mean fields. An alternative stochastic differential equation, the Boltzmann-Langevin equation, can be derived from Stochastic TDHF by averaging over subensembles with small fluctuations

  16. The Langevin method and Hubbard-like models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.; Hamber, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors reexamine the difficulties associated with application of the Langevin method to numerical simulation of models with non-positive definite statistical weights, including the Hubbard model. They show how to avoid the violent crossing of the zeroes of the weight and how to move those nodes away from the real axis. However, it still appears necessary to keep track of the sign (or phase) of the weight

  17. Anisotropic generalization of well-known solutions describing relativistic self-gravitating fluid systems. An algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirukkanesh, S. [Eastern University, Department of Mathematics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Ragel, F.C. [Eastern University, Department of Physics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam [P.D. Women' s College, Department of Physics, Jalpaiguri (India)

    2018-01-15

    We present an algorithm to generalize a plethora of well-known solutions to Einstein field equations describing spherically symmetric relativistic fluid spheres by relaxing the pressure isotropy condition on the system. By suitably fixing the model parameters in our formulation, we generate closed-form solutions which may be treated as an anisotropic generalization of a large class of solutions describing isotropic fluid spheres. From the resultant solutions, a particular solution is taken up to show its physical acceptability. Making use of the current estimate of mass and radius of a known pulsar, the effects of anisotropic stress on the gross physical behaviour of a relativistic compact star is also highlighted. (orig.)

  18. Exact solutions of nonlinear generalizations of the Klein Gordon and Schrodinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    Exact solutions of sine Gordon and multiple sine Gordon equations are constructed in terms of solutions of a linear base equation, the Klein Gordon equation and also in terms of nonlinear base equations where the nonlinearity is polynomial in the dependent variable. Further, exact solutions of nonlinear generalizations of the Schrodinger equation and of additional nonlinear generalizations of the Klein Gordon equation are constructed in terms of solutions of linear base equations. Finally, solutions with spherical symmetry, of nonlinear Klein Gordon equations are given. 14 references

  19. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  20. Travelling wave solutions of the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, P.G.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A class of particular travelling wave solutions of the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation is studied systematically using the factorization technique. Then, the general travelling wave solutions of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation, and of its modified version, are also recovered.

  1. Stability of oscillatory solutions of differential equations with a general piecewise constant argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shou Chiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine scalar differential equations with a general piecewise constant argument, in short DEPCAG, that is, the argument is a general step function. Criteria of existence of the oscillatory and nonoscillatory solutions of such equations are proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the zero solution are obtained. Appropriate examples are given to show our results.

  2. Explicit Solutions and Bifurcations for a Class of Generalized Boussinesq Wave Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhi-Min; Sun Yu-Huai; Liu Fu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Boussinesq wave equation u tt — u xx + a(u m ) xx + bu xxxx = 0 is investigated by using the bifurcation theory and the method of phase portraits analysis. Under the different parameter conditions, the exact explicit parametric representations for solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions are obtained. (general)

  3. General solution of the Bagley-Torvik equation with fractional-order derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. H.; Wang, X.

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the general solution of the Bagley-Torvik equation with 1/2-order derivative or 3/2-order derivative. This fractional-order differential equation is changed into a sequential fractional-order differential equation (SFDE) with constant coefficients. Then the general solution of the SFDE is expressed as the linear combination of fundamental solutions that are in terms of α-exponential functions, a kind of functions that play the same role of the classical exponential function. Because the number of fundamental solutions of the SFDE is greater than 2, the general solution of the SFDE depends on more than two free (independent) constants. This paper shows that the general solution of the Bagley-Torvik equation involves actually two free constants only, and it can be determined fully by the initial displacement and initial velocity.

  4. An Analysis of Vehicular Traffic Flow Using Langevin Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağlar Koşun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow data are stochastic in nature, and an abundance of literature exists thereof. One way to express stochastic data is the Langevin equation. Langevin equation consists of two parts. The first part is known as the deterministic drift term, the other as the stochastic diffusion term. Langevin equation does not only help derive the deterministic and random terms of the selected portion of the city of Istanbul traffic empirically, but also sheds light on the underlying dynamics of the flow. Drift diagrams have shown that slow lane tends to get congested faster when vehicle speeds attain a value of 25 km/h, and it is 20 km/h for the fast lane. Three or four distinct regimes may be discriminated again from the drift diagrams; congested, intermediate, and free-flow regimes. At places, even the intermediate regime may be divided in two, often with readiness to congestion. This has revealed the fact that for the selected portion of the highway, there are two main states of flow, namely, congestion and free-flow, with an intermediate state where the noise-driven traffic flow forces the flow into either of the distinct regimes.

  5. Exact solution for MHD flow of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid with modified Darcy's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Hayat, T.; Asghar, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with an exact solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid in a circular pipe. For the description of such a fluid, the fractional calculus approach has been used throughout the analysis. Based on modified Darcy's law for generalized Oldroyd-B fluid, the velocity field is calculated analytically. Several known solutions can be recovered as the limiting cases of our solution. (author)

  6. General solutions of second-order linear difference equations of Euler type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akane Hongyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give general solutions of linear difference equations which are related to the Euler-Cauchy differential equation \\(y^{\\prime\\prime}+(\\lambda/t^2y=0\\ or more general linear differential equations. We also show that the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the linear difference equations are similar to solutions of the linear differential equations.

  7. Exact solutions of the one-dimensional generalized modified complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2003-01-01

    The one-dimensional (1D) generalized modified complex Ginzburg-Landau (MCGL) equation for the traveling wave systems is analytically studied. Exact solutions of this equation are obtained using a method which combines the Painleve test for integrability in the formalism of Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale and Hirota technique of bilinearization. We show that pulses, fronts, periodic unbounded waves, sources, sinks and solution as collision between two fronts are the important coherent structures that organize much of the dynamical properties of these traveling wave systems. The degeneracies of the 1D generalized MCGL equation are examined as well as several of their solutions. These degeneracies include two important equations: the 1D generalized modified Schroedinger equation and the 1D generalized real modified Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain that the one parameter family of traveling localized source solutions called 'Nozaki-Bekki holes' become a subfamily of the dark soliton solutions in the 1D generalized modified Schroedinger limit

  8. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  9. General solution to the E-B mixing problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kendrick M.; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2007-01-01

    We derive a general ansatz for optimizing pseudo-C l estimators used to measure cosmic microwave background anisotropy power spectra, and apply it to the recently proposed pure pseudo-C l formalism, to obtain an estimator which achieves near-optimal B-mode power spectrum errors for any specified noise distribution while minimizing leakage from ambiguous modes. Our technique should be relevant for upcoming cosmic microwave background polarization experiments searching for B-mode polarization. We compare our technique both to the theoretical limits based on a full Fisher matrix calculation and to the standard pseudo-C l technique. We demonstrate it by applying it to a fiducial survey with realistic inhomogeneous noise, complex boundaries, point source masking, and a noise level comparable to what is expected for next-generation experiments (∼5.75 μK-arcmin). For such an experiment our technique could improve the constraints on the amplitude of a gravity wave background by over a factor of 10 compared to what could be obtained using ordinary pseudo-C l , coming quite close to saturating the theoretical limit. Constraints on the amplitude of the lensing B-modes are improved by about a factor of 3

  10. A General Solution Framework for Component-Commonality Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Boysen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Component commonality - the use of the same version of a component across multiple products - is being increasingly considered as a promising way to offer high external variety while retaining low internal variety in operations. However, increasing commonality has both positive and negative cost effects, so that optimization approaches are required to identify an optimal commonality level. As components influence to a greater or lesser extent nearly every process step along the supply chain, it is not surprising that a multitude of diverging commonality problems is being investigated in literature, each of which are developing a specific algorithm designed for the respective commonality problem being considered. The paper on hand aims at a general framework which is flexible and efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of commonality problems. Such a procedure based on a two-stage graph approach is presented and tested. Finally, flexibility of the procedure is shown by customizing the framework to account for different types of commonality problems.

  11. Thermal equilibrium properties of surface hopping with an implicit Langevin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) approach, where the classical degrees of freedom are coupled to an implicit Langevin bath, to establish and maintain an appropriate thermal equilibrium was evaluated in the context of a three site model for electron transfer. The electron transfer model consisted of three coupled diabatic states that each depends harmonically on the collective bath coordinate. This results in three states with increasing energy in the adiabatic representation. The adiabatic populations and distributions of the collective solvent coordinate were monitored during the course of 250 ns FSSH-Langevin (FSSH-L) simulations performed at a broad range of temperatures and for three different nonadiabatic coupling strengths. The agreement between the FSSH-L simulations and numerically exact results for the adiabatic population ratios and solvent coordinate distributions was generally favorable. The FSSH-L method produces a correct Boltzmann distribution of the solvent coordinate on each of the adiabats, but the integrated populations are slightly incorrect because FSSH does not rigorously obey detailed balance. The overall agreement is better at high temperatures and for high nonadiabatic coupling, which agrees with a previously reported analytical and simulation analysis [J. R. Schmidt, P. V. Parandekar, and J. C. Tully, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044104 (2008)] on a two-level system coupled to a classical bath

  12. A new generalized expansion method and its application in finding explicit exact solutions for a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Zahran, M.A.; Fan Engui

    2004-01-01

    A generalized expansion method is proposed to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for general variable coefficients non-linear evolution equations. The new approach admits the following types of solutions (a) polynomial solutions, (b) exponential solutions, (c) rational solutions, (d) triangular periodic wave solutions, (e) hyperbolic and solitary wave solutions and (f) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. The efficiency of the method has been demonstrated by applying it to a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation. Then, new and rich variety of exact explicit solutions have been found

  13. Exact solitary and periodic wave solutions for a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chengfeng; Gao Hongjun

    2009-01-01

    The generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation (GNLS) iu t + u xx + β | u | 2 u + γ | u | 4 u + iα (| u | 2 u) x + iτ(| u | 2 ) x u = 0 is studied. Using the bifurcation of travelling waves of this equation, some exact solitary wave solutions were obtained in [Wang W, Sun J,Chen G, Bifurcation, Exact solutions and nonsmooth behavior of solitary waves in the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Int J Bifucat Chaos 2005:3295-305.]. In this paper, more explicit exact solitary wave solutions and some new smooth periodic wave solutions are obtained.

  14. Computer local construction of a general solution for the Chew-Low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    General solution of the dynamic form of the Chew-Low equations in the vicinity of the restpoint is considered. A method for calculating coefficients of series being members of such solution is suggested. The results of calculations, coefficients of power series and expansions carried out by means of the SCHOONSCHIP and SYMBAL systems are given. It is noted that the suggested procedure of the Chew-Low equation solutions basing on using an electronic computer as an instrument for analytical calculations permits to obtain detail information on the local structure of general solution

  15. Is the Langevin phase equation an efficient model for oscillating neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Keisuke; Tsunoda, Takamasa; Omori, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Masato; Aonishi, Toru

    2009-12-01

    The Langevin phase model is an important canonical model for capturing coherent oscillations of neural populations. However, little attention has been given to verifying its applicability. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for neural oscillators by using the machine learning method in two steps: (a) Learning of the Langevin phase model. We estimated the parameters of the Langevin phase equation, i.e., a phase response curve and the intensity of white noise from physiological data measured in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (b) Test of the estimated model. We verified whether a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Langevin phase equation with the estimated parameters could capture the stochastic oscillatory behavior of the same neurons disturbed by periodic perturbations. The estimated model could predict the neural behavior, so we can say that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for oscillating neurons.

  16. Is the Langevin phase equation an efficient model for oscillating neurons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Keisuke; Tsunoda, Takamasa; Aonishi, Toru; Omori, Toshiaki; Okada, Masato; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The Langevin phase model is an important canonical model for capturing coherent oscillations of neural populations. However, little attention has been given to verifying its applicability. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for neural oscillators by using the machine learning method in two steps: (a) Learning of the Langevin phase model. We estimated the parameters of the Langevin phase equation, i.e., a phase response curve and the intensity of white noise from physiological data measured in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (b) Test of the estimated model. We verified whether a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Langevin phase equation with the estimated parameters could capture the stochastic oscillatory behavior of the same neurons disturbed by periodic perturbations. The estimated model could predict the neural behavior, so we can say that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for oscillating neurons.

  17. Exact solution of the generalized Peierls equation for arbitrary n-fold screw dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Hu, Xiangsheng

    2018-05-01

    The exact solution of the generalized Peierls equation is presented and proved for arbitrary n-fold screw dislocation. The displacement field, stress field and the energy of the n-fold dislocation are also evaluated explicitly. It is found that the solution defined on each individual fold is given by the tail cut from the original Peierls solution. In viewpoint of energetics, a screw dislocation has a tendency to spread the distribution on all possible slip planes which are contained in the dislocation line zone. Based on the exact solution, the approximated solution of the improved Peierls equation is proposed for the modified γ-surface.

  18. Langevin dynamics of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M; De Pace, A; Molinari, A; Monteno, M; Nardi, M; Prino, F

    2011-01-01

    We study the stochastic dynamics of c and b quarks, produced in hard initial processes, in the hot medium created after the collision of two relativistic heavy ions. This is done through the numerical solution of the relativistic Langevin equation. The latter requires the knowledge of the friction and diffusion coefficients, whose microscopic evaluation is performed treating separately the contribution of soft and hard collisions. The evolution of the background medium is described by ideal/viscous hydrodynamics. Below the critical temperature the heavy quarks are converted into hadrons, whose semileptonic decays provide single-electron spectra to be compared with the current experimental data measured at RHIC. We focus on the nuclear modification factor R_AA and on the elliptic-flow coefficient v_2, getting, for sufficiently large p_T, a reasonable agreement.

  19. Fokker-Planck equation of the reduced Wigner function associated to an Ohmic quantum Langevin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Pedro J.

    2018-05-01

    This article has to do with the derivation and solution of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the momentum-integrated Wigner function of a particle subjected to a harmonic external field in contact with an ohmic thermal bath of quantum harmonic oscillators. The strategy employed is a simplified version of the phenomenological approach of Schramm, Jung, and Grabert of interpreting the operators as c numbers to derive the quantum master equation arising from a twofold transformation of the Wigner function of the entire phase space. The statistical properties of the random noise comes from the integral functional theory of Grabert, Schramm, and Ingold. By means of a single Wigner transformation, a simpler equation than that mentioned before is found. The Wigner function reproduces the known results of the classical limit. This allowed us to rewrite the underdamped classical Langevin equation as a first-order stochastic differential equation with time-dependent drift and diffusion terms.

  20. Exact solution of the N-dimensional generalized Dirac-Coulomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutik, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    An exact solution to the bound state problem for the N-dimensional generalized Dirac-Coulomb equation, whose potential contains both the Lorentz-vector and Lorentz-scalar terms of the Coulomb form, is obtained. 24 refs. (author)

  1. Global existence of a generalized solution for the radiative transfer equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golse, F.; Perthame, B.

    1984-01-01

    We prove global existence of a generalized solution of the radiative transfer equations, extending Mercier's result to the case of a layer with an initially cold area. Our Theorem relies on the results of Crandall and Ligett [fr

  2. Analytical approximate solutions for a general class of nonlinear delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Căruntu, Bogdan; Bota, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    We use the polynomial least squares method (PLSM), which allows us to compute analytical approximate polynomial solutions for a very general class of strongly nonlinear delay differential equations. The method is tested by computing approximate solutions for several applications including the pantograph equations and a nonlinear time-delay model from biology. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by a comparison with approximate solutions previously computed using other methods.

  3. Solitonlike solutions of the generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim; Henning, D.; Gabriel, H.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the solution properties oi. a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation describing a nonlinear lattice chain. The generalized equation interpolates between the integrable discrete Ablowitz-Ladik equation and the nonintegrable discrete Schrodinger equation. Special interes...... nonlinear Schrodinger equation. In this way eve are able to construct coherent solitonlike structures of profile determined by the map parameters.......We investigate the solution properties oi. a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation describing a nonlinear lattice chain. The generalized equation interpolates between the integrable discrete Ablowitz-Ladik equation and the nonintegrable discrete Schrodinger equation. Special interest...

  4. Langevin equations with multiplicative noise: application to domain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, J.M.; Hernandez-Machado, A.; Ramirez-Piscina, L.; Lacasta, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Langevin equations of Ginzburg-Landau form with multiplicative noise, are proposed to study the effects of fluctuations in domain growth. These equations are derived from a coarse-grained methodology. The Cahn-Hilliard-Cook linear stability analysis predicts some effects in the transitory regime. We also derive numerical algorithms for the computer simulation of these equations. The numerical results corroborate the analytical productions of the linear analysis. We also present simulation results for spinodal decomposition at large times. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs

  5. A Langevin simulation of the Gross-Neveu spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, R.; Morel, A.; Petersson, B.

    1989-01-01

    We study the order parameter of Chiral symmetry, and fermion and boson masses in the Gross-Neveu model as a function of the flavour number N and of the Langevin time step ε in the scaling region. The 1/N dependence of the ε=0 value of the order parameter is in excellent agreement with an analytical calculation up to second order. Care is taken of the important two fermion contribution in the bosonic correlation functions. Mass ratios are found to be ε dependent, but their ε=0 extrapolation is compatible with the analytic expectation

  6. Langevin dynamics of A+A reactions in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, J M; Romero, A H; Lacasta, A M; Lindenberg, Katja

    2007-01-01

    We propose a set of Langevin equations of motion together with a reaction rule for the study of binary reactions. Our scheme is designed to address this problem for arbitrary friction γ and temperature T. It easily accommodates the inclusion of a substrate potential, and it lends itself to straightforward numerical integration. We test this approach on diffusion-limited (γ → ∞) as well as ballistic (γ = 0) A+A → P reactions for which there are extensive exact and approximate theoretical results as well as extensive Monte Carlo results. We reproduce the known results using our integration scheme, and also present new results for the ballistic reactions

  7. Paul Langevin and french physics from 1900 to 1939

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaude-Vincent, B.

    1987-01-01

    As a young physicist at the turn of this century, P. Langevin was one of the most promising figures in French science. His doctoral dissertation on gas ionization and his research on magnetic theory earned him international reputation. All along his career he championed the new physical theories and made efforts to spread them in France. Through his research and his teaching, he thus fostered the development of atomistics, of theory of relativity and of quantum physics. After a brief survey of his physicist's work the paper seeks to discuss his influence on French physics [fr

  8. Comparison of Langevin dynamics and direct energy barrier computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Rok; Schrefl, Thomas; Thiaville, Andre; Miltat, Jacques; Tsiantos, Vassilios; Fidler, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Two complementary methods to study thermal effects in micromagnetics are compared. On short time scales Langevin dynamics gives insight in the thermally activated dynamics. For longer time scales the 'nudged elastic band' method is applied. The method calculates a highly probable thermal switching path between two local energy minima of a micromagnetic system. Comparing the predicted thermal transition rates between ground states in small softmagnetic elements up to a size of 90x90x4.5 nm 3 gives good agreement of the methods

  9. Particular transcendent solution of the Ernst system generalized on n fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaute, B.; Marcilhacy, G.

    1986-01-01

    A particular solution, a function of a particular form of the fifth Painleve transcendent, of the Ernst system generalized to n fields is determined, which characterizes both the stationary axially symmetric fields, the solution of the Einstein (n-1) Maxwell equations, and one class of axially symmetric static self-dual SU(n+1) Yang--Mills fields

  10. A general solution of the plane problem in thermoelasticity in polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakman, H.D.; Lin, Y.J.

    1977-01-01

    A general solution, in polar coordinates, of the plane problem in thermoelasticity is obtained in terms of a stress and displacement function. The solution is valid for arbitrary temperature distribution T(r,theta). The characteristic feature of the paper is the forthright determination of the displacement components brought about by the introduction of a displacement function. (Auth.)

  11. A general solution of the plane problem thermoelasticity in polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakman, H.D.; Lin, Y.J.

    1977-01-01

    A general solution, in polar coordinates, of the plane problem in thermoelasticity is obtained in terms of a stress and displacement function. The solution is valid for arbitrary temperature distribution T(r, theta). The characteristic feature of the paper is the forthright determination of the displacement components brought about by the introduction of a displacement function

  12. General solution of Poisson equation in three dimensions for disk-like galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Y.; Zheng, X.; Peng, O.

    1982-01-01

    The general solution of the Poisson equation is solved by means of integral transformations for Vertical BarkVertical Barr>>1 provided that the perturbed density of disk-like galaxies distributes along the radial direction according to the Hankel function. This solution can more accurately represent the outer spiral arms of disk-like galaxies

  13. Generalized Sturmian Solutions for Many-Particle Schrödinger Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John; Avery, James Emil

    2004-01-01

    The generalized Sturmian method for obtaining solutions to the many-particle Schrodinger equation is reviewed. The method makes use of basis functions that are solutions of an approximate Schrodinger equation with a weighted zeroth-order potential. The weighting factors are especially chosen so...

  14. Peakons, solitary patterns and periodic solutions for generalized Camassa-Holm equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yin; Lai Shaoyong

    2008-01-01

    This Letter deals with a generalized Camassa-Holm equation and a nonlinear dispersive equation by making use of a mathematical technique based on using integral factors for solving differential equations. The peakons, solitary patterns and periodic solutions are expressed analytically under various circumstances. The conditions that cause the qualitative change in the physical structures of the solutions are highlighted

  15. Tables of generalized Airy functions for the asymptotic solution of the differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nosova, L N

    1965-01-01

    Tables of Generalized Airy Functions for the Asymptotic Solution of the Differential Equations contains tables of the special functions, namely, the generalized Airy functions, and their first derivatives, for real and pure imaginary values. The tables are useful for calculations on toroidal shells, laminae, rode, and for the solution of certain other problems of mathematical physics. The values of the functions were computed on the ""Strela"" highspeed electronic computer.This book will be of great value to mathematicians, researchers, and students.

  16. Some new exact solutions of Jacobian elliptic function about the generalized Boussinesq equation and Boussinesq-Burgers equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liang; Zhang Lifeng; Li Chongyin

    2008-01-01

    By using the modified mapping method, we find some new exact solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equation and the Boussinesq-Burgers equation. The solutions obtained in this paper include Jacobian elliptic function solutions, combined Jacobian elliptic function solutions, soliton solutions, triangular function solutions

  17. On the structure of generalized monopole solutions in gauge-theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for constructing generalized 't Hooft monopole solutions in a gauge theory with an arbitrary gauge group. Restrictions arising from the condition of finite energy are derived. The radial oscillation of the solution is discussed. Using this method all the SU(3) solutions known in the literature are reproduced. Finite energy monopoles possessing magnetic charge in the range g 0 0 0 are found in SU(N) gauge theories. Different charge quantization conditions are analyzed to understand the structure of the solutions. (Auth.)

  18. Improved decay rates for solutions for a multidimensional generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the decay rates of solutions for the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation in multi-dimensional space. For initial data in some L1-weighted spaces, we prove faster decay rates of the solutions. More precisely, using the Fourier transform and the energy method, we show the global existence and the convergence rates of the solutions under the smallness assumption on the initial data and we give better decay rates of the solutions. This result improves early works in J. Differential Equations 158(2) (1999), 314-340 and Nonlinear Anal. 75(7) (2012), 3385-3392. © 2014-IOS Press.

  19. Abundant general solitary wave solutions to the family of KdV type equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azmol Huda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the construction of more general exact traveling wave solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs through the application of the (G′/G, 1/G-expansion method. This method is allied to the widely used (G′/G-method initiated by Wang et al. and can be considered as an extension of the (G′/G-expansion method. For effectiveness, the method is applied to the family of KdV type equations. Abundant general form solitary wave solutions as well as periodic solutions are successfully obtained through this method. Moreover, in the obtained wider set of solutions, if we set special values of the parameters, some previously known solutions are revived. The approach of this method is simple and elegantly standard. Having been computerized it is also powerful, reliable and effective.

  20. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  1. General classical solutions of the complex Grassmannian and CP sub(N-1) sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu.

    1983-05-01

    General classical solutions are constructed for the complex Grassmannian non-linear sigma models in two euclidean dimensions in terms of holomorphic functions. The Grassmannian sigma models are a simple generalization of the well known CP sup(N-1) model in two dimensions and they share various interesting properties; existence of (anti-) instantons, an infinite number of conserved quantities and complete integrability. (author)

  2. General-base catalysed hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of activated amides in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, NJ; Blandamer, MJ; Engberts, JBFN; Buurma, Niklaas J.

    The reactivity of 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (1a) was studied in the presence of a range of weak bases in aqueous solution. A change in mechanism is observed from general-base catalysed hydrolysis to nucleophilic substitution and general-base catalysed nucleophilic substitution. A slight

  3. Unified semiclassical theory for the two-state system: an analytical solution for general nonadiabatic tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaoyuan; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2006-07-28

    Unified semiclasical solution for general nonadiabatic tunneling between two adiabatic potential energy surfaces is established by employing unified semiclassical solution for pure nonadiabatic transition [C. Zhu, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 4159 (1996)] with the certain symmetry transformation. This symmetry comes from a detailed analysis of the reduced scattering matrix for Landau-Zener type of crossing as a special case of nonadiabatic transition and nonadiabatic tunneling. Traditional classification of crossing and noncrossing types of nonadiabatic transition can be quantitatively defined by the rotation angle of adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation, and this rotational angle enters the analytical solution for general nonadiabatic tunneling. The certain two-state exponential potential models are employed for numerical tests, and the calculations from the present general nonadiabatic tunneling formula are demonstrated in very good agreement with the results from exact quantum mechanical calculations. The present general nonadiabatic tunneling formula can be incorporated with various mixed quantum-classical methods for modeling electronically nonadiabatic processes in photochemistry.

  4. Approximate solution of generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system via homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Juhong [School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China); Dept. of Information Engineering, Coll. of Lishui Professional Tech., Zhejiang (China); Zheng Chunlong [School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China); Shanghai Inst. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Univ., SH (China)

    2010-04-15

    Using the homotopy perturbation method, a class of nonlinear generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs systems (GGLH) is considered. Firstly, by introducing a homotopic transformation, the nonlinear problem is changed into a system of linear equations. Secondly, by selecting a suitable initial approximation, the approximate solution with arbitrary degree accuracy to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system is derived. Finally, another type of homotopic transformation to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system reported in previous literature is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  5. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment

  6. On exact solutions for some oscillating motions of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M.; Anjum, Asia; Qi, Haitao; Fetecau, C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with exact solutions for some oscillating motions of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid. The fractional calculus approach is used in the constitutive relationship of fluid model. Analytical expressions for the velocity field and the corresponding shear stress for flows due to oscillations of an infinite flat plate as well as those induced by an oscillating pressure gradient are determined using Fourier sine and Laplace transforms. The obtained solutions are presented under integral and series forms in terms of the Mittag-Leffler functions. For α = β = 1, our solutions tend to the similar solutions for ordinary Oldroyd-B fluid. A comparison between generalized and ordinary Oldroyd-B fluids is shown by means of graphical illustrations.

  7. On the stability of soliton solution in NLS-type general field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Nayyar, A.H.

    1982-08-01

    A model incorporating the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and its generalizations is considered and the stability of its periodic-in-time solutions under the restriction of a fixed charge Q is analysed. It is shown that the necessary condition for the stability is given by the inequality deltaQ/deltaν<0, where ν is the parameter of periodicity of the solution in time. In particular, one specific class of Lagrangians is considered and, in addition, the sufficient conditions for the stability of the soliton solutions are also determined. This study thus examines both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for the stability of the solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equation and some of its generalizations. (author)

  8. Existence of Positive Solutions to Singular -Laplacian General Dirichlet Boundary Value Problems with Sign Changing Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiying Wei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the well-known Schauder fixed point theorem and upper and lower solution method, we present some existence criteria for positive solution of an -point singular -Laplacian dynamic equation on time scales with the sign changing nonlinearity. These results are new even for the corresponding differential (=ℝ and difference equations (=ℤ, as well as in general time scales setting. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the results.

  9. Centennial of General Relativity (1915-2015); The Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Blinder, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (1915-2015). The first nontrivial solution of the Einstein field equations was derived by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916. This Note will focus mainly on the Schwarzschild solution and the remarkable developments which it inspired, the most dramatic being the prediction of black holes. Later extensions of Schwarzschild's spacetime structure has led to even wilder conjectures, such as white holes and passages to other ...

  10. Fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators with general inverse square potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huyuan

    2017-03-17

    In this paper, we clarify the fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators given as (Formula presented.), where the potential V is a general inverse square potential in (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.). In particular, letting (Formula presented.),(Formula presented.) where (Formula presented.), we discuss the existence and nonexistence of positive fundamental solutions for Hardy operator (Formula presented.), which depend on the parameter t.

  11. Fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators with general inverse square potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huyuan; Alhomedan, Suad; Hajaiej, Hichem; Markowich, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we clarify the fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators given as (Formula presented.), where the potential V is a general inverse square potential in (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.). In particular, letting (Formula presented.),(Formula presented.) where (Formula presented.), we discuss the existence and nonexistence of positive fundamental solutions for Hardy operator (Formula presented.), which depend on the parameter t.

  12. Periodic solutions of differential equations with a general piecewise constant argument and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shou Chiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of the periodic solutions of a quasilinear differential equation with piecewise constant argument of generalized type. By using some fixed point theorems and some new analysis technique, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions of these systems. A new Gronwall type lemma is proved. Some examples concerning biological models as Lasota-Wazewska, Nicholson's blowflies and logistic models are treated.

  13. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-v)v+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux), uxx=-(1-u-a1v)u+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux). By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  14. Existence of Generalized Homoclinic Solutions of Lotka-Volterra System under a Small Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Mi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates Lotka-Volterra system under a small perturbation vxx=-μ(1-a2u-vv+ϵf(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux, uxx=-(1-u-a1vu+ϵg(ϵ,v,vx,u,ux. By the Fourier series expansion technique method, the fixed point theorem, the perturbation theorem, and the reversibility, we prove that near μ=0 the system has a generalized homoclinic solution exponentially approaching a periodic solution.

  15. Probabilistic solutions of generalized birth and death equations and application to non-relativistic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serva, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we give probabilistic solutions to the equations describing non-relativistic quantum electrodynamical systems. These solutions involve, besides the usual diffusion processes, also birth and death processes corresponding to the 'photons number' variables. We state some inequalities and in particular we establish bounds to the ground state energy of systems composed by a non relativistic particle interacting with a field. The result is general and it is applied as an example to the polaron problem. (orig.)

  16. On global structure of general solution of the Chew-Sow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Chew-Low equations for static p-wave πN-scattering are considered. The equations are formulated in the form of a system of three nonlinear difference equations of the first order which have the general solution depending on three arbitrary periodic functions. An approach to the global construction of the general solution is suggested which is based on the series expansion in powers of one of the arbitrary functions C(ω) determining the structure of the invariant curve for the Chew-Low equations. It is shown that the initial nonlinear problem is reduced to the linear one in every order in C(ω). By means of solving the linear problem the general solution is found in the first-order approximation in C(ω) [ru

  17. Exact solutions and transformation properties of nonlinear partial differential equations from general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.

    1977-01-01

    Various families of exact solutions to the Einstein and Einstein--Maxwell field equations of general relativity are treated for situations of sufficient symmetry that only two independent variables arise. The mathematical problem then reduces to consideration of sets of two coupled nonlinear differential equations. The physical situations in which such equations arise include: the external gravitational field of an axisymmetric, uncharged steadily rotating body, cylindrical gravitational waves with two degrees of freedom, colliding plane gravitational waves, the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of a static, charged axisymmetric body, and colliding plane electromagnetic and gravitational waves. Through the introduction of suitable potentials and coordinate transformations, a formalism is presented which treats all these problems simultaneously. These transformations and potentials may be used to generate new solutions to the Einstein--Maxwell equations from solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations, and vice-versa. The calculus of differential forms is used as a tool for generation of similarity solutions and generalized similarity solutions. It is further used to find the invariance group of the equations; this in turn leads to various finite transformations that give new, physically distinct solutions from old. Some of the above results are then generalized to the case of three independent variables

  18. Generalized Stokes eignefunctions: a new trial basis for the solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcho, P.F.; Karniadakis, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The present study focuses on the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general, non-separable domains, and employs a Galerkin projection of divergence-free vector functions as a trail basis. This basis is obtained from the solution of a generalized constrained Stokes eigen-problem in the domain of interest. Faster convergence can be achieved by constructing a singular Stokes eigen-problem in which the Stokes operator is modified to include a variable coefficient which vanishes at the domain boundaries. The convergence properties of such functions are advantageous in a least squares sense and are shown to produce significantly better approximations to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in post-critical states where unsteadiness characterizes the flowfield. Solutions for the eigen-systems are efficiently accomplished using a combined Lanczos-Uzawa algorithm and spectral element discretizations. Results are presented for different simulations using these global spectral trial basis on non-separable and multiply-connected domains. It is confirmed that faster convergence is obtained using the singular eigen-expansions in approximating stationary Navier-Stokes solutions in general domains. It is also shown that 100-mode expansions of time-dependent solutions based on the singular Stokes eigenfunctions are sufficient to accurately predict the dynamics of flows in such domains, including Hopf bifurcations, intermittency, and details of flow structures

  19. General solution of the Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremko, Alexander, E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Str., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Brizhik, Larissa, E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Str., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Loktev, Vadim, E-mail: vloktev@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Str., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Peremohy av., 37, Kyiv, 03056 (Ukraine)

    2016-06-15

    The general solution of the Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons confined in an asymmetric quantum well, is found. The energy spectrum of such a system is exactly calculated using special unitary operator and is shown to depend on the electron spin polarization. This solution contains free parameters, whose variation continuously transforms one known particular solution into another. As an example, two different cases are considered in detail: electron in a deep and in a strongly asymmetric shallow quantum well. The effective mass renormalized by relativistic corrections and Bychkov–Rashba coefficients are analytically obtained for both cases. It is demonstrated that the general solution transforms to the particular solutions, found previously (Eremko et al., 2015) with the use of spin invariants. The general solution allows to establish conditions at which a specific (accompanied or non-accompanied by Rashba splitting) spin state can be realized. These results can prompt the ways to control the spin degree of freedom via the synthesis of spintronic heterostructures with the required properties.

  20. Semiclassical series solution of the generalized phase shift atom--diatom scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, K.R.; Curtiss, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A semiclassical series solution of the previously developed operator form of the generalized phase shift equations describing atom--diatom scattering is presented. This development is based on earlier work which led to a double series in powers of Planck's constant and a scaling parameter of the anisotropic portion of the intermolecular potential. The present solution is similar in that it is a double power series in Planck's constant and in the difference between the spherical radial momentum and a first order approximation. The present series solution avoids difficulties of the previous series associated with the classical turning point

  1. Generalized dynamics of soft-matter quasicrystals mathematical models and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Tian-You

    2017-01-01

    The book systematically introduces the mathematical models and solutions of generalized hydrodynamics of soft-matter quasicrystals (SMQ). It provides methods for solving the initial-boundary value problems in these systems. The solutions obtained demonstrate the distribution, deformation and motion of the soft-matter quasicrystals, and determine the stress, velocity and displacement fields. The interactions between phonons, phasons and fluid phonons are discussed in some fundamental materials samples. Mathematical solutions for solid and soft-matter quasicrystals are compared, to help readers to better understand the featured properties of SMQ.

  2. Trigonometric Solutions of WDVV Equations and Generalized Calogero-Moser-Sutherland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha V. Feigin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider trigonometric solutions of WDVV equations and derive geometric conditions when a collection of vectors with multiplicities determines such a solution. We incorporate these conditions into the notion of trigonometric Veselov system (v-system and we determine all trigonometric v-systems with up to five vectors. We show that generalized Calogero-Moser-Sutherland operator admits a factorized eigenfunction if and only if it corresponds to the trigonometric v-system; this inverts a one-way implication observed by Veselov for the rational solutions.

  3. Langevin dynamics simulations of large frustrated Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Long-time Langevin dynamics simulations of large (N x N,N = 128) 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions in a uniformly frustrating external magnetic field are reported. The results demonstrate: (1) Relaxation from an initially random flux configuration as a universal fit to a glassy stretched-exponential type of relaxation for the intermediate temperatures T(0.3 T c approx-lt T approx-lt 0.7 T c ), and an activated dynamic behavior for T ∼ T c ; (2) a glassy (multi-time, multi-length scale) voltage response to an applied current. Intrinsic dynamical symmetry breaking induced by boundaries as nucleation sites for flux lattice defects gives rise to transverse and noisy voltage response

  4. Langevin dynamics simulations of large frustrated Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Long-time Langevin dynamics simulations of large (N x N, N = 128) 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions in a uniformly frustrating external magnetic field are reported. The results demonstrate: Relaxation from an initially random flux configuration as a ''universal'' fit to a ''glassy'' stretched-exponential type of relaxation for the intermediate temperatures T (0.3 T c approx-lt T approx-lt 0.7 T c ), and an ''activated dynamic'' behavior for T ∼ T c A glassy (multi-time, multi-length scale) voltage response to an applied current. Intrinsic dynamical symmetry breaking induced by boundaries as nucleation sites for flux lattice defects gives rise to transverse and noisy voltage response

  5. LAGRANGE SOLUTIONS TO THE DISCRETE-TIME GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minesaki, Yukitaka

    2013-01-01

    There is no known integrator that yields exact orbits for the general three-body problem (G3BP). It is difficult to verify whether a numerical procedure yields the correct solutions to the G3BP because doing so requires knowledge of all 11 conserved quantities, whereas only six are known. Without tracking all of the conserved quantities, it is possible to show that the discrete general three-body problem (d-G3BP) yields the correct orbits corresponding to Lagrange solutions of the G3BP. We show that the d-G3BP yields the correct solutions to the G3BP for two special cases: the equilateral triangle and collinear configurations. For the triangular solution, we use the fact that the solution to the three-body case is a superposition of the solutions to the three two-body cases, and we show that the three bodies maintain the same relative distances at all times. To obtain the collinear solution, we assume a specific permutation of the three bodies arranged along a straight rotating line, and we show that the d-G3BP maintains the same distance ratio between two bodies as in the G3BP. Proving that the d-G3BP solutions for these cases are equivalent to those of the G3BP makes it likely that the d-G3BP and G3BP solutions are equivalent in other cases. To our knowledge, this is the first work that proves the equivalence of the discrete solutions and the Lagrange orbits.

  6. Path integral solution of linear second order partial differential equations I: the general construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChapelle, J.

    2004-01-01

    A path integral is presented that solves a general class of linear second order partial differential equations with Dirichlet/Neumann boundary conditions. Elementary kernels are constructed for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The general solution can be specialized to solve elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations with boundary conditions. This extends the well-known path integral solution of the Schroedinger/diffusion equation in unbounded space. The construction is based on a framework for functional integration introduced by Cartier/DeWitt-Morette

  7. A Note about the General Meromorphic Solutions of the Fisher Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ the complex method to obtain the general meromorphic solutions of the Fisher equation, which improves the corresponding results obtained by Ablowitz and Zeppetella and other authors (Ablowitz and Zeppetella, 1979; Feng and Li, 2006; Guo and Chen, 1991, and wg,i(z are new general meromorphic solutions of the Fisher equation for c=±5i/6. Our results show that the complex method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving great many nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  8. The General Traveling Wave Solutions of the Fisher Equation with Degree Three

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yuan

    2013-01-01

    degree three and the general meromorphic solutions of the integrable Fisher equations with degree three, which improves the corresponding results obtained by Feng and Li (2006, Guo and Chen (1991, and Ağırseven and Öziş (2010. Moreover, all wg,1(z are new general meromorphic solutions of the Fisher equations with degree three for c=±3/2. Our results show that the complex method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving a large number of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  9. Generalizing Source Geometry of Site Contamination by Simulating and Analyzing Analytical Solution of Three-Dimensional Solute Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the uneven distribution of pollutions and blur edge of pollutant area, there will exist uncertainty of source term shape in advective-diffusion equation model of contaminant transport. How to generalize those irregular source terms and deal with those uncertainties is very critical but rarely studied in previous research. In this study, the fate and transport of contaminant from rectangular and elliptic source geometry were simulated based on a three-dimensional analytical solute transport model, and the source geometry generalization guideline was developed by comparing the migration of contaminant. The result indicated that the variation of source area size had no effect on pollution plume migration when the plume migrated as far as five times of source side length. The migration of pollution plume became slower with the increase of aquifer thickness. The contaminant concentration was decreasing with scale factor rising, and the differences among various scale factors became smaller with the distance to field increasing.

  10. Solutions to the maximal spacelike hypersurface equation in generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique F. de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We apply some generalized maximum principles for establishing uniqueness and nonexistence results concerning maximal spacelike hypersurfaces immersed in a generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW spacetime, which is supposed to obey the so-called timelike convergence condition (TCC. As application, we study the uniqueness and nonexistence of entire solutions of a suitable maximal spacelike hypersurface equation in GRW spacetimes obeying the TCC.

  11. Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations generalized for flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Edoardo; Basser, Hossein; Rudman, Murray

    2018-05-01

    Flow of Newtonian fluids in porous media is often modelled using a generalized version of the full non-linear Navier-Stokes equations that include additional terms describing the resistance to flow due to the porous matrix. Because this formulation is becoming increasingly popular in numerical models, exact solutions are required as a benchmark of numerical codes. The contribution of this study is to provide a number of non-trivial exact solutions of the generalized form of the Navier-Stokes equations for parallel flow in porous media. Steady-state solutions are derived in the case of flows in a medium with constant permeability along the main direction of flow and a constant cross-stream velocity in the case of both linear and non-linear drag. Solutions are also presented for cases in which the permeability changes in the direction normal to the main flow. An unsteady solution for a flow with velocity driven by a time-periodic pressure gradient is also derived. These solutions form a basis for validating computational models across a wide range of Reynolds and Darcy numbers.

  12. New and More General Rational Formal Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Toda System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation and Riccati equation rational expansion approach, some new and more general rational formal solutions to (2+1)-dimensional Toda system are obtained. The method used here can also be applied to solve other nonlinear differential-difference equation or equations.

  13. Non-existence of global solutions to generalized dissipative Klein-Gordon equations with positive energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Olegovich Korpusov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial-boundary-value problem for generalized dissipative high-order equation of Klein-Gordon type is considered. We continue our study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems with arbitrary positive energy. The modified concavity method by Levine is used for proving blow-up of solutions.

  14. Generalized Couette flow of a third-grade fluid with slip. The exact solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellahi, Rahmat [IIUI, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; Hayat, Tasawar [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mathematics; Mahomed, Fazal Mahmood [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Wits (South Africa). Centre for Differential Equations, Continuum, Mechanics and Applications

    2010-12-15

    The present note investigates the influence of slip on the generalized Couette flows of a third-grade fluid. Two flow problems are considered. The resulting equations and the boundary conditions are nonlinear. Analytical solutions of the governing nonlinear problems are found in closed form. (orig.)

  15. General thermo-elastic solution of radially heterogeneous, spherically isotropic rotating sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, Yahya; EkhteraeiToussi, THamid [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A thick walled rotating spherical object made of transversely isotropic functionally graded materials (FGMs) with general types of thermo-mechanical boundary conditions is studied. The thermo-mechanical governing equations consisting of decoupled thermal and mechanical equations are represented. The centrifugal body forces of the rotation are considered in the modeling phase. The unsymmetrical thermo-mechanical boundary conditions and rotational body forces are expressed in terms of the Legendre series. The series method is also implemented in the solution of the resulting equations. The solutions are checked with the known literature and FEM based solutions of ABAQUS software. The effects of anisotropy and heterogeneity are studied through the case studies and the results are represented in different figures. The newly developed series form solution is applicable to the rotating FGM spherical transversely isotropic vessels having nonsymmetrical thermo-mechanical boundary condition.

  16. New multiple soliton solutions to the general Burgers-Fisher equation and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaitang; Zhang Hongqing

    2004-01-01

    A generalized tanh function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation which has more new solutions. More new multiple soliton solutions are obtained for the general Burgers-Fisher equation and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation

  17. Recursive algorithm for arrays of generalized Bessel functions: Numerical access to Dirac-Volkov solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötstedt, Erik; Jentschura, Ulrich D

    2009-02-01

    In the relativistic and the nonrelativistic theoretical treatment of moderate and high-power laser-matter interaction, the generalized Bessel function occurs naturally when a Schrödinger-Volkov and Dirac-Volkov solution is expanded into plane waves. For the evaluation of cross sections of quantum electrodynamic processes in a linearly polarized laser field, it is often necessary to evaluate large arrays of generalized Bessel functions, of arbitrary index but with fixed arguments. We show that the generalized Bessel function can be evaluated, in a numerically stable way, by utilizing a recurrence relation and a normalization condition only, without having to compute any initial value. We demonstrate the utility of the method by illustrating the quantum-classical correspondence of the Dirac-Volkov solutions via numerical calculations.

  18. A general solution to the material performance index for bending strength design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, S.C.; Pasini, D.; Smith, D.J.; Alemzadeh, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a general solution to the material performance index for the bending strength design of beams. In general, the performance index for strength design is ρ f q /ρ where σ f is the material strength, ρ is the material density and q is a function of the direction of scaling. Previous studies have only solved q for three particular cases: proportional scaling of width and height (q=2/3), constrained height (q=1) and constrained width (q=1/2). This paper presents a general solution to the exponent q for any arbitrary direction of scaling. The index is used to produce performance maps that rank relative material performance for particular design cases. The performance index and the performance maps are applied to a design case study

  19. The gravitational polarization in general relativity: solution to Szekeres' model of quadrupole polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montani, Giovanni; Ruffini, Remo; Zalaletdinov, Roustam

    2003-01-01

    A model for the static weak-field macroscopic medium is analysed and the equation for the macroscopic gravitational potential is derived. This is a biharmonic equation which is a non-trivial generalization of the Poisson equation of Newtonian gravity. In the case of strong gravitational quadrupole polarization, it essentially holds inside a macroscopic matter source. Outside the source the gravitational potential fades away exponentially. The equation is equivalent to a system of the Poisson equation and the non-homogeneous modified Helmholtz equations. The general solution to this system is obtained by using the Green function method and it is not limited to Newtonian gravity. In the case of insignificant gravitational quadrupole polarization, the equation for macroscopic gravitational potential becomes the Poisson equation with the matter density renormalized by a factor including the value of the quadrupole gravitational polarization of the source. The general solution to this equation obtained by using the Green function method is limited to Newtonian gravity

  20. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  1. Chirped self-similar solutions of a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Jin-Xi [Lishui Univ., Zhejiang (China). College of Mathematics and Physics; Zheng Chun-Long [Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Shanghai Univ. (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

    2011-01-15

    An improved homogeneous balance principle and an F-expansion technique are used to construct exact chirped self-similar solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed dispersion, nonlinearity, and gain coefficients. Such solutions exist under certain conditions and impose constraints on the functions describing dispersion, nonlinearity, and distributed gain function. The results show that the chirp function is related only to the dispersion coefficient, however, it affects all of the system parameters, which influence the form of the wave amplitude. As few characteristic examples and some simple chirped self-similar waves are presented. (orig.)

  2. General-purpose chemical analyzer for on-line analyses of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Kronberg, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    An automated analyzer is being developed to perform analytical measurements on radioactive solutions on-line in a hostile environment. This General Purpose Chemical Analyzer (GPCA) samples a process stream, adds reagents, measures solution absorbances or electrode potentials, and automatically calculates the results. The use of modular components, under microprocessor control, permits a single analyzer design to carry out many types of analyses. This paper discusses the more important design criteria for the GPCA, and describes the equipment being tested in a prototype unit

  3. Elliptic solutions of generalized Brans-Dicke gravity with a non-universal coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimi, J.M.; Reverdy, V. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Golubtsova, A.A. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    We study a model of the generalized Brans-Dicke gravity presented in both the Jordan and in the Einstein frames, which are conformally related. We show that the scalar field equations in the Einstein frame are reduced to the geodesics equations on the target space of the nonlinear sigma model. The analytical solutions in elliptical functions are obtained when the conformal couplings are given by reciprocal exponential functions. The behavior of the scale factor in the Jordan frame is studied using numerical computations. For certain parameters the solutions can describe an accelerated expansion. We also derive an analytical approximation in exponential functions. (orig.)

  4. Travelling wave solutions in a class of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a new generalization of KdV equation u t = u x u l-2 + α[2u xxx u p + 4pu p-1 u x u xx + p(p - 1)u p-2 (u x ) 3 ] and investigate its bifurcation of travelling wave solutions. From the above analysis, we know that there exists compacton and cusp waves in the system. We explain the reason that these non-smooth travelling wave solution arise by using the bifurcation theory

  5. Dissipative motion perturbation theory and exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodder, J.J.

    1976-06-01

    Dissipative motion of classical and quantum systems is described. In particular, attention is paid to systems coupled to the radiation field. A dissipative equation of motion for a particle in an arbitrary potential coupled to the radiation field is derived by means of perturbation theory. The usual divrgencies associated with the radiation field are eliminated by the application of a theory of generalized functions. This theory is developed as a subject in its own right and is presented independently. The introduction of classical zero-point energy makes the classical equa tion of motion for the phase density formally the same as its quantum counterpart. In particular, it is shown that the classical zero-point energy prevents the collapse of a classical H-atom and gives rise to a classical ground state. For systems with a quadratic Hamiltoian, the equation of motion can be solved exactly, even in the continuum limit for the radiation field, by means of the new generalized functions. Classically, the Fokker-Planck equation is found without any approximations, and quantum mechanically, the only approximation is the neglect of the change in the ground state caused by the interaction. The derivation is valid even for strong damping and arbitrarily short times. There is no transient time. For harmonic oscillators complete equivalence is shown to exist between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics with zero-point energy. A discussion of the derivation of the Pauli equation is given and perturbation theory is compared with the exact derivation. The exactly solvable models are used to calculate the Langevin force of the radiation field. The result is that the classical Langevin force is exactly delta-correlated, while the quantum Langevin force is not delta-correlated at all. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is shown to be an exact consequence of the solution to the equations of motion

  6. First general solutions for unidirectional motions of rate type fluids over an infinite plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Fetecau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a simple but important remark regarding the governing equation for the non-trivial shear stress corresponding to the motion of a fluid over an infinite plate, exact solutions are established for the motion of Oldroyd-B fluids due to the plate that applies an arbitrary time-dependent shear stress to the fluid. These solutions, that allow us to provide the first exact solutions for motions of rate type fluids produced by an infinite plate that applies constant, constantly accelerating or oscillating shears stresses to the fluid, can easily be reduced to the similar solutions for Maxwell, second grade or Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. Furthermore, the obtained solutions are used to develop general solutions for the motion induced by a moving plate and to correct or recover as special cases different known results from the existing literature. Consequently, the motion problem of such fluids over an infinite plate that is moving in its plane or applies a shear stress to the fluid is completely solved.

  7. Analytic study of solutions for a (3 + 1) -dimensional generalized KP equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Cheng, Wenguang; Xu, Tianzhou; Wang, Gangwei

    2018-03-01

    The (3 + 1) -dimensional generalized KP (gKP) equation is an important nonlinear partial differential equation in theoretical and mathematical physics which can be used to describe nonlinear wave motion. Through the Hirota bilinear method, one-solition, two-solition and N-solition solutions are derived via symbolic computation. Two classes of lump solutions, rationally localized in all directions in space, to the dimensionally reduced cases in (2 + 1)-dimensions, are constructed by using a direct method based on the Hirota bilinear form of the equation. It implies that we can derive the lump solutions of the reduced gKP equation from positive quadratic function solutions to the aforementioned bilinear equation. Meanwhile, we get interaction solutions between a lump and a kink of the gKP equation. The lump appears from a kink and is swallowed by it with the change of time. This work offers a possibility which can enrich the variety of the dynamical features of solutions for higher-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations.

  8. Conditional Stability of Solitary-Wave Solutions for Generalized Compound KdV Equation and Generalized Compound KdV-Burgers Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiguo; Dong Chunyan; Fan Engui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss conditional stability of solitary-wave solutions in the sense of Liapunov for the generalized compound KdV equation and the generalized compound KdV-Burgers equations. Linear stability of the exact solitary-wave solutions is proved for the above two types of equations when the small disturbance of travelling wave form satisfies some special conditions.

  9. Fast stochastic simulation of biochemical reaction systems by alternative formulations of the chemical Langevin equation

    KAUST Repository

    Mélykúti, Bence; Burrage, Kevin; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Langevin Equation (CLE), which is a stochastic differential equation driven by a multidimensional Wiener process, acts as a bridge between the discrete stochastic simulation algorithm and the deterministic reaction rate equation when

  10. Heat dissipation and information flow for delayed bistable Langevin systems near coherence resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiejun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, stochastic thermodynamics of delayed bistable Langevin systems near coherence resonance is discussed. We calculate the heat dissipation rate and the information flow of a delayed bistable Langevin system under various noise intensities. Both the heat dissipation rate and the information flow are found to be bell-shaped functions of the noise intensity, which implies that coherence resonance manifests itself in the thermodynamic properties.

  11. Identifying generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation from a numerical solution of Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Georgiev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic time series in the form of numerical solution (in an appropriate finite time interval of the Hodgkin-Huxley current clamped (HHCC system of four differential equations, well known in the neurophysiology as an exact empirical model of excitation of a giant axon of Loligo, is presented. Then we search for a second-order differential equation of generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo (GFN type, having as a solution the given single component (action potential of the numerical solution. The given time series is used as a basis for reconstructing orders, powers, and coefficients of the polynomial right-hand sides of GFN equation approximately governing the process of action potential. For this purpose, a new geometrical method for determining phase space dimension of the unknown dynamical system (GFN equation and a specific modification of least squares method for identifying unknown coefficients are developed and applied.

  12. General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaete, P.; Hojman, R.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically-symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state, is applied to time-dependent Kantowsky-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a ''gamma-law'' equation of state is explicity obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmtric line elements, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a ''partner-metric'' (both originated from the same generatrix function), in this case every generatrix function univocally determines one metric. (author) [pt

  13. General properties of solutions to inhomogeneous Black-Scholes equations with discontinuous maturity payoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Hyong-Chol; Jo, Jong-Jun; Kim, Ji-Sok

    2016-02-01

    We provide representations of solutions to terminal value problems of inhomogeneous Black-Scholes equations and study such general properties as min-max estimates, gradient estimates, monotonicity and convexity of the solutions with respect to the stock price variable, which are important for financial security pricing. In particular, we focus on finding representation of the gradient (with respect to the stock price variable) of solutions to the terminal value problems with discontinuous terminal payoffs or inhomogeneous terms. Such terminal value problems are often encountered in pricing problems of compound-like options such as Bermudan options or defaultable bonds with discrete default barrier, default intensity and endogenous default recovery. Our results can be used in pricing real defaultable bonds under consideration of existence of discrete coupons or taxes on coupons.

  14. Black holes in the Universe: Generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Shen Yougen; Faraoni, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    We present new exact solutions which presumably describe black holes in the background of a spatially flat, pressureless dark-matter- or dark matter plus dark energy (DM+DE)- or quintom-dominated Universe. These solutions generalize Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metrics. For a dark-matter- or (DM+DE)-dominated universe, the area of the black hole apparent horizon (AH) decreases with the expansion of the Universe while that of the cosmic AH increases. However, for a quintom-dominated universe, the black hole AH first shrinks and then expands, while the cosmic AH first expands and then shrinks. A (DM+DE)-dominated universe containing a black hole will evolve to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution with both AHs approaching constant size. In a quintom-dominated universe, the black hole and cosmic AHs will coincide at a certain time, after which the singularity becomes naked, violating cosmic censorship.

  15. Asymptotics for Large Time of Global Solutions to the Generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nakao; Naumkin, Pavel I.; Saut, Jean-Claude

    We study the large time asymptotic behavior of solutions to the generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equations where σ= 1 or σ=- 1. When ρ= 2 and σ=- 1, (KP) is known as the KPI equation, while ρ= 2, σ=+ 1 corresponds to the KPII equation. The KP equation models the propagation along the x-axis of nonlinear dispersive long waves on the surface of a fluid, when the variation along the y-axis proceeds slowly [10]. The case ρ= 3, σ=- 1 has been found in the modeling of sound waves in antiferromagnetics [15]. We prove that if ρ>= 3 is an integer and the initial data are sufficiently small, then the solution u of (KP) satisfies the following estimates: for all t∈R, where κ= 1 if ρ= 3 and κ= 0 if ρ>= 4. We also find the large time asymptotics for the solution.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Langevin-Type Piezoelectric Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Peréz Alvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Langevin transducers are employed in several applications, such as power ultrasound systems, naval hydrophones, and high-displacement actuators. Nonlinear effects can influence their performance, especially at high vibration amplitude levels. These nonlinear effects produce variations in the resonant frequency, harmonics of the excitation frequency, in addition to loss of symmetry in the frequency response and “frequency domain hysteresis”. In this context, this paper presents a simplified nonlinear dynamic model of power ultrasound transducers requiring only two parameters for simulating the most relevant nonlinear effects. One parameter reproduces the changes in the resonance frequency and the other introduces the dependence of the frequency response on the history of the system. The piezoelectric constitutive equations are extended by a linear dependence of the elastic constant on the mechanical displacement amplitude. For introducing the frequency hysteresis, the elastic constant is computed by combining the current value of the mechanical amplitude with the previous state amplitude. The model developed in this work is applied for predicting the dynamic responses of a 26 kHz ultrasonic transducer. The comparison of theoretical and experimental responses, obtained at several input voltages around the tuned frequency, shows a good agreement, indicating that the model can accurately describe the transducer nonlinear behavior.

  17. Superstatistical generalised Langevin equation: non-Gaussian viscoelastic anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślęzak, Jakub; Metzler, Ralf; Magdziarz, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in single particle tracking and supercomputing techniques demonstrate the emergence of normal or anomalous, viscoelastic diffusion in conjunction with non-Gaussian distributions in soft, biological, and active matter systems. We here formulate a stochastic model based on a generalised Langevin equation in which non-Gaussian shapes of the probability density function and normal or anomalous diffusion have a common origin, namely a random parametrisation of the stochastic force. We perform a detailed analysis demonstrating how various types of parameter distributions for the memory kernel result in exponential, power law, or power-log law tails of the memory functions. The studied system is also shown to exhibit a further unusual property: the velocity has a Gaussian one point probability density but non-Gaussian joint distributions. This behaviour is reflected in the relaxation from a Gaussian to a non-Gaussian distribution observed for the position variable. We show that our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

  18. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Roldão da; Kuerten, A. M.; Herrera-Aguilar, A.

    2015-01-01

    From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities

  19. Holder continuity of bounded weak solutions to generalized parabolic p-Laplacian equations II: singular case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjung Hwang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we generalize quasilinear parabolic p-Laplacian type equations to obtain the prototype equation $$ u_t - \\hbox{div} \\Big(\\frac{g(|Du|}{|Du|} Du\\Big = 0, $$ where g is a nonnegative, increasing, and continuous function trapped in between two power functions $|Du|^{g_0 -1}$ and $|Du|^{g_1 -1}$ with $1generalization in the setting from Orlicz spaces, we provide a uniform proof with a single geometric setting that a bounded weak solution is locally Holder continuous with some degree of commonality between degenerate and singular types. By using geometric characters, our proof does not rely on any of alternatives which is based on the size of solutions.

  20. General solution of superconvergent sum rules for scattering of I=1 reggeons on baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Khachatryan, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Superconvergent sum rules for reggeon-particle scattering are applied to scattering of reggeons α i (i=π, ρ, A 2 ) with isospin I=1 on baryons with strangeness S=-1. The saturation scheme of these sum rules is determined on the basis of experimental data. Two series of baryon resonances with arbitrary isospins I and spins J=I+1/2 and J=I-1/2 are predicted. A general solution for vertices of interaction of these resonances with α i is found. Predictions for coupling vertices B α i B'(B, B'=Λ, Σ, Σ * ) agree well with the experiment. It is shown that the condition of sum rules saturation by minimal number of resonances brings to saturation schemes resulting from experimental data. A general solution of sum rules for scattering of α i reggeons on Ξ and Ω hyperons is analyzed

  1. An approximate JKR solution for a general contact, including rough contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present note, we suggest a simple closed form approximate solution to the adhesive contact problem under the so-called JKR regime. The derivation is based on generalizing the original JKR energetic derivation assuming calculation of the strain energy in adhesiveless contact, and unloading at constant contact area. The underlying assumption is that the contact area distributions are the same as under adhesiveless conditions (for an appropriately increased normal load), so that in general the stress intensity factors will not be exactly equal at all contact edges. The solution is simply that the indentation is δ =δ1 -√{ 2 wA‧ /P″ } where w is surface energy, δ1 is the adhesiveless indentation, A‧ is the first derivative of contact area and P‧‧ the second derivative of the load with respect to δ1. The solution only requires macroscopic quantities, and not very elaborate local distributions, and is exact in many configurations like axisymmetric contacts, but also sinusoidal waves contact and correctly predicts some features of an ideal asperity model used as a test case and not as a real description of a rough contact problem. The solution permits therefore an estimate of the full solution for elastic rough solids with Gaussian multiple scales of roughness, which so far was lacking, using known adhesiveless simple results. The result turns out to depend only on rms amplitude and slopes of the surface, and as in the fractal limit, slopes would grow without limit, tends to the adhesiveless result - although in this limit the JKR model is inappropriate. The solution would also go to adhesiveless result for large rms amplitude of roughness hrms, irrespective of the small scale details, and in agreement with common sense, well known experiments and previous models by the author.

  2. A general solution of the BV-master equation and BRST field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, O.F.

    1993-05-01

    For a class of first order gauge theories it was shown that the proper solution of the BV-master equation can be obtained straightforwardly. Here we present the general condition which the gauge generators should satisfy to conclude that this construction is relevant. The general procedure is illustrated by its application to the Chern-Simons theory in any odd-dimension. Moreover, it is shown that this formalism is also applicable to BRST field theories, when one replaces the role of the exterior derivative with the BRST charge of first quantization. (author). 17 refs

  3. Exact soliton solutions of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We give a more generalized treatment of the 1D generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GGPE with variable term coefficients. External harmonic trapping potential is fully considered and the nonlinear interaction term is of arbitrary polytropic index of superfluid wave function. We also eliminate the interdependence between variable coefficients of the equation terms avoiding the restrictions that occur in some other works. The exact soliton solutions of the GGPE are obtained through the delicate combined utilization of modified lens-type transformation and F-expansion method with dominant features like soliton type properties highlighted.

  4. Comparison of Langevin and Markov channel noise models for neuronal signal generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, B; Laughlin, S B; Niven, J E

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels produce noise in neurons. The effect of this noise on the neuronal performance has been modeled using either an approximate or Langevin model based on stochastic differential equations or an exact model based on a Markov process model of channel gating. Yet whether the Langevin model accurately reproduces the channel noise produced by the Markov model remains unclear. Here we present a comparison between Langevin and Markov models of channel noise in neurons using single compartment Hodgkin-Huxley models containing either Na+ and K+, or only K+ voltage-gated ion channels. The performance of the Langevin and Markov models was quantified over a range of stimulus statistics, membrane areas, and channel numbers. We find that in comparison to the Markov model, the Langevin model underestimates the noise contributed by voltage-gated ion channels, overestimating information rates for both spiking and nonspiking membranes. Even with increasing numbers of channels, the difference between the two models persists. This suggests that the Langevin model may not be suitable for accurately simulating channel noise in neurons, even in simulations with large numbers of ion channels.

  5. Asymptotic profile of global solutions to the generalized double dispersion equation via the nonlinear term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Zhu; Wei, Changhua

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the initial value problem for the generalized double dispersion equation in R^n. Weighted decay estimate and asymptotic profile of global solutions are established for n≥3 . The global existence result was already proved by Kawashima and the first author in Kawashima and Wang (Anal Appl 13:233-254, 2015). Here, we show that the nonlinear term plays an important role in this asymptotic profile.

  6. Conservation Laws and Traveling Wave Solutions of a Generalized Nonlinear ZK-BBM Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijo Rashid Adem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a generalized two-dimensional nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (ZK-BBM equation, which is in fact Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation formulated in the ZK sense. Conservation laws for this equation are constructed by using the new conservation theorem due to Ibragimov and the multiplier method. Furthermore, traveling wave solutions are obtained by employing the (G'/G-expansion method.

  7. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenov, O Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u tt = u xx + 3(u 2 ) xx + u xxxx + αu xxxxxx , α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  8. On exact solutions for oscillatory flows in a generalized Burgers fluid with slip condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Tasawar [Dept. of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan); Dept. of Mathematics, Coll. of Sciences, KS Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Najam, Saher [Theoretical Plasma Physics Div., PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sajid, Muhammad; Mesloub, Said [Dept. of Mathematics, Coll. of Sciences, KS Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ayub, Muhammad [Dept. of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    An analysis is performed for the slip effects on the exact solutions of flows in a generalized Burgers fluid. The flow modelling is based upon the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nature of the fluid and modified Darcy law in a porous space. Two illustrative examples of oscillatory flows are considered. The results obtained are compared with several limiting cases. It has been shown here that the derived results hold for all values of frequencies including the resonant frequency. (orig.)

  9. A General Construction of Linear Differential Equations with Solutions of Prescribed Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuman, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2004), s. 71-76 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019902; GA ČR GA201/99/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : construction of linear differential equations * prescribed qualitative properties of solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2004

  10. Exact solutions of generalized Calogero-Sutherland models: BCN and CN cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, M.; Ohta, N.

    1996-01-01

    Using a collective field method, we obtain explicit solutions of the generalized Calogero-Sutherland models that are characterized by the roots of the classical groups B N and C N . Starting from the explicit wave functions for the A N-1 type expressed in terms of the singular vectors of the W N algebra, we give a systematic method to construct wave functions and derive energy eigenvalues for other types of theories. (orig.)

  11. Fractional Langevin Equation Model for Characterization of Anomalous Brownian Motion from NMR Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisý, Vladimír; Tóthová, Jana

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is often used to study random motion of spins in different systems. In the long-time limit the current mathematical description of the experiments allows proper interpretation of measurements of normal and anomalous diffusion. The shorter-time dynamics is however correctly considered only in a few works that do not go beyond the standard Langevin theory of the Brownian motion (BM). In the present work, the attenuation function S (t) for an ensemble of spins in a magnetic-field gradient, expressed in a form applicable for any kind of stationary stochastic dynamics of spins with or without a memory, is calculated in the frame of the model of fractional BM. The solution of the model for particles trapped in a harmonic potential is obtained in a simple way and used for the calculation of S (t). In the limit of free particles coupled to a fractal heat bath, the results compare favorably with experiments acquired in human neuronal tissues.

  12. Trial function method and exact solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Rui; Zhang Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the trial function method is extended to study the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. On the basis of a generalized traveling wave transformation and a trial function, we investigate the exact envelope traveling wave solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. Taking advantage of solutions to trial function, we successfully obtain exact solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients under constraint conditions. (general)

  13. Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.

    2017-05-01

    General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.

  14. On generalized Melvin solution for the Lie algebra E{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolokhov, S.V. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    A multidimensional generalization of Melvin's solution for an arbitrary simple Lie algebra G is considered. The gravitational model in D dimensions, D ≥ 4, contains n 2-forms and l ≥ n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. The solution is governed by a set of n functions H{sub s}(z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials (the so-called fluxbrane polynomials). The polynomials H{sub s}(z), s = 1,.., 6, for the Lie algebra E{sub 6} are obtained and a corresponding solution for l = n = 6 is presented. The polynomials depend upon integration constants Q{sub s}, s = 1,.., 6. They obey symmetry and duality identities. The latter ones are used in deriving asymptotic relations for solutions at large distances. The power-law asymptotic relations for E{sub 6}-polynomials at large z are governed by the integer-valued matrix ν = A{sup -1}(I + P), where A{sup -1} is the inverse Cartan matrix, I is the identity matrix and P is a permutation matrix, corresponding to a generator of the Z{sub 2}-group of symmetry of the Dynkin diagram. The 2-form fluxes Φ{sup s}, s = 1,.., 6, are calculated. (orig.)

  15. Solution method for the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-01-01

    A solution method based on a fractional step approach is developed for obtaining time-dependent solutions of the three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. The governing equations are discretized conservatively by finite volumes using a staggered mesh system. The primitive variable formulation uses the volume fluxes across the faces of each computational cell as dependent variables. This procedure, combined with accurate and consistent approximations of geometric parameters, is done to satisfy the discretized mass conservation equation to machine accuracy as well as to gain favorable convergence properties of the Poisson solver. The discretized equations are second-order-accurate in time and space and no smoothing terms are added. An approximate-factorization scheme is implemented in solving the momentum equations. A novel ZEBRA scheme with four-color ordering is devised for the efficient solution of the Poisson equation. Several two and three-dimensional solutions are compared with other numerical and experimental results to validate the present method. 23 references

  16. New periodic and soliton wave solutions for the generalized Zakharov system and (2 + 1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borhanifar, A.; Kabir, M.M.; Maryam Vahdat, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Exp-function method is used to obtain generalized solitonary solutions and periodic solutions of the Generalized Zakharov system and (2 + 1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov system. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  17. Existence and Solution-representation of IVP for LFDE with Generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives and $n$ terms

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Myong-Ha; Ri, Guk-Chol; O, Hyong-Chol

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the existence and representation of solution to an initial value problem for the general multi-term linear fractional differential equation with generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives and constant coefficients by using operational calculus of Mikusinski's type. We prove that the initial value problem has the solution of if and only if some initial values should be zero.

  18. Holographic thermalization and generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of massive graviton on the holographic thermalization process. Before doing this, we first find out the generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity by directly solving the gravitational equations. Then, we study the thermodynamics of these Vaidya-AdS solutions by using the Misner-Sharp energy and unified first law, which also shows that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. Moreover, we adopt the two-point correlation function at equal time to explore the thermalization process in the dual field theory, and to see how the graviton mass parameter affects this process from the viewpoint of AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results show that the graviton mass parameter will increase the holographic thermalization process.

  19. Holographic thermalization and generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ya-Peng, E-mail: huyp@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzengphysics@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Hai-Qing, E-mail: H.Q.Zhang@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-02-10

    We investigate the effect of massive graviton on the holographic thermalization process. Before doing this, we first find out the generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity by directly solving the gravitational equations. Then, we study the thermodynamics of these Vaidya-AdS solutions by using the Misner–Sharp energy and unified first law, which also shows that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. Moreover, we adopt the two-point correlation function at equal time to explore the thermalization process in the dual field theory, and to see how the graviton mass parameter affects this process from the viewpoint of AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results show that the graviton mass parameter will increase the holographic thermalization process.

  20. Inverse planning for x-ray rotation therapy: a general solution of the inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelfke, U.; Bortfeld, T.

    1999-01-01

    Rotation therapy with photons is currently under investigation for the delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). An analytical approach for inverse treatment planning of this radiotherapy technique is described. The inverse problem for the delivery of arbitrary 2D dose profiles is first formulated and then solved analytically. In contrast to previously applied strategies for solving the inverse problem, it is shown that the most general solution for the fluence profiles consists of two independent solutions of different parity. A first analytical expression for both fluence profiles is derived. The mathematical derivation includes two different strategies, an elementary expansion of fluence and dose into polynomials and a more practical approach in terms of Fourier transforms. The obtained results are discussed in the context of previous work on this problem. (author)

  1. Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Correa, R. A. C.; Lobato, R. V.

    2017-07-01

    Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f(R,T) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T-dependence in f(R,T) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.

  2. Holographic thermalization and generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of massive graviton on the holographic thermalization process. Before doing this, we first find out the generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity by directly solving the gravitational equations. Then, we study the thermodynamics of these Vaidya-AdS solutions by using the Misner–Sharp energy and unified first law, which also shows that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. Moreover, we adopt the two-point correlation function at equal time to explore the thermalization process in the dual field theory, and to see how the graviton mass parameter affects this process from the viewpoint of AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results show that the graviton mass parameter will increase the holographic thermalization process.

  3. Analytical Solution of Displacements Around Circular Openings in Generalized Hoek-Brown Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Houxu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rock in plastic region is divided into numbers of elements by the slip lines, resulted from shear localization. During the deformation process, the elements will slip along the slip lines and the displacement field is discontinuous. Slip lines around circular opening in isotropic rock, subjected to hydrostatic stress are described by the logarithmic spirals. Deformation of the plastic region is mainly attributed to the slippage. Relationship between the shear stresses and slippage on slip lines is presented, based on the study of Revuzhenko and Shemyakin. Relations between slippage and rock failure are described, based on the elastic-brittle-plastic model. An analytical solution is presented for the plane strain analysis of displacements around circular openings in the Generalized Hoek-Brown rock. With properly choosing of slippage parameters, results obtained by using the proposed solution agree well with those presented in published sources.

  4. Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, P.H.R.S.; Correa, R.A.C.; Lobato, R.V., E-mail: moraes.phrs@gmail.com, E-mail: fis04132@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.lobato@icranet.org [ITA-Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f ( R , T ) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T -dependence in f ( R , T ) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.

  5. Existence of solution for a general fractional advection-dispersion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Ledesma, César E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we consider the existence of solution to the following fractional advection-dispersion equation -d/dt ( p {_{-∞}}It^{β }(u'(t)) + q {t}I_{∞}^{β }(u'(t))) + b(t)u = f(t, u(t)),t\\in R where β \\in (0,1) , _{-∞}It^{β } and tI_{∞}^{β } denote left and right Liouville-Weyl fractional integrals of order β respectively, 0continuous functions. Due to the general assumption on the constant p and q, the problem (0.1) does not have a variational structure. Despite that, here we study it performing variational methods, combining with an iterative technique, and give an existence criteria of solution for the problem (0.1) under suitable assumptions.

  6. Non-Gaussian statistics, classical field theory, and realizable Langevin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The direct-interaction approximation (DIA) to the fourth-order statistic Z ∼ left-angle λψ 2 ) 2 right-angle, where λ is a specified operator and ψ is a random field, is discussed from several points of view distinct from that of Chen et al. [Phys. Fluids A 1, 1844 (1989)]. It is shown that the formula for Z DIA already appeared in the seminal work of Martin, Siggia, and Rose (Phys. Rev. A 8, 423 (1973)] on the functional approach to classical statistical dynamics. It does not follow from the original generalized Langevin equation (GLE) of Leith [J. Atmos. Sd. 28, 145 (1971)] and Kraichnan [J. Fluid Mech. 41, 189 (1970)] (frequently described as an amplitude representation for the DIA), in which the random forcing is realized by a particular superposition of products of random variables. The relationship of that GLE to renormalized field theories with non-Gaussian corrections (''spurious vertices'') is described. It is shown how to derive an improved representation, that realizes cumulants through O(ψ 4 ), by adding to the GLE a particular non-Gaussian correction. A Markovian approximation Z DIA M to Z DIA is derived. Both Z DIA and Z DIA M incorrectly predict a Gaussian kurtosis for the steady state of a solvable three-mode example

  7. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  8. Lie group classification and exact solutions of the generalized Kompaneets equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Patsiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study generalized Kompaneets equations (GKEs with one functional parameter, and using the Lie-Ovsiannikov algorithm, we carried out the group classification. It is shown that the kernel algebra of the full groups of the GKEs is the one-dimensional Lie algebra. Using the direct method, we find the equivalence group. We obtain six non-equivalent (up to transformations from the equivalence group GKEs that allow wider invariance algebras than the kernel one. We find a number of exact solutions of the non-linear GKE which has the maximal symmetry properties.

  9. N=1 domain wall solutions of massive type II supergravity as generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, J.

    2006-05-01

    We study N=1 domain wall solutions of type IIB supergravity compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold in the presence of RR and NS electric and magnetic fluxes. We show that the dynamics of the scalar fields along the direction transverse to the domain wall is described by gradient flow equations controlled by a superpotential W. We then provide a geometrical interpretation of the gradient flow equations in terms of the mirror symmetric compactification of type IIA. They correspond to a set of generalized Hitchin flow equations of a manifold with SU(3) x SU(3)structure which is fibered over the direction transverse to the domain wall. (Orig.)

  10. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)

  11. The General Analytic Solution of a Functional Equation of Addition Type

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, H. W.; Buchstaber, V. M.

    1995-01-01

    The general analytic solution to the functional equation $$ \\phi_1(x+y)= { { \\biggl|\\matrix{\\phi_2(x)&\\phi_2(y)\\cr\\phi_3(x)&\\phi_3(y)\\cr}\\biggr|} \\over { \\biggl|\\matrix{\\phi_4(x)&\\phi_4(y)\\cr\\phi_5(x)&\\phi_5(y)\\cr}\\biggr|} } $$ is characterised. Up to the action of the symmetry group, this is described in terms of Weierstrass elliptic functions. We illustrate our theory by applying it to the classical addition theorems of the Jacobi elliptic functions and the functional equations $$ \\phi_1(x+...

  12. General Series Solutions for Stresses and Displacements in an Inner-fixed Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yongshu; Liu, Shuo; Qi, Dexuan

    2018-03-01

    The general series solution approach is provided to get the stress and displacement fields in the inner-fixed ring. After choosing an Airy stress function in series form, stresses are expressed by infinite coefficients. Displacements are obtained by integrating the geometric equations. For an inner-fixed ring, the arbitrary loads acting on outer edge are extended into two sets of Fourier series. The zero displacement boundary conditions on inner surface are utilized. Then the stress (and displacement) coefficients are expressed by loading coefficients. A numerical example shows the validity of this approach.

  13. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, O Y [Department of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Sofia, PO Box 384, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: okam@abv.bg

    2009-09-18

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u{sub tt} = u{sub xx} + 3(u{sup 2}){sub xx} + u{sub xxxx} + {alpha}u{sub xxxxxx}, {alpha} in R, depending on the positive parameter {alpha}. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  14. The general Klein-Gordon-Schroedinger system: modulational instability and exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Ding Wei

    2008-01-01

    The general Klein-Gordon-Schroedinger (gKGS) system is studied where the cubic auto-interactions are introduced in both the nonlinear Schroedinger and the nonlinear Klein-Gordon fields. We first investigate the modulational instability (MI) of the system, and thus derive the general dispersion relation between the frequency and wavenumber of the modulating perturbations, which demonstrates many possibilities for the MI regions. Using the travelling wave reduction, the gKGS system is greatly simplified. Via a simple function expansion method, we obtain some exact travelling wave solutions. Under some special parameter values, some representative wave structures are graphically displayed including the kink, anti-kink, bright, dark, grey and periodic solitons

  15. Perturbed invariant subspaces and approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for nonlinear diffusion-convection equations with weak source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Shun-Li; Xin, Xiang-Peng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the concept of the perturbed invariant subspaces (PISs), and study the approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with weak source by the approximate generalized conditional symmetries (AGCSs) related to the PISs. Complete classification of the perturbed equations which admit the approximate generalized functional separable solutions (AGFSSs) is obtained. As a consequence, some AGFSSs to the resulting equations are explicitly constructed by way of examples.

  16. General solution of undersampling frequency conversion and its optimization for parallel photodisplacement imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Toshihiko; Ninomiya, Takanori

    2006-10-10

    A general solution of undersampling frequency conversion and its optimization for parallel photodisplacement imaging is presented. Phase-modulated heterodyne interference light generated by a linear region of periodic displacement is captured by a charge-coupled device image sensor, in which the interference light is sampled at a sampling rate lower than the Nyquist frequency. The frequencies of the components of the light, such as the sideband and carrier (which include photodisplacement and topography information, respectively), are downconverted and sampled simultaneously based on the integration and sampling effects of the sensor. A general solution of frequency and amplitude in this downconversion is derived by Fourier analysis of the sampling procedure. The optimal frequency condition for the heterodyne beat signal, modulation signal, and sensor gate pulse is derived such that undesirable components are eliminated and each information component is converted into an orthogonal function, allowing each to be discretely reproduced from the Fourier coefficients. The optimal frequency parameters that maximize the sideband-to-carrier amplitude ratio are determined, theoretically demonstrating its high selectivity over 80 dB. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that this technique is capable of simultaneous imaging of reflectivity, topography, and photodisplacement for the detection of subsurface lattice defects at a speed corresponding to an acquisition time of only 0.26 s per 256 x 256 pixel area.

  17. Cusping, transport and variance of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaffan, Sean; Kawai, Reiichiro

    2017-06-01

    We study properties of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations through the lens of the probability density functions of anomalous diffusion processes. In particular, we examine solutions in terms of their cusping, travelling wave behaviours, and variance, within the framework of stochastic representations of generalized Fokker-Planck equations. We give our analysis in the cases of anomalous diffusion driven by the inverses of the stable, tempered stable and gamma subordinators, demonstrating the impact of changing the distribution of waiting times in the underlying anomalous diffusion model. We also analyse the cases where the underlying anomalous diffusion contains a Lévy jump component in the parent process, and when a diffusion process is time changed by an uninverted Lévy subordinator. On the whole, we present a combination of four criteria which serve as a theoretical basis for model selection, statistical inference and predictions for physical experiments on anomalously diffusing systems. We discuss possible applications in physical experiments, including, with reference to specific examples, the potential for model misclassification and how combinations of our four criteria may be used to overcome this issue.

  18. General N-Dark Soliton Solutions of the Multi-Component Mel'nikov System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Chen, Yong; Chen, Junchao

    2017-07-01

    A general form of N-dark soliton solutions of the multi-component Mel'nikov system are presented. Taking the coupled Mel'nikov system comprised of two-component short waves and one-component long wave as an example, its general N-dark-dark soliton solutions in Gram determinant form are constructed through the KP hierarchy reduction method. The dynamics of single dark-dark soliton and two dark-dark solitons are discussed in detail. It can be shown that the collisions of dark-dark solitons are elastic and energies of the solitons in different components completely transmit through. In addition, the dark-dark soliton bound states including both stationary and moving cases are also investigated. An interesting feature for the coupled Mel'nikov system is that the stationary dark-dark soliton bound states can exist for all possible combinations of nonlinearity coefficients including positive, negative and mixed types, while the moving case are possible when nonlinearity coefficients take opposite signs or they are both negative.

  19. General practice integration in Australia. Primary health services provider and consumer perceptions of barriers and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, N J; Dunt, D; Southern, D M; Young, D

    1999-08-01

    To identify practical examples of barriers and possible solutions to improve general practice integration with other health service providers. Twelve focus groups, including one conducted by teleconference, were held across Australia with GPs and non GP primary health service providers between May and September, 1996. Focus groups were embedded within concept mapping sessions, which were used to conceptually explore the meaning of integration in general practice. Data coding, organising and analysis were based on the techniques documented by Huberman and Miles. Barriers to integration were perceived to be principally due to the role and territory disputes between the different levels of government and their services, the manner in which the GP's role is currently defined, and the system of GP remuneration. Suggestions on ways to improve integration involved two types of strategies. The first involves initiatives implemented 'top down' through major government reform to service structures, including the expansion of the role of divisions of general practice, and structural changes to the GP remuneration systems. The second type of strategy suggested involves initiatives implemented from the 'bottom up' involving services such as hospitals (e.g. additional GP liaison positions) and the use of information technology to link services and share appropriate patient data. The findings support the need for further research and evaluation of initiatives aimed at achieving general practice integration at a systems level. There is little evidence to suggest which types of initiatives improve integration. However, general practice has been placed in the centre of the health care debate and is likely to remain central to the success of such initiatives. Clarification of the future role and authority of general practice will therefore be required if such integrative strategies are to be successful at a wider health system level.

  20. Progress on Complex Langevin simulations of a finite density matrix model for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jacques [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany). Inst. for Theorectical Physics; Glesaan, Jonas [Swansea Univ., Swansea U.K.; Verbaarschot, Jacobus [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik

    2018-04-01

    We study the Stephanov model, which is an RMT model for QCD at finite density, using the Complex Langevin algorithm. Naive implementation of the algorithm shows convergence towards the phase quenched or quenched theory rather than to intended theory with dynamical quarks. A detailed analysis of this issue and a potential resolution of the failure of this algorithm are discussed. We study the effect of gauge cooling on the Dirac eigenvalue distribution and time evolution of the norm for various cooling norms, which were specifically designed to remove the pathologies of the complex Langevin evolution. The cooling is further supplemented with a shifted representation for the random matrices. Unfortunately, none of these modifications generate a substantial improvement on the complex Langevin evolution and the final results still do not agree with the analytical predictions.

  1. Langevin equation in effective theory of interacting QCD pomerons in the limit of large Nc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective field theory of interacting BFKL pomerons is investigated and Langevin equation for the theory, which arises after the introduction of additional auxiliary field, is obtained. The Langevin equations are considered for the case of interacting BFKL pomerons with both splitting and merging vertexes and for the interaction which includes additional 'toy' four pomeron interaction vertex. In the latest case an analogy with the Regge field theory in zero dimensions (RFT-0) was used in order to obtain this 'toy' vertex, which coincided with the four point function of two-dimensional conformal field theory obtained in [G.P. Korchemsky, Nucl. Phys. B 550 (1999) 397]. The comparison between the Langevin equations obtained in the frameworks of dipole and RFT approaches is performed, the interpretation of results is given and possible application of obtained equations is discussed

  2. Study of fission dynamics with the three-dimensional Langevin equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamizadeh, H. [Persian Gulf University, Department of Physics, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The dynamics of fission has been studied by solving one- and three-dimensional Langevin equations with dissipation generated through the chaos weighted wall and window friction formula. The average prescission neutron multiplicities, fission probabilities and the mean fission times have been calculated in a broad range of the excitation energy for compound nuclei {sup 210}Po and {sup 224}Th formed in the fusion-fission reactions {sup 4}He+{sup 206}Pb, {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb and results compared with the experimental data. The analysis of the results shows that the average prescission neutron multiplicities, fission probabilities and the mean fission times calculated by one- and three-dimensional Langevin equations are different from each other, and also the results obtained based on three-dimensional Langevin equations are in better agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. Positive Periodic Solution for the Generalized Neutral Differential Equation with Multiple Delays and Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a fixed point theorem of strict-set-contraction, which is different from Gaines and Mawhin's continuation theorem and abstract continuation theory for k-set contraction, we established some new criteria for the existence of positive periodic solution of the following generalized neutral delay functional differential equation with impulse: x'(t=x(t[a(t-f(t,x(t,x(t-τ1(t,x(t,…,x(t-τn(t,x(t,x'(t-γ1(t,x(t,…,x'(t-γm(t,x(t],  t≠tk,  k∈Z+;  x(tk+=x(tk-+θk(x(tk,  k∈Z+. As applications of our results, we also give some applications to several Lotka-Volterra models and new results are obtained.

  4. A Generalized Measure for the Optimal Portfolio Selection Problem and its Explicit Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy Landsman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we offer a novel class of utility functions applied to optimal portfolio selection. This class incorporates as special cases important measures such as the mean-variance, Sharpe ratio, mean-standard deviation and others. We provide an explicit solution to the problem of optimal portfolio selection based on this class. Furthermore, we show that each measure in this class generally reduces to the efficient frontier that coincides or belongs to the classical mean-variance efficient frontier. In addition, a condition is provided for the existence of the a one-to-one correspondence between the parameter of this class of utility functions and the trade-off parameter λ in the mean-variance utility function. This correspondence essentially provides insight into the choice of this parameter. We illustrate our results by taking a portfolio of stocks from National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ.

  5. Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.

  6. On flux integrals for generalized Melvin solution related to simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    A generalized Melvin solution for an arbitrary simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra G is considered. The solution contains a metric, n Abelian 2-forms and n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. It is governed by a set of n moduli functions H{sub s}(z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials - the so-called fluxbrane polynomials. These polynomials depend upon integration constants q{sub s}, s = 1,.., n. In the case when the conjecture on the polynomial structure for the Lie algebra G is satisfied, it is proved that 2-form flux integrals Φ{sup s} over a proper 2d submanifold are finite and obey the relations q{sub s} Φ{sup s} = 4πn{sub s}h{sub s}, where the h{sub s} > 0 are certain constants (related to dilatonic coupling vectors) and the n{sub s} are powers of the polynomials, which are components of a twice dual Weyl vector in the basis of simple (co-)roots, s = 1,.., n. The main relations of the paper are valid for a solution corresponding to a finite-dimensional semi-simple Lie algebra G. Examples of polynomials and fluxes for the Lie algebras A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, A{sub 3}, C{sub 2}, G{sub 2} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 1} are presented. (orig.)

  7. Asymptotically Stable Solutions of a Generalized Fractional Quadratic Functional-Integral Equation of Erdélyi-Kober Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdalla Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a generalized fractional quadratic functional-integral equation of Erdélyi-Kober type in the Banach space BC(ℝ+. We show that this equation has at least one asymptotically stable solution.

  8. On the Existence and Uniqueness of Rv-Generalized Solution for Dirichlet Problem with Singularity on All Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rukavishnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and uniqueness of the Rv-generalized solution for the first boundary value problem and a second order elliptic equation with coordinated and uncoordinated degeneracy of input data and with strong singularity solution on all boundary of a two-dimensional domain are established.

  9. Role of statistical linearization in the solution of nonlinear stochastic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budgor, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    The solution of a generalized Langevin equation is referred to as a stochastic process. If the external forcing function is Gaussian white noise, the forward Kolmogarov equation yields the transition probability density function. Nonlinear problems must be handled by approximation procedures e.g., perturbation theories, eigenfunction expansions, and nonlinear optimization procedures. After some comments on the first two of these, attention is directed to the third, and the method of statistical linearization is used to demonstrate a relation to the former two. Nonlinear stochastic systems exhibiting sustained or forced oscillations and the centered nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of Gaussian white noise excitation are considered as examples. 5 figures, 2 tables

  10. [Burnout of general practitioners in Belgium: societal consequences and paths to solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenelenbogen, N; Offermans, A M; Roland, M

    2011-09-01

    corollary a questioning of the viability of the health care system as we know it. At the time of writing this article, the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE) is completing, at the request of the Belgian Ministry (SPF) of Health a study entitled "Burn Out of General Practitioners: which prevention, which solutions" whose goal is to make recommendations for the prevention and support of this issue. To measure the real impact of the solutions eventually implemented, we need to create a tool for a regular assessment of the prevalence of this problem in our country.

  11. Generalized Bilinear Differential Operators, Binary Bell Polynomials, and Exact Periodic Wave Solution of Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhe Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce how to obtain the bilinear form and the exact periodic wave solutions of a class of (2+1-dimensional nonlinear integrable differential equations directly and quickly with the help of the generalized Dp-operators, binary Bell polynomials, and a general Riemann theta function in terms of the Hirota method. As applications, we solve the periodic wave solution of BLMP equation and it can be reduced to soliton solution via asymptotic analysis when the value of p is 5.

  12. Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for a General Class of Discontinuous Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential stability issues are considered for almost periodic solution of the neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution are achieved in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, by applying differential inclusions theory, matrix inequality analysis technique, and generalized Lyapunov functional approach. In addition, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of the solution of the neural networks are also investigated under the framework of the solution in the sense of Filippov. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  13. A general solution in the cylindrical coordinates system for the diffusion of a radionuclide in homogeneous and isotropic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, F B

    1999-01-01

    Solutions of the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates are presented for a radionuclide produced by the decay of a not diffusing parent isotope with arbitrary activity distribution. General initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions are considered and the diffusion equation is solved for a finite cylinder. Solutions corresponding to two particular boundary conditions that can be imposed in laboratory diffusion coefficient measurements are presented. An analysis of the speed of convergence and of the series truncation error is done for these particular solutions. An example of the escape to production ratio derived from one of the solutions is also presented.

  14. A general solution in the cylindrical coordinates system for the diffusion of a radionuclide in homogeneous and isotropic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha

    1999-01-01

    Solutions of the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates are presented for a radionuclide produced by the decay of a not diffusing parent isotope with arbitrary activity distribution. General initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions are considered and the diffusion equation is solved for a finite cylinder. Solutions corresponding to two particular boundary conditions that can be imposed in laboratory diffusion coefficient measurements are presented. An analysis of the speed of convergence and of the series truncation error is done for these particular solutions. An example of the escape to production ratio derived from one of the solutions is also presented

  15. Impressions from a visit by the ASN of the Laue Langevin Institute research reactor in Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2011-01-01

    After having recalled some specific characteristics of the Laue Langevin Institute research reactor (fuel type, cooling system, power, fuel management, fuel storage pool), the author reports the examination of the emergency procedures and of the reactor maintenance. He describes two exercises which respectively simulated the occurrence of an earthquake and that of a flooding due to a dam breaching

  16. Langevin equation of a fluid particle in wall-induced turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the Langevin equation describing the stochastic process of fluid particle motion in wall-inducedturbulence (turbulent flow in pipes, channels, and boundary layers including the atmospheric surface layer).The analysis is based on the asymptotic behavior at a large Reynolds number. We use

  17. Satisfying positivity requirement in the Beyond Complex Langevin approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyrzykowski Adam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding a positive distribution, which corresponds to a given complex density, is studied. By the requirement that the moments of the positive distribution and of the complex density are equal, one can reduce the problem to solving the matching conditions. These conditions are a set of quadratic equations, thus Groebner basis method was used to find its solutions when it is restricted to a few lowest-order moments. For a Gaussian complex density, these approximate solutions are compared with the exact solution, that is known in this special case.

  18. Satisfying positivity requirement in the Beyond Complex Langevin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowski, Adam; Ruba, Błażej Ruba

    2018-03-01

    The problem of finding a positive distribution, which corresponds to a given complex density, is studied. By the requirement that the moments of the positive distribution and of the complex density are equal, one can reduce the problem to solving the matching conditions. These conditions are a set of quadratic equations, thus Groebner basis method was used to find its solutions when it is restricted to a few lowest-order moments. For a Gaussian complex density, these approximate solutions are compared with the exact solution, that is known in this special case.

  19. General solution for calculating polarization electric fields in the auroral ionosphere and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, O.; Fujii, R.; VanhamäKi, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Ieda, A.

    2013-05-01

    We devise an approach to calculate the polarization electric field in the ionosphere, when the ionospheric conductances, the primary (modeled) or the total (measured) electric field, and the Cowling efficiency are given. In contrast to previous studies, our approach is a general solution which is not limited to specific geometrical setups, and all parameters may have any kind of spatial dependence. The solution technique is based on spherical elementary current (vector) systems (SECS). This way, we avoid the need to specify explicit boundary conditions for the searched polarization electric field of its potential which would be required if the problem was solved in a differential equation approach. Instead, we solve an algebraic matrix equation, and the implicit boundary condition that the divergence of the polarization electric field vanishes outside our analysis area is sufficient. In order to illustrate our theory, we then apply it to two simple models of auroral electrodynamic situations, the first being a mesoscale strong conductance enhancement in the early morning sector within a relatively weak southward primary electric field, and a morning sector auroral arc with only a weak conductance enhancement, but a large southward primary electric field at the poleward flank of the arc. While the significance of the polarization electric field for maximum Cowling efficiency is large for the first case, it is rather minor for the second one. Both models show that the polarization electric field effect may not only change the magnitude of the current systems but also their overall geometry. Furthermore, the polarization electric field may extend into regions where the primary electric field is small, thus even dominating the total electric field in these regions. For the first model case, the total Joule heating integrated over the analysis area decreases by a factor of about 4 for maximum Cowling efficiency as compared to the case of vanishing Cowling efficiency

  20. Mass transfer simulation of nanofiltration membranes for electrolyte solutions through generalized Maxwell-Stefan approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshyargar, Vahid; Fadaei, Farzad; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed for simulation of ion transport through nanofiltration membranes. The model is based on the Maxwell-Stefan approach and takes into account steric, Donnan, and dielectric effects in the transport of mono and divalent ions. Theoretical ion rejection for multi-electrolyte mixtures was obtained by numerically solving the 'hindered transport' based on the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equation for the flux of ions. A computer simulation has been developed to predict the transport in the range of nanofiltration, a numerical procedure developed linearization and discretization form of the governing equations, and the finite volume method was employed for the numerical solution of equations. The developed numerical method is capable of solving equations for multicomponent systems of n species no matter to what extent the system shows stiffness. The model findings were compared and verified with the experimental data from literature for two systems of Na 2 SO 4 +NaCl and MgCl 2 +NaCl. Comparison showed great agreement for different concentrations. As such, the model is capable of predicting the rejection of different ions at various concentrations. The advantage of such a model is saving costs as a result of minimizing the number of required experiments, while it is closer to a realistic situation since the adsorption of ions has been taken into account. Using this model, the flux of permeates and rejections of multi-component liquid feeds can be calculated as a function of membrane properties. This simulation tool attempts to fill in the gap in methods used for predicting nanofiltration and optimization of the performance of charged nanofilters through generalized Maxwell-Stefan (GMS) approach. The application of the current model may weaken the latter gap, which has arisen due to the complexity of the fundamentals of ion transport processes via this approach, and may further facilitate the industrial development of

  1. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen

    2007-12-01

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  2. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: general-relativistic vacuum solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fields inside and around neutron stars are at the heart of pulsar magnetospheric activity. Strong magnetic fields are responsible for quantum effects, an essential ingredient to produce leptonic pairs and the subsequent broad-band radiation. The variety of electromagnetic field topologies could lead to the observed diversity of neutron star classes. Thus, it is important to include multipolar components to a presumably dominant dipolar magnetic field. Exact analytical solutions for these multipoles in Newtonian gravity have been computed in recent literature. However, flat space-time is not adequate to describe physics in the immediate surroundings of neutron stars. We generalize the multipole expressions to the strong gravity regime by using a slowly rotating metric approximation such as the one expected around neutron stars. Approximate formulae for the electromagnetic field including frame dragging are computed from which we estimate the Poynting flux and the braking index. Corrections to leading order in compactness and spin parameter are presented. As far as spin-down luminosity is concerned, it is shown that frame dragging remains irrelevant. For high-order multipoles starting from the quadrupole, the electric part can radiate more efficiently than the magnetic part. Both analytical and numerical tools are employed.

  3. Reprint of Solution of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model for image segmentation by generalized relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambra, Pasqua; Tartaglione, Gaetano

    2015-04-01

    Image segmentation addresses the problem to partition a given image into its constituent objects and then to identify the boundaries of the objects. This problem can be formulated in terms of a variational model aimed to find optimal approximations of a bounded function by piecewise-smooth functions, minimizing a given functional. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are a set of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations with varying coefficients. Numerical solution of the above system often relies on alternating minimization techniques involving descent methods coupled with explicit or semi-implicit finite-difference discretization schemes, which are slowly convergent and poorly scalable with respect to image size. In this work we focus on generalized relaxation methods also coupled with multigrid linear solvers, when a finite-difference discretization is applied to the Euler-Lagrange equations of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model. We show that non-linear Gauss-Seidel, accelerated by inner linear iterations, is an effective method for large-scale image analysis as those arising from high-throughput screening platforms for stem cells targeted differentiation, where one of the main goal is segmentation of thousand of images to analyze cell colonies morphology.

  4. Solution of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model for image segmentation by generalized relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambra, Pasqua; Tartaglione, Gaetano

    2015-03-01

    Image segmentation addresses the problem to partition a given image into its constituent objects and then to identify the boundaries of the objects. This problem can be formulated in terms of a variational model aimed to find optimal approximations of a bounded function by piecewise-smooth functions, minimizing a given functional. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are a set of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations with varying coefficients. Numerical solution of the above system often relies on alternating minimization techniques involving descent methods coupled with explicit or semi-implicit finite-difference discretization schemes, which are slowly convergent and poorly scalable with respect to image size. In this work we focus on generalized relaxation methods also coupled with multigrid linear solvers, when a finite-difference discretization is applied to the Euler-Lagrange equations of Ambrosio-Tortorelli model. We show that non-linear Gauss-Seidel, accelerated by inner linear iterations, is an effective method for large-scale image analysis as those arising from high-throughput screening platforms for stem cells targeted differentiation, where one of the main goal is segmentation of thousand of images to analyze cell colonies morphology.

  5. Numerical solutions of the aerosol general dynamic equation for nuclear reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Methods and approximations inherent in modeling of aerosol dynamics and evolution for nuclear reactor source term estimation have been investigated. Several aerosol evolution problems are considered to assess numerical methods of solving the aerosol dynamic equation. A new condensational growth model is constructed by generalizing Mason's formula to arbitrary particle sizes, and arbitrary accommodation of the condensing vapor and background gas at particle surface. Analytical solution is developed for the aerosol growth equation employing the new condensation model. The space-dependent aerosol dynamic equation is solved to assess implications of spatial homogenization of aerosol distributions. The results of our findings are as follows. The sectional method solving the aerosol dynamic equation is quite efficient in modeling of coagulation problems, but should be improved for simulation of strong condensation problems. The J-space transform method is accurate in modeling of condensation problems, but is very slow. For the situation considered, the new condensation model predicts slower aerosol growth than the corresponding isothermal model as well as Mason's model, the effect of partial accommodation is considerable on the particle evolution, and the effect of the energy accommodation coefficient is more pronounced than that of the mass accommodation coefficient. For the initial conditions considered, the space-dependent aerosol dynamics leads to results that are substantially different from those based on the spatially homogeneous aerosol dynamic equation

  6. Generalization of the Numerov method for solution of N-d breakup problem in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, V.M.; Vlahovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    A new computational method for solving the configuration-space Faddeev equations for three-nucleon systems has been developed. This method is based on the spline decomposition in the angular variable and a generalization of the Numerov method for the hyperradius. The s-wave calculations of the inelasticity and phase shift as well as breakup amplitudes for n-d and p-d breakup scatterings for lab energies 14.1 and 42.0 MeV were performed with the Malfliet-Tjon I-III potential. In the case of n-d breakup scattering the results are in good agreement with those of the benchmark solution [J. L. Friar, B. F. Gibson, G. Berthold, W. Gloeckle, Th. Cornelius, H. Witala, J. Haidenbauer, Y. Koike, G. L. Payne, J. A. Tjon, and W. M. Kloet, Phys. Rev. C 42, 1838 (1990); J. L. Friar, G. L. Payne, W. Gloeckle, D. Hueber, and H. Witala, Phys. Rev. C 51, 2356 (1995)]. In the case of p-d quartet breakup scattering disagreement for the inelasticities reaches up to 6% as compared with those of the Pisa group [A. Kievsky, M. Viviani, and S. Rosati, Phys. Rev. C 64, 024002 (2001)]. The calculated p-d amplitudes fulfill the optical theorem with a good precision

  7. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  8. Traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation via the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali; Roshid, Harun-Or-

    2014-01-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) play a vital role to reveal the internal mechanism of complex physical phenomena. In this work, the exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation is studied by using the new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions. It is shown that the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Jr, 02.30.Ik.

  9. A general solution for the dynamics of a generalized non-degenerate optical parametric down-conversion interaction by virtue of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangfan; Jiang Zongfu; Xiao Fuliang; Huang Chunjia

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of a generalized non-degenerate optical parametric down-conversion interaction whose Hamiltonian includes an arbitrary time-dependent driving part and a two-mode coupled part is studied by adopting the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory. The closed formulae for the evolution of the quantum states and the evolution operators of the system are obtained. It is shown that various generalized squeezed states arise naturally in the process, and the two-mode squeezed effect is independent of the driving part. An explicitly analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation is further derived as the classical generalized force acting on each mode and the coupling of the two modes both have harmonic time dependences. This solution is found to be in agreement with previous research in special cases

  10. Embedded class solutions compatible for physical compact stars in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton Singh, Ksh.; Pant, Neeraj; Tewari, Neeraj; Aria, Anil K.

    2018-05-01

    We have explored a family of new solutions satisfying Einstein's field equations and Karmarkar condition. We have assumed an anisotropic stress-tensor with no net electric charge. Interestingly, the new solutions yield zero values of all the physical quantities for all even integer n > 0. However, for all n >0 (n ≠ even numbers) they yield physically possible solutions. We have tuned the solution for neutron star Vela X-1 so that the solutions matches the observed mass and radius. For the same star we have extensively discussed the behavior of the solutions. The solutions yield a stiffer equation of state for larger values of n since the adiabatic index increases and speed of sound approaches the speed of light. It is also found that the solution is physically possible for Vela X-1 if 1.8 ≤ n < 7 (with n≠ 2,4,6). All the solutions for n ≥ 7 violates the causality condition and all the solutions with 0 < n < 1.8 lead to complex values of transverse sound speed vt. The range of well-behaved n depends on the mass and radius of compact stars.

  11. Solution of a General Linear Complementarity Problem Using Smooth Optimization and Its Application to Bilinear Programming and LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.; Friedlander, A.; Guedes, M.; Judice, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses a General Linear Complementarity Problem (GLCP) that has found applications in global optimization. It is shown that a solution of the GLCP can be computed by finding a stationary point of a differentiable function over a set defined by simple bounds on the variables. The application of this result to the solution of bilinear programs and LCPs is discussed. Some computational evidence of its usefulness is included in the last part of the paper

  12. Explicit and exact solutions for a generalized long-short wave resonance equations with strong nonlinear term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution equations with strong nonlinear term describing the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave are studied. Firstly, based on the qualitative theory and bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, all of the explicit and exact solutions of solitary waves are obtained by qualitative seeking the homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits for a class of Lienard equations. Then the singular travelling wave solutions, periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle functions type are also obtained on the basis of the relationships between the hyperbolic functions and that between the hyperbolic functions with the triangle functions. The varieties of structure of exact solutions of the generalized long-short wave equation with strong nonlinear term are illustrated. The methods presented here also suitable for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in multidimensions

  13. A class of algebraically general solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for non-null electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, B.O.J.

    1976-01-01

    In a previous article (Gen. Rel. Grav.; 6 : 345 (1975)) the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for non-null electromagnetic fields were studied under the conditions that the null tetrad is parallel-propagated along both principal null congruences. A solution with twist and shear, but no expansion, was found and was conjectured to be the only expansion-free solution. Here it is shown that this conjecture is false; the general expansion-free solution is found to be a family of space-times depending on a single constant parameter which is the ratio of the (constant) twists of the two principal null congruences. (author)

  14. Interpretation and further properties of general classical CPsup(n-1) solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, A.M.

    1980-11-01

    We present arguments suggesting that non-(anti)selfdual classical solutions to the equations of motion of the euclidean CPsup(n-1) model can be interpreted as unstable non-interacting mixtures of instantons and anti-instantons. Fermionic modes in the background of these solutions are discussed. We determine the modes explicitly for the case of an embedded O(3) solution and point out that they give rise to a non-trivial illustration of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem

  15. Recruitment and retention of general practitioners in the UK: what are the problems and solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R; Leese, B

    1999-10-01

    Recruitment and retention of general practitioners (GPs) has become an issue of major concern in recent years. However, much of the evidence is anecdotal and some commentators continue to question the scale of workforce problems. Hence, there is a need to establish a clear picture of those instabilities (i.e. imbalances between demand and supply) that do exist in the GP labour market in the UK. Based on a review of the published literature, we identify problems that stem from: (i) the changing social composition of the workforce and the fact that a large proportion of qualified GPs are significantly underutilized within traditional career structures; and (ii) the considerable differences in the ability of local areas to match labour demand and supply. We argue that one way to address these problems would be to encourage greater flexibility in a number of areas highlighted in the literature: (i) time commitment across the working day and week; (ii) long-term career paths; (iii) training and education; and (iv) remuneration and contract conditions. Overall, although the evidence suggests that the predicted 'crisis' has not yet occurred in the GP labour market as a whole, there is no room for lack of imagination in planning terms. Workforce planners continue to emphasize national changes to the medical school intake as the means to balance labour demand and supply between the specialities; however, better retention and deployment of existing GP labour would arguably produce more effective supply-side solutions. In this context, current policy and practice developments (e.g. Primary Care Groups and Primary Care Act Pilot Sites) offer a unique learning base upon which to move forward.

  16. A General Semi-Analytical Solution for Three Types of Well Tests in Confined Aquifers with a Partially Penetrating Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw-Yang Yang Hund-Der Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This note develops a general mathematical model for describing the transient hydraulic head response for constant-head test, constant-flux test, and slug test in a radial confined aquifer system with a partially penetrating well. The Laplace-domain solution for the model is derived by applying the Laplace transform with respect to time and finite Fourier cosine transform with respect to the z-direction. This new solution has been shown to reduce to the constant-head test when discounting the wellbore storage and maintaining a constant well water level. This solution can also be reduced to the constant-flux test solution when discounting the wellbore storage and keeping a constant pumping rate in the well. Moreover, the solution becomes the slug test solution when there is no pumping in the well. This general solution can be used to develop a single computer code to estimate aquifer parameters if coupled with an optimization algorithm or to assess the effect of well partial penetration on hydraulic head distribution for three types of aquifer tests.

  17. Generalized hyperbolic functions to find soliton-like solutions for a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of symbolic computation, we demonstrate that the known method which is based on the new generalized hyperbolic functions and the new kinds of generalized hyperbolic function transformations, generates classes of exact solutions to a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. This system includes the modified Hubbard model and the system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger derived by Lazarides and Tsironis. Four types of solutions for this system are given explicitly, namely: new bright-bright, new dark-dark, new bright-dark and new dark-bright solitons

  18. Generalized Solutions of the Dirac Equation, W Bosons, and Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okniński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    We study the 7×7 Hagen-Hurley equations describing spin 1 particles. We split these equations, in the interacting case, into two Dirac equations with nonstandard solutions. It is argued that these solutions describe decay of a virtual W boson in beta decay.

  19. Complementary remarks about two Papapetrou solutions for the gravitational field equations in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.

    1967-08-01

    We recall the algebraic statement that can be done for Petrov's classification. We determine Petrov's class in some points of the axial symmetric stationary solution given in 1953 by Papapetrou. We complete the determination of the Papapetrou non stationary cylindric solution. (author) [fr

  20. Two general classes of self dual, Minkowski propagating wave solutions in Yang Mills gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Lo, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    Two classes of self dual propogating wave solutions to the sourceless field equations in Minkowski space are presented. Some of these solutions can be linearly superposed. These waves can propogate at either the speed of light or at a speed less than that of light

  1. Traversable intra-Universe wormholes and timeholes in General Relativity: two new solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexey L.

    2016-11-01

    Using thin shell formalism we construct two solutions of intra-Universe wormholes. The first model is a cosmological analog of the Aichelburg-Schein timehole, while another one is an intra-Universe form of the Bronnikov-Ellis solution.

  2. Traversable intra-Universe wormholes and timeholes in General Relativity: two new solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Alexey L

    2016-01-01

    Using thin shell formalism we construct two solutions of intra-Universe wormholes. The first model is a cosmological analog of the Aichelburg–Schein timehole, while another one is an intra-Universe form of the Bronnikov–Ellis solution. (paper)

  3. Improved decay rates for solutions for a multidimensional generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2014-01-01

    the Fourier transform and the energy method, we show the global existence and the convergence rates of the solutions under the smallness assumption on the initial data and we give better decay rates of the solutions. This result improves early works in J

  4. Emergence of nonwhite noise in Langevin dynamics with magnetic Lorentz force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hyun-Myung; Durang, Xavier; Noh, Jae Dong

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the low mass limit of Langevin dynamics for a charged Brownian particle driven by a magnetic Lorentz force. In the low mass limit, velocity variables relaxing quickly are coarse-grained out to yield effective dynamics for position variables. Without the Lorentz force, the low mass limit is equivalent to the high friction limit. Both cases share the same Langevin equation that is obtained by setting the mass to zero. The equivalence breaks down in the presence of the Lorentz force. The low mass limit cannot be achieved by setting the mass to zero. The limit is also distinct from the large friction limit. We derive the effective equations of motion in the low mass limit. The resulting stochastic differential equation involves a nonwhite noise whose correlation matrix has antisymmetric components. We demonstrate the importance of the nonwhite noise by investigating the heat dissipation by a driven Brownian particle, where the emergent nonwhite noise has a physically measurable effect.

  5. Quantum corrected Langevin dynamics for adsorbates on metal surfaces interacting with hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the importance of including quantized initial conditions in Langevin dynamics for adsorbates interacting with a thermal reservoir of electrons. For quadratic potentials the time evolution is exactly described by a classical Langevin equation and it is shown how to rigorously obtain...... quantum mechanical probabilities from the classical phase space distributions resulting from the dynamics. At short time scales, classical and quasiclassical initial conditions lead to wrong results and only correctly quantized initial conditions give a close agreement with an inherently quantum...... mechanical master equation approach. With CO on Cu(100) as an example, we demonstrate the effect for a system with ab initio frictional tensor and potential energy surfaces and show that quantizing the initial conditions can have a large impact on both the desorption probability and the distribution...

  6. Improving multilevel Monte Carlo for stochastic differential equations with application to the Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eike H; Scheichl, Rob; Shardlow, Tony

    2015-04-08

    This paper applies several well-known tricks from the numerical treatment of deterministic differential equations to improve the efficiency of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and especially the Langevin equation. We use modified equations analysis as an alternative to strong-approximation theory for the integrator, and we apply this to introduce MLMC for Langevin-type equations with integrators based on operator splitting. We combine this with extrapolation and investigate the use of discrete random variables in place of the Gaussian increments, which is a well-known technique for the weak approximation of SDEs. We show that, for small-noise problems, discrete random variables can lead to an increase in efficiency of almost two orders of magnitude for practical levels of accuracy.

  7. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: Chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period

  8. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2014-03-28

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period.

  9. Trap-assisted and Langevin-type recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Trapping of charges is known to play an important role in the charge transport of organic semiconductors, but the role of traps in the recombination process has not been addressed. Here we show that the ideality factor of the current of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the diffusion-dominated regime has a temperature-independent value of 2, which reveals that nonradiative trap-assisted recombination dominates the current. In contrast, the ideality factor of the light output approaches unity, demonstrating that luminance is governed by recombination of the bimolecular Langevin type. This apparent contradiction can be resolved by measuring the current and luminance ideality factor for a white-emitting polymer, where both free and trapped charge carriers recombine radiatively. With increasing bias voltage, Langevin recombination becomes dominant over trap-assisted recombination due to its stronger dependence on carrier density, leading to an enhancement in OLED efficiency.

  10. Simulating the Langevin force by simple noise in nuclear one-body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Burgio, G.F.; Toro, M. Di; Randrup, J.

    1992-01-01

    For the purpose of addressing catastrophic phenomena in nuclear dynamics, the possibility of simulating the stochastic part of the collision integral is explored in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in the ordinary BUU treatment. Considering idealized two-dimensional matter, for which it is practical to simulate the Boltzmann-Langevin equation directly, it is demonstrated that the number of test-particles per nucleon can be adjusted so that the corresponding BUU calculation yields a good reproduction of the spontaneous clusterization occurring inside the spinodal region. This approximate method may therefore provide a relatively easy way to introduce meaningful fluctuations in simulations of unstable nuclear dynamics. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  11. First results of the EXILL and FATIMA campaign at the Institut Laue Langevin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolie, Jan; Regis, Jean-Marc; Saed-Samii, Nima; Warr, Nigel [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Wilmsen, Dennis [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); GANIL, BP 55027 (France); France, Gilles de; Clement, Emmanuel [GANIL, BP 55027 (France); Blanc, Aurelien; Jentschel, Michael; Koester, Uli; Mutti, Paolo; Soldner, Thorsten [ILL, 71 Av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Simpson, Gary [University of Western Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); UIrban, Waldek [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Bruce, Alison; Lalskovski, Stefan [SCEM, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Fraile, Luis [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Complutese, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kroell, Thorsten [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zsolt; Regan, Patrick [Dept. of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Korten, Wolfram [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ur, Calin; Marginean, Nicu [Horia Hulubei NIPNE, 77125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-01

    At the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin the EXILL and FATIMA array consisting of 8 EXOGAM clover Ge detectors and 16 LaBr3(Ce) scintillators was used for the measurement of lifetimes using the generalised centroid difference method. The studied nuclei were formed by the (n,γ) and (n,fission) reactions. We report on the set-up and present first results on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 196}Pt.

  12. Remarks on the chemical Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations: Nonphysical currents at equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Alessandro; Frezzato, Diego

    2018-02-14

    The chemical Langevin equation and the associated chemical Fokker-Planck equation are well-known continuous approximations of the discrete stochastic evolution of reaction networks. In this work, we show that these approximations suffer from a physical inconsistency, namely, the presence of nonphysical probability currents at the thermal equilibrium even for closed and fully detailed-balanced kinetic schemes. An illustration is given for a model case.

  13. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (poral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  14. Higher-order rogue wave solutions of the three-wave resonant interaction equation via the generalized Darboux transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Cao, Jianli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize generalized Darboux transformation to study higher-order rogue wave solutions of the three-wave resonant interaction equation, which describes the propagation and mixing of waves with different frequencies in weakly nonlinear dispersive media. A general Nth-order rogue wave solution with two characteristic velocities structural parameters and 3N independent parameters under a determined plane-wave background and a specific parameter condition is derived. As an application, we show that four fundamental rogue waves with fundamental, two kinds of line and quadrilateral patterns, or six fundamental rogue waves with fundamental, triangular, two kinds of quadrilateral and circular patterns can emerge in the second-order rogue waves. Moreover, several important wave characteristics including the maximum values, the corresponding coordinate positions of the humps, and the stability problem for some special higher-order rogue wave solutions such as the fundamental and quadrilateral cases are discussed. (paper)

  15. New exact solutions to the generalized KdV equation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is reduced to an ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients ... Application to generalized KdV equation with generalized evolution ..... [12] P F Byrd and M D Friedman, Handbook of elliptic integrals for engineers and physicists.

  16. Nonequilibrium Langevin dynamics: A demonstration study of shear flow fluctuations in a simple fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2017-08-01

    The present paper is based on a recent success of the second-order stochastic fluctuation theory in describing time autocorrelations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems. In particular, it was shown to yield values of the related deterministic parameters of the Langevin equation for a Couette flow in a microscopic molecular dynamics model of a simple fluid. In this paper we find all the remaining constants of the stochastic dynamics, which then is simulated numerically and compared directly with the original physical system. By using these data, we study in detail the accuracy and precision of a second-order Langevin model for nonequilibrium physical systems theoretically and computationally. We find an intriguing relation between an applied external force and cumulants of the resulting flow fluctuations. This is characterized by a linear dependence of an athermal cumulant ratio, an apposite quantity introduced here. In addition, we discuss how the order of a given Langevin dynamics can be raised systematically by introducing colored noise.

  17. A Simple General Solution for Maximal Horizontal Range of Projectile Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Busic, Boris

    2005-01-01

    A convenient change of variables in the problem of maximizing the horizontal range of the projectile motion, with an arbitrary initial vertical position of the projectile, provides a simple, straightforward solution.

  18. A generalized exp-function method for multiwave solutions of sine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the development of soliton theory, finding multiwave solutions has ... transmission, self-transparency due to nonlinear effects of optical pulses, ..... Secondly, expanding each new dependent variable in infinite series of a formal expansion.

  19. Exact Solutions of Generalized Modified Boussinesq, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, and Camassa-Holm Equations via Double Reduction Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find exact solutions of the Generalized Modified Boussinesq (GMB equation, the Kuromoto-Sivashinsky (KS equation the and, Camassa-Holm (CH equation by utilizing the double reduction theory related to conserved vectors. The fourth order GMB equation involves the arbitrary function and mixed derivative terms in highest derivative. The partial Noether’s approach yields seven conserved vectors for GMB equation and one conserved for vector KS equation. Due to presence of mixed derivative term the conserved vectors for GMB equation derived by the Noether like theorem do not satisfy the divergence relationship. The extra terms that constitute the trivial part of conserved vectors are adjusted and the resulting conserved vectors satisfy the divergence property. The double reduction theory yields two independent solutions and one reduction for GMB equation and one solution for KS equation. For CH equation two independent solutions are obtained elsewhere by double reduction theory with the help of conserved Vectors.

  20. Comment on 'Exact analytical solution for the generalized Lyapunov exponent of the two-dimensional Anderson localization'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, P; Schweitzer, L; Weyrauch, M

    2004-01-01

    In a recent publication, Kuzovkov et al (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 14 13777) announced an analytical solution of the two-dimensional Anderson localization problem via the calculation of a generalized Lyapunov exponent using signal theory. Surprisingly, for certain energies and small disorder strength they observed delocalized states. We study the transmission properties of the same model using well-known transfer matrix methods. Our results disagree with the findings obtained using signal theory. We point to the possible origin of this discrepancy and comment on the general strategy of using a generalized Lyapunov exponent for studying Anderson localization. (comment)

  1. Dynamic pathways to mediate reactions buried in thermal fluctuations. I. Time-dependent normal form theory for multidimensional Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2009-12-14

    We present a novel theory which enables us to explore the mechanism of reaction selectivity and robust functions in complex systems persisting under thermal fluctuation. The theory constructs a nonlinear coordinate transformation so that the equation of motion for the new reaction coordinate is independent of the other nonreactive coordinates in the presence of thermal fluctuation. In this article we suppose that reacting systems subject to thermal noise are described by a multidimensional Langevin equation without a priori assumption for the form of potential. The reaction coordinate is composed not only of all the coordinates and velocities associated with the system (solute) but also of the random force exerted by the environment (solvent) with friction constants. The sign of the reaction coordinate at any instantaneous moment in the region of a saddle determines the fate of the reaction, i.e., whether the reaction will proceed through to the products or go back to the reactants. By assuming the statistical properties of the random force, one can know a priori a well-defined boundary of the reaction which separates the full position-velocity space in the saddle region into mainly reactive and mainly nonreactive regions even under thermal fluctuation. The analytical expression of the reaction coordinate provides the firm foundation on the mechanism of how and why reaction proceeds in thermal fluctuating environments.

  2. A non-local theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    1999-01-01

    We consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws on the space of symmetric second-order matrices. The right-hand side of this system contains the functional calculus operator f-bar(U) generated in the general case only by a continuous scalar function f(u). For these systems we define and describe the set of singular entropies, introduce the concept of generalized entropy solutions of the corresponding Cauchy problem, and investigate the properties of generalized entropy solutions. We define the class of strong generalized entropy solutions, in which the Cauchy problem has precisely one solution. We suggest a condition on the initial data under which any generalized entropy solution is strong, which implies its uniqueness. Under this condition we establish that the 'vanishing viscosity' method converges. An example shows that in the general case there can be more than one generalized entropy solution

  3. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Keitaro [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nishimura, Jun [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science,Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Shimasaki, Shinji [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2016-07-14

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  4. Twenty Years of General Education in China: Progress, Problems, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongcai; Xie, Debo

    2018-01-01

    General education is a subject with rich contents and that is highly contested in the field of higher education studies. It has been highly praised for its core concepts such as broad educational targets, liberating educational objectives, and balanced educational content. Looking back at the course of general education in China over the past 20…

  5. The Role of General Physical Education in Solution of Health Problem of Russia’s Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Lykyanenko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational concept, worked out by the author rests on the ideas of fundamentalization of school physical educational process, basing on the unique general educational potential of this subject, acquiring the character of fundamental, backbone principle of general secondary education, reflecting its essence, goal and objectives in modern society with its core.

  6. Exploring Fundamental Concepts in Aqueous Solution Conductivity: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Stevanov, Kelly; Barlag, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Using a conductivity sensor, a temperature sensor, and a datalogger, fundamental factors that affect conductivity are explored. These factors are (i) concentration, (ii) temperature, (iii) ion charge, and (iv) size and or mass of anion. In addition, the conductivities of a number of other solutions are measured. This lab has been designed to…

  7. Exact solution of an electroosmotic flow for generalized Burgers fluid in cylindrical domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khan

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a theoretical study of the dynamics of an electroosmotic flow (EOF in cylindrical domain. The Cauchy momentum equation is first simplified by incorporating the electrostatic body force in the electric double layer and the generalized Burgers fluid constitutive model. The electric potential distribution is given by the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. After solving the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the Cauchy momentum equation with electrostatic body force is solved analytically by using the temporal Fourier and finite Hankel transforms. The effects of important involved parameters are examined and presented graphically. The results obtained reveal that the magnitude of velocity increases with increase of the Debye–Huckel and electrokinetic parameters. Further, it is shown that the results presented for generalized Burgers fluid are quite general so that results for the Burgers, Oldroyd-B, Maxwell and Newtonian fluids can be obtained as limiting cases. Keywords: Generalized Burgers fluid, Electroosmotic flow, Fourier and Hankel transform

  8. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Daboul, J.

    1994-01-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = -γ/r ν , γ > 0 and -∞ 0 (t))] 1/μ , with μ = ν/2 - 1 ≠ 0. For ν > 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when ν > 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Also, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, state which correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed

  9. On the Exact Solution Explaining the Accelerate Expanding Universe According to General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of calculation is applied to the frequency of a photon according to the tra- velled distance. It consists in solving the scalar geodesic equation (equation of energy of the photon, and manifests gravitation, non-holonomity, and deformation of space as the intrinsic geometric factors affecting the photon’s frequency. The solution obtained in the expanding space of Friedmann’s metric manifests the exponential cosmological redshift: its magnitude increases, exponentially, with distance. This explains the acce- lerate expansion of the Universe registered recently by the astronomers. According to the obtained solution, the redshift reaches the ultimately high value z = e π − 1 = 22 . 14 at the event horizon.

  10. Asymptotic behavior of solutions of nonlinear differential equations and generalized guiding functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Avramescu

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $f:\\mathbb{R}\\times \\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ be a continuous function and let $h:\\mathbb{R}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}$ be a continuous and strictly positive function. A sufficient condition such that the equation $\\dot{x}=f\\left( t,x\\right $ admits solutions $x:\\mathbb{R}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ satisfying the inequality $\\left| x\\left( t\\right \\right| \\leq k\\cdot h\\left( t\\right ,$ $t\\in \\mathbb{R},$ $k>0$, where $\\left| \\cdot \\right| $ is the euclidean norm in $\\mathbb{R}^{N},$ is given. The proof of this result is based on the use of a special function of Lyapunov type, which is often called guiding function. In the particular case $h\\equiv 1$, one obtains known results regarding the existence of bounded solutions.

  11. Continuous properties of the data-to-solution map for a generalized μ-Camassa-Holm integrable equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengqi

    2018-05-01

    This work studies a generalized μ-type integrable equation with both quadratic and cubic nonlinearities; the μ-Camassa-Holm and modified μ-Camassa-Holm equations are members of this family of equations. It has been shown that the Cauchy problem for this generalized μ-Camassa-Holm integrable equation is locally well-posed for initial data u0 ∈ Hs, s > 5/2. In this work, we further investigate the continuity properties to this equation. It is proved in this work that the data-to-solution map of the proposed equation is not uniformly continuous. It is also found that the solution map is Hölder continuous in the Hr-topology when 0 ≤ r < s with Hölder exponent α depending on both s and r.

  12. General solution of the aerosol dynamic equation: growth and diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgarayhi, A.; Elhanbaly, A.

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion of aerosol particles in a fluid media is studied considering the main mechanism for condensation and diffusion. This has been done when the technique of Lie is used for solving the aerosol dynamic equation. This method is very useful in sense that it reduces the partial differential equation to some ordinary differential equations. So, different classes of similarity solutions have been obtained. The quantity of well-defined physical interest is the mean particle volume has been calculated

  13. Legendre condition and the stabilization problem for classical soliton solutions in generalized Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, N.A.; Khelashvili, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem on stability of classical soliton solutions is studied from the unique point of view: the Legendre condition - necessary condition of existence of weak local minimum for energy functional (term soliton is used here in the wide sense) is used. Limits to parameters of the model Lagrangians are obtained; it is shown that there is no soliton stabilization in some of them despite the phenomenological achievements. The Jacoby sufficient condition is discussed

  14. Complete factorisation and analytic solutions of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenig, L.

    1988-11-01

    It is shown that many systems of nonlinear differential equations of interest in various fields are naturally imbedded in a new family of differential equations. This family is invariant under nonlinear transformations based on the concept of matrix power of a vector. Each equation belonging to that family can be brought into a factorized canonical form for which integrable cases can be easily identified and solutions can be found by quadratures.

  15. Generalized analytic solutions and response characteristics of magnetotelluric fields on anisotropic infinite faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xue; Yicai, Ji

    2018-06-01

    In order to understand directly and analyze accurately the detected magnetotelluric (MT) data on anisotropic infinite faults, two-dimensional partial differential equations of MT fields are used to establish a model of anisotropic infinite faults using the Fourier transform method. A multi-fault model is developed to expand the one-fault model. The transverse electric mode and transverse magnetic mode analytic solutions are derived using two-infinite-fault models. The infinite integral terms of the quasi-analytic solutions are discussed. The dual-fault model is computed using the finite element method to verify the correctness of the solutions. The MT responses of isotropic and anisotropic media are calculated to analyze the response functions by different anisotropic conductivity structures. The thickness and conductivity of the media, influencing MT responses, are discussed. The analytic principles are also given. The analysis results are significant to how MT responses are perceived and to the data interpretation of the complex anisotropic infinite faults.

  16. Numerical solution to generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation using Exp-function method hybridized with heuristic computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheel Abdullah Malik

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE. The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM, and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM, show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.

  17. Numerical solution to generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation using Exp-function method hybridized with heuristic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.

  18. Details of the general numerical solutions of the Friedberg-Lee soliton model for ground and exited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, T.; Harvey, M.

    1984-06-01

    A new numerical method is applied to solving the equations of motion of the Friedberg-Lee Soliton model for both ground and spherically symmetric excited states. General results have been obtained over a wide range of parameters. Critical coupling constants and critical particle numbers have been determined below which soliton solutions cease to exist. The static properties of the proton are considered to show that as presently formulated the model fails to fit all experimental data for any set of parameters

  19. 1-Soliton solution of the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with nonlinear dispersion and time-dependent coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Anjan

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, the 1-soliton solution of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with power law nonlinearity and nonlinear dispersion along with time-dependent coefficients is obtained. There are two models for this kind of an equation that are studied. The constraint relation between these time-dependent coefficients is established for the solitons to exist. Subsequently, this equation is again analysed with generalized evolution. The solitary wave ansatz is used to carry out this investigation.

  20. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  1. Exact solution of the generalized time-dependent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Aliaga, J.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1993-04-01

    A time-dependent generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is studied using the maximum entropy formalism. The approach, related to a semi-Lie algebra, allows to find three different sets of physical relevant operators which describe the dynamics of the system for any temporal dependence. It is shown how the initial conditions of the operators are determined via the maximum entropy principle density operator, where the inclusion of the temperature turns the description of the problem into a thermodynamical one. The generalized time-independent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is exactly solved as a particular example. (author). 14 refs

  2. Solution of the generalized Emden-Fowler equations by the hybrid functions method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizidooz, H R; Marzban, H R; Razzaghi, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical algorithm for solving the generalized Emden-Fowler equations, which have many applications in mathematical physics and astrophysics. The method is based on hybrid functions approximations. The properties of hybrid functions, which consist of block-pulse functions and Lagrange interpolating polynomials, are presented. These properties are then utilized to reduce the computation of the generalized Emden-Fowler equations to a system of nonlinear equations. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  3. Generalized Analytical Treatment Of The Source Strength In The Solution Of The Diffusion Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, Kh.S.M.; EI-Otaify, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The source release strength (which is an integral part of the mathematical formulation of the diffusion equation) together with the boundary conditions leads to three different forms of the diffusion equation. The obtained forms have been solved analytically under different boundary conditions, by using transformation of axis, cosine, and Fourier transformation. Three equivalent alternative mathematical formulations of the problem have been obtained. The estimated solution of the concentrations at the ground source has been used for comparison with observed concentrations data for SF 6 tracer experiments in low wind and unstable conditions at lIT Delhi sports ground. A good agreement between estimated and observed concentrations is found

  4. Infinitely many solutions for sublinear fractional Schrodinger-type equations with general potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Ling Hou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the fractional Schrodinger type equations $$ (-\\Delta^\\alpha u+V(xu =f(x,u \\quad\\text{in } \\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $N\\geq 2$, $\\alpha\\in(0,1$, $(-\\Delta^\\alpha$ stands for the fractional Laplacian, $V$ is a positive continuous potential, $f\\in C(\\mathbb{R}^N\\times\\mathbb{R},\\mathbb{R}$. We establish criteria that guarantee the existence of infinitely many solutions by using the genus properties in critical point theory.

  5. Solution of the General Helmholtz Equation Starting from Laplace’s Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    infinity for the two dimensional case. For the 3D the general form case, this term does not exist, as the potential at infinity is zero. Hence the Green’s...companies. She has assisted the Comisi6n the Living System Laboratory, Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnologia (National LG Electronics, From 1998 to 2000

  6. Exact solutions of the generalized Lane–Emden equations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the mutual attraction of its molecules and subject to the classical laws of thermodynamics. This equation was proposed ... was investigated for first integrals by Leach [31]. Moreover, transformation properties of a more general Emden–Fowler equation were considered in Mellin et al [5]. A review paper by Wong [32] contains ...

  7. The direct tensor solution and higher-order acquisition schemes for generalized diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Erik M.

    2010-01-01

    Both in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and in generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) the relation between the diffusion tensor and the measured apparent diffusion coefficients is given by a tensorial equation, which needs to be inverted in order to solve the diffusion tensor. The traditional

  8. Expanding the class of general exact solutions for interacting two field kinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Amaro de Faria, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we extend the range of applicability of a method recently introduced where coupled first-order nonlinear equations can be put into a linear form, and consequently be solved completely. Some general consequences of the present extension are then commented

  9. Power-law Exponent in Multiplicative Langevin Equation with Temporally Correlated Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Satoru

    2018-05-01

    Power-law distributions are ubiquitous in nature. Random multiplicative processes are a basic model for the generation of power-law distributions. For discrete-time systems, the power-law exponent is known to decrease as the autocorrelation time of the multiplier increases. However, for continuous-time systems, it is not yet clear how the temporal correlation affects the power-law behavior. Herein, we analytically investigated a multiplicative Langevin equation with colored noise. We show that the power-law exponent depends on the details of the multiplicative noise, in contrast to the case of discrete-time systems.

  10. First results of the (n,gamma) EXILL campaigns at the Institut Laue Langevin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolie, Jan; Regis, Jean-Marc; Wilmsen, Dennis; Ahmed, Samer; Pfeiffer, Michael; Saed Samii, Nima; Warr, Nigel [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Thirolf, Peter; Habs, Dieter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig Maximilian Universitaet, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: EXILL Collaboration; FATIMA Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    At the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin the EXILL array consisting of EXOGAM, GASP and LOHENGRIN detectors was used to perform (n,γ) measurements under very high coincidence rates. About ten different reactions were then measured in autumn 2012. In spring 2013 the EXOGAM array was combined with 16 LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators in the FATIMA rate at EXILL campaign for the measurement of lifetimes using the generalised centroid difference method. We report on the properties of both set-ups and present first results on Pt isotopes from both campaigns.

  11. Isospin dependent Boltzmann-langevin equation and the production cross section of 19Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhaoyu; Zhang Fengshou; Chen Liewen; Zhu Zhiyuan; Zhang Wenlong; Guo Zhongyan; Xiao Guoqing

    2000-01-01

    A new transport model (isospin dependent Boltzmann-Langevin equation) is developed and it is shown that this model can regenerate the experimental data for reaction of 12 C + 12 C at 28.7 MeV/u. The production cross section of 19 Na is systematically studied for reactions of 17-20,22 Ne + 12 C at 28.7 MeV/u. It is found that a neutron deficient projectile has larger 19 Na cross section than a stable projectile

  12. Quantum qubit measurement by a quantum point contact with a quantum Langevin equation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Bing; Lei, X.L.; Horing, N.J.M.; Cui, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a microscopic quantum Heisenberg-Langevin equation approach to establish a set of quantum Bloch equations for a two-level system (coupled quantum dots) capacitively coupled to a quantum point contact (QPC). The resulting Bloch equations facilitate our analysis of qubit relaxation and decoherence in coupled quantum dots induced by measurement processes at arbitrary bias-voltage and temperature. We also examine the noise spectrum of the meter output current for a symmetric qubit. These results help resolve a recent debate about a quantum oscillation peak in the noise spectrum. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. On the theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many-dimensional non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with a radially degenerate flux function are considered. For such systems the set of entropies is defined and described, the concept of generalized entropy solution of the Cauchy problem is introduced, and the properties of generalized entropy solutions are studied. The class of strong generalized entropy solutions is distinguished, in which the Cauchy problem in question is uniquely soluble. A condition on the initial data is described that ensures that the generalized entropy solution is strong and therefore unique. Under this condition the convergence of the 'vanishing viscosity' method is established. An example presented in the paper shows that a generalized entropy solution is not necessarily unique in the general case

  14. Influence of Ringer’s lactated solution in continuous infusion and general anesthesia on hematocrit in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luizari Guedes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum parameters during general anesthesia procedures are subject to variations due to differences in protocol, splenic storage, and by the instituted fluid therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the hematocrit changes promoted by controlled fluid therapy and general anesthesia. Six mongrel female dogs underwent an anesthetic protocol with acepromazine (0.03 mg kg-1 and tramadol (5 mg kg-1 for premedication, induction with propofol (3 mg kg-1, and maintained with isoflurane and mechanical ventilation for 120 minutes. After induction, they were infused with 10 ml kg hr-1 of Ringer’s lactate solution. Hematocrit measurements were performed from the start until 72 hours from anesthesia and evaluated statistically to check if there were significant changes over time. The fluid therapy, the acepromazine and propofol in the anesthetic protocol promotes a significant reduction of hematocrit up to four hours after general anesthesia.

  15. General Exact Solution to the Problem of the Probability Density for Sums of Random Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelsky, Michael I.

    2002-07-01

    The exact explicit expression for the probability density pN(x) for a sum of N random, arbitrary correlated summands is obtained. The expression is valid for any number N and any distribution of the random summands. Most attention is paid to application of the developed approach to the case of independent and identically distributed summands. The obtained results reproduce all known exact solutions valid for the, so called, stable distributions of the summands. It is also shown that if the distribution is not stable, the profile of pN(x) may be divided into three parts, namely a core (small x), a tail (large x), and a crossover from the core to the tail (moderate x). The quantitative description of all three parts as well as that for the entire profile is obtained. A number of particular examples are considered in detail.

  16. A case of generalized argyria after ingestion of colloidal silver solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Suh, Ho Seok; Cha, Hee Jeong; Kim, Suk Hwan; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2009-03-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to progressive skin darkening, which began 5 months previously. The patient had strikingly diffuse blue-gray discoloration of the skin, most prominent in sun-exposed areas, especially her face and hands. The oral mucosa, tongue, gums, eye conjunctiva, ears, nail beds, and trunk were also involved. Bluish-gray discoloration of all nails was aggravated by cold weather. She had ingested 1 L of colloidal silver solution daily for approximately 16 months as a traditional remedy. Her serum silver concentration was 381 ng/ml which was a very high (reference level: silver and sulfur in the dense black deposits. The ingestion of colloidal silver appears to be an increasing practice among patients using alternative health practices. All silver-containing products including colloidal silver should be labeled with a clear warning to prevent argyria, especially in alternative health practices.

  17. Preemption versus Entrenchment: Towards a Construction-General Solution to the Problem of the Retreat from Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ambridge

    Full Text Available Participants aged 5;2-6;8, 9;2-10;6 and 18;1-22;2 (72 at each age rated verb argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., *Daddy giggled the baby using a five-point scale. The study was designed to investigate the feasibility of two proposed construction-general solutions to the question of how children retreat from, or avoid, such errors. No support was found for the prediction of the preemption hypothesis that the greater the frequency of the verb in the single most nearly synonymous construction (for this example, the periphrastic causative; e.g., Daddy made the baby giggle, the lower the acceptability of the error. Support was found, however, for the prediction of the entrenchment hypothesis that the greater the overall frequency of the verb, regardless of construction, the lower the acceptability of the error, at least for the two older groups. Thus while entrenchment appears to be a robust solution to the problem of the retreat from error, and one that generalizes across different error types, we did not find evidence that this is the case for preemption. The implication is that the solution to the retreat from error lies not with specialized mechanisms, but rather in a probabilistic process of construction competition.

  18. A General Approach to Access Morphologies of Polyoxometalates in Solution by Using SAXS: An Ab Initio Modeling Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Wang, Weiyu; Yin, Panchao

    2018-05-02

    Herein, we reported a general protocol for an ab initio modeling approach to deduce structure information of polyoxometalates (POMs) in solutions from scattering data collected by the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. To validate the protocol, the morphologies of a serious of known POMs in either aqueous or organic solvents were analyzed. The obtained particle morphologies were compared and confirmed with previous reported crystal structures. To extend the feasibility of the protocol to an unknown system of aqueous solutions of Na 2 MoO 4 with the pH ranging from -1 to 8.35, the formation of {Mo 36 } clusters was probed, identified, and confirmed by SAXS. The approach was further optimized with a multi-processing capability to achieve fast analysis of experimental data, thereby, facilitating in situ studies of formations of POMs in solutions. The advantage of this approach is to generate intuitive 3D models of POMs in solutions without confining information such as symmetries and possible sizes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Iterative approximation of a solution of a general variational-like inclusion in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Kazmi, K.R.; Zegeye, H.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a class of η-accretive mappings in a real Banach space, and show that the η-proximal point mapping for η-m-accretive mapping is Lipschitz continuous. Further we develop an iterative algorithm for a class of general variational-like inclusions involving η-accretive mappings in real Banach space, and discuss its convergence criteria. The class of η-accretive mappings includes several important classes of operators that have been studied by various authors. (author)

  20. Numerical solutions of a general coupled nonlinear system of parabolic and hyperbolic equations of thermoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweilam, N. H.; Abou Hasan, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the weighted-average non-standard finite-difference (WANSFD) method is used to study numerically the general time-fractional nonlinear, one-dimensional problem of thermoelasticity. This model contains the standard system arising in thermoelasticity as a special case. The stability of the proposed method is analyzed by a procedure akin to the standard John von Neumann technique. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed scheme is proved. Numerical results are presented graphically, which reveal that the WANSFD method is easy to implement, effective and convenient for solving the proposed system. The proposed method could also be easily extended to solve other systems of fractional partial differential equations.

  1. A generalization of the quantum Rabi model: exact solution and spectral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckle, Hans-Peter; Johannesson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We consider a generalization of the quantum Rabi model where the two-level system and the single-mode cavity oscillator are coupled by an additional Stark-like term. By adapting a method recently introduced by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett . 107 100401), we solve the model exactly. The low-lying spectrum in the experimentally relevant ultrastrong and deep strong regimes of the Rabi coupling is found to exhibit two striking features absent from the original quantum Rabi model: avoided level crossings for states of the same parity and an anomalously rapid onset of two-fold near-degenerate levels as the Rabi coupling increases. (paper)

  2. Global solutions in lower order Sobolev spaces for the generalized Boussinesq equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G. Farah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the Cauchy problem for the defocusing generalized Boussinesq equation $$ u_{tt}-u_{xx}+u_{xxxx}-(|u|^{2k}u_{xx}=0, quad kgeq 1, $$ on the real line is globally well-posed in $H^s(mathbb{R}$ with s>1-(1/(3k. To do this, we use the I-method, introduced by Colliander, Keel, Staffilani, Takaoka and Tao [8,9], to define a modification of the energy functional that is almost conserved in time. Our result extends a previous result obtained by Farah and Linares [16] for the case k=1.

  3. General solution of an exact correlation function factorization in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Jacob J H; Kleban, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The correlation function factorization with K a boundary operator product expansion coefficient, is known to hold for certain scaling operators at the two-dimensional percolation point and in a few other cases. Here the correlation functions are evaluated in the upper half-plane (or any conformally equivalent region) with x 1 and x 2 arbitrary points on the real axis, and z an arbitrary point in the interior. This type of result is of interest because it is both exact and universal, relates higher-order correlation functions to lower-order ones and has a simple interpretation in terms of cluster or loop probabilities in several statistical models. This motivated us to use the techniques of conformal field theory to determine the general conditions for its validity. Here, we discover that either (see display) factorizes in this way for any central charge c, generalizing previous results. In particular, the factorization holds for either FK (Fortuin–Kasteleyn) or spin clusters in the Q-state Potts models; it also applies to either the dense or dilute phases of the O(n) loop models. Further, only one other non-trivial set of highest-weight operators (in an irreducible Verma module) factorizes in this way. In this case the operators have negative dimension (for c<1) and do not seem to have a physical realization

  4. General three-state model with biased population replacement: Analytical solution and application to language dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F.; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  5. Generalized solution of design optimization and failure analysis of composite drive shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollipalli, K.; Shivaramakrishna, K.V.S.; Prabhakaran, R.T.D. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Goa (India)

    2012-07-01

    Composites have an edge over conventional metals like steel and aluminum due to higher stiffness-to-weight ratio and strength-to-weight ratio. Due to these advantages, composites can bring out a revolutionary change in materials used in automotive engineering, as weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In this paper, the drive line system of an automotive system is targeted for use of composites by keeping constraints in view such as such as torque transmission, torsional buckling load and fundamental natural frequency. Composite drive shafts made of three different composites ('HM Carbon/HS Carbon/E-glass'-epoxy) was modeled using Catia V5R16 CPD workbench and a finite element analysis with boundary conditions, fiber orientation and stacking sequence was performed using ANSYS Composite module. Results obtained were compared to theoretical results and were found to be accurate and in the limits. This paper also speaks on drive shaft modeling and analysis generalization i.e., changes in stacking sequence in the future can be incorporated directly into ANSYS model without modeling it again in Catia. Hence the base model and analysis method made up in this analysis generalization facilitated by CAD/CAE can be used to carry out any composite shaft design optimization process. (Author)

  6. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute

  7. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, Filippo, E-mail: flippari@uni-mainz.de [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Institut du Calcul et de la Simulation, F-75005 Paris (France); Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J. [Gaussian, Inc., 340 Quinnipiac St. Bldg. 40, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492 (United States); Lagardère, Louis [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Institut du Calcul et de la Simulation, F-75005 Paris (France); Stamm, Benjamin [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7598 and 7616, F-75005 Paris (France); Cancès, Eric [Université Paris-Est, CERMICS, Ecole des Ponts and INRIA, 6 and 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Maday, Yvon [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005 Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France and Division of Applied Maths, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Piquemal, Jean-Philip [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7598 and 7616, F-75005 Paris (France); Mennucci, Benedetta [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  8. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  9. Transport-level description of the 252Cf-source method using the Langevin technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, A.M.; Akcasu, A.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The fluctuations in the neutron number density and detector outputs in a nuclear reactor can be analyzed conveniently by using the Langevin equation approach. This approach can be implemented at any level of approximation to describe the time evolution of the neutron population, from the most complete transport-level description to the very basic point reactor analysis of neutron number density fluctuations. In this summary, the complete space- and velocity-dependent transport-level formulation of the Langevin equation approach is applied to the analysis of the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) method, an experimental technique developed by J.T. Mihalczo at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which makes use of noise analysis to determine the reactivity of subcritical media. From this analysis, a theoretical expression for the subcritical multiplication factor is obtained that can then be used to interpret the experimental data. Results at the transport level are in complete agreement with an independent derivation performed by Sutton and Doub, who used the probability density method to interpret the CSDNA experiment, but differed from other expressions that have appeared in the literature

  10. Langevin modelling of high-frequency Hang-Seng index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei-Han

    2003-06-01

    Accurate statistical characterization of financial time series, such as compound stock indices, foreign currency exchange rates, etc., is fundamental to investment risk management, pricing of derivative products and financial decision making. Traditionally, such data were analyzed and modeled from a purely statistics point of view, with little concern on the specifics of financial markets. Increasingly, however, attention has been paid to the underlying economic forces and the collective behavior of investors. Here we summarize a novel approach to the statistical modeling of a major stock index (the Hang Seng index). Based on mathematical results previously derived in the fluid turbulence literature, we show that a Langevin equation with a variable noise amplitude correctly reproduces the ubiquitous fat tails in the probability distribution of intra-day price moves. The form of the Langevin equation suggests that, despite the extremely complex nature of financial concerns and investment strategies at the individual's level, there exist simple universal rules governing the high-frequency price move in a stock market.

  11. Model reduction of multiscale chemical langevin equations: a numerical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Vassilios; Contou-Carrere, Marie-Nathalie; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2009-01-01

    Two very important characteristics of biological reaction networks need to be considered carefully when modeling these systems. First, models must account for the inherent probabilistic nature of systems far from the thermodynamic limit. Often, biological systems cannot be modeled with traditional continuous-deterministic models. Second, models must take into consideration the disparate spectrum of time scales observed in biological phenomena, such as slow transcription events and fast dimerization reactions. In the last decade, significant efforts have been expended on the development of stochastic chemical kinetics models to capture the dynamics of biomolecular systems, and on the development of robust multiscale algorithms, able to handle stiffness. In this paper, the focus is on the dynamics of reaction sets governed by stiff chemical Langevin equations, i.e., stiff stochastic differential equations. These are particularly challenging systems to model, requiring prohibitively small integration step sizes. We describe and illustrate the application of a semianalytical reduction framework for chemical Langevin equations that results in significant gains in computational cost.

  12. Quantifying Configuration-Sampling Error in Langevin Simulations of Complex Molecular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Fass

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While Langevin integrators are popular in the study of equilibrium properties of complex systems, it is challenging to estimate the timestep-induced discretization error: the degree to which the sampled phase-space or configuration-space probability density departs from the desired target density due to the use of a finite integration timestep. Sivak et al., introduced a convenient approach to approximating a natural measure of error between the sampled density and the target equilibrium density, the Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence, in phase space, but did not specifically address the issue of configuration-space properties, which are much more commonly of interest in molecular simulations. Here, we introduce a variant of this near-equilibrium estimator capable of measuring the error in the configuration-space marginal density, validating it against a complex but exact nested Monte Carlo estimator to show that it reproduces the KL divergence with high fidelity. To illustrate its utility, we employ this new near-equilibrium estimator to assess a claim that a recently proposed Langevin integrator introduces extremely small configuration-space density errors up to the stability limit at no extra computational expense. Finally, we show how this approach to quantifying sampling bias can be applied to a wide variety of stochastic integrators by following a straightforward procedure to compute the appropriate shadow work, and describe how it can be extended to quantify the error in arbitrary marginal or conditional distributions of interest.

  13. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glebe, NSW (Australia). Div. of Animal Health, McMaster Lab.; Dawson, M [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Pharmacy; Long, M A; Than, C [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1989-12-01

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60{sup 0}C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author).

  14. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, E.; Dawson, M.; Long, M.A.; Than, C.

    1989-01-01

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60 0 C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author)

  15. Langevin equation with multiplicative white noise: Transformation of diffusion processes into the Wiener process in different prescriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, Sau Fa

    2012-01-01

    A Langevin equation with multiplicative white noise and its corresponding Fokker–Planck equation are considered in this work. From the Fokker–Planck equation a transformation into the Wiener process is provided for different orders of prescription in discretization rule for the stochastic integrals. A few applications are also discussed. - Highlights: ► Fokker–Planck equation corresponding to the Langevin equation with mul- tiplicative white noise is presented. ► Transformation of diffusion processes into the Wiener process in different prescriptions is provided. ► The prescription parameter is associated with the growth rate for a Gompertz-type model.

  16. A new proof for the convergent iterative solution of the degenerate quantum double-well potential and its generalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new and simpler proof for the convergent iterative solution of the one-dimensional degenerate double-well potential. This new proof depends on a general theorem, called the hierarchy theorem, that shows the successive stages in the iteration to form a monotonically increasing sequence of approximations to the energy and to the wavefunction at any point x. This important property makes possible a much simpler proof of convergence than the one given before in the literature. The hierarchy theorem proven in this paper is applicable to a much wider class of potentials which includes the quartic potential

  17. Bright, dark, and mixed vector soliton solutions of the general coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agalarov, Agalar; Zhulego, Vladimir; Gadzhimuradov, Telman

    2015-04-01

    The reduction procedure for the general coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (GCNLS) equations with four-wave mixing terms is proposed. It is shown that the GCNLS system is equivalent to the well known integrable families of the Manakov and Makhankov U(n,m)-vector models. This equivalence allows us to construct bright-bright and dark-dark solitons and a quasibreather-dark solution with unconventional dynamics: the density of the first component oscillates in space and time, whereas the density of the second component does not. The collision properties of solitons are also studied.

  18. Models for microtubule cargo transport coupling the Langevin equation to stochastic stepping motor dynamics: Caring about fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models coupling a Langevin equation for the cargo position to stochastic stepping dynamics for the motors constitute a relevant framework for analyzing multiple-motor microtubule transport. In this work we explore the consistence of these models focusing on the effects of the thermal noise. We study how to define consistent stepping and detachment rates for the motors as functions of the local forces acting on them in such a way that the cargo velocity and run-time match previously specified functions of the external load, which are set on the base of experimental results. We show that due to the influence of the thermal fluctuations this is not a trivial problem, even for the single-motor case. As a solution, we propose a motor stepping dynamics which considers memory on the motor force. This model leads to better results for single-motor transport than the approaches previously considered in the literature. Moreover, it gives a much better prediction for the stall force of the two-motor case, highly compatible with the experimental findings. We also analyze the fast fluctuations of the cargo position and the influence of the viscosity, comparing the proposed model to the standard one, and we show how the differences on the single-motor dynamics propagate to the multiple motor situations. Finally, we find that the one-dimensional character of the models impede an appropriate description of the fast fluctuations of the cargo position at small loads. We show how this problem can be solved by considering two-dimensional models.

  19. General solution of the multigroup spherical harmonics equations in R-Z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the present paper the generalization is performed of the procedure to solve multigroup spherical harmonics equations, which has originally been proposed and developed foe one-dimensional systems in cylindrical or spherical geometry, and later extended for special case of a two-dimensional system in r-z geometry. The expressions are derived for the axial and the radial dependence of the group values of the neutron flux moments, in the P-3 approximation of the spherical harmonics method, in a cylindrically symmetrical system with an arbitrary number of material regions in both r and z directions. In the special case of an axially homogeneous system, these expressions reduce to the relations derived previously. The analysis is performed of the possibilities to satisfy the boundary conditions in the case when the system considered represents an elementary reactor lattice cell and in the case when the system represents a reactor as a whole. The computational effort is estimated for system of a given configuration. (author)

  20. Theoretical study on the sound absorption of electrolytic solutions. I. Theoretical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Koda, S.

    2007-04-01

    A theory is formulated that describes the sound absorption of electrolytic solutions due to the relative motion of ions, including the formation of ion pairs. The theory is based on the Kubo-Green formula for the bulk viscosity. The time correlation function of the pressure is projected onto the bilinear product of the density modes of ions. The time development of the product of density modes is described by the diffusive limit of the generalized Langevin equation, and approximate expressions for the three- and four-body correlation functions required are given with the hypernetted-chain integral equation theory. Calculations on the aqueous solutions of model electrolytes are performed. It is demonstrated that the theory describes both the activated barrier crossing between contact and solvent-separated ion pairs and the Coulombic correlation between ions.

  1. Generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and associated self-similar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Muniandy, S V

    2003-01-01

    We consider three types of generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes: the stationary process obtained from the Lamperti transformation of fractional Brownian motion, the process with stretched exponential covariance and the process obtained from the solution of the fractional Langevin equation. These stationary Gaussian processes have many common properties, such as the fact that their local covariances share a similar structure and they exhibit identical spectral densities at large frequency limit. In addition, the generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes can be shown to be local stationary representations of fractional Brownian motion. Two new self-similar Gaussian processes, in addition to fractional Brownian motion, are obtained by applying the (inverse) Lamperti transformation to the generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. We study some of the properties of these self-similar processes such as the long-range dependence. We give a simulation of their sample paths based on numerical Karhunan-Loeve expansion

  2. Generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and associated self-similar processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S C

    2003-01-01

    We consider three types of generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes: the stationary process obtained from the Lamperti transformation of fractional Brownian motion, the process with stretched exponential covariance and the process obtained from the solution of the fractional Langevin equation. These stationary Gaussian processes have many common properties, such as the fact that their local covariances share a similar structure and they exhibit identical spectral densities at large frequency limit. In addition, the generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes can be shown to be local stationary representations of fractional Brownian motion. Two new self-similar Gaussian processes, in addition to fractional Brownian motion, are obtained by applying the (inverse) Lamperti transformation to the generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. We study some of the properties of these self-similar processes such as the long-range dependence. We give a simulation of their sample paths based on numerical Karhunan-Loeve expansi...

  3. Exact traveling wave solutions of the KP-BBM equation by using the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali

    2013-01-01

    The new approach of the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is an effective and powerful mathematical tool in finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in science, engineering and mathematical physics. In this article, the new approach of the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to construct traveling wave solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (KP-BBM) equation. The solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. By means of this scheme, we found some new traveling wave solutions of the above mentioned equation.

  4. Nonlinear recurrent neural networks for finite-time solution of general time-varying linear matrix equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Liao, Bolin; Li, Shuai; Chen, Ke

    2018-02-01

    In order to solve general time-varying linear matrix equations (LMEs) more efficiently, this paper proposes two nonlinear recurrent neural networks based on two nonlinear activation functions. According to Lyapunov theory, such two nonlinear recurrent neural networks are proved to be convergent within finite-time. Besides, by solving differential equation, the upper bounds of the finite convergence time are determined analytically. Compared with existing recurrent neural networks, the proposed two nonlinear recurrent neural networks have a better convergence property (i.e., the upper bound is lower), and thus the accurate solutions of general time-varying LMEs can be obtained with less time. At last, various different situations have been considered by setting different coefficient matrices of general time-varying LMEs and a great variety of computer simulations (including the application to robot manipulators) have been conducted to validate the better finite-time convergence of the proposed two nonlinear recurrent neural networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Langevin description of mass distributions of fragments originating from the fission of excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, D.V.; Nadtochy, P.N.; Adeev, G.D.; Kosenko, G.I.

    2000-01-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics is proposed. The approach, which is based on Langevin equations, is used to calculate the mass distributions of fragments originating from the fission of excited nuclei. The effect of viscosity and light-particle emission on the variance of mass distributions is studied. The results of the calculations based on the above approach reveal that, in order to obtain a simultaneous description of mass-distribution parameters and the multiplicities of prescission particles, it is necessary to use sufficiently large values of nuclear viscosity both for the one-body and for the two-body viscosity mechanism, anomalously large values of the viscosity coefficient being required in the latter case

  6. Numerical simulation of transmission coefficient using c-number Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debashis; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2003-12-01

    We numerically implement the reactive flux formalism on the basis of a recently proposed c-number Langevin equation [Barik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 680 (2003); Banerjee et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021109 (2002)] to calculate transmission coefficient. The Kramers' turnover, the T2 enhancement of the rate at low temperatures and other related features of temporal behavior of the transmission coefficient over a range of temperature down to absolute zero, noise correlation, and friction are examined for a double well potential and compared with other known results. This simple method is based on canonical quantization and Wigner quasiclassical phase space function and takes care of quantum effects due to the system order by order.

  7. Complex Langevin simulation of QCD at finite density and low temperature using the deformation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keitro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2018-03-01

    We study QCD at finite density and low temperature by using the complex Langevin method. We employ the gauge cooling to control the unitarity norm and intro-duce a deformation parameter in the Dirac operator to avoid the singular-drift problem. The reliability of the obtained results are judged by the probability distribution of the magnitude of the drift term. By making extrapolations with respect to the deformation parameter using only the reliable results, we obtain results for the original system. We perform simulations on a 43 × 8 lattice and show that our method works well even in the region where the reweighing method fails due to the severe sign problem. As a result we observe a delayed onset of the baryon number density as compared with the phase-quenched model, which is a clear sign of the Silver Blaze phenomenon.

  8. SELF-CONSISTENT LANGEVIN SIMULATION OF COULOMB COLLISIONS IN CHARGED-PARTICLE BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QIANG, J.; RYNE, R.; HABIB, S.

    2000-01-01

    In many plasma physics and charged-particle beam dynamics problems, Coulomb collisions are modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. In order to incorporate these collisions, we present a three-dimensional parallel Langevin simulation method using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach implemented on high-performance parallel computers. We perform, for the first time, a fully self-consistent simulation, in which the FR-iction and diffusion coefficients are computed FR-om first principles. We employ a two-dimensional domain decomposition approach within a message passing programming paradigm along with dynamic load balancing. Object oriented programming is used to encapsulate details of the communication syntax as well as to enhance reusability and extensibility. Performance tests on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E-900 have demonstrated good scalability. Work is in progress to apply our technique to intrabeam scattering in accelerators

  9. Signals for the QCD phase transition and critical point in a Langevin dynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2013-01-01

    The search for the critical point is one of the central issues that will be investigated in the upcoming FAIR project. For a profound theoretical understanding of the expected signals we go beyond thermodynamic studies and present a fully dynamical model for the chiral and deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The corresponding order parameters are propagated by Langevin equations of motions on a thermal background provided by a fluid dynamically expanding plasma of quarks. By that we are able to describe nonequilibrium effects occurring during the rapid expansion of a hot fireball. For an evolution through the phase transition the formation of a supercooled phase and its subsequent decay crucially influence the trajectories in the phase diagram and lead to a significant reheating of the quark medium at highest baryon densities. Furthermore, we find inhomogeneous structures with high density domains along the first order transition line within single events.

  10. A Langevin Canonical Approach to the Study of Quantum Stochastic Resonance in Chiral Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rojas-Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Langevin canonical framework for a chiral two-level system coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators is used within a coupling scheme different from the well-known spin-boson model to study the quantum stochastic resonance for chiral molecules. This process refers to the amplification of the response to an external periodic signal at a certain value of the noise strength, being a cooperative effect of friction, noise, and periodic driving occurring in a bistable system. Furthermore, from this stochastic dynamics within the Markovian regime and Ohmic friction, the competing process between tunneling and the parity violating energy difference present in this type of chiral systems plays a fundamental role. This mechanism is finally proposed to observe the so-far elusive parity-violating energy difference in chiral molecules.

  11. Improving the transient response of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer using a parallel resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo Tsi

    2003-08-01

    This paper suggests a parallel resistor to reduce DC time constant and DC response time of the transient response, induced immediately after an AC voltage connected to a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) is switched off. An equivalent circuit is first expressed. Then, an open-circuit transient response at the terminals induced by initial states is derived and measured, and thus parameters for losses of the BLT device are estimated by DC and AC time constants of the transient response. Moreover, a driving and measuring system is designed to determine transient response and steady-state responses of the BLT device, and a parallel resistor is connected to the BLT device to reduce the DC time constant. Experimental results indicate that the DC time constant greatly exceeds the AC time constant without the parallel resistor, and greatly decreases from 42 to 1 ms by a 100-kOmega parallel resistor.

  12. Asymmetrically extremely dilute neural networks with Langevin dynamics and unconventional results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchett, J P L; Coolen, A C C

    2004-01-01

    We study graded response attractor neural networks with asymmetrically extremely dilute interactions and Langevin dynamics. We solve our model in the thermodynamic limit using generating functional analysis, and find (in contrast to the binary neurons case) that even in statics, for T > 0 or large α, one cannot eliminate the non-persistent order parameters, atypically for recurrent neural network models. The macroscopic dynamics is driven by the (non-trivial) joint distribution of neurons and fields, rather than just the (Gaussian) field distribution. We calculate phase transition lines and find, as may be expected for this asymmetric model, that there is no spin-glass phase, only recall and paramagnetic phases. We present simulation results in support of our theory

  13. Nucleation theory in Langevin's approach and lifetime of a Brownian particle in potential wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseechkin, N V

    2008-07-14

    The multivariable theory of nucleation suggested by Alekseechkin [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)] is further developed in the context of Langevin's approach. The use of this approach essentially enhances the capability of the nucleation theory, because it makes possible to consider the cases of small friction which are not taken into account by the classical Zel'dovich-Frenkel theory and its multivariable extensions. The procedure for the phenomenological determination of the nucleation parameters is described. Using the similarity of the Kramers model with that of nucleation, the lifetime of a Brownian particle in potential wells in various dimensionalities is calculated with the help of the expression for the steady state nucleation rate.

  14. The new powder diffractometer D1B of the Institut Laue Langevin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente Orench, I.; Clergeau, J. F.; Martínez, S.; Olmos, M.; Fabelo, O.; Campo, J.

    2014-11-01

    D1B is a medium resolution high flux powder diffractometer located at the Institut Laue Langevin, ILL. D1B a suitable instrument for studying a large variety of polycrystalline materials. D1B runs since 1998 as a CRG (collaborating research group) instrument, being exploited by the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) and CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain). In 2008 the Spanish CRG started an updating program which included a new detector and a radial oscillating collimator (ROC). The detector, which has a sensitive height of 100mm, covers an angular range of 128°. Its 1280 gold wires provide a neutron detection point every 0.1°. The ROC is made of 198 gadolinium- based absorbing collimation blades, regular placed every 0.67°. Here the present characteristics of D1B are reviewed and the different experimental performances will be presented.

  15. Coupling Langevin Dynamics With Continuum Mechanics: Exposing the Role of Sarcomere Stretch Activation Mechanisms to Cardiac Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Washio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance computing approaches that combine molecular-scale and macroscale continuum mechanics have long been anticipated in various fields. Such approaches may enrich our understanding of the links between microscale molecular mechanisms and macroscopic properties in the continuum. However, there have been few successful examples to date owing to various difficulties associated with overcoming the large spatial (from 1 nm to 10 cm and temporal (from 1 ns to 1 ms gaps between the two scales. In this paper, we propose an efficient parallel scheme to couple a microscopic model using Langevin dynamics for a protein motor with a finite element continuum model of a beating heart. The proposed scheme allows us to use a macroscale time step that is an order of magnitude longer than the microscale time step of the Langevin model, without loss of stability or accuracy. This reduces the overhead required by the imbalanced loads of the microscale computations and the communication required when switching between scales. An example of the Langevin dynamics model that demonstrates the usefulness of the coupling approach is the molecular mechanism of the actomyosin system, in which the stretch-activation phenomenon can be successfully reproduced. This microscopic Langevin model is coupled with a macroscopic finite element ventricle model. In the numerical simulations, the Langevin dynamics model reveals that a single sarcomere can undergo spontaneous oscillation (15 Hz accompanied by quick lengthening due to cooperative movements of the myosin molecules pulling on the common Z-line. Also, the coupled simulations using the ventricle model show that the stretch-activation mechanism contributes to the synchronization of the quick lengthening of the sarcomeres at the end of the systolic phase. By comparing the simulation results given by the molecular model with and without the stretch-activation mechanism, we see that this synchronization contributes to

  16. Two-step algorithm of generalized PAPA method applied to linear programming solution of dynamic matrix control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    1991-01-01

    In recent complicated nuclear systems, there are increasing demands for developing highly advanced procedures for various problems-solvings. Among them keen interests have been paid on man-machine communications to improve both safety and economy factors. Many optimization methods have been good enough to elaborate on these points. In this preliminary note, we will concern with application of linear programming (LP) for this purpose. First we will present a new superior version of the generalized PAPA method (GEPAPA) to solve LP problems. We will then examine its effectiveness when applied to derive dynamic matrix control (DMC) as the LP solution. The approach is to aim at the above goal through a quality control of process that will appear in the system. (author)

  17. Exact Solutions to Several Nonlinear Cases of Generalized Grad-Shafranov Equation for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in Axisymmetric Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Abdullahi Rashid; Moawad, Salah M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the steady-state equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamic incompressible flows in axisymmetric domains are investigated. These flows are governed by a second-order elliptic partial differential equation as a type of generalized Grad-Shafranov equation. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the full governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is considered. Two different types of constraints on position variables are presented to construct exact solution classes for several nonlinear cases of the governing equations. Some of the obtained results are checked for their applications to magnetic confinement plasma. Besides, they cover many previous configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables.

  18. Detection of localized and general corrosion of mild steel in simulated defense nuclear waste solutions using electrochemical noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.; Bell, G.E.C.; Wilson, D.F.

    1995-12-01

    Underground waste tanks fabricated from mild steel store more than 60 million gallons of radioactive waste from 50 years of weapons production. Leaks are suspected in a significant number of tanks. The probable modes of corrosion failures are reported to be localized corrosion (e.g. nitrate stress corrosion cracking and pitting). The use of electrochemical noise (EN) for the monitoring and detection of localized corrosion processes has received considerable attention and application over the last several years. Proof of principle laboratory tests were conducted to verify the capability of EN evaluation to detect localized corrosion and to compare the predictions of general corrosion obtained from EN with those derived from other sources. Simple, pre-fabricated flat and U-bend specimens of steel alloys A516-Grade 60 (UNS K02100) and A537-CL 1 (UNS K02400) were immersed in temperature controlled simulated waste solutions. The simulated waste solution was either 5M NaNO 3 with 0.3M NaOH at 90 C or 11M NaNO 3 with 0.15M NaOH at 95 C. The electrochemical noise activity from the specimens was monitored and recorded for periods ranging between 140 and 240 hours. At the end of each test period, the specimens were metallographically examined to correlated EN data with corrosion damage

  19. Multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation from plasma physics, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics and optical communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Xing; Zhu Hongwu; Yao Zhenzhi; Meng Xianghua; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Chunyi; Tian Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant are presented for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which appears in space and laboratory plasmas, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics, optical communications and so on. By means of the particularly nice properties of Wronskian determinant, the solutions are testified through direct substitution into the bilinear equations. Furthermore, it can be proved that the bilinear Baecklund transformation transforms between (N - 1)- and N-soliton solutions

  20. Geographic Diffusion and Implementation of Acute Care Surgery: An Uneven Solution to the National Emergency General Surgery Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jasmine A; Ingraham, Angela M; Daniel, Vijaya T; Ayturk, Didem; Kiefe, Catarina I; Santry, Heena P

    2018-02-01

    Owing to lack of adequate emergency care infrastructure and decline in general surgery workforce, the United States faces a crisis in access to emergency general surgery (EGS) care. Acute care surgery (ACS), an organized system of trauma, general surgery, and critical care, is a proposed solution; however, ACS diffusion remains poorly understood. To investigate geographic diffusion of ACS models of care and characterize the communities in which ACS implementation is lagging. A national survey on EGS practices was developed, tested, and administered at all 2811 US acute care hospitals providing EGS to adults between August 2015 and October 2015. Surgeons responsible for EGS coverage at these hospitals were approached. If these surgeons failed to respond to the initial survey implementation, secondary surgeons or chief medical officers at hospitals with only 1 general surgeon were approached. Survey responses on ACS implementation were linked with geocoded hospital data and national census data to determine geographic diffusion of and access to ACS. We measured the distribution of hospitals with ACS models of care vs those without over time (diffusion) and by US counties characterized by sociodemographic characteristics of county residents (access). Survey response rate was 60% (n = 1690); 272 responding hospitals had implemented ACS by 2015, steadily increasing from 34 in 2001 to 125 in 2010. Acute care surgery implementation has not been uniform. Rural regions have limited ACS access, with hospitals in counties with greater than the 75th percentile population having 5.4 times higher odds (95% CI, 1.66-7.35) of implementing ACS than hospitals in counties with less than 25th percentile population. Communities with greater percentages of adults without a college degree also have limited ACS access (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.81-6.48). However, incorporating EGS into ACS models may be a potential equalizer for poor, black, and Hispanic communities. Understanding and

  1. A new generalized exponential rational function method to find exact special solutions for the resonance nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behzad; Inc, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The present paper suggests a novel technique to acquire exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The main idea of the method is to generalize the exponential rational function method. In order to examine the ability of the method, we consider the resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation (R-NLSE). Many variants of exact soliton solutions for the equation are derived by the proposed method. Physical interpretations of some obtained solutions is also included. One can easily conclude that the new proposed method is very efficient and finds the exact solutions of the equation in a relatively easy way.

  2. A transformation with symbolic computation and abundant new soliton-like solutions for the (1+2)-dimensional generalized Burgers equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an auto-Baecklund transformation is presented for the generalized Burgers equation: u t +u xy + αuu y +αu x ∂ -1 x u y =0 (α is constant) by using an ansatz and symbolic computation. Particularly, this equation is transformed into a (1+2)-dimensional generalized heat equation ω t + ω xy =0 by the Cole-Hopf transformation. This shows that this equation is C-integrable. Abundant types of new soliton-like solutions are obtained by virtue of the obtained transformation. These solutions contain n-soliton-like solutions, shock wave solutions and singular soliton-like solutions, which may be of important significance in explaining some physical phenomena. The approach can also be extended to other types of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics

  3. The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin, E-mail: jiulindu@aliyun.com

    2015-08-15

    We study the time behavior of the Fokker–Planck equation in Zwanzig’s rule (the backward-Ito’s rule) based on the Langevin equation of Brownian motion with an anomalous diffusion in a complex medium. The diffusion coefficient is a function in momentum space and follows a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. We obtain the precise time-dependent analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck equation and at long time the solution approaches to a stationary power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. As a test, numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution. - Highlights: • The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion is found. • The anomalous diffusion satisfies a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. • At long time the time-dependent solution approaches to a power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. • Numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution.

  4. The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin

    2015-01-01

    We study the time behavior of the Fokker–Planck equation in Zwanzig’s rule (the backward-Ito’s rule) based on the Langevin equation of Brownian motion with an anomalous diffusion in a complex medium. The diffusion coefficient is a function in momentum space and follows a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. We obtain the precise time-dependent analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck equation and at long time the solution approaches to a stationary power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. As a test, numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution. - Highlights: • The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion is found. • The anomalous diffusion satisfies a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. • At long time the time-dependent solution approaches to a power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. • Numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution

  5. Presentation of the High-Flux Reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The High-Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Institut Laue-Langevin is the world's most intense source of neutrons for fundamental research. Thanks to its extremely compact core, which is made up of a single fuel element, the HFR is capable of producing a neutron flux of up to 1.5.10 15 n.cm -2 .s -1 with a moderate power output of 58 MW. Its heavy water reflector thermalizes these neutrons, giving them a wave length of the order of one angstrom. They then become an excellent tool for exploring the atomic structure of matter. In order to provide a full neutron spectrum, the reactor is also equipped with a hot source (a block of graphite heated to 2000 deg. C) and two cold sources (a volume of liquid deuterium at 25 K). All the reactor's components can be replaced and adapted in order to keep pace with both changing scientific needs and changing safety requirements. For example, in 1992 the reactor block was replaced, a second cold source was installed in 1985, and the beam tubes are replaced at regularly intervals and are also occasionally modified. In the same way, the reactor's civil engineering structures are currently being reinforced in order to comply with the reassessment of the reference earthquake spectra. Finally, the Institut Laue-Langevin's reactor is equipped with three solid containment barriers: - the fuel cladding: during the 35 years the reactor has been in operation, a cladding failure has never been detected; - the leak-tight primary cooling system: this is partly submerged in a pool which provides radiological shielding; - the double-wall containment: an overpressure of air is maintained between the inner reinforced concrete wall and the outer metal wall. The High-Flux Reactor is therefore all set to provide the scientific community with top quality service for the next 20 years to come, on a site which: - is home to the brightest synchrotron in the world (ESRF); - benefits from the microbiology expertise of the EMBL

  6. Presentation of the High-Flux Reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyon, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The High-Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Institut Laue-Langevin is the world's most intense source of neutrons for fundamental research. Thanks to its extremely compact core, which is made up of a single fuel element, the HFR is capable of producing a neutron flux of up to 1.5.10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} with a moderate power output of 58 MW. Its heavy water reflector thermalizes these neutrons, giving them a wave length of the order of one angstrom. They then become an excellent tool for exploring the atomic structure of matter. In order to provide a full neutron spectrum, the reactor is also equipped with a hot source (a block of graphite heated to 2000 deg. C) and two cold sources (a volume of liquid deuterium at 25 K). All the reactor's components can be replaced and adapted in order to keep pace with both changing scientific needs and changing safety requirements. For example, in 1992 the reactor block was replaced, a second cold source was installed in 1985, and the beam tubes are replaced at regularly intervals and are also occasionally modified. In the same way, the reactor's civil engineering structures are currently being reinforced in order to comply with the reassessment of the reference earthquake spectra. Finally, the Institut Laue-Langevin's reactor is equipped with three solid containment barriers: - the fuel cladding: during the 35 years the reactor has been in operation, a cladding failure has never been detected; - the leak-tight primary cooling system: this is partly submerged in a pool which provides radiological shielding; - the double-wall containment: an overpressure of air is maintained between the inner reinforced concrete wall and the outer metal wall. The High-Flux Reactor is therefore all set to provide the scientific community with top quality service for the next 20 years to come, on a site which: - is home to the brightest synchrotron in the world (ESRF); - benefits from the

  7. Stability analysis of the soliton solutions for the generalized quintic derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yue

    Full Text Available The propagation of hydrodynamic wave packets and media with negative refractive index is studied in a quintic derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS equation. The quintic DNLS equation describe the wave propagation on a discrete electrical transmission line. We obtain a Lagrangian and the invariant variational principle for quintic DNLS equation. By using a class of ordinary differential equation, we found four types of exact solutions of the quintic DNLS equation, which are kink-type solitary wave solution, antikink-type solitary wave solution, sinusoidal solitary wave solution, bell-type solitary wave solution. By applying the modulation instability to discuss stability analysis of the obtained solutions. Modulation instabilities of continuous waves and localized solutions on a zero background have been investigated. Keywords: Quintic derivative NLS equation, Solitary wave solutions, Mathematical physics methods, 2000 MR Subject Classification: 35G20, 35Q53, 37K10, 49S05, 76A60

  8. Numerical simulations of the O(3) and CP1 models using the Langevin equations and the Metropolis algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Carneiro, C.E.I.

    1988-12-01

    The O(3) model, the pure CP 1 model and the CP 1 model minimally coupled to fermions are numerically simulated. The equivalence between the O(3) and the bound state of the pure CP 1 model is investigated. It is shown that: the relations g O(3 ) = 2 g CP 1 and E O(3 )= 2E CP 1 + 2, for the coupling constants and energies hold beyond the classical level; the mass gap as a function of the coupling is the same for both models. The mass gap for the CP 1 minimally coupled to fermions is also calculated. The calculations are performed using different techniques. The proposal by Namiki and colaborators to enforce constraints on Langevin equations and Parisi's technique to calculate correlation functions via Langevin equations is tested. The results are compared with those obtained using the multi-hit Metropolis algorithm. (author) [pt

  9. Global Positive Periodic Solutions of Generalized n-Species Gilpin-Ayala Delayed Competition Systems with Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the following generalized n-species Lotka-Volterra type and Gilpin-Ayala type competition systems with multiple delays and impulses: xi′(t=xi(t[ai(t-bi(txi(t-∑j=1n‍cij(txjαij(t-ρij(t-∑j=1n‍dij(txjβij(t-τij(t-∑j=1n‍eij(t∫-ηij0‍kij(sxjγij(t+sds-∑j=1n‍fij(t∫-θij0‍Kij(ξxiδij(t+ξxjσij(t+ξdξ],a.e, t>0, t≠tk; xi(tk+-xi(tk-=hikxi(tk, i=1,2,…,n, k∈Z+. By applying the Krasnoselskii fixed-point theorem in a cone of Banach space, we derive some verifiable necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the previously mentioned. As applications, some special cases of the previous system are examined and some earlier results are extended and improved.

  10. Numerical study of Langevin equation in twisted Eguchi-Kawai model: distribution of eigenvalues of the plaquette matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.A.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Veselov, A.I.; Yurov, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Langevin equation for the lattice theory with arbitrary gauge group is derived. The four-dimensional twisted Eguchi-Kawai model is investigated numerically. The results for the plaquette energy agree with those of the known Monte Carlo calculations. The new result is the distribution of eigenvalues of the plaquette matrix. In the strong coupling phase this distribution is smooth, whereas in the weak coupling phase a gap is clearly seen

  11. A Langevin model for fluctuating contact angle behaviour parametrised using molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Müller, E A; Craster, R V; Matar, O K

    2016-12-06

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to develop a theoretical model to predict the fluid-solid contact angle as a function of wall-sliding speed incorporating thermal fluctuations. A liquid bridge between counter-sliding walls is studied, with liquid-vapour interface-tracking, to explore the impact of wall-sliding speed on contact angle. The behaviour of the macroscopic contact angle varies linearly over a range of capillary numbers beyond which the liquid bridge pinches off, a behaviour supported by experimental results. Nonetheless, the liquid bridge provides an ideal test case to study molecular scale thermal fluctuations, which are shown to be well described by Gaussian distributions. A Langevin model for contact angle is parametrised to incorporate the mean, fluctuation and auto-correlations over a range of sliding speeds and temperatures. The resulting equations can be used as a proxy for the fully-detailed molecular dynamics simulation allowing them to be integrated within a continuum-scale solver.

  12. The complex Langevin analysis of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by complex fermion determinant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishimura, Jun [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI),1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-12-05

    In many interesting physical systems, the determinant which appears from integrating out fermions becomes complex, and its phase plays a crucial role in the determination of the vacuum. An example of this is QCD at low temperature and high density, where various exotic fermion condensates are conjectured to form. Another example is the Euclidean version of the type IIB matrix model for 10d superstring theory, where spontaneous breaking of the SO(10) rotational symmetry down to SO(4) is expected to occur. When one applies the complex Langevin method to these systems, one encounters the singular-drift problem associated with the appearance of nearly zero eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. Here we propose to avoid this problem by deforming the action with a fermion bilinear term. The results for the original system are obtained by extrapolations with respect to the deformation parameter. We demonstrate the power of this approach by applying it to a simple matrix model, in which spontaneous symmetry breaking from SO(4) to SO(2) is expected to occur due to the phase of the complex fermion determinant. Unlike previous work based on a reweighting-type method, we are able to determine the true vacuum by calculating the order parameters, which agree with the prediction by the Gaussian expansion method.

  13. Perturbative treatment of anharmonic vibrational effects on bond distances: an extended Langevin dynamics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tonghao; Su, Neil Qiang; Wu, Anan; Xu, Xin

    2014-03-05

    In this work, we first review the perturbative treatment of an oscillator with cubic anharmonicity. It is shown that there is a quantum-classical correspondence in terms of mean displacement, mean-squared displacement, and the corresponding variance in the first-order perturbation theory, provided that the amplitude of the classical oscillator is fixed at the zeroth-order energy of quantum mechanics EQM (0). This correspondence condition is realized by proposing the extended Langevin dynamics (XLD), where the key is to construct a proper driving force. It is assumed that the driving force adopts a simple harmonic form with its amplitude chosen according to EQM (0), while the driving frequency chosen as the harmonic frequency. The latter can be improved by using the natural frequency of the system in response to the potential if its anharmonicity is strong. By comparing to the accurate numeric results from discrete variable representation calculations for a set of diatomic species, it is shown that the present method is able to capture the large part of anharmonicity, being competitive with the wave function-based vibrational second-order perturbation theory, for the whole frequency range from ∼4400 cm(-1) (H2 ) to ∼160 cm(-1) (Na2 ). XLD shows a substantial improvement over the classical molecular dynamics which ceases to work for hard mode when zero-point energy effects are significant. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nonequilibrium dynamics of moving mirrors in quantum fields: Influence functional and the Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-H.; Lee, D.-S.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of the mirror with perfect reflection moving in a quantum field. In the case where the mirror undergoes the small displacement, the coarse-grained effective action is obtained by integrating out the quantum field with the method of influence functional. The semiclassical Langevin equation is derived, and is found to involve two levels of backreaction effects on the dynamics of mirrors: radiation reaction induced by the motion of the mirror and backreaction dissipation arising from fluctuations in quantum field via a fluctuation-dissipation relation. Although the corresponding theorem of fluctuation and dissipation for the case with the small mirror's displacement is of model independence, the study from the first principles derivation shows that the theorem is also independent of the regulators introduced to deal with short-distance divergences from the quantum field. Thus, when the method of regularization is introduced to compute the dissipation and fluctuation effects, this theorem must be fulfilled as the results are obtained by taking the short-distance limit in the end of calculations. The backreaction effects from vacuum fluctuations on moving mirrors are found to be hardly detected while those effects from thermal fluctuations may be detectable

  15. Langevin dynamics encapsulate the microscopic and emergent macroscopic properties of midge swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to bird flocks, fish schools and animal herds, midge swarms maintain cohesion but do not possess global order. High-speed imaging techniques are now revealing that these swarms have surprising properties. Here, I show that simple models found on the Langevin equation are consistent with this wealth of recent observations. The models predict correctly that large accelerations, exceeding 10 g, will be common and they predict correctly the coexistence of core condensed phases surrounded by dilute vapour phases. The models also provide new insights into the influence of environmental conditions on swarm dynamics. They predict that correlations between midges increase the strength of the effective force binding the swarm together. This may explain why such correlations are absent in laboratory swarms but present in natural swarms which contend with the wind and other disturbances. Finally, the models predict that swarms have fluid-like macroscopic mechanical properties and will slosh rather than slide back and forth after being abruptly displaced. This prediction offers a promising avenue for future experimentation that goes beyond current quasi-static testing which has revealed solid-like responses. PMID:29298958

  16. Fission observables from 4D Langevin calculations with macroscopic transport coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usang Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have extended the Langevin equations to 4 dimensions (4D by allowing the independent deformation for the left (δ1 and right fragments (δ2 of the fissioning nucleus. At the moment we are only able to use them in conjunction with the macroscopic transport coefficients. Nevertheless, we can see a considerable improvement in the preliminary results for the fission observables, especially those related to the total kinetic energy (TKE of fission fragments. By plotting the TKE distributions we have revealed the super-long fission modes in 236U and super-short fission modes in 257Fm. By plotting the distribution of δ against the fragment’s TKE we have noted a correlation between the values of δ and Brosa’s fission modes. We have found that the standard fission modes correspond to prolate tips of the light fragments while the complementary heavy fragments have oblate fission tips. On the other hand, if both fragments were prolate at the tips, we get super-long fission modes. If both fragments were oblate at the tips, we get super-short fission modes.

  17. Institut Laue Langevin. Complementary safety evaluation in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes a complementary safety evaluation of Laue Langevin Institute (ILL) in Grenoble, one of the French basic nuclear installations (BNI, in French INB) in the light of the Fukushima accident. This evaluation takes the following risks into account: risks of flooding, earthquake, loss of power supply and loss of cooling, in addition to operational management of accident situations. It presents some characteristics of the installation (location, operator, industrial environment, installation characteristics), reports a macroscopic safety study focused of installation structures, systems and components, evaluates the seismic risk (installation sizing, margin evaluation, reinforcement propositions, possible ground acceleration levels, reactivity, cooling and confinement control), evaluates the flooding risk (installation sizing, margin evaluation), briefly examines other extreme natural phenomena (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding, earthquake with flooding). It analyzes the risk of a loss of power supply and of cooling (loss of external and internal electric sources, loss of the ultimate cooling system). It analyzes the management of severe accidents: core cooling management, confinement management after fuel damage, cooling management of irradiated fuel element in pool, cliff effect for these three types of accident. It discusses the conditions of the use of subcontractors. In conclusion, reinforcement and strengthening measures are proposed and discussed

  18. Influence of angular momentum on fission fragment mass distribution: Interpretation within Langevin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, E.G.; Karpov, A.V.; Adeev, G.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dependence of fission fragments mass distribution on the angular momentum within Langevin dynamics is studied. The calculations are performed in the framework of the rotating temperature-dependent finite-range liquid drop model. The calculations are done for the five nuclei, representing heavy fissioning nuclei, medium fissioning nuclei and light fissioning one with the angular momentum varied in the wide range from l=0 to l=70-bar . The dependence coefficients dσ M 2 /dl 2 for the investigated nuclei are extracted. The comparison of the extracted values with the experimental data reveals a good agreement for all the cases (the heavy, medium, and light fissioning nuclei). It is found out that the obtained dependence of σ M 2 on l can be explained with the help of temperature at scission as a function of l. The latter dependence is determined by dependence of the mean prescission neutron multiplicity on l. The analysis of this dependence is done as a competition between fission process and neutron evaporation. 'Remembering of the former large fluctuations of mass asymmetry coordinate during descent from the saddle to scission' is considered. It is shown that the 'remembering effect' takes place, but does not play a crucial role for the investigated dependence of σ M 2 on l

  19. Langevin dynamics simulation on the translocation of polymer through α-hemolysin pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Zhen; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2014-01-01

    The forced translocation of a polymer through an α-hemolysin pore under an electrical field is studied using a Langevin dynamics simulation. The α-hemolysin pore is modelled as a connection of a spherical vestibule and a cylindrical β-barrel and polymer-pore attraction is taken into account. The results show that polymer-pore attraction can help the polymer enter the vestibule and the β-barrel as well; however, a strong attraction will slow down the translocation of the polymer through the β-barrel. The mean translocation time for the polymer to thread through the β-barrel increases linearly with the polymer length. By comparing our results with that of a simple pore without a vestibule, we find that the vestibule helps the polymer enter and thread through the β-barrel. Moreover, we find that it is easier for the polymer to thread through the β-barrel if the polymer is located closer to the surface of the vestibule. Some simulation results are explained qualitatively by theoretically analyzing the free-energy landscape of polymer translocation. (paper)

  20. SuperADAM: upgraded polarized neutron reflectometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devishvili, A; Zhernenkov, K; Dennison, A J C; Toperverg, B P; Wolff, M; Hjörvarsson, B; Zabel, H

    2013-02-01

    A new neutron reflectometer SuperADAM has recently been built and commissioned at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. It replaces the previous neutron reflectometer ADAM. The new instrument uses a solid state polarizer/wavelength filter providing a highly polarized (up to 98.6%) monochromatic neutron flux of 8 × 10(4) n cm(-2) s(-1) with monochromatization Δλ∕λ = 0.7% and angular divergence Δα = 0.2 mrad. The instrument includes both single and position sensitive detectors. The position sensitive detector allows simultaneous measurement of specular reflection and off-specular scattering. Polarization analysis for both specular reflection and off-specular scattering is achieved using either mirror analyzers or a (3)He spin filter cell. High efficiency detectors, low background, and high flux provides a dynamic range of up to seven decades in reflectivity. Detailed specifications and the instrument capabilities are illustrated with examples of recently collected data in the fields of thin film magnetism and thin polymer films.

  1. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  2. Generalization of Bateman-Hillion progressive wave and Bessel-Gauss pulse solutions of the wave equation via a separation of variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A

    2003-01-01

    Two new families of exact solutions of the wave equation u sub x sub x + u sub y sub y + u sub z sub z - c sup - sup 2 u sub t sub t = 0 generalizing Bessel-Gauss pulses and Bateman-Hillion relatively undistorted progressive waves, respectively are presented. In each of these families new simple solutions describing localized wave propagation are found. The approach is based on a kind of separation of variables. (letter to the editor)

  3. Positive solution of non-square fully Fuzzy linear system of equation in general form using least square method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ezzati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the least square method for computing the positive solution of a non-square fully fuzzy linear system. To this end, we use Kaffman' arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers \\cite{17}. Here, considered existence of exact solution using pseudoinverse, if they are not satisfy in positive solution condition, we will compute fuzzy vector core and then we will obtain right and left spreads of positive fuzzy vector by introducing constrained least squares problem. Using our proposed method, non-square fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  4. Classical solutions for discrete potential boundary value problems with generalized Leray-Lions type operator and variable exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bila Adolphe Kyelem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions for some discrete nonlinear difference equations subjected to a potential boundary type condition. We use a variational technique that relies on Szulkin's critical point theory, which ensures the existence of solutions by ground state and mountain pass methods.

  5. A novel biological 'twin-father' temporal paradox of General Relativity in a Gödel universe - Where reproductive biology meets theoretical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2018-03-01

    Several temporal paradoxes exist in physics. These include General Relativity's grandfather and ontological paradoxes and Special Relativity's Langevin-Einstein twin-paradox. General relativity paradoxes can exist due to a Gödel universe that follows Gödel's closed timelike curves solution to Einstein's field equations. A novel biological temporal paradox of General Relativity is proposed based on reproductive biology's phenomenon of heteropaternal fecundation. Herein, dizygotic twins from two different fathers are the result of concomitant fertilization during one menstrual cycle. In this case an Oedipus-like individual exposed to a Gödel closed timelike curve would sire a child during his maternal fertilization cycle. As a consequence of heteropaternal superfecundation, he would father his own dizygotic twin and would therefore generate a new class of autofraternal superfecundation, and by doing so creating a 'twin-father' temporal paradox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exact solution of the Klein-Gordon equation for the PT-symmetric generalized Woods-Saxon potential by the Nikiforov-Uvarov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikhdair, S.M.; Sever, R.

    2007-01-01

    The exact solution of the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation of the PT-symmetric generalized Woods-Saxon potential is obtained. The exact energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions are derived analytically by using the Nikiforov and Uvarov method. In addition, the positive and negative exact bound states of the s-states are also investigated for different types of complex generalized Woods-Saxon potentials. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Finite-Temperature Non-equilibrium Quasicontinuum Method based on Langevin Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marian, J; Venturini, G; Hansen, B; Knap, J; Ortiz, M; Campbell, G

    2009-05-08

    The concurrent bridging of molecular dynamics and continuum thermodynamics presents a number of challenges, mostly associated with energy transmission and changes in the constitutive description of a material across domain boundaries. In this paper, we propose a framework for simulating coarse dynamic systems in the canonical ensemble using the Quasicontinuum method (QC). The equations of motion are expressed in reduced QC coordinates and are strictly derived from dissipative Lagrangian mechanics. The derivation naturally leads to a classical Langevin implementation where the timescale is governed by vibrations emanating from the finest length scale occurring in the computational cell. The equations of motion are integrated explicitly via Newmark's ({beta} = 0; {gamma} = 1/2) method, leading to a robust numerical behavior and energy conservation. In its current form, the method only allows for wave propagations supported by the less compliant of the two meshes across a heterogeneous boundary, which requires the use of overdamped dynamics to avoid spurious heating due to reflected vibrations. We have applied the method to two independent crystallographic systems characterized by different interatomic potentials (Al and Ta) and have measured thermal expansion in order to quantify the vibrational entropy loss due to homogenization. We rationalize the results in terms of system size, mesh coarseness, and nodal cluster diameter within the framework of the quasiharmonic approximation. For Al, we find that the entropy loss introduced by mesh coarsening varies linearly with the element size, and that volumetric effects are not critical in driving the anharmonic behavior of the simulated systems. In Ta, the anomalies of the interatomic potential employed result in negative and zero thermal expansion at low and high temperatures, respectively.

  8. Approximate method for stochastic chemical kinetics with two-time scales by chemical Langevin equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Fuke; Tian, Tianhai; Rawlings, James B.; Yin, George

    2016-01-01

    The frequently used reduction technique is based on the chemical master equation for stochastic chemical kinetics with two-time scales, which yields the modified stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). For the chemical reaction processes involving a large number of molecular species and reactions, the collection of slow reactions may still include a large number of molecular species and reactions. Consequently, the SSA is still computationally expensive. Because the chemical Langevin equations (CLEs) can effectively work for a large number of molecular species and reactions, this paper develops a reduction method based on the CLE by the stochastic averaging principle developed in the work of Khasminskii and Yin [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 56, 1766–1793 (1996); ibid. 56, 1794–1819 (1996)] to average out the fast-reacting variables. This reduction method leads to a limit averaging system, which is an approximation of the slow reactions. Because in the stochastic chemical kinetics, the CLE is seen as the approximation of the SSA, the limit averaging system can be treated as the approximation of the slow reactions. As an application, we examine the reduction of computation complexity for the gene regulatory networks with two-time scales driven by intrinsic noise. For linear and nonlinear protein production functions, the simulations show that the sample average (expectation) of the limit averaging system is close to that of the slow-reaction process based on the SSA. It demonstrates that the limit averaging system is an efficient approximation of the slow-reaction process in the sense of the weak convergence.

  9. Dynamics of density fluctuations in a non-Markovian Boltzmann- Langevin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the course of the past few years, the nuclear Boltzmann-Langevin (BL)model has emerged as a promising microscopic model for nuclear dynamics at intermediate energies. The BL model goes beyond the much employed Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model, and hence it provides a basis for describing dynamics of density fluctuations and addressing processes exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking and catastrophic transformations in nuclear collisions, such as induced fission and multifragmentation. In these standard models, the collision term is treated in a Markovian approximation by assuming that two-body collisions are local in both space and time, in accordance with Boltzmann's original treatment. This simplification is usually justified by the fact that the duration of a two-body collision is short on the time scale characteristic of the macroscopic evolution of the system. As a result, transport properties of the collective motion has then a classical character. However, when the system possesses fast collective modes with characteristic energies that are not small in comparision with the temperature, then the quantum-statistical effects are important and the standard Markovian treatment is inadequate. In this case, it is necessary to improve the one-body transport model by including the memory effect due to the finite duration of two-body collisions. First we briefly describe the non-Markovian extension of the BL model by including the finite memory time associated with two-body collisions. Then, using this non-Markovian model in a linear response framework, we investigate the effect of the memory time on the agitation of unstable modes in nuclear matter in the spinodal zone, and calculate the collisional relaxation rates of nuclear collective vibrations

  10. Fast stochastic simulation of biochemical reaction systems by alternative formulations of the chemical Langevin equation

    KAUST Repository

    Mélykúti, Bence

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Langevin Equation (CLE), which is a stochastic differential equation driven by a multidimensional Wiener process, acts as a bridge between the discrete stochastic simulation algorithm and the deterministic reaction rate equation when simulating (bio)chemical kinetics. The CLE model is valid in the regime where molecular populations are abundant enough to assume their concentrations change continuously, but stochastic fluctuations still play a major role. The contribution of this work is that we observe and explore that the CLE is not a single equation, but a parametric family of equations, all of which give the same finite-dimensional distribution of the variables. On the theoretical side, we prove that as many Wiener processes are sufficient to formulate the CLE as there are independent variables in the equation, which is just the rank of the stoichiometric matrix. On the practical side, we show that in the case where there are m1 pairs of reversible reactions and m2 irreversible reactions there is another, simple formulation of the CLE with only m1 + m2 Wiener processes, whereas the standard approach uses 2 m1 + m2. We demonstrate that there are considerable computational savings when using this latter formulation. Such transformations of the CLE do not cause a loss of accuracy and are therefore distinct from model reduction techniques. We illustrate our findings by considering alternative formulations of the CLE for a human ether a-go-go related gene ion channel model and the Goldbeter-Koshland switch. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  11. A general analytical solution for the stochastic Milne problem using Karhunen–Loeve (K–L) expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.; Selim, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the solution of the stochastic integro-differential equation of Milne problem with random operator. The Pomraning–Eddington method is implemented to get a closed form solution deterministically. Relying on the spectral properties of the covariance function, the Karhunen–Loeve (K–L) expansion is used to represent the input stochastic process in the deterministic solution. This leads to an explicit expression for the solution process as a multivariate functional of a set of uncorrelated random variables. By using different distributions for these variables, the work is realized through computing the mean and the variance of the solution. The numerical results are found in agreement with those obtained in the literature. -- Highlights: •The solution of the stochastic Milne problem is considered. •We dealt with the random cross-section itself not with the optical transformation of it. •Pomraning–Eddington method together with the (K–L) expansion were implemented. •The solution process is obtained as a functional of a set of uncorrelated random variables. •Good results are obtained for different distributions of these variables

  12. On the de Sitter and Nariai solutions in general relativity and their extension in higher dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu; Ishihara, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    Various geometrical properties of Nariai's less-familiar solution of the vacuum Einstein equations R sub( mu nu ) = lambda g sub( mu nu ) is f irst summarized in comparison with de Sitter's well-known solution. Next an extension of both solutions is performed in a six-dimensional space on the supposition that such an extension will in future become useful to elucidate more closely the creation of particles in an inflationary stage of the big-bang universe. For preparation, the behavior of a massive scalar field in the extended space-time is studied in a classical level. (author)

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Pre-Conference Seminar on Automated Systems for Access to Multilingual and Multiscript Library materials: Problems and Solutions. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    A seminar which considered problems and solutions regarding automated systems for access to multilingual and multiscript library materials was held as a pre-session before the IFLA general conference in 1986. Papers presented include: (1) "Romanized and Transliterated Databases of Asian Language Materials--History, Problems, and…

  14. One class of meromorphic solutions of general two-dimensional nonlinear equations, connected with the algebraic inverse scattering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, D V

    1978-09-01

    For systems of nonlinear equations having the form [L(n) - ( partial differential/ partial differentialt), L(m) - ( partial differential/ partial differentialy)] = 0 the class of meromorphic solutions obtained from the linear equations [Formula: see text] is presented.

  15. A Generalized Semi-Analytical Solution for the Dispersive Henry Problem: Effect of Stratification and Anisotropy on Seawater Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Fahs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Henry problem (HP continues to play a useful role in theoretical and practical studies related to seawater intrusion (SWI into coastal aquifers. The popularity of this problem is attributed to its simplicity and precision to the existence of semi-analytical (SA solutions. The first SA solution has been developed for a high uniform diffusion coefficient. Several further studies have contributed more realistic solutions with lower diffusion coefficients or velocity-dependent dispersion. All the existing SA solutions are limited to homogenous and isotropic domains. This work attempts to improve the realism of the SA solution of the dispersive HP by extending it to heterogeneous and anisotropic coastal aquifers. The solution is obtained using the Fourier series method. A special hydraulic conductivity–depth model describing stratified heterogeneity is used for mathematical convenience. An efficient technique is developed to solve the flow and transport equations in the spectral space. With this technique, we show that the HP can be solved in the spectral space with the salt concentration as primary unknown. Several examples are generated, and the SA solutions are compared against an in-house finite element code. The results provide high-quality data assessed by quantitative indicators that can be effectively used for code verification in realistic configurations of heterogeneity and anisotropy. The SA solution is used to explain contradictory results stated in the previous works about the effect of anisotropy on the saltwater wedge. It is also used to investigate the combined influence of stratification and anisotropy on relevant metrics characterizing SWI. At a constant gravity number, anisotropy leads to landward migration of the saltwater wedge, more intense saltwater flux, a wider mixing zone and shallower groundwater discharge zone to the sea. The influence of stratified heterogeneity is more pronounced in highly anisotropic aquifers. The

  16. Effect of Organic Acid Additions on the General and Localized Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Ilevbare, G O; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-28

    Electrochemical studies such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 (N06022) in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. All the tested material was wrought Mill Annealed (MA). Tests were also performed in NaCl solutions containing weak organic acids such as oxalic, acetic, citric and picric. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was significantly higher in solutions containing oxalic acid than in solutions of pure NaCl at the same pH. Citric and picric acids showed a slightly higher corrosion rate, and acetic acid maintained the corrosion rate of pure chloride solutions at the same pH. Organic acids revealed to be weak inhibitors for crevice corrosion. Higher concentration ratios, compared to nitrate ions, were needed to completely inhibit crevice corrosion in chloride solutions. Results are discussed considering acid dissociation constants, buffer capacity and complex formation constants of the different weak acids.

  17. Contribution to the study of influences in emission spectrography on solutions. Application to a general analysis method for stainless steels (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1961-11-01

    In order to establish a general method of analysis of stainless steels, by means of spark spectroscopy on solutions, a systematic study has been made of the factors involved. The variations in acidity of the solutions, or in the ratio of concentrations of two acids at constant pH, lead to a displacement of the calibration curve. Simple relations have been established between the concentration of the extraneous elements, and the effects produced, for the constituents Fe, Ti, Ni, Cr, Mn; a general method using abacus is proposed for steels containing only these elements. The interactions in the case of the elements Mo, Nb, Ta, W, were more complex, so that the simultaneous separation was studied with the help of ion-exchange resins. A general method of analysis is proposed for stainless steels. (author) [fr

  18. You Don't Need Richards'... A New General 1-D Vadose Zone Solution Method that is Reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, F. L.; Lai, W.; Zhu, J.; Steinke, R. C.; Talbot, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic modelers and mathematicians have strived to improve 1-D Richards' equation (RE) solution reliability for predicting vadose zone fluxes. Despite advances in computing power and the numerical solution of partial differential equations since Richards first published the RE in 1931, the solution remains unreliable. That is to say that there is no guarantee that for a particular set of soil constitutive relations, moisture profile conditions, or forcing input that a numerical RE solver will converge to an answer. This risk of non-convergence renders prohibitive the use of RE solvers in hydrological models that need perhaps millions of infiltration solutions. In lieu of using unreliable numerical RE solutions, researchers have developed a wide array of approximate solutions that more-or-less mimic the behavior of the RE, with some notable deficiencies such as parameter insensitivity or divergence over time. The improved Talbot-Ogden (T-O) finite water-content scheme was shown by Ogden et al. (2015) to be an extremely good approximation of the 1-D RE solution, with a difference in cumulative infiltration of only 0.2 percent over an 8 month simulation comparing the improved T-O scheme with a RE numerical solver. The reason is that the newly-derived fundamental flow equation that underpins the improved T-O method is equivalent to the RE minus a term that is equal to the diffusive flux divided by the slope of the wetting front. Because the diffusive flux has zero mean, this term is not important in calculating the mean flux. The wetting front slope is near infinite (sharp) in coarser soils that produce more significant hydrological interactions between surface and ground waters, which also makes this missing term 1) disappear in the limit, and, 2) create stability challenges for the numerical solution of RE. The improved T-O method is a replacement for the 1-D RE in soils that can be simulated as homogeneous layers, where the user is willing to neglect the effects

  19. A note on the solution of general Falkner-Skan problem by two novel semi-analytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khidir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a presentation of two new iterative methods for solving non-linear differential equations, they are successive linearisation method and spectral homotopy perturbation method. We applied these techniques on the non-linear boundary value problems of Falkner-Skan type. The methods used to find a recursive former for higher order equations that are solved using the Chebyshev spectral method to find solutions that are accurate and converge rapidly to the full numerical solution. The methods are illustrated by progressively applying the technique to the Blasius boundary layer equation, the Falkner-Skan equation and finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD Falkner-Skan equation. The solutions are compared to other methods in the literature such as the homotopy analysis method and the spectral-homotopy analysis method with focus on the accuracy and convergence of this new techniques.

  20. Fission and fusion interaction phenomena of mixed lump kink solutions for a generalized (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; Wen, Xiaoyong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a generalized (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (gBKP) equation is investigated by using the Hirota’s bilinear method. With the aid of symbolic computation, some new lump, mixed lump kink and periodic lump solutions are derived. Based on the derived solutions, some novel interaction phenomena like the fission and fusion interactions between one lump soliton and one kink soliton, the fission and fusion interactions between one lump soliton and a pair of kink solitons and the interactions between two periodic lump solitons are discussed graphically. Results might be helpful for understanding the propagation of the shallow water wave.