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Sample records for solute carrier family

  1. The solute carrier 6 family of transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröer, Stefan; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    of these transporters is associated with a variety of diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of the neurotransmitter transporters in this family is an important strategy in the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological properties......The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of the human genome comprises transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. Members of this family play critical roles in neurotransmission, cellular and whole body homeostasis. Malfunction or altered expression...... of the SLC6 family transporters....

  2. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Human Gene SLC25A29, of Solute Carrier Family 25, Encodes a Mitochondrial Transporter of Basic Amino Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation. PMID:24652292

  4. The human gene SLC25A29, of solute carrier family 25, encodes a mitochondrial transporter of basic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-05-09

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation.

  5. Organic solute carrier 22 (SLC22 family: Potential for interactions with food, herbal/dietary supplements, endogenous compounds, and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Lai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs, hormones, components of herbal medicines, environmental pesticides and toxins are Solute Carrier family 22 (SLC22 substrates. The last twenty years has seen great progress in determining SLC22 tissue expression profiles, membrane localization, energetics, substrate profiles and biopharmaceutical significance. However, much still remains to be answered in terms of SLC22 family member's roles in ‘normal’ physiology as compared to pathophysiological states, as well as in drug interactions that impact pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity. This review begins with a brief synopsis of SLC22 family discovery, function and tissue expression. Subsequent sections provide examples establishing a role for SLC22 transporters in food-drug, herbal supplement-drug, endogenous substrate-drug and drug–drug interactions. Keywords: Hepatic transport, Nephrotoxicity, Organic anion transporter, Organic cation transporter, Renal transport

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Solute Carrier 6 Gene Family in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Liu, Huawei; Chen, Quanmei; Wang, Xin; Xiong, Ying; Zhao, Ping

    2016-10-03

    The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family, initially known as the neurotransmitter transporters, plays vital roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter signaling, nutrient absorption and motor behavior. In this study, a total of 16 candidate genes were identified as SLC6 family gene homologs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) genome. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of silkworm SLC6 gene transcripts indicated that these genes were highly and specifically expressed in midgut, brain and gonads; moreover, these genes were expressed primarily at the feeding stage or adult stage. Levels of expression for most midgut-specific and midgut-enriched gene transcripts were down-regulated after starvation but up-regulated after re-feeding. In addition, we observed that expression levels of these genes except for BmSLC6-15 and BmGT1 were markedly up-regulated by a juvenile hormone analog. Moreover, brain-enriched genes showed differential expression patterns during wandering and mating processes, suggesting that these genes may be involved in modulating wandering and mating behaviors. Our results improve our understanding of the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of the SLC6 gene family, and provide valuable information for the comprehensive functional analysis of the SLC6 gene family.

  7. Solute carrier protein family 11 member 1 (Slc11a1) activation efficiently inhibits Leishmania donovani survival in host macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Gedda, Mallikarjuna Rao; Tiwari, Neeraj; Singh, Suya P; Bajpai, Surabhi; Singh, Rakesh K

    2017-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), a life threatening disease caused by L. donovani , is a latent threat to more than 147 million people living in disease endemic South East Asia region of the Indian subcontinent. The therapeutic option to control leishmanial infections are very limited, and at present comprise only two drugs, an antifungal amphotericin B and an antitumor miltefosine, which are also highly vulnerable for parasitic resistance. Therefore, identification and development of alternate control measures is an exigent requirement to control leishmanial infections. In this study, we report that functionally induced expression of solute carrier protein family 11 member 1 ( Slc11a1), a transmembrane divalent cationic transporter recruited on the surface of phagolysosomes after phagocytosis of parasites, effectively inhibits Leishmania donovani growth in host macrophages. Further, the increased Slc11a1 functionality also resulted in increased production of NOx, TNF-α and IL-12 by activated macrophages. The findings of this study signify the importance of interplay between Slc11a1 expression and macrophages activation that can be effectively used to control of Leishmania growth and survival.

  8. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  9. Association of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to leprosy in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Franco Brochado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1/solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene (Nramp1/Slc11a1 is a gene that controls the susceptibility of inbred mice to intracellular pathogens. Polymorphisms in the human Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene have been associated with host susceptibility to leprosy. This study has evaluated nine polymorphisms of the Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene [(GTn, 274C/T, 469+14G/C, 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029 C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4] in 86 leprosy patients (67 and 19 patients had the multibacillary and the paucibacillary clinical forms of the disease, respectively, and 239 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. The frequency of allele 2 of the (GTn polymorphism was higher in leprosy patients [p = 0.04, odds ratio (OR = 1.49], whereas the frequency of allele 3 was higher in the control group (p = 0.03; OR = 0.66. Patients carrying the 274T allele (p = 0.04; OR = 1.49 and TT homozygosis (p = 0.02; OR = 2.46, such as the 469+14C allele (p = 0.03; OR = 1.53 of the 274C/T and 469+14G/C polymorphisms, respectively, were more frequent in the leprosy group. The leprosy and control groups had similar frequency of the 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4 polymorphisms. The 274C/T polymorphism in exon 3 and the 469+14G/C polymorphism in intron 4 were associated with susceptibility to leprosy, while the allele 2 and 3 of the (GTn polymorphism in the promoter region were associated with susceptibility and protection to leprosy, respectively.

  10. The Human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 Genes of Solute Carrier Family 25 Encode Two Mitochondrial Pyrimidine Nucleotide Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. PMID:25320081

  11. The human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 genes of solute carrier family 25 encode two mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-11-28

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Developmental expression of solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4/pendrin) during amelogenesis in developing rodent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Guo, Jing; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Bervoets, Theodore J; Lyaruu, Donacian M; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; DenBesten, Pamela

    2011-12-01

    Ameloblasts need to regulate pH during the formation of enamel crystals, a process that generates protons. Solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4, or pendrin) is an anion exchanger for chloride, bicarbonate, iodine, and formate. It is expressed in apical membranes of ion-transporting epithelia in kidney, inner ear, and thyroid where it regulates luminal pH and fluid transport. We hypothesized that maturation ameloblasts express SLC26A4 to neutralize acidification of enamel fluid in forming enamel. In rodents, secretory and maturation ameloblasts were immunopositive for SLC26A4. Staining was particularly strong in apical membranes of maturation ameloblasts facing forming enamel. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA transcripts for Slc26a4 in enamel organs. SLC26A4 immunostaining was also found in mineralizing connective tissues, including odontoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, bone lining cells, cellular cementoblasts, and cementocytes. However, Slc26a4-null mutant mice had no overt dental phenotype. The presence of SLC26A4 in apical plasma membranes of maturation ameloblasts is consistent with a potential function as a pH regulator. SLC26A4 does not appear to be critical for ameloblast function and is probably compensated by other pH regulators. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. The expression of ferritin, lactoferrin, transferrin receptor and solute carrier family 11A1 in the host response to BCG-vaccination and Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, R E; Elmore, M J; Williams, A; Andrews, S C; Drobniewski, F; Marsh, P D; Tree, J A

    2012-05-02

    Iron is an essential cofactor for both mycobacterial growth during infection and for a successful protective immune response by the host. The immune response partly depends on the regulation of iron by the host, including the tight control of expression of the iron-storage protein, ferritin. BCG vaccination can protect against disease following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the mechanisms of protection remain unclear. To further explore these mechanisms, splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs were stimulated ex vivo with purified protein derivative from M. tuberculosis and a significant down-regulation of ferritin light- and heavy-chain was measured by reverse-transcription quantitative-PCR (P≤0.05 and ≤0.01, respectively). The mechanisms of this down-regulation were shown to involve TNFα and nitric oxide. A more in depth analysis of the mRNA expression profiles, including genes involved in iron metabolism, was performed using a guinea pig specific immunological microarray following ex vivo infection with M. tuberculosis of splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated and naïve guinea pigs. M. tuberculosis infection induced a pro-inflammatory response in splenocytes from both groups, resulting in down-regulation of ferritin (P≤0.05). In addition, lactoferrin (P≤0.002), transferrin receptor (P≤0.05) and solute carrier family 11A1 (P≤0.05), were only significantly down-regulated after infection of the splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated animals. The results show that expression of iron-metabolism genes is tightly regulated as part of the host response to M. tuberculosis infection and that BCG-vaccination enhances the ability of the host to mount an iron-restriction response which may in turn help to combat invasion by mycobacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping a new application for diagnosis of translocation carrier's embryos- preliminary observations of two robertsonian translocation carrier families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamash, Jana; Rienstein, Shlomit; Wolf-Reznik, Haike; Pras, Elon; Dekel, Michal; Litmanovitch, Talia; Brengauz, Masha; Goldman, Boleslav; Yonath, Hagith; Dor, Jehoshua; Levron, Jacob; Aviram-Goldring, Ayala

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (PGD-FISH) is currently the most common reproductive solution for translocation carriers. However, this technique usually does not differentiate between embryos carrying the balanced form of the translocation and those carrying the homologous normal chromosomes. We developed a new application of preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) that can identify and distinguish between all forms of the translocation status in cleavage stage embryos prior to implantation. Polymorphic markers were used to identify and differentiate between the alleles that carry the translocation and those that are the normal homologous chromosomes. Embryos from two families of robertsonian translocation carriers were successfully analyzed using polymorphic markers haplotyping. Our preliminary results indicate that the PGH is capable of distinguishing between normal, balanced and unbalanced translocation carrier embryos. This method will improve PGD and will enable translocation carriers to avoid transmission of the translocation and the associated medical complications to offspring.

  15. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  16. Do methicillin resistant staphylococcus (MRSA) carrier patients influence MRSA infection more than MRSA-carrier medical officers and MRSA-carrier family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilogo, Ismail H; Arya, Abikara; Phedy; Loho, Tony

    2013-07-01

    to determine the rate of MRSA-carrier among patients, family members and health care providers, and the association between MRSA-carrier family members and health care providers on MRSA infection patient after orthopaedic surgery. this is a cross-sectional analytical study. Samples were taken consecutively during December 2010 to December 2011, consisting of postoperative patients infected with MRSA, attending family members, and the medical officers with history of contact with the patient. Swab culture were taken from nasal and axilla of all subjects. The incidence of MRSA infection, and MRSA-carrier on the patient, family members and medical officers were presented descriptively, while their association with MRSA infection was statistically tested using Fischer exact test. during the study period, there were 759 surgeries, with 4 (0.5%) patients were identified to have MRSA infection. Of these four cases, 48 subjects were enrolled. The rate of MRSA-carrier among patients, family and health care providers were 50%, 25% and 0% respectively. There were no significant association between MRSA and the rates of MRSA-carrier on the family member or health care providers. the incidence of MRSA infection, MRSA-carrier patient, MRSA-carrier health care providers, and family member carrier were 0.5%, 50%, 0%, and 25% respectively. No significant association found between MRSA-carrier on the family member or health care providers and MRSA infection patient. There were no MRSA infection found on the health care provider.

  17. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Jing Xie,1,2 Xiao Yan Zhu,1,2 Lu Ming Liu,1,2 Zhi Qiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues o...

  18. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanhee Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Prostaglandins (PGs function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 (ABCC4 and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 (SLCO2A1 are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta. Methods Uterine endometrial tissues were obtained from gilts on day (D 12 and D15 of the estrous cycle and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy. Results ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs were expressed in the uterine endometrium, and levels of expression changed during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Expression of ABCC1 and ABCC9 mRNAs was localized mainly to luminal and glandular epithelial cells in the uterine endometrium, and chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy. Conceptuses during early pregnancy and chorioallantoic tissues from mid to late pregnancy also expressed these PG transporters. Estradiol-17β increased the expression of ABCC1 and SLCO5A1, but not ABCC9 and SLCO4C1 mRNAs and increasing doses of interleukin-1β induced the expression of ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs in endometrial explant tissues. Conclusion These data showed that several PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, suggesting that these PG transporters may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating PG transport in the uterine endometrium and placenta in pigs.

  19. Stealth carriers for low-resolution structure determination of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma; Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Midtgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    techniques for fast and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly nontrivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. Here, an elegant solution to circumvent the intrinsic complexity...

  20. New family of exact solutions for colliding plane gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, U.

    1988-01-01

    We construct an infinite-parameter family of exact solutions to the vacuum Einstein field equations describing colliding gravitational plane waves with parallel polarizations. The interaction regions of the solutions in this family are locally isometric to the interiors of those static axisymmetric (Weyl) black-hole solutions which admit both a nonsingular horizon, and an analytic extension of the exterior metric to the interior of the horizon. As a member of this family of solutions we also obtain, for the first time, a colliding plane-wave solution where both of the two incoming plane waves are purely anastigmatic, i.e., where both incoming waves have equal focal lengths

  1. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast...... and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly non-trivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. This thesis presents the development of a specifically deuterated, stealth nanodisc system...

  2. Transcellular movement of hydroxyurea is mediated by specific solute carrier transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Aisha L.; Franke, Ryan M.; Sparreboom, Alex; Ware, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hydroxyurea has proven laboratory and clinical therapeutic benefits for sickle cell anemia (SCA) and other diseases, yet many questions remain regarding its in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Previous reports suggest that hydroxyurea passively diffuses across cells, but its observed rapid absorption and distribution are more consistent with facilitated or active transport. We investigated the potential role of solute carrier (SLC) transporters in cellular uptake and accumulation of hydroxyurea. Materials and Methods Passive diffusion of hydroxyurea across cell membranes was determined using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. SLC transporter screens were conducted using in vitro intracellular drug accumulation and transcellular transport assays in cell lines and oocytes overexpressing SLC transporters. Gene expression of SLC transporters was measured by real-time PCR in human tissues and cell lines. Results Hydroxyurea had minimal diffusion across a lipid bilayer but was a substrate for 5 different SLC transporters belonging to the OCTN and OATP families of transporters and urea transporters A and B. Further characterization of hydroxyurea transport revealed that cellular uptake by OATP1B3 is time and temperature dependent and inhibited by known substrates of OATP1B3. Urea transporters A and B are expressed differentially in human tissues and erythroid cells, and transport hydroxyurea bidirectionally via facilitated diffusion. Conclusions These studies provide new insight into drug transport proteins that may be involved in the in vivo absorption, cellular distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea. Elucidation of hydroxyurea transcellular movement should improve our understanding of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and may help explain some of the inter-patient drug variability observed in patients with SCA. PMID:21256917

  3. Hygiene habits and carriers in families with a child who has had typhoid fever

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    M. de la Luz Alvarez

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between asymptomatic shedding of bacterial enteropathogens and the hygiene habits of families who have had a child with typhoid fever (TF are investigated. The sample was made up of 80 families: 40 families in which one child had had TF (Group A and 40 in which no children or either of the parents had had a history of TF (Group B. In each group 20 families belonged to a low socieconomic status (SES and 20 to a high SES. A structured interview was used to evaluate the SES and the hygiene habits of the child; observations were made to measure the hygiene habits of the family (toilet, kitchen and food preparation and bacteriological studies (fecal samples and hand markers. Results show that carriers were more frequent in Group A than in Group B. The bacterial species found were significantly more numerous in Group A than in Group B (fecal samples: E. coli, the classic serotypes, Shigella ssp, and hand markers: E. coli. Families of Group A had higher carriage rates than those of Group B. Finally there exists a significantly higher association between inadequate hygiene habits and carrier families. These results show the need to teach specific habits of proper hygiene to the entire population, because the fact of belonging to the high SES does not in itself preclude inadequate hygiene habits.

  4. Hygiene habits and carriers in families with a child who has had typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M L; Wurgaft, F; Espinoza, J; Araya, M; Figueroa, G

    1992-04-01

    The relationship between asymptomatic shedding of bacterial enteropathogens and the hygiene habits of families who have had a child with typhoid fever (TF) are investigated. The sample was made up of 80 families: 40 families in which one child had had TF (Group A) and 40 in which no children or either of the parents had had a history of TF (Group B). In each group 20 families belonged to a low socioeconomic status (SES) and 20 to a high SES. A structured interview was used to evaluate the SES and the hygiene habits of the child; observations were made to measure the hygiene habits of the family (toilet, kitchen and food preparation) and bacteriological studies (fecal samples and hand markers). Results show that carriers were more frequent in Group A than in Group B. The bacterial species found were significantly more numerous in Group A than in Group B (fecal samples: E. coli, the classic serotypes, Shigella ssp, and hand markers: E. coli). Families of Group A had higher carriage rates than those of Group B. Finally there exists a significantly higher association between inadequate hygiene habits and carrier families. These results show the need to teach specific habits of proper hygiene to the entire population, because the fact of belonging to the high SES does not in itself preclude inadequate hygiene habits.

  5. The method of determination of micro quantities of labeled iodide in carrier free Na125 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of determination of microquantities of labelled iodide in Na 125 carrier-free solution was elaborated. This method permits to increase the sensitivity and radiation protection of the determination of labeled iodide. It includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphuric acid with molar concentration 0,03-0,04 mole/l. The extraction of I 2 is made by toluene. The coloured solution is made and optical density is measured at λ=640 nm at the 10 mm optical path .(A.A.D.)

  6. Adsorption and colloidal behaviour of carrier-free 7Be in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Jiranek, V.

    1974-01-01

    The state of carrier-free 7 Be in aqueous nitrate solutions was studied by electrophoresis, centrifugation and dialysis. In solutions of pH 2+ cation. At pH > 4 hydrolysis of beryllium proceeds which results in the formation of BeOH + ions and Be(OH) 2 molecules. The larger part of these molecules is adsorbed on the surface of colloidal impurities present in the solution. The pseudocolloids thus formed are positively charged up to pH 11. In alkaline solutions (pH > 11), negatively charged pseudocolloids and anionic hydroxocomplexes of beryllium exist. Adsorption and desorption of carrier-free beryllium was studied on glass, plexiglass and polyethylene as a function of pH, age and ionic strength (NaNO 3 ) of the solution. It has been found that the adsorption begins at pH 3-5, passes through a maximum at pH 8-11 and decreases to a very low value at pH 14. Probable mechanismus of the adsorption were discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-09-04

    A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of spinning mass solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    The closed form with an arbitrary positive integer distortion parameter delta of the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of spinning mass solutions, i.e., stationary axisymmetric, asymptotically flat exact solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations Rsub(μγ) = 0 is presented. The generalization of the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of solutions to the case of the arbitrary positive non-integral distortion parameter delta is conjectured. Some analytic properties of the family of solutions are studied. It is shown that all ring singularities are of first order and all ergosurfaces are simple zeros of metric functions f. The charged Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of solutions is also given in the closed form with an arbitrary positive integer distortion parameter delta. It is shown that the Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula of the Kerr-Newman field or the delta = 1 member of the present family of solutions also holds true in the case of the charged Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato family of solutions with an arbitary odd integer delta. (Auth.)

  9. Cold water for tyre production. Carrier: Intelligent solutions for optimal energy use; Kaltes Wasser fuer heisse Reifen. Carrier: Intelligente Loesungen zur optimalen Energienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-01-15

    Especially when it comes to special solutions for specific applications, this will show how well man and machine are working together. In a production plant of Michelin Reifenwerke at Bad Kreuznach, Carrier installed two absorption refrigerators, in cooperation with further specialist partners. Instead of electric power, the machines utilize waste heat of the production process. (orig.)

  10. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-07-13

    We demonstrate that local and long range orders of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) semicrystalline films can be synergistically improved by combining chemical functionalization of the dielectric surface with solution-state disentanglement and pre-aggregation of P3HT in a theta solvent, leading to a very significant enhancement of the field effect carrier mobility. The pre-aggregation and surface functionalization effects combine to enhance the carrier mobility nearly 100-fold as compared with standard film preparation by spin-coating, and nearly 10-fold increase over the benefits of pre-aggregation alone. In situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) experiments reveal enhanced deposition of pre-aggregates on surfaces modified with an alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in comparison to un-aggregated polymer chains. Additional investigations reveal the combined pre-aggregation and surface functionalization significantly enhances local order of the conjugated polymer through planarization and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining complementary routes, such as well-known pre-aggregation with substrate chemical functionalization, to enhance the polymer self-assembly and improve its interfacial order with benefits for transport properties.

  11. Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow in Presymptomatic Mutation Carriers of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD-3), Measured with MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Line Andersen; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders

    , temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Data were normalized to white matter in order to smooth inter-individual differences. Results: We included 8 carriers and 7 first-degree related family non-carriers. Comparing carriers with non-carriers, the former showed...... with statistically significant differences in the occipital- and parietal lobes. Alterations in CBF possibly affect the whole brain. Data indicate that FTD-3 pathology might involve brain capillaries. This may impact the understanding of the pathogenesis involving endosomal dysfunction and implicates involvement...

  12. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Eloi R; Colpitts, Che C; Bach, Charlotte; Heydmann, Laura; Zona, Laetitia; Xiao, Fei; Thumann, Christine; Crouchet, Emilie; Gaudin, Raphaël; Sureau, Camille; Cosset, François-Loïc; McKeating, Jane A; Pessaux, Patrick; Hoshida, Yujin; Schuster, Catherine; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-10-25

    Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi R. Verrier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies.

  14. Family of electrovac colliding wave solutions of Einstein's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Ernst, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Beginning with any colliding wave solution of the vacuum Einstein equations, a corresponding electrified colliding wave solution can be generated through the use of a transformation due to Harrison [J. Math. Phys. 9, 1744 (1968)]. The method, long employed in the context of stationary axisymmetric fields, is equally applicable to colliding wave solutions. Here it is applied to a large family of vacuum metrics derived by applying a generalized Ehlers transformation to solutions published recently by Ernst, Garcia, and Hauser (EGH) [J. Math. Phys. 28, 2155, 2951 (1987); 29, 681 (1988)]. Those EGH solutions were themselves a generalization of solutions first derived by Ferrari, Ibanez, and Bruni [Phys. Rev. D 36, 1053 (1987)]. Among the electrovac solutions that are obtained is a charged version of the Nutku--Halil [Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1379 (1977)] metric that possesses an arbitrary complex charge parameter

  15. Norrie disease and exudative vitreoretinopathy in families with affected female carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B S; Hiraoka, M; Trese, D C; Trese, M T

    1999-01-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness, which is often associated with sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder characterized by an abnormality of the peripheral retina and is not associated with systemic diseases. X-linked recessive disorders generally do not affect females. Here we show that female carriers can be associated with manifestation of an X-linked disorder. A four-generation family with an affected female, and a history of congenital blindness and hearing loss, was identified through the pro-band. A second family, with a full-term female infant, was evaluated through ophthalmic examinations and found to exhibit ocular features, such as retinal folds, retinal detachment and peripheral exudates. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from several affected and unaffected family members. DNA was extracted and analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the exons of the Norrie disease gene. The amplified products were sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. In an X-linked four-generation family, a novel missense (A118D) mutation in the third exon of the Norrie disease gene, was identified. The mutation was transmitted through three generations and cosegregated with the disease. The affected maternal grandmother and the unaffected mother carried the same mutation in one of their alleles. In an unrelated sporadic family, a heterozygous missense mutation (C96Y) was identified in the third exon of the Norrie disease gene in an affected individual. Analysis of exon-1 and 2 of the Norrie disease gene did not reveal any additional sequence alterations in these families. The mutations were not detected in the unaffected family members and the 116 normal unrelated controls, suggesting that they are likely to be the pathogenic mutations

  16. Detection of Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy Carriers in a Group of Iranian Families by Linkage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardeen Ali Malayeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the value of linkage analysis using six RFLP markers for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in familial DMD/BMD cases and their family members for the first time in the Iranian population. We studied the dystrophin gene in 33 unrelated patients with clinical diagnosis of DMD or BMD. Subsequently, we determined the rate of heterozygosity for six intragenic RFLP markers in the mothers of patients with dystrophin gene deletions. Finally, we studied the efficiency of linkage analysis by using RFLP markers for carrier status detection of DMD/BMD. In 63.6% of the patients we found one or more deletions. The most common heterozygous RFLP marker with 57.1% heterozygosity was pERT87.15Taq1. More than 80% of mothers in two groups of familial or non-familial cases had at least two heterozygous markers. Family linkage analysis was informative in more than 80% of the cases, allowing for accurate carrier detection. We found that linkage analysis using these six RFLP markers for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis is a rapid, easy, reliable, and inexpensive method, suitable for most routine diagnostic services. The heterozygosity frequency of these markers is high enough in the Iranian population to allow carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of DMD/BMD in more than 80% of familial cases in Iran.

  17. Expression of solute carrier 7A4 (SLC7A4) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to mediate amino acid transport activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Sabine; Janzen, Annette; Vékony, Nicole; Martiné, Ursula; Strand, Dennis; Closs, Ellen I

    2002-01-01

    Member 4 of human solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A4) exhibits significant sequence homology with the SLC7 subfamily of human cationic amino acid transporters (hCATs) [Sperandeo, Borsani, Incerti, Zollo, Rossi, Zuffardi, Castaldo, Taglialatela, Andria and Sebastio (1998) Genomics 49, 230-236]. It is therefore often referred to as hCAT-4 even though no convincing transport activity has been shown for this protein. We expressed SLC7A4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but could not detect any transport a...

  18. Quantifying the relative contributions of different solute carriers to aggregate substrate transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimifar, Mehdi; Oparija, Lalita; Verrey, Francois; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Olgac, Ufuk; Makrides, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human SLC6A14/ATB0,+ and SLC43A2/LAT4 was accurately calculated. This versatile systems biology approach is useful for analyses where the kinetics of each active protein species can be represented by the Hill equation. Furthermore, its applicable even in the absence of protein expression data. It could potentially be applied, for example, to quantify drug transporter activities in target cells to improve specificity. PMID:28091567

  19. Tentacle carrier for immobilization of potato phenoloxidase and its application for halogenophenols removal from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lončar, Nikola; Vujčić, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized novel immobilization carrier from reused DEAE-cellulose. ► We used it for immobilization of PPO through coordinative bonding with copper ions. ► Immobilized PPO showed better characteristics than soluble PPO. ► TC-PPO removed over 90% of halogenophenols at concentration of 100 mg/L. - Abstract: Halogenated compounds represent one of the most dangerous environmental pollutants, due to their widespread usage as biocides, fungicides, disinfectants, solvent and other industrial chemicals. Immobilization of a protein through coordinate bonds formed with divalent metal ions is becoming an attractive method due to its reversible nature, since the protein may be easily removed from the support matrix through interruption of the protein–metal bond hence giving inherently cleaner and cheaper technology for wastewater treatment. We have synthesized novel ‘tentacle’ carrier (TC) and used it for immobilization of partially purified potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The obtained biocatalyst TC-PPO showed pH optimum at 7.0–8.0 and temperature optimum at 25 °C. Immobilized PPO shows almost 100% of activity at 0 °C. TC-PPO was more resistant to the denaturation induced by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) detergent as compared to its soluble counterpart and was even slightly activated at SDS concentration of 1%. TC-PPO was tested in the batch reactor for 4-chlorophenol and 4-bromophenol removal. More than 90% removal was achieved for both halogenophenols at concentration of 100 mg/L from aqueous solution. For both halogenophenols TC-PPO works with over 90% removal during first three cycles which decrease to 60% removal efficiency after six cycles each of 8 h duration.

  20. Tentacle carrier for immobilization of potato phenoloxidase and its application for halogenophenols removal from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loncar, Nikola, E-mail: nloncar@chem.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade (Serbia); Vujcic, Zoran, E-mail: zvujcic@chem.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized novel immobilization carrier from reused DEAE-cellulose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used it for immobilization of PPO through coordinative bonding with copper ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized PPO showed better characteristics than soluble PPO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TC-PPO removed over 90% of halogenophenols at concentration of 100 mg/L. - Abstract: Halogenated compounds represent one of the most dangerous environmental pollutants, due to their widespread usage as biocides, fungicides, disinfectants, solvent and other industrial chemicals. Immobilization of a protein through coordinate bonds formed with divalent metal ions is becoming an attractive method due to its reversible nature, since the protein may be easily removed from the support matrix through interruption of the protein-metal bond hence giving inherently cleaner and cheaper technology for wastewater treatment. We have synthesized novel 'tentacle' carrier (TC) and used it for immobilization of partially purified potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The obtained biocatalyst TC-PPO showed pH optimum at 7.0-8.0 and temperature optimum at 25 Degree-Sign C. Immobilized PPO shows almost 100% of activity at 0 Degree-Sign C. TC-PPO was more resistant to the denaturation induced by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) detergent as compared to its soluble counterpart and was even slightly activated at SDS concentration of 1%. TC-PPO was tested in the batch reactor for 4-chlorophenol and 4-bromophenol removal. More than 90% removal was achieved for both halogenophenols at concentration of 100 mg/L from aqueous solution. For both halogenophenols TC-PPO works with over 90% removal during first three cycles which decrease to 60% removal efficiency after six cycles each of 8 h duration.

  1. Chloride Anions Regulate Kinetics but Not Voltage-Sensor Qmax of the Solute Carrier SLC26a5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2016-06-07

    In general, SLC26 solute carriers serve to transport a variety of anions across biological membranes. However, prestin (SLC26a5) has evolved, now serving as a motor protein in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian inner ear and is required for cochlear amplification, a mechanical feedback mechanism to boost auditory performance. The mechanical activity of the OHC imparted by prestin is driven by voltage and controlled by anions, chiefly intracellular chloride. Current opinion is that chloride anions control the Boltzmann characteristics of the voltage sensor responsible for prestin activity, including Qmax, the total sensor charge moved within the membrane, and Vh, a measure of prestin's operating voltage range. Here, we show that standard narrow-band, high-frequency admittance measures of nonlinear capacitance (NLC), an alternate representation of the sensor's charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship, is inadequate for assessment of Qmax, an estimate of the sum of unitary charges contributed by all voltage sensors within the membrane. Prestin's slow transition rates and chloride-binding kinetics adversely influence these estimates, contributing to the prevalent concept that intracellular chloride level controls the quantity of sensor charge moved. By monitoring charge movement across frequency, using measures of multifrequency admittance, expanded displacement current integration, and OHC electromotility, we find that chloride influences prestin kinetics, thereby controlling charge magnitude at any particular frequency of interrogation. Importantly, however, this chloride dependence vanishes as frequency decreases, with Qmax asymptoting at a level irrespective of the chloride level. These data indicate that prestin activity is significantly low-pass in the frequency domain, with important implications for cochlear amplification. We also note that the occurrence of voltage-dependent charge movements in other SLC26 family members may be hidden by inadequate

  2. Family Registration Card as electronic medical carrier in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Ahmed; Masic, Izet; Toromanovic, Selim; Loncarevic, Nedim; Junuzovic, Dzelaludin; Dizdarevic, Jadranka

    2004-01-01

    Medical documentation is a very important part of the medical documentalistics and is occupies a large part of daily work of medical staff working in Primary Health Care. Paper documentation is going to be replaced by electronic cards in Bosnia and Herzegovina and a new Health Care System is under development, based on an Electronic Family Registration Card. Developed countries proceeded from the manual and semiautomatic method of medical data processing to the new method of entering, storage, transferring, searching and protecting data, using electronic equipment. Currently, many European countries have developed a Medical Card Based Electronic Information System. Three types of electronic card are currently in use: a Hybrid Card, a Smart Card and a Laser Card. The dilemma is which card should be used as a data carrier. The Electronic Family Registration Cared is a question of strategic interest for B&H, but also a great investment. We should avoid the errors of other countries that have been developing card-based system. In this article we present all mentioned cards and compare advantages and disadvantages of different technologies.

  3. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of solute carrier transporters in alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakata, Takaaki; Kamoshida, Shingo; Kawamura, Jumpei; Ogane, Naoki; Kameda, Yoichi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Takeda, Risa; Naka, Ayano; Sakamaki, Kuniko; Hayashi, Yurie; Kuwao, Sadahito

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive tumour with high rates of liver metastasis and poor prognosis, and for which a validated chemotherapy regimen has not been established. Drug uptake by solute carrier (SLC) transporters is proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to develop important insights into effective chemotherapeutic regimens for AFP-producing GC. We evaluated immunohistochemically the expression levels of a panel of SLC transporters in 20 AFP-producing GCs and 130 conventional GCs. SLC transporters examined were human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT6 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). The rates of high expression levels of hENT1 (hENT1 high ) and OAT2 (OAT2 high ) were statistically higher in AFP-producing GC, compared with conventional GC. When analysing hENT1 and OAT2 in combination, hENT1 high /OAT2 high was the most particular expression profile for AFP-producing GC, with a greater significance than hENT1 or OAT2 alone. However, no significant differences in OCT2, OCT6 or OATP1B3 levels were detected between AFP-producing and conventional GCs. However, immunoreactivity for hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 tended to be increased in GC tissues compared with non-neoplastic epithelia. Because hENT1 and OAT2 are crucial for the uptake of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively, our results suggest that patients with AFP-producing GC could potentially benefit from gemcitabine/fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy. Increased expression of hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 may also be associated with the progression of GC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Hu, Hanlin; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining

  5. Fast food in the diet: Implications and solutions for families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2018-04-06

    Fast food is omnipresent in the United States (U.S.) and contributes to poor dietary quality and poor health among youth and adults alike. Children need adults to teach them good eating habits to attain and maintain good health by introducing them to healthful foods and being good role models. The fast food industry, through vast funds and advertising, contribute to challenges parents face to provide healthful foods for their families and thwart our best efforts to meet health goals. Research shows fast food consumption is influenced by lack of cooking confidence, time pressures, and perceptions of ease and convenience. We need practical strategies to help parents and children make healthier food choices. As a product of conference proceedings, this paper provides a non-exhaustive narrative summary of the fast food marketplace and marketing, the contributions of fast food to diet and health, struggles with healthful eating among families, and possible solutions of how we can help children and parents empower themselves to have healthier lives. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Role of ATP-binding cassette and solute carrier transporters in erlotinib CNS penetration and intracellular accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmeliegy, Mohamed A; Carcaboso, Angel M; Tagen, Michael; Bai, Feng; Stewart, Clinton F

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of drug transporters in central nervous system (CNS) penetration and cellular accumulation of erlotinib and its metabolite, OSI-420. After oral erlotinib administration to wild-type and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-knockout mice (Mdr1a/b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), Mdr1a/b(-/-)Abcg2(-/-), and Abcc4(-/-)), plasma was collected and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) was sampled using intracerebral microdialysis. A pharmacokinetic model was fit to erlotinib and OSI-420 concentration-time data, and brain penetration (P(Brain)) was estimated by the ratio of ECF-to-unbound plasma area under concentration-time curves. Intracellular accumulation of erlotinib was assessed in cells overexpressing human ABC transporters or SLC22A solute carriers. P(Brain) in wild-type mice was 0.27 ± 0.11 and 0.07 ± 0.02 (mean ± SD) for erlotinib and OSI-420, respectively. Erlotinib and OSI-420 P(Brain) in Abcg2(-/-) and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Abcg2(-/-) mice were significantly higher than in wild-type mice. Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice showed similar brain ECF penetration as wild-type mice (0.49 ± 0.37 and 0.04 ± 0.02 for erlotinib and OSI-420, respectively). In vitro, erlotinib and OSI-420 accumulation was significantly lower in cells overexpressing breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) than in control cells. Only OSI-420, not erlotinib, showed lower accumulation in cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) than in control cells. The P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar increased erlotinib and OSI-420 accumulation in BCRP-overexpressing cells. Erlotinib uptake was higher in OAT3- and OCT2-transfected cells than in empty vector control cells. Abcg2 is the main efflux transporter preventing erlotinib and OSI-420 penetration in mouse brain. Erlotinib and OSI-420 are substrates for SLC22A family members OAT3 and OCT2. Our findings provide a mechanistic basis for erlotinib CNS penetration, cellular uptake, and efflux mechanisms. ©2010 AACR.

  7. A singular one-parameter family of solutions in cubic superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, E. Aldo [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, 09210-170 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-03

    Performing a gauge transformation of a simple identity-like solution of superstring field theory, we construct a one-parameter family of solutions, and by evaluating the energy associated to this family, we show that for most of the values of the parameter the solution represents the tachyon vacuum, except for two isolated singular points where the solution becomes the perturbative vacuum and the half brane solution.

  8. Is thyroidectomy necessary in RET mutations carriers of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Torring, H; Godballe, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results and consequences of genetic testing in a family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are described. METHODS: In the screening of relatives, serum calcitonin is replaced by RET mutation analysis that was performed in families suspected of hereditary medullary th...

  9. KERATOSIS FOLLICULARIS SPINULOSA DECALVANS - A FAMILY STUDY OF 7 MALE CASES AND 6 FEMALE CARRIERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOSCH, LDM; ORANJE, AP; KEUKENS, FM; VADER, PCV

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is a rare X linked disease which is characterised by follicular hyperkeratosis of the skin and corneal dystrophy. Seven male patients and six female carriers are described. Special attention has been paid to the dermatological and ophthalmic markers

  10. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Payne, Marcia M.; Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Anthony, John Edward; Amassian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    -ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions

  11. Recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions using emulsion liquid membrane with LIX 7950 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with the guanidine extractant LIX 7950 as the mobile carrier for detoxifying copper-containing waste cyanide solutions has been determined. Relatively stable ELMs can be maintained under suitable stirring speed during mixing ELMs and the external solution. Effective extraction of copper cyanides by ELMs only occurs at pH below 11. High copper concentration in the external phase and high volume ratio of the external phase to ELMs result in high transport rates of copper and cyanide. High molar ratio of cyanide to copper tends to suppress copper extraction. The presence of thiocyanate ion significantly depresses the transport of copper and cyanide through the membrane while the thiosulfate ion produces less impact on copper removal by ELMs. Zinc and nickel cyanides can also be effectively extracted by ELMs. More than 90% copper and cyanide can be effectively removed from alkaline cyanide solutions by ELMs under suitable experimental conditions, indicating the effectiveness of using the designed ELM for recovering copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions.

  12. Flextime: A Viable Solution to Work/Family Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen E.; Staines, Graham L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research regarding advantages and disadvantages of flextime to both employers and employees; evaluates effects of flextime on resolving work/family conflicts; and establishes future programmatic, research, and policy directions regarding flextime. Claims flextime is beneficial in resolving work/family conflicts but not as beneficial as…

  13. Social Dimension and Work with the families of AIDS Patients and Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Koffas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The family constitutes a small social group. Each problem and each experience of one of its members touches theothers in the group. Namely, there is a form of constant interaction among the members, which is intensified byinternal and external factors. For situations that the family members classify as low in importance, temporary andcontrolled, their resolution process as well as any cost is manageable. Therefore, reactions are, most of the time,quite limited. What happens though with serious multi-factor impact situations, especially non reversible ones, suchas illnesses? What is the reaction of the family members in cases of terminal illnesses, which are also related to thesensitive issue of a person’s sexuality? Every professional in health, welfare and rehabilitation services will facethese questions and situations in his direct or indirect involvement with the members of the patient’s family, in hiseffort to properly accomplish his task.

  14. New family of simple solutions of relativistic perfect fluid hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergo, T.; Nagy, M.I.; Csanad, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of accelerating, exact and explicit solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics is found-more than 50 years after the previous similar result, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution. Surprisingly, the new solutions have a simple form, that generalizes the renowned, but accelerationless, Hwa-Bjorken solution. These new solutions take into account the work done by the fluid elements on each other, and work not only in one temporal and one spatial dimensions, but also in arbitrary number of spatial dimensions. They are applied here for an advanced estimation of initial energy density and life-time of the reaction in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. New formulas are also conjectured, that yield further important increase of the initial energy density estimate and the measured life-time of the reaction if the value of the speed of sound is in the realistic range

  15. Solute carrier family 2 member 1 is involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez-Chantada, Mercedes; Gonzalez-Lahera, Aintzane; Martinez-Arranz, Ibon

    2013-01-01

    ,414 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases and 4,567 controls were genotyped. Liver expression of the associated gene was measured and the effect of its potential role was studied by silencing the gene in vitro. Whole genome expression, oxidative stress (OS), and the consequences of oleic acid (OA......Susceptibility to develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has genetic bases, but the associated variants are uncertain. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants that could help to prognose and further understand the genetics and development of NAFLD. Allele frequencies...... association with NAFLD, but not with T2DM, being the haplotype containing the minor allele of SLC2A1 sequence related to the susceptibility to develop NAFLD. Gene-expression analysis demonstrated a significant down-regulation of SLC2A1 in NAFLD livers. Enrichment functional analyses of transcriptome profiles...

  16. Presymptomatic cerebral blood flow changes in CHMP2B mutation carriers of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3), measured with MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Line Andersen; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders

    2012-01-01

    1 images. Perfusion data were then extracted from seven regions-of-interest, normalised to white matter and statistically compared between carriers and non-carriers. RESULTS: For SE, contrasts between carriers and non-carriers showed significant differences in temporal, occipital and parietal lobes...... and in hippocampus. There was no evidence of changes from baseline to follow-up. For GRE, there were no significant differences between carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly decreased CBF was found in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers in occipital-and parietal lobes. Comparing SE with GRE, data...

  17. Analytic 1D pn junction diode photocurrent solutions following ionizing radiation and including time-dependent changes in the carrier lifetime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axness, Carl L.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM)

    2011-04-01

    Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits in radiation environments. These codes are often employed to study the effect of many thousands of devices under transient current conditions. Device-scale simulation tools (e.g., MEDICI) are commonly used in the design of individual semiconductor components, but require computing resources that make their incorporation into a circuit code impossible for large-scale circuits. Analytic solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation, an approximation to the carrier transport equations, may be used to characterize the transient currents at nodes within a circuit simulator. We present new transient 1D excess carrier density and photocurrent density solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation for low-level radiation pulses that take into account a finite device geometry, ohmic fields outside the depleted region, and an arbitrary change in the carrier lifetime due to neutron irradiation or other effects. The solutions are specifically evaluated for the case of an abrupt change in the carrier lifetime during or after, a step, square, or piecewise linear radiation pulse. Noting slow convergence of the raw Fourier series for certain parameter sets, we use closed-form formulas for some of the infinite sums to produce 'partial closed-form' solutions for the above three cases. These 'partial closed-form' solutions converge with only a few tens of terms, which enables efficient large-scale circuit simulations.

  18. Recovery of salicylic acid from aqueous solution by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using TOMAC as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, Noura; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    Conventional sewage treatment plants do not fully degrade residues of pharmaceuticals, so that they are introduced into the aquatic environment. On this basis, the demand for the development of efficient systems for removing these compounds from water has assumed a great research interest. Membrane operations are increasingly employed in many industrial sectors as important alternative technologies to the classical processes of separation. Among membrane-based separation processes, the use of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) has received growing attention during recent years. In our work we had tried to recover a pharmaceutical product, salicylic acid (S.A), from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using an ionic liquid: the tri octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) as carrier. Ionic liquids has been revealed as interesting clean alternatives to classical solvents and their use as a liquid phase results in the stabilization of the SLMs duo to their negligible vapour pressure, the possibility of minimising their solubility in the surrounding phases by adequate selection of the cation and anion, and the greater capillary force associated with their high viscosity. For this reason we had studied the influence of different parameters which could affect the efficiency of the transport: pH of the feed phase, the nature of the strippant, the concentration of the strippant, the nature of the support and the initial concentration of the salicylic acid in the feed phase. We had noticed that the pH of the feed solution had no effect of the percentage extraction and after 24 hours we can extract completely our solute. TOMAC seemed to be a good extractant but we found difficult to strip salicylic acid from the TOMAC phase and this could be related to the formation of water micro environments in the ionic liquid membrane.

  19. Application of GP IIIa gene Taq I polymorphism to determination of carrier status in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia families of Chinese origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Changgeng; Gu Jianmin; Wang Xiaodong; Chu Xiaohong; Pan Junliang; Wu Qingyu

    1992-08-01

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is a bleeding disorder caused by qualitative and/or quantitative defects of platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ii b /III a complex. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The use of cDNA probes to study restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in GPIII a gene is reported. A Taq I polymorphism was identified and this RFLP consisted of variant bands of 6.5 kb/4.0 and 2.5 kb with a frequency of 0.46/0.54 in Chinese population. The Taq I polymorphism was further localized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to exon VIII of the GPIII a gene. In two Glanzmann's thrombasthenia families, the Taq I RFLP studied with both Southern blotting and PCR methods identified defective GPIII a gene inherited by patients, and determined the genotype of asymptomatic subjects. Analysis of this Taq I polymorphism by PCR method should be potentially useful in future for the carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia families

  20. Formal Solutions for Polarized Radiative Transfer. I. The DELO Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janett, Gioele; Carlin, Edgar S.; Steiner, Oskar; Belluzzi, Luca, E-mail: gioele.janett@irsol.ch [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), 6605 Locarno-Monti (Switzerland)

    2017-05-10

    The discussion regarding the numerical integration of the polarized radiative transfer equation is still open and the comparison between the different numerical schemes proposed by different authors in the past is not fully clear. Aiming at facilitating the comprehension of the advantages and drawbacks of the different formal solvers, this work presents a reference paradigm for their characterization based on the concepts of order of accuracy , stability , and computational cost . Special attention is paid to understand the numerical methods belonging to the Diagonal Element Lambda Operator family, in an attempt to highlight their specificities.

  1. Relativistic static thin dust disks with an inner edge: An infinite family of new exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Gutierrez-Pineres, Antonio C.; Vina-Cervantes, Viviana M.

    2009-01-01

    An infinite family of new exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations is presented. The solutions are static and axially symmetric and correspond to an infinite family of thin dust disks with a central inner edge. The metric functions of all the solutions can be explicitly computed, and can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of oblate spheroidal coordinates. The energy density of all the disks of the family is positive everywhere and well behaved, so that the corresponding energy-momentum tensor is in full agreement with all the energy conditions. Moreover, although the total mass of the disks is infinite, the solutions are asymptotically flat and the Riemann tensor is regular everywhere, as it is shown by computing the curvature scalars. Now, besides its importance as a new family of exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, the main importance of this family of solutions is that it can be easily superposed with the Schwarzschild solution in order to describe thin disks surrounding a central black hole. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of this superposition will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  2. Male Cross-Dressers in Therapy: A Solution-Focused Perspective for Marriage and Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzelme, Kristina; Jones, Rene A.

    2001-01-01

    Offers techniques on how to work with male cross-dressers using solution focused therapy. Solution focused therapy is discussed as a way to work with male cross dressers and their partners. A case study of a male cross dresser and his wife is presented and possible directions are suggested for marriage and family therapists. (BF)

  3. The perfect marriage: Solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing in medical family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage Stermensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical family therapy has many potential uses in behavioral medicine and primary care. Current research was reviewed to determine the most advantageous way to apply solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing as a perfect marriage in medical family therapy. An extensive literature review was done in the following databases for medical family therapy: Proquest, EBSCO, Medline, and PsychInfo. The search resulted in 86 relevant articles, of which 46 of the most recent were selected for review. Medical family therapy lacks current research that supports solution-focused therapy or motivational interviewing. However, evidence supports the use of solution-focused therapy as a brief format, as well as the closely related intervention, motivational interviewing. While medical family therapy presents many hopeful possibilities in the fields of behavioral medicine, psychology, and marriage and family therapy, little evidence currently exists for the most effective implementation. This review found evidence supporting solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing as the perfect marriage of the collaborative team approaches for the future implementation and use of specific interventions in medical family therapy.

  4. Two Thai families with Norrie disease (ND): association of two novel missense mutations with severe ND phenotype, seizures, and a manifesting carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Limprasert, P; Ratanasukon, M; Tengtrisorn, S; Yingchareonpukdee, J; Vasiknanonte, P; Kitaoka, T; Ghadami, M; Niikawa, N; Kishino, T

    2001-04-15

    We describe two Thai families with Norrie disease (ND) in three generations, including 10 affected males and one manifesting female. All affected males in each family had severely defective eye development with complete loss of vision. In addition, three male patients (one from family 1 and two from family 2) suffered from epilepsy, and one female carrier from one family manifested blindness with phthisis bulbi in her right eye. Mutation analysis of the ND gene (NDP) revealed two different novel missense mutations (L16P and S75P) that co-segregated with ND in each family, suggesting that the newly appearing proline at codon 16 or codon 75 alters the conformation of the ND protein and contributes to the severe phenotype of ND in each family. Other studies suggest that epileptic seizures or growth retardation that is associated with ND is the consequence of loss of contiguous genes, because most such patients had deletions extending beyond the Norrie locus. Our finding that the three affected males in the two families with the missense mutations had epilepsy does not support a contiguous gene effect, but favors the pleiotropism of NDP, at least as far as the epileptic manifestation is concerned. The unilateral blindness in the female carrier may have been due to non-random X-inactivation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Intra-Family Gamete Donation: A Solution to Concerns Regarding Gamete Donation in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.

  6. Cultural dissonance among generations: a solution-focused approach with East Asian elders and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mo Yee; Mjelde-Mossey, LeeAnn

    2004-10-01

    In traditional East Asian cultures, high value is assigned to family harmony and filial piety coupled with the expectation that elders will be honored and obeyed. A lifetime of such expectations shapes how elders perceive their role and status in the family. Problems can arise when younger, less traditional, generations do not share these expectations. This article describes a solution-focused approach that facilitates the family in creating a beneficial harmony in situations of cultural dissonance. Family members are empowered to draw on personal strengths in which multiple worldviews and values of individual members are recognized, incorporated, and negotiated.

  7. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload oxygen from plasma hemoglobin as well as facilitate RBC

  8. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure blood use and lower mortality compared to historic controls of patients refusing blood. Transfusion reductions with HBOC use have been modest. Two HBOCs (Hemopure and Polyheme) are now in new or planned large-scale multicenter prehospital trials of trauma treatment. A new implementation of small volume resuscitation is closed-loop resuscitation (CLR), which employs microprocessors to titrate just enough fluid to reach a physiologic target . Animal studies suggest less risk of rebleeding in uncontrolled hemorrhage and a reduction in fluid needs with CLR. The first clinical application of CLR was treatment of burn shock and the US Army. Conclusions: Independently sponsored civilian trauma trials and clinical evaluations in operational combat conditions of

  9. Recurrent mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Asian breast cancer patients identify carriers in those with presumed low risk by family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Kang, In Nee; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Liu, Jian Jun; Hassan, Norhashimah; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hui, Miao; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics.

  10. High-Performing Families: Causes, Consequences, and Clinical Solutions. The Family Psychology and Counseling Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bryan E., Ed.; Chase, Nancy D., Ed.

    This book explores the dilemma of the increasing obsession with work and the resulting imbalances between career and family life. Through theoretical frameworks and case examples it discusses the negative consequences of the societal phenomena of over-work and over-dedication to careers, which have been misdiagnosed or ignored by mental health…

  11. Families of optimal thermodynamic solutions for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E.; Scenna, N.J.; Benz, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal designs of a CCGT power plant characterized by maximum second law efficiency values are determined for a wide range of power demands and different values of the available heat transfer area. These thermodynamic optimal solutions are found within a feasible operation region by means of a non-linear mathematical programming (NLP) model, where decision variables (i.e. transfer areas, power production, mass flow rates, temperatures and pressures) can vary freely. Technical relationships among them are used to systematize optimal values of design and operative variables of a CCGT power plant into optimal solution sets, named here as optimal solution families. From an operative and design point of view, the families of optimal solutions let knowing in advance optimal values of the CCGT variables when facing changes of power demand or adjusting the design to an available heat transfer area.

  12. A two-parameter family of exact asymptotically flat solutions to the Einstein-scalar field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, V V; Tchemarina, Ju V; Tsirulev, A N

    2008-01-01

    We consider a static spherically symmetric real scalar field, minimally coupled to Einstein gravity. A two-parameter family of exact asymptotically flat solutions is obtained by using the inverse problem method. This family includes non-singular solutions, black holes and naked singularities. For each of these solutions the respective potential is partially negative but positive near spatial infinity. (comments, replies and notes)

  13. Cognitive control and memory in healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichkovsky B.B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s type dementia (DAT is the carriage of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE gene. Identifying cognitive deficits in healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers is valuable in order to develop interventions to prevent them from developing DAT. Existing evidence about cognitive deficits in the domains of episodic memory and cognitive control specific to ApoE-ε4 is contradictory. The objective of our research was to assess episodic memory and cognitive control in healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers. Cognitively healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers (13 ε4/ε4 heterozygotes and noncarriers (22 ε3/ε3 homozygotes, who were matched on age and family history of DAT, were compared on episodic-memory and cognitive-control tasks. Episodic-memory tasks were verbal and visual recognition tasks with a systematic variation of distractor-to-target similarity. Executive functions were assessed by a task for updating working memory, an inhibition task, and a switching task. Working-memory capacity was also assessed. The results showed that executive functions were generally not impaired in the carriers, but carriers showed a specific increase in accuracy-related switch costs. Workingmemory capacity was not reduced in the carriers. In the domain of episodic memory, the carriers were found to make more errors with phonetic distractors in the verbal episodicmemory task. They also tended to make more errors with visually dissimilar distractors in the visual episodic-memory task. The results are indicative of an episodic-memory deficit specific to the carriage of ApoE-ε4. This deficit may be driven either by deficits in storage or by deficits in the encoding of the to-be-remembered material. Contradictory results concerning the presence of an episodic-memory deficit obtained in previous studies may stem from small effect sizes, the use of specific materials, and the employment of attention-intensive encoding strategies. The carriers also showed a

  14. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  15. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  16. INTEDISCIPLINARITY IN SUPPORT GROUPS TO THE FAMILY AND TO THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR TAKING CARE OF THE ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Miranda Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a reflexive study about the intedisciplinarity in support groups to the family and to the person responsible for taking care of the Alzheimer’s Disease carrier. As health professionals, researchers and social subjects who transform the reality by scientific investigations we have responsibilities and try to make thoughtful studies which benefit society and nursering. Those studies have as main focus the care ruled on prevention, promotion e recovery of the population’s health.

  17. The Family and Child Welfare System in Poland: Family Assistantship as a New Solution in Social Work with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciczkowska-Giedziun, Malgorzata; Zmyslowska, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Poland is a post-communist country rooted in the idea of a nanny state. Although the state is still highly involved in social policy, the social and constitutional transformation that began in 1989 led to many changes which in turn influenced the functioning of an individual and family life. Numerous reforms have gradually changed the shape of the…

  18. A family of analytical solutions of a nonlinear diffusion-convection equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Despite its popularity in many engineering fields, the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation has no general analytical solutions. This work presents a family of closed-form analytical traveling wave solutions for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with power law nonlinearities. This kind of equations typically appears in nonlinear problems of flow and transport in porous media. The solutions that are addressed are simple and fully analytical. Three classes of analytical solutions are presented depending on the type of the nonlinear diffusion coefficient (increasing, decreasing or constant). It has shown that the structure of the traveling wave solution is strongly related to the diffusion term. The main advantage of the proposed solutions is that they are presented in a unified form contrary to existing solutions in the literature where the derivation of each solution depends on the specific values of the diffusion and convection parameters. The proposed closed-form solutions are simple to use, do not require any numerical implementation, and may be implemented in a simple spreadsheet. The analytical expressions are also useful to mathematically analyze the structure and properties of the solutions.

  19. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  20. Involvement and Influence of Healthcare Providers, Family Members, and Other Mutation Carriers in the Cancer Risk Management Decision-Making Process of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puski, Athena; Hovick, Shelly; Senter, Leigha; Toland, Amanda Ewart

    2018-03-29

    Deciding between increased cancer screening or prophylactic surgery and the timing of such procedures can be a difficult and complex process for women with BRCA mutations. There are gaps in our understanding of involvement of others in the decision-making process for women with BRCA mutations. This study evaluated the management decision-making process of women with BRCA mutations, focusing on the involvement of others. Grounded theory was used to analyze and code risk management decision-making information from interviews with 20 BRCA mutation carriers. Unaffected at-risk participants with a BRCA mutation, those under age 40, and those with no children described having a difficult time making risk management decisions. Physicians were an integral part of the decision-making process by providing decisional support and management recommendations. Family members and other mutation carriers filled similar yet distinct roles by providing experiential information as well as decisional and emotional support for carriers. Participants described genetic counselors as short-term providers of risk information and management recommendations. The study findings suggest that unaffected at-risk women, women under 40, and those who do not have children may benefit from additional support and information during the decision-making process. Genetic counselors are well trained to help women through this process and connect them with resources, and may be under-utilized in long-term follow-up for women with a BRCA mutation.

  1. Abundant general solitary wave solutions to the family of KdV type equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azmol Huda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the construction of more general exact traveling wave solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs through the application of the (G′/G, 1/G-expansion method. This method is allied to the widely used (G′/G-method initiated by Wang et al. and can be considered as an extension of the (G′/G-expansion method. For effectiveness, the method is applied to the family of KdV type equations. Abundant general form solitary wave solutions as well as periodic solutions are successfully obtained through this method. Moreover, in the obtained wider set of solutions, if we set special values of the parameters, some previously known solutions are revived. The approach of this method is simple and elegantly standard. Having been computerized it is also powerful, reliable and effective.

  2. Inverse Scattering Method and Soliton Solution Family for String Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A modified Hauser–Ernst-type linear system is established and used to develop an inverse scattering method for solving the motion equations of the string effective action describing the coupled gravity, dilaton and Kalb–Ramond fields. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the proposed inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton solutions for the considered theory is obtained

  3. A versatile family of degradable non-viral gene carriers based on hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Song, Y.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Lok, Martin C.; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A variety of degradable hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s containing primary, secondary and tertiary amino groups, were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene carriers. The polymers were obtained in high yields through a Michael-type conjugate addition of diacrylate monomers with trifunctional

  4. Rat organic solute carrier protein 1 (rOscp1) mediated the transport of organic solutes in Xenopus laevis oocytes: isolation and pharmacological characterization of rOscp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuno, Hisanori; Kobayashi, Yasuna; Sanada, Yutaka; Nihei, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masako; Kohyama, Noriko; Ohbayashi, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2007-09-22

    Rat organic solute carrier protein 1 (rOscp1) was isolated from a rat testis cDNA library. Isolated rOscp1 cDNA consisted of 1089 base pairs that encoded a 363-amino acid protein, and the amino acid sequence was 88% and 93% identical to that of human OSCP1 (hOSCP1) and mouse Oscp1 (mOscp1), respectively. The message for rOscp1 is highly detected in rat testis. When expressed in X. oocytes, rOscp1 mediated the high affinity transport of p-aminohippurate (PAH) with a Km value of 15.7+/-1.9 microM, and rOscp1-mediated organic solutes were exhibited in time- and Na+-independent manners. rOscp1 also transported various structurally heterogenous compounds such as testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and taurocholate with some differences in substrate specificity compared with hOSCP1. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the rOscp1 protein is localized in the basal membrane side of Sertoli cells as observed in mouse testis [Kobayashi et al., 2007; Kobayashi, Y., Tsuchiya, A., Hayashi, T., Kohyama, N., Ohbayashi, M., Yamamoto, T., 2007. Isolation and characterization of polyspecific mouse organic solute carrier protein 1 (mOscp1). Drug Metabolism and Disposition 35 (7), 1239-1245]. Thus, the present results indicate that a newly isolated cDNA clone, rOscp1, is a polyspecific organic solute carrier protein with some differences in substrate specificity compared with human and mouse OSCP1.

  5. Energy spectrum of charge carriers in TlIn{sub 1–x}Yb{sub x}Te{sub 2} solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, F. F., E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Agaeva, U. M.; Zarbaliev, M. M., E-mail: zarbalievmm51@mail.ru [Sumqayit State University (Azerbaijan)

    2016-10-15

    The temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity σ(T), the Hall coefficient R(T), and the thermoelectric coefficient α(T) are investigated in TlIn{sub 1–x}Yb{sub x}Te{sub 2} (0 < x < 0.10) solid solutions at 80–1000K. From the kinetic parameters, the effective masses of electrons and holes are determined. The obtained experimental data on σ(T) and α(T) are interpreted within the context of a model with one and two types of charge carriers. It is established that, since x = 0.05, the TlIn{sub 1–x}Yb{sub x}Te{sub 2} solid solutions belong to the class of narrow-gap semiconductors that have high matrix elements of interaction.

  6. Enhanced Carrier Collection from CdS Passivated Grains in Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Melanie; Keller, Debora; Haass, Stefan G; Gretener, Christina; Bissig, Benjamin; Fuchs, Peter; La Mattina, Fabio; Erni, Rolf; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-06-10

    Solution processing of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)-kesterite solar cells is attractive because of easy manufacturing using readily available metal salts. The solution-processed CZTSSe absorbers, however, often suffer from poor morphology with a bilayer structure, exhibiting a dense top crust and a porous bottom layer, albeit yielding efficiencies of over 10%. To understand whether the cell performance is limited by this porous layer, a systematic compositional study using (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the dimethyl sulfoxide processed CZTSSe absorbers is presented. TEM investigation revealed a thin layer of CdS that is formed around the small CZTSSe grains in the porous bottom layer during the chemical bath deposition step. This CdS passivation is found to be beneficial for the cell performance as it increases the carrier collection and facilitates the electron transport. Electron-beam-induced current measurements reveal an enhanced carrier collection for this buried region as compared to reference cells with evaporated CdS.

  7. New Families of Rational Form Solitary Wave Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Li Biao; Zhang Hongqing; Chen Yong

    2005-01-01

    Taking the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system as a simple example, some families of rational form solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions, and rational wave solutions are constructed by using the Riccati equation rational expansion method presented by us. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear partial differential equation or equations.

  8. Feasibility study of silica sol as the carrier of a hydrophobic drug in aqueous solution using enrofloxacin as the model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Meirong; Song Junling; Ning Aimin; Cui Baoan; Cui Shumin; Zhou Yaobing; An Wankai; Dong Xuesong; Zhang Gege

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using silica sol to carry a hydrophobic drug in aqueous solution. Enrofloxacin, which was selected as the model drug because it is a broad-spectrum antibiotic drug with poor solubility in water, was adsorbed onto silica sol in aqueous solution during cooling from 60 deg. C to room temperature. The drug-loaded silica sol was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy. The results showed that enrofloxacin was adsorbed by silica sol without degradation at a loading of 15.23 wt.%. In contrast to the rapid release from pure enrofloxacin, the drug-loaded silica sol showed a slower release over a longer time. Kinetics analysis suggested the drug release from silica sol was mainly a diffusion-controlled process. Therefore, silica sol can be used to carry a hydrophobic drug in aqueous solution for controlled drug delivery.

  9. A family of solutions with radiation reaction and retarded interactions for two charges in classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.; Villarroel, D.

    2002-01-01

    A family of solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac equation is constructed. It consists in the motion of two charges e 1 and e 2 of masses m 1 and m 2 in two coplanar and concentric circles of radii a and b. The charges rotate with constant angular velocity, and have an angular separation ψ. The radiation reaction forces and the retarded interactions between the charges are taken into account. The external electromagnetic field that allows the motion consists of a tangential time-independent electric field that takes a fixed value on each orbit, and a homogeneous time-independent magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the motion. For all the solutions energy conservation is rigorously demonstrated by evaluating the energy radiated, with independence of the equation of motion, through the calculation of the instantaneous energy flux across a sphere of an infinitely large radius

  10. Psychological well-being and family satisfaction levels five years after being confirmed as a carrier of the Machado-Joseph disease mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Gomes, Elisabete; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Bettencourt, Conceição; Raposo, Mafalda; Kay, Teresa Taylor; MacLeod, Patrick; Vasconcelos, João; Lima, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    The present study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) aimed to evaluate the psychological well-being and the familial satisfaction of subjects that 5 years prior received an unfavorable result in the predictive testing (PT). The study included 47 testees of Azorean origin (23 from the island of Flores and 24 from S. Miguel) that completed the fourth evaluation session of the MJD protocol, and undertook a neurological examination at the moment of participation in the study. Nearly 50% of testees were symptomatic at the time of the study. Psychological well-being of the 47 participants was evaluated using the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). The family satisfaction scale by adjectives was applied to obtain information on family dynamics. The average PGWB score of the total participants was of 73.3, a value indicative of psychological well-being. Nearly half of the testees presented scores indicating psychological well-being, whereas scores indicating moderate (28.9%) or severe (23.7%) stress were found in the remaining. The average score in the PGWB scale was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic subjects; moreover, the distinct distribution of the well-being categories seen in the two groups shows an impact of the appearance of first symptoms on the psychological state. Motives for undertaking the test, provided 5 years prior, failed to show an impact in well-being. The average score for familial satisfaction was of 134, a value compatible with high familial satisfaction, which represented the most frequent category (59.6%). Results demonstrate that well-being and family satisfaction need to be monitored in confirmed carriers of the MJD mutation. The inclusion of acceptance studies, after PT, as well as the development of acceptance training actions, should be of major importance to anticipate the possibility of psychological damage.

  11. The method of determination of micro quantities of labelled iodide in Na125 I carrier free solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical method was elaborated with the purpose to increase detection limit and radiation safety of labelled iodide determination. The method includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphur acid solution with molar concentration 0,03-0,04/moles/litre at molar ratio of iodide to iodate I - :IO - 3 1:12,5. The extraction of I 2 produced is done by toluene. (author)

  12. Characterization of a novel sialic acid transporter of the sodium solute symporter (SSS) family and in vivo comparison with known bacterial sialic acid transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Emmanuele; Hosie, Arthur H F; Hawkhead, Judith A; Thomas, Gavin H

    2010-03-01

    The function of sialic acids in the biology of bacterial pathogens is reflected by the diverse range of solute transporters that can recognize these sugar acids. Here, we use an Escherichia coliDeltananT strain to characterize the function of known and proposed bacterial sialic acid transporters. We discover that the STM1128 gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which encodes a member of the sodium solute symporter family, is able to restore growth on sialic acid to the DeltananT strain and is able to transport [(14)C]-sialic acid. Using the DeltananT genetic background, we performed a direct in vivo comparison of the transport properties of the STM1128 protein with those of sialic acid transporters of the major facilitator superfamily and tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic families, E. coli NanT and Haemophilus influenzae SiaPQM, respectively. This revealed that both STM1128 and SiaPQM are sodium-dependent and, unlike SiaPQM, both STM1128 and NanT are reversible secondary carriers, demonstrating qualitative functional differences in the properties of sialic acid transporters used by bacteria that colonize humans.

  13. Stability of a family of travelling wave solutions in a feedforward chain of phase oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, O E III; Mintchev, S M

    2015-01-01

    Travelling waves are an important class of signal propagation phenomena in extended systems with a preferred direction of information flow. We study the generation of travelling waves in unidirectional chains of coupled oscillators communicating via a phase-dependent pulse-response interaction borrowed from mathematical neuroscience. Within the context of such systems, we develop a widely applicable, jointly numerical and analytical methodology for deducing existence and stability of periodic travelling waves. We provide careful numerical studies that support the existence of a periodic travelling wave solution as well as the asymptotic relaxation of a single oscillator to the wave when it is forced with the wave profile. Using this evidence as an assumption, we analytically prove global stability of waves in the infinite chain, with respect to initial perturbations of downstream sites. This rigorous stability result suggests that asymptotic relaxation to the travelling wave occurs even when the forcing is perturbed from the wave profile, a property of the motivating system that is supported by previous work as well as the convergence of the more sophisticated numerical algorithm that we propose in order to compute a high-precision approximation to the solution. We provide additional numerical studies that show that the wave is part of a one-parameter family, and we illustrate the structural robustness of this family with respect to changes in the coupling strength. (paper)

  14. A family of solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations describing relativistic charged fluid spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Sharma, Ranjan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a formalism to generate a family of interior solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for a spherically symmetric relativistic charged fluid sphere matched to the exterior Reissner-Nordström space-time. By reducing the Einstein-Maxwell system to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients, we show that it is possible to obtain closed-form solutions for a specific range of model parameters. A large class of solutions obtained previously are shown to be contained in our general class of solutions. We also analyse the physical viability of our new class of solutions.

  15. A novel missense NDP mutation [p.(Cys93Arg)] with a manifesting carrier in an austrian family with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Thomas; Lucas, Trevor; Ritter, Markus; Ludwig, Martin; Ramsebner, Reinhard; Frohne, Alexandra; Schöfer, Christian; Hengstschläger, Markus; Frei, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Norrie disease is a rare, X-linked genetic syndrome characterized by combined congenital blindness and progressive hearing impairment. Norrie disease is caused by alterations in the NDP gene encoding the growth factor norrin that plays a key role in vascular development and stabilization of the eye, inner ear and brain. We identified a family with 3 affected deafblind males and a single female carrier presenting with a serous retinal detachment but normal hearing. Genetic analysis revealed a novel c.277T>C missense mutation causing the substitution of a hydrophobic cysteine to a hydrophilic arginine [p.(Cys93Arg)] within the highly conserved cysteine knot domain of the norrin protein. These results should expand the scope for amniocentesis and genetic testing for Norrie disease which is gaining in importance due to novel postnatal therapeutic concepts to alleviate the devastating retinal symptoms of Norrie disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Stacking layered structure of polymer light emitting diodes prepared by evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution for improving carrier balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Youichi; Shakutsui, Masato; Fujita, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with staking layered structures are prepared by the evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution (ESDUS) method, which has enabled forming a polymer layer onto another polymer layer even if both polymers are soluble in a solvent used for the preparation. By this method, polymers having various HOMO and LUMO levels can be stacked as a hole transport layer, an emitting layer and an electron transport layer as commonly employed in small molecule-based organic light emitting diodes. Here we demonstrated that a PLED having a tri-layer structure using three kinds of polymers showed significant improvement in quantum efficiency compared with those having a single or bi-layer structure of corresponding polymers.

  17. Solute Carrier Family 26 Member a2 (slc26a2 Regulates Otic Development and Hair Cell Survival in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent human birth defects. Genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of deafness. It is estimated that one-third of deafness genes have already been identified. The current work is an attempt to find novel genes relevant to hearing loss using guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association bioinformatics analyses of approximately 80 known non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (NSHL genes. Among the 300 newly identified candidate deafness genes, slc26a2 were selected for functional studies in zebrafish. The slc26a2 gene was knocked down using an antisense morpholino (MO, and significant defects were observed in otolith patterns, semicircular canal morphology, and lateral neuromast distributions in morphants. Loss-of-function defects are caused primarily by apoptosis, and morphants are insensitive to sound stimulation and imbalanced swimming behaviours. Morphant defects were found to be partially rescued by co-injection of human SLC26A2 mRNA. All the results suggest that bioinformatics is capable of predicting new deafness genes and this showed slc26a2 is to be a critical otic gene whose dysfunction may induce hearing impairment.

  18. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E.

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 x 10 -3 M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) x 10 -4 M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH) 3 , Fe(OH) 3 , Cr(OH) 3 , and Mn(OH) 2 obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400

  19. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a solute carrier transport protein with non-classical function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sebastian

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20 and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2. A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration.

  20. Analytic solutions to a family of boundary-value problems for Ginsburg-Landau type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, V. M.; Dantchev, D. M.; Djondjorov, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    We consider a two-parameter family of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the behavior of a critical thermodynamic system, e.g., a binary liquid mixture, of film geometry within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory by means of the order-parameter. We focus on the case in which the confining surfaces are strongly adsorbing but prefer different components of the mixture, i.e., the order-parameter tends to infinity at one of the boundaries and to minus infinity at the other one. We assume that the boundaries of the system are positioned at a finite distance from each other and give analytic solutions to the corresponding boundary-value problems in terms of Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions.

  1. Robustness of third family solutions for hybrid stars against mixed phase effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayriyan, A.; Bastian, N.-U.; Blaschke, D.; Grigorian, H.; Maslov, K.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the robustness of third family solutions for hybrid compact stars with a quark matter core that correspond to the occurrence of high-mass twin stars against a softening of the phase transition by means of a construction that mimics the effects of pasta structures in the mixed phase. We consider a class of hybrid equations of state that exploits a relativistic mean-field model for the hadronic as well as for the quark matter phase. We present parametrizations that correspond to branches of high-mass twin star pairs with maximum masses between 2.05 M⊙ and 1.48 M⊙ having radius differences between 3.2 and 1.5 km, respectively. When compared to a Maxwell construction with a fixed value of critical pressure Pc, the effect of the mixed phase construction consists in the occurrence of a region of pressures around Pc belonging to the coexistence of hadronic and quark matter phases between the onset pressure at PH and the end of the transition at PQ. The maximum broadening which would still allow mass-twin compact stars is found to be (PQ-PH)max≈Pc for all parametrizations within the present class of models. At least the heavier of the neutron stars of the binary merger GW170817 could have been a member of the third family of hybrid stars. We present the example of another class of hybrid star equations of state for which the appearance of the third family branch is not as robust against mixed phase effects as that of the present work.

  2. Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually appear to have normal skin and hair pigment. Results We identified three previously undescribed mutations consisting of two intragenic deletions (one encompassing exon 6, the other encompassing exons 7–8, and a point mutation (310delG in exon 2. We report the development of a new method for diagnosis of heterozygous deletions in OA1 gene based on measurement of gene copy number using real-time quantitative PCR from genomic DNA. Conclusion The identification of OA1 mutations in families earlier reported as families with hereditary nystagmus indicate that ocular albinism type 1 is probably underdiagnosed. Our method of real-time quantitative PCR of OA1 exons with DMD exon as external standard performed on the LightCycler™ allows quick and accurate carrier-status assessment for at-risk females.

  3. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: mancass@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x)) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well. -- Highlights: •Function-composition generalization of parametric isospectral potentials is presented. •Mielnik one-parameter family of harmonic potentials is obtained as a particular case. •Graphical discussion of regular and singular regions in the parameter space is given.

  4. Kinetic and analytical study on precipitation reactions with 110AgNO3 of some di(β-chloroethyl)amine derivatives and hydrochlorides with esters of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-L-aspartic acid as carriers from dimethylformamide - water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al.; Sunel, V.; Ghimiciu, L.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of precipitation reactions with 110 AgNO 3 of some di(β-chloroethyl) amine derivates and hydrochlorides with esters of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-L-aspartic acid as carriers in dimethylformamide-water mixture, were studied. The rate constants of these reactions were of the order of 10 -4 lxmol -1 xmin -1 . The concentrations of the corresponding hydrochloride solutions were measured by radiometric titration with 110 AgNO 3 solution of given concentration. (author)

  5. Winning the Passion and Emotion in Family Conflicts: Reconciliation and Mediation as a Viable Solution to Disputes Involving Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sebastião de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the present study is to analyse the importance of the institutes of reconciliation and mediation in disputes involving family law, as a way towards social pacification, even thow it is common that parties, in such cases, come in hot headed. The reconciliation method has its focus set on the rapid and effective resolution of disputes, while the mediation method has a larger goal, which is the pacification of family conflict. This second method (mediation aims to arouse the interest of the parties in solving the problem of family reorganization

  6. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  7. Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-12-01

    Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.

  8. Abundant families of new traveling wave solutions for the coupled Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin

    2005-01-01

    The generalized Jacobi elliptic function method is further improved by introducing an elliptic function φ(ξ) as a new independent variable and it is easy to calculate the over-determined equations. Abundant new traveling wave solutions of the coupled Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation are obtained. The solutions obtained include the kink-shaped solutions, bell-shaped solutions, singular solutions and periodic solutions

  9. Oocyte cryopreservation, will it be a real social choice and family solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Hassan Soliman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Social changes, uprising ambitions and life demands have markedly affected the behavior and attitude of women toward the concept of composing a stable family and giving birth to children, that was clearly demarcated by the remarkably increased age of conception and child birth, postponement of such essential events could be followed later on by a sense of sorrow and regret. As such elderly ladies would sometimes find more difficulty in conceiving or in maintaining pregnancy till full term because of old age compared to the relatively younger women who might get better chances to get a healthy pregnancy, that could be attributed to the poorer quality of oocytes which progressively develops with the advancement of the maternal age. Oocyte cryopreservation at a younger age using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility without the need for sperms; if done at a younger age where oocytes are still healthy and competent to yield a normal pregnancy, thus enabling women to delay conception.

  10. Solid solutions of hydrogen uranyl phosphate and hydrogen uranyl arsenate. A family of luminescent, lamellar hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorhout, P.K.; Rosenthal, G.L.; Ellis, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen uranyl phosphate, HUO 2 PO 4 x 4H 2 O (HUP), and hydrogen uranyl arsenate, HUO 2 AsO 4 x 4H 2 O (HUAs), form solid solutions of composition HUO 2 (PO 4 ) 1-x (AsO 4 )x (HUPAs), representing a family of lamellar, luminescent solids that can serve as hosts for intercalation chemistry. The solids are prepared by aqueous precipitation reactions from uranyl nitrate and mixtures of phosphoric and arsenic acids; thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the phases are tetrahydrates, like HUP and HUAs. Powder x-ray diffraction data reveal the HUPAs solids to be single phases whose lattice constants increase with X, in rough accord with Vegard's law Spectral shifts observed for the HUPAs samples. Emission from the solids is efficient (quantum yields of ∼ 0.2) and long-lived (lifetimes of ∼ 150 μs), although the measured values are uniformly smaller than those of HUP and HUAs; unimolecular radiative and nonradiative rate constants for excited-state decay of ∼ 1500 and 5000 s -1 , respectively, have been calculated for the compounds. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  12. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  13. The PLUS family: A set of computer programs to evaluate analytical solutions of the diffusion equation and thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montan, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    This report is intended to describe, document and provide instructions for the use of new versions of a set of computer programs commonly referred to as the PLUS family. These programs were originally designed to numerically evaluate simple analytical solutions of the diffusion equation. The new versions include linear thermo-elastic effects from thermal fields calculated by the diffusion equation. After the older versions of the PLUS family were documented a year ago, it was realized that the techniques employed in the programs were well suited to the addition of linear thermo-elastic phenomena. This has been implemented and this report describes the additions. 3 refs., 14 figs

  14. The role of family therapy in the management of schizophrenia: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Rus-Calafell, Mar; Urzúa, Alfonso; Escudero, Jorge; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2015-01-01

    Family interventions for schizophrenia have been amply demonstrated to be effective and are recommended by most of the international clinical guidelines. However, their implementation in the clinical setting as well as in treatment protocols of patients with psychosis has not been fully achieved yet. With the increasing deinstitutionalization of patients, family has begun to assume the role of care performed by psychiatric hospitals, with a high emotional cost for caregivers as well as the recognition of burden experiences. Families have been the substitute in the face of the scarcity of therapeutic, occupational, and residential resources. For this reason, the viability of patients’ care by their families has become a challenge. This article aims to discuss the most important aspects of family interventions, their impact on families, and the most important challenges that need to be overcome in order to achieve well-being and recovery in both patients and caregivers. PMID:25609970

  15. BRCA mutation carrier detection. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the traditional family history approach and the testing of all patients with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise

    2018-01-01

    Background Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Patients and methods A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). Results The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result. Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000–€80 000/LYG). PMID:29682331

  16. BRCA mutation carrier detection. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the traditional family history approach and the testing of all patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise

    2018-01-01

    Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result.Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000-€80 000/LYG).

  17. Periodic solutions for a non-monotone family of delayed differential equations with applications to Nicholson systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    For a family of n-dimensional periodic delay differential equations which encompasses a broad set of models used in structured population dynamics, the existence of a positive periodic solution is obtained under very mild conditions. The proof uses the Schauder fixed point theorem and relies on the permanence of the system. A general criterion for the existence of a positive periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies periodic systems (with both distributed and discrete time-varying delays) is derived as a simple application of our main result, generalizing the few existing results concerning multi-dimensional Nicholson models. In the case of a Nicholson system with discrete delays all multiples of the period, the global attractivity of the positive periodic solution is further analyzed, improving results in recent literature.

  18. The role of family therapy in the management of schizophrenia: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caqueo-Urízar A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar,1,* Mar Rus-Calafell,2,* Alfonso Urzúa,3 Jorge Escudero,1 José Gutiérrez-Maldonado4 1Departamento de Filosofía y Psicología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile; 2Department of Social Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK; 3Alfonso Urzúa Morales, Escuela de Psicología, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile; 4Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamientos Psicológicos, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Family interventions for schizophrenia have been amply demonstrated to be effective and are recommended by most of the international clinical guidelines. However, their implementation in the clinical setting as well as in treatment protocols of patients with psychosis has not been fully achieved yet. With the increasing deinstitutionalization of patients, family has begun to assume the role of care performed by psychiatric hospitals, with a high emotional cost for caregivers as well as the recognition of burden experiences. Families have been the substitute in the face of the scarcity of therapeutic, occupational, and residential resources. For this reason, the viability of patients’ care by their families has become a challenge. This article aims to discuss the most important aspects of family interventions, their impact on families, and the most important challenges that need to be overcome in order to achieve well-being and recovery in both patients and caregivers. Keywords: family intervention, schizophrenia, caregivers, quality of life, therapy

  19. Family therapy within an adolescent addiction treatment service “In search of solutions"

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority. In relation to substance misuse it is observed that risk and protection factors exist in equal measure within different contexts, including within the individual, family, peer group, school and community settings. In response to problems relating to illicit drug use in Ireland the first adult treatment service was established in Dublin in 1969. As an approach to meeting the complex needs of an adolescent drug using population two designated out-patient treatment adolescent services were established in Dublin during the mid-1990s. Working closely with families, carers and significant others improves communication and mobilises resources in ways that enhances protection for young people especially in circumstances where there are a number of family members engaging in substance misuse.

  20. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  1. Blow-up of solutions to the rotation b-family system modeling equatorial water waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the blow-up mechanism to the periodic generalized rotation b-family system (R-b-family system. This model can be derived from the f-plane governing equations for the geographical water waves with a constant underlying current in the equatorial water waves with effect of the Coriolis force. When b=2, it is a rotation two-component Camassa-Holm (R2CH system. We consider the periodic R2CH system when linear dispersion is absent (which model is called r2CH system and derive two finite-time blow-up results.

  2. Innovative solutions--the art of improvisation: patient and family preferences for visitation in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Linda; McClard, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Critical care nurses identified that, although a liberal visitation policy was followed, patients and families occasionally expressed preferences for verbal communication, rather than have the visitor physically present in the unit. Previously tested communication devices interfered with operating equipment resulting in poor reception. The purpose of this project was to find an effective method for patients to verbally communicate with visitors.

  3. Asymptotic behavior of solutions of diffusion-like partial differential equations invariant to a family of affine groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1990-07-01

    This report deals with the asymptotic behavior of certain solutions of partial differential equations in one dependent and two independent variables (call them c, z, and t, respectively). The partial differential equations are invariant to one-parameter families of one-parameter affine groups of the form: c' = λ α c, t' = λ β t, z' = λz, where λ is the group parameter that labels the individual transformations and α and β are parameters that label groups of the family. The parameters α and β are connected by a linear relation, Mα + Nβ = L, where M, N, and L are numbers determined by the structure of the partial differential equation. It is shown that when L/M and N/M are L/M t -N/M for large z or small t. Some practical applications of this result are discussed. 8 refs

  4. Evaluating the performance of the breast cancer genetic risk models BOADICEA, IBIS, BRCAPRO and Claus for predicting BRCA1/2 mutation carrier probabilities: a study based on 7352 families from the German Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christine; Kuchenbäcker, Karoline; Engel, Christoph; Zachariae, Silke; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Rahner, Nils; Dikow, Nicola; Plendl, Hansjörg; Debatin, Irmgard; Grimm, Tiemo; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Flöttmann, Ricarda; Horvath, Judit; Schröck, Evelin; Stock, Friedrich; Schäfer, Dieter; Schwaab, Ira; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Mavaddat, Nasim; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Antoniou, Antonis C; Schmutzler, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Risk prediction models are widely used in clinical genetic counselling. Despite their frequent use, the genetic risk models BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, IBIS and extended Claus model (eCLAUS), used to estimate BRCA1/2 mutation carrier probabilities, have never been comparatively evaluated in a large sample from central Europe. Additionally, a novel version of BOADICEA that incorporates tumour pathology information has not yet been validated. Using data from 7352 German families we estimated BRCA1/2 carrier probabilities under each model and compared their discrimination and calibration. The incremental value of using pathology information in BOADICEA was assessed in a subsample of 4928 pedigrees with available data on breast tumour molecular markers oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2. BRCAPRO (area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.80 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.81)) and BOADICEA (AUC=0.79 (0.78-0.80)), had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than IBIS and eCLAUS (p<0.001). The AUC increased when pathology information was used in BOADICEA: AUC=0.81 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.83, p<0.001). At carrier thresholds of 10% and 15%, the net reclassification index was +3.9% and +5.4%, respectively, when pathology was included in the model. Overall, calibration was best for BOADICEA and worst for eCLAUS. With eCLAUS, twice as many mutation carriers were predicted than observed. Our results support the use of BRCAPRO and BOADICEA for decision making regarding genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. However, model calibration has to be improved for this population. eCLAUS should not be used for estimating mutation carrier probabilities in clinical settings. Whenever possible, breast tumour molecular marker information should be taken into account.

  5. Accelerated Genetic Algorithm Solutions Of Some Parametric Families Of Stochastic Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ali Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absract In this project A new method for solving Stochastic Differential Equations SDEs deriving by Wiener process numerically will be construct and implement using Accelerated Genetic Algorithm AGA. An SDE is a differential equation in which one or more of the terms and hence the solutions itself is a stochastic process. Solving stochastic differential equations requires going away from the recognizable deterministic setting of ordinary and partial differential equations into a world where the evolution of a quantity has an inherent random component and where the expected behavior of this quantity can be described in terms of probability distributions. We applied our method on the Ito formula which is equivalent to the SDE to find approximation solution of the SDEs. Numerical experiments illustrate the behavior of the proposed method.

  6. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  7. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...

  8. Barriers for Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses and Suggested Solutions to Overcome These

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2011-01-01

    As much as 40% of the total energy consumption in Denmark is utilized by the building sector and most of this energy is used for heating. Political initiatives have been taken to reduce this amount considerably but for this to happen, the energy consumption of the existing residential housing stock...... must be reduced dramatically. The greatest saving potential is found among the approximately 440.000 standardised single-family houses which were constructed in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It is found that barriers preventing the implementation of this great potential are present in various forms among all...

  9. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  10. A correspondence between solution-state dynamics of an individual protein and the sequence and conformational diversity of its family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Friedland

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conformational ensembles are increasingly recognized as a useful representation to describe fundamental relationships between protein structure, dynamics and function. Here we present an ensemble of ubiquitin in solution that is created by sampling conformational space without experimental information using "Backrub" motions inspired by alternative conformations observed in sub-Angstrom resolution crystal structures. Backrub-generated structures are then selected to produce an ensemble that optimizes agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs. Using this ensemble, we probe two proposed relationships between properties of protein ensembles: (i a link between native-state dynamics and the conformational heterogeneity observed in crystal structures, and (ii a relation between dynamics of an individual protein and the conformational variability explored by its natural family. We show that the Backrub motional mechanism can simultaneously explore protein native-state dynamics measured by RDCs, encompass the conformational variability present in ubiquitin complex structures and facilitate sampling of conformational and sequence variability matching those occurring in the ubiquitin protein family. Our results thus support an overall relation between protein dynamics and conformational changes enabling sequence changes in evolution. More practically, the presented method can be applied to improve protein design predictions by accounting for intrinsic native-state dynamics.

  11. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. Solution Structure of the Tandem Acyl Carrier Protein Domains from a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase Reveals Beads-on-a-String Configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Trujillo, Uldaeliz

    2013-02-28

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect) and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect). While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of multiple ACP

  13. Solution Structure of the Tandem Acyl Carrier Protein Domains from a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase Reveals Beads-on-a-String Configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Trujillo, Uldaeliz; Vá zquez-Rosa, Edwin; Oyola-Robles, Delise; Stagg, Loren J.; Vassallo, David A.; Vega, Irving E.; Arold, Stefan T.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2013-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect) and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect). While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of multiple ACP

  14. Solution structure of the tandem acyl carrier protein domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase reveals beads-on-a-string configuration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldaeliz Trujillo

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect. While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of

  15. Reactivity of Cork Extracts with (+)-Catechin and Malvidin-3-O-glucoside in Wine Model Solutions: Identification of a New Family of Ellagitannin-Derived Compounds (Corklins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Ana; Oliveira, Joana; Brás, Natércia F; Reis, Sofia; Lopes, Paulo; Roseira, Isabel; Cabral, Miguel; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-10-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reactivity of phenolic compounds extracted from cork stoppers to wine model solutions with two major wine components, namely, (+)-catechin and malvidin-3-O-glucoside. Besides the formation of some compounds already described in the literature, these reactions also yielded a new family of ellagitannin-derived compounds, named herein as corklins. This new family of compounds that were found to result from the interaction between ellagitannins in alcoholic solutions and (+)-catechin were structurally characterized by mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and computational methods.

  16. A family of four stages embedded explicit six-step methods with eliminated phase-lag and its derivatives for the numerical solution of the second order problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    A family of four stages high algebraic order embedded explicit six-step methods, for the numerical solution of second order initial or boundary-value problems with periodical and/or oscillating solutions, are studied in this paper. The free parameters of the new proposed methods are calculated solving the linear system of equations which is produced by requesting the vanishing of the phase-lag of the methods and the vanishing of the phase-lag's derivatives of the schemes. For the new obtained methods we investigate: • Its local truncation error (LTE) of the methods.• The asymptotic form of the LTE obtained using as model problem the radial Schrödinger equation.• The comparison of the asymptotic forms of LTEs for several methods of the same family. This comparison leads to conclusions on the efficiency of each method of the family.• The stability and the interval of periodicity of the obtained methods of the new family of embedded finite difference pairs.• The applications of the new obtained family of embedded finite difference pairs to the numerical solution of several second order problems like the radial Schrödinger equation, astronomical problems etc. The above applications lead to conclusion on the efficiency of the methods of the new family of embedded finite difference pairs.

  17. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers : effects of carrier density and electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solutions of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier

  19. The Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Extract on the Functionality of the Solute Carrier Protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 Variants Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. McCann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual’s capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152 and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896 associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, −1082A. The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  20. The effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on the functionality of the solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mark J; Johnston, Sarah; Reilly, Kerri; Men, Xuejing; Burgess, Elaine J; Perry, Nigel B; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-10-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  1. Exact Solutions for Certain Nonlinear Autonomous Ordinary Differential Equations of the Second Order and Families of Two-Dimensional Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Markakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain nonlinear autonomous ordinary differential equations of the second order are reduced to Abel equations of the first kind ((Ab-1 equations. Based on the results of a previous work, concerning a closed-form solution of a general (Ab-1 equation, and introducing an arbitrary function, exact one-parameter families of solutions are derived for the original autonomous equations, for the most of which only first integrals (in closed or parametric form have been obtained so far. Two-dimensional autonomous systems of differential equations of the first order, equivalent to the considered herein autonomous forms, are constructed and solved by means of the developed analysis.

  2. Aviation security : TSA is enhancing its oversight of air carrier efforts to identify passengers on the No Fly and Selectee lists, but expects ultimate solution to be implementation of Secure Flight : report to congressional committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Air carriers remain a front-line defense against acts of terrorism that target the nations civil aviation system. A key responsibility of air carriers is to check passengers names against terrorist watch-list records to identify persons who sho...

  3. An integrable symmetric (2+1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation and a family of its solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xingbiao; Li Chunxia; Nimmo, Jonathan J C; Yu Guofu

    2005-01-01

    A symmetric (2+1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation is proposed. By means of a dependent variable transformation, the equation is firstly transformed into multilinear form and further decoupled into bilinear form by introducing auxiliary independent variables. A bilinear Baecklund transformation is found and then the corresponding Lax pair is derived. Explicit solutions expressed in terms of pfaffian solutions of the bilinear form of the symmetric (2+1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation are given. As a special case of the pfaffian solutions, we obtain soliton solutions and dromions

  4. Familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versmissen, Jorie; Vongpromek, Ranitha; Yahya, Reyhana

    2016-01-01

    cholesterol efflux capacity between male familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) patients with and without CHD relative to their non-FH brothers, and examined HDL constituents including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its carrier apolipoprotein M (apoM). RESULTS: Seven FH patients were asymptomatic and six had...... in asymptomatic FH patients may play a role in their apparent protection from premature CHD....

  5. Light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed nontoxic quantum dots: oxides as carrier-transport layers and introducing molybdenum oxide nanoparticles as a hole-inject layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Saikat; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-07-23

    We report fabrication and characterization of solution-processed quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) based on a layer of nontoxic and Earth-abundant zinc-diffused silver indium disulfide (AIZS) nanoparticles as an emitting material. In the QDLEDs fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates, we use layers of oxides, such as graphene oxide (GO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as a hole- and electron-transport layer, respectively. In addition, we introduce a layer of MoO3 nanoparticles as a hole-inject one. We report a comparison of the characteristics of different device architectures. We show that an inverted device architecture, ITO/ZnO/AIZS/GO/MoO3/Al, yields a higher electroluminescence (EL) emission, compared to direct ones, for three reasons: (1) the GO/MoO3 layers introduce barriers for electrons to reach the Al electrode, and, similarly, the ZnO layers acts as a barrier for holes to travel to the ITO electrode; (2) the introduction of a layer of MoO3 nanoparticles as a hole-inject layer reduces the barrier height for holes and thereby balances charge injection in the inverted structure; and (3) the wide-bandgap zinc oxide next to the ITO electrode does not absorb the EL emission during its exit from the device. In the QDLEDs with oxides as carrier inject and transport layers, the EL spectrum resembles the photoluminescence emission of the emitting material (AIZS), implying that excitons are formed in the quaternary nanocrystals and decay radiatively.

  6. Solution Structure of 4′-Phosphopantetheine - GmACP3 from Geobacter metallireducens: A Specialized Acyl Carrier Protein with Atypical Structural Features and a Putative Role in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelot, Theresa A.; Smola, Matthew J.; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Ciccosanti, Colleen; Hamilton, Keith; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K.; Prestegard, James H.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    GmACP3 from Geobacter metallireducens is a specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP) whose gene, gmet_2339, is located near genes encoding many proteins involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, indicating a likely function for GmACP3 in LPS production. By overexpression in Escherichia coli, about 50% holo-GmACP3 and 50% apo-GmACP3 were obtained. Apo-GmACP3 exhibited slow precipitation and non-monomeric behavior by 15N NMR relaxation measurements. Addition of 4′-phosphopantetheine (4′-PP) via enzymatic conversion by E. coli holo-ACP synthase, resulted in stable >95% holo-GmACP3 that was characterized as monomeric by 15N relaxation measurements and had no indication of conformational exchange. We have determined a high-resolution solution structure of holo-GmACP3 by standard NMR methods, including refinement with two sets of NH residual dipolar couplings, allowing for a detailed structural analysis of the interactions between 4′-PP and GmACP3. Whereas the overall four helix bundle topology is similar to previously solved ACP structures, this structure has unique characteristics, including an ordered 4′-PP conformation that places the thiol at the entrance to a central hydrophobic cavity near a conserved hydrogen-bonded Trp-His pair. These residues are part of a conserved WDSLxH/N motif found in GmACP3 and it’s orthologs. The helix locations and the large hydrophobic cavity are more similar to medium- and long-chain acyl-ACPs than to other apo- and holo-ACP structures. Taken together, structural characterization along with bioinformatic analysis of nearby genes suggest that GmACP3 is involved in lipid A acylation, possibly by atypical long-chain hydroxy fatty acids, and potentially involved in synthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:21235239

  7. Radon generator and the method of radium carrier fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radon generator construction and the method of radium carrier fabrication has been the subject of the patent. The generator is a cylindrical vessel with gas valves system and two filters inside. Between them the radium carrier has been located. As a carrier polyurethane foam has been used. The carrier is obtained in a generator vessel from polyester resin in the presence of activated mixture of engine oil, zinc-organic catalyst and toluene. To the obtained mixture the radium chloride in the solution of hydrochloric acid is added. The carrier foam is produced by mechanical stirring of substrates inside the vessel and drying in 50 C in a heater. 1 fig

  8. [The young resident between work and family. Status quo and approaches to a solution in orthopedics and traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeweg, D; Achatz, G; Liebig, K; Lorenz, O

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility between the family and the medical profession requires a new challenge of leadership in hospitals, politics and medical societies. The generation change in the medical profession needs the implementation of modern framework conditions in the departments of orthopedics and traumatology. Topics such as work organisation, family support and programs to assist the return to work need to be discussed and should be used as a competitive advantage. Employees of generation y need a gender-independent role model in the field of modern management methods in employee leadership.

  9. The Effects of Mother Education Programs on the Functionality, Anger Management and Conflict Solution Levels of Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Zekavet

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Studies carried out in recent years both in Turkey and abroad indicate that child and teenage violence has increased and become widespread. Annually, 91.1% of deaths due to violence in the world occur in low and middle-income countries. Family life is an important element in understanding violent behavior as it relates to family…

  10. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  11. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  12. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  13. Cancer risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Dowty, James G.; Win, Aung K.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Clendenning, Mark; Antill, Yoland C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steve; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A.; Haile, Robert W.; Young, Graeme P.; James, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation-carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC) and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria. Heterogeneity in risks was investigated using a polygenic risk modifier. Average CRC cumulative risks to age 70 years (95% confidence intervals) for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, ...

  14. Introducing a new family of short-range potentials and their numerical solutions using the asymptotic iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, I. A.; Sous, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this work is to derive a new class of short-range potentials that could have a wide range of physical applications, specially in molecular physics. The tridiagonal representation approach has been developed beyond its limitations to produce new potentials by requiring the representation of the Schrödinger wave operator to be multidiagonal and symmetric. This produces a family of Hulthén potentials that has a specific structure, as mentioned in the introduction. As an example, we have solved the nonrelativistic wave equation for the new four-parameter short-range screening potential numerically using the asymptotic iteration method, where we tabulated the eigenvalues for both s -wave and arbitrary l -wave cases in tables.

  15. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron

  16. Poisoning of liquid membrane carriers in extraction of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuchun; Wang, Dexian

    1992-01-01

    As means of effective separation and preconcentration, emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) have found application in many fields including biochemical separation, wastewater treatment, hydrometallurgy, and preconcentration in analytical chemistry. In the extraction of desired metal (scandium, mixed rare earths) ions using chelating extractants (TTA, HDEHP) as liquid membrane carriers, the carriers will become poisoned owing to the presence of even minute quantity of certain high ionic potential ions in the feed solution. The reason for the poisoning of carriers is that those ions have so much greater affinity than the desired ions for the membrane carrier that the ion-carrier coordination compound cannot be stripped at the interior interface of the membrane and gradually no more free carrier transports any metal ions across the membrane. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiments, and methods to avoid the poisoning are given in the paper

  17. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  18. Predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases: Impact on carrier children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M.; Tibben, Aad; Mollema, Eline D.; Van Langen, Irene M.; Wiegman, Albert; De Wert, Guido M.; De Beaufort, Inez D.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the experiences of children identified by family screening who were found to be a mutation carrier for a genetic cardiovascular disease (Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)). We addressed the (a) manner in which they perceive

  19. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  20. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  1. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138 ...

  2. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  3. Mitochondrial glutamate carriers from Drosophila melanogaster: biochemical, evolutionary and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetti, Paola; Cappello, Anna Rita; Marsano, René Massimiliano; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Carrisi, Chiara; Martello, Emanuela; Caggese, Corrado; Dolce, Vincenza; Capobianco, Loredana

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial carriers are members of a family of transport proteins that mediate solute transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Two isoforms of the glutamate carriers, GC1 and GC2 (encoded by the SLC25A22 and SLC25A18 genes, respectively), have been identified in humans. Two independent mutations in SLC25A22 are associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. In the present study we show that two genes (CG18347 and CG12201) phylogenetically related to the human GC encoding genes are present in the D. melanogaster genome. We have functionally characterized the proteins encoded by CG18347 and CG12201, designated as DmGC1p and DmGC2p respectively, by overexpression in Escherichia coli and reconstitution into liposomes. Their transport properties demonstrate that DmGC1p and DmGC2p both catalyze the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Computational approaches have been used in order to highlight residues of DmGC1p and DmGC2p involved in substrate binding. Furthermore, gene expression analysis during development and in various adult tissues reveals that CG18347 is ubiquitously expressed in all examined D. melanogaster tissues, while the expression of CG12201 is strongly testis-biased. Finally, we identified mitochondrial glutamate carrier orthologs in 49 eukaryotic species in order to attempt the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the glutamate carrier function. Comparison of the exon/intron structure and other key features of the analyzed orthologs suggests that eukaryotic glutamate carrier genes descend from an intron-rich ancestral gene already present in the common ancestor of lineages that diverged as early as bilateria and radiata. © 2013.

  4. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  5. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  6. Cyclodextrins in drug carrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekama, K; Otagiri, M

    1987-01-01

    One of the important characteristics of cyclodextrins is the formation of an inclusion complex with a variety of drug molecules in solution and in the solid state. As a consequence of intensive basic research, exhaustive toxic studies, and realization of industrial production during the past decade, there seem to be no more barriers for the practical application of natural cyclodextrins in the biomedical field. Recently, a number of cyclodextrin derivatives and cyclodextrin polymers have been prepared to obtain better inclusion abilities than parent cyclodextrins. The natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been successfully utilized to improve various drug properties, such as solubility, dissolution and release rates, stability, or bioavailability. In addition, the enhancement of drug activity, selective transfer, or the reduction of side effects has been achieved by means of inclusion complexation. The drug-cyclodextrin complex is generally formed outside of the body and, after administration, it dissociates, releasing the drug into the organism in a fast and nearly uniform manner. In the biomedical application of cyclodextrins, therefore, particular attention should be directed to the magnitude of the stability constant of the inclusion complex. In the case of parenteral application, a rather limited amount of work has been done because the cyclodextrins in the drug carrier systems have to be more effectively designed to compete with various biological components in the circulatory system. However, the works published thus far apparently indicate that the inclusion phenomena of cyclodextrin analogs may allow the rational design of drug formulation and that the combination of molecular encapsulation with other carrier systems will become a very effective and valuable method for the development of a new drug delivery system in the near future.

  7. Carrier screening in the era of expanding genetic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Aishwarya; Litwack, Karen; Collins, Nick; Charrow, Joel

    2016-12-01

    The Center for Jewish Genetics provides genetic education and carrier screening to individuals of Jewish descent. Carrier screening has traditionally been performed by targeted mutation analysis for founder mutations with an enzyme assay for Tay-Sachs carrier detection. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for higher detection rates regardless of ethnicity. Here, we explore differences in carrier detection rates between genotyping and NGS in a primarily Jewish population. Peripheral blood samples or saliva samples were obtained from 506 individuals. All samples were analyzed by sequencing, targeted genotyping, triplet-repeat detection, and copy-number analysis; the analyses were carried out at Counsyl. Of 506 individuals screened, 288 were identified as carriers of at least 1 condition and 8 couples were carriers for the same disorder. A total of 434 pathogenic variants were identified. Three hundred twelve variants would have been detected via genotyping alone. Although no additional mutations were detected by NGS in diseases routinely screened for in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 26.5% of carrier results and 2 carrier couples would have been missed without NGS in the larger panel. In a primarily Jewish population, NGS reveals a larger number of pathogenic variants and provides individuals with valuable information for family planning.Genet Med 18 12, 1214-1217.

  8. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  9. Carrier element-free coprecipitation with 3-phenly-4-o-hydroxybenzylidenamino-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one for separation/preconcentration of Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Celal; Bulut, Volkan N.; Gundogdu, Ali; Ozdes, Duygu; Yildirim, Nuri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Senturk, H. Basri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Elci, Latif [Pamukkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 20020 Denizli (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    A separation/preconcentration procedure, based on the coprecipitation of Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions using a new organic coprecipitant, 3-phenly-4-o-hydroxybenzylidenamino-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one (POHBAT) without adding any carrier element has been developed. The method, thus, has been called carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC). The resultant concentrated elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influences of some analytical parameters including pH of the solution, amount of the coprecipitant, standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume and diverse ions were investigated on the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions. The validation of the present preconcentration procedure was performed by the analysis of two certified reference materials. The recoveries of understudy analytes were found in the range of 93-98%, while the detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.3-2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The precision of the method evaluated as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was in the range of 3-7% depend on the analytes. The proposed method was successfully applied to environmental samples for the determination of the analytes.

  10. Carrier element-free coprecipitation with 3-phenly-4-o-hydroxybenzylidenamino-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one for separation/preconcentration of Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Celal; Bulut, Volkan N.; Gundogdu, Ali; Ozdes, Duygu; Yildirim, Nuri; Soylak, Mustafa; Senturk, H. Basri; Elci, Latif

    2009-01-01

    A separation/preconcentration procedure, based on the coprecipitation of Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ and Zn 2+ ions using a new organic coprecipitant, 3-phenly-4-o-hydroxybenzylidenamino-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one (POHBAT) without adding any carrier element has been developed. The method, thus, has been called carrier element-free coprecipitation (CEFC). The resultant concentrated elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influences of some analytical parameters including pH of the solution, amount of the coprecipitant, standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume and diverse ions were investigated on the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions. The validation of the present preconcentration procedure was performed by the analysis of two certified reference materials. The recoveries of understudy analytes were found in the range of 93-98%, while the detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.3-2.0 μg L -1 . The precision of the method evaluated as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was in the range of 3-7% depend on the analytes. The proposed method was successfully applied to environmental samples for the determination of the analytes.

  11. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...... of enhancements are still required to make Carrier Ethernet ready for large scale deployments of reliable point-to-multipoint services. The tutorial highlights the necessary enhancements and shows possible solutions and directions towards reliable multicast. Explicit focus is on OAM for multicast, where...

  12. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles: A drug carrier system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Kokardekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN are a type of nanoparticles. They are submicron colloidal carriers which are composed of physiological lipids, dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solutions. SLN have wide range of advantages over other types of nanoparticles. These include availability of large-scale production methods and no signs of cytotoxicity, which are main hindrances in the application of other types of nanoparticles. Hot and cold homogenization techniques are mainly employed for its production. They are mainly evaluated on the basis of their drug release profile and particle internal structure. The products based on SLN are under development. They have a very wide range of applications in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. They can be applied for any purpose, for which nanoparticles have a distinct advantage. Thus, SLN can be used extensively as an alternative to the existing drug carrier systems, providing more flexibility with respect to the area of applications and also aspects for commercialization.

  14. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have......-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2...... families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age...

  15. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. A rural mail-carrier index of North Dakota red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Rural mail-carrier sightings of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) during mid-April, -July, and -September of 1969-73 were compared to spring fox family estimates derived by aerial searches of six townships. The mid-April mail-carrier index reflected annual fox density changes on the six townships (correlation coefficient = 0.958) . Random exclusions of individual mail-carrier reports indicated participation could decline 40 percent without affecting index accuracy.

  17. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Chen Haisheng; Zhang Xinjing; Tan Chunqing; Ding Yulong

    2010-01-01

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  18. Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of HNO 3 (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO 3 decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures

  19. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  20. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  1. Appreciating the broad clinical features of SMAD4 mutation carriers: a multi-center chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Wain, K.E.; Ellingson, M.S.; McDonald, J.; Gammon, A.; Roberts, M.; Pichurin, P.; Winship, I.; Riegert-Johnson, D.; Weitzel, J. N.; Lindor, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function (LOF) SMAD4 mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JP) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Some carriers exhibit symptoms of both conditions, leading to the name JP-HHT syndrome. Three families have been reported with connective tissue abnormalities. In order to better understand the spectrum and extent of clinical findings in SMAD4 carriers, medical records of 34 patients (20 families) from five clinical practices were reviewed. ...

  2. Method to produce sintered carriers for electrodes of galvanic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, E M

    1978-03-24

    Carrier plates of precisely uniform thickness can be produced according to the invention by firstly thickening a solution of polyethylene oxide and (preferably) methanol by adding water and then, by adding nickel powder, obtaining an essentially homogeneous suspension of considerable viscosity. This slurry is coated on both sides of a nickel grid, dried and sintered.

  3. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  4. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...

  5. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but not being limited to, trucks, rail, airplanes, vessels, tramp or chartered steamers, whether carrying for...

  6. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  7. Estudio familiar de las hemofilias A y B: 5 años de experiencia en la detección de portadoras Family study of hemophilia A and B: 5 years of experience in carrier detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaixa Piloto Roque

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La hemofilia se caracteriza por ser una enfermedad congénita del trastorno de la coagulación y constituye un desorden recesivo ligado al cromosoma X. El estudio molecular se realiza por estudios indirectos por ser causada por mutaciones heterogéneas en los genes del FVIII y FIX. Se realizó el estudio de 40 familias afectadas con hemofilia A (HA y 10 hemofilia B (HB. La extracción de ADN se realizó por el método de precipitación salina a 293 muestras de sangre y 19 de líquido amniótico, y se hizo el análisis de los polimorfismos St14, Bcl I y Hind III para la HA y Taq I, Xmn I y Dde I para la HB. Se usó la técnica de PCR. En el caso de la HA se obtuvo el 35 % de informatividad para St14 y Hind III y 32,5 para Bcl 1. El polimorfismo Dde I fue el más informativo para la HB con el 33 %; mientras que Taq I representó el 10 % de informatividad y XmnI el 0 %. Se comprobó que de las 40 familias analizadas con HA, 23 fueron informativas. Por otra parte, fueron informativas 4 familias de las afectadas con HB. Se realizaron 19 diagnósticos prenatales con previa determinación del sexo fetal, incluidos 3 varones enfermos.Hemophilia is a congenital disease of coagulation disorder and it is a recessive disorder linked to X-chromosome. The molecular study is conducted by indirect studies due to it is caused by heterogeneous mutations in gen of FVIII and FIX in 40 families with hemophilia A (HA and 10 with hemophilia B (HB. DNA extraction was carried out by saline precipitation method in 293 blood samples and 19 samples of amniotic fluid, as well as the analysis of St14, Bcl I and Hind III polymorphism for the AH and Taq I, Xmn I and Dde I for BH. The PCR technique was used. In the caser of AH it was possible to achieve a 35 % of information for St14 and Hind III and a 32.5 % for Bcl. Dde polymorphism supplied more information for BH for a 33 %; whereas the Taq I represented the 10 % of information and Xmn I the 0 %. We verified that from the

  8. PMS2 monoallelic mutation carriers: the known unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenberger, McKinsey L; Thomas, Brittany C; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas; Boland, C Richard; Plon, Sharon E; Clendenning, Mark; Win, Aung Ko; Senter, Leigha; Lipkin, Steven M; Stadler, Zsofia K; Macrae, Finlay A; Lynch, Henry T; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; de la Chapelle, Albert; Syngal, Sapna; Lynch, Patrick; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Gallinger, Steven; Holter, Spring; Aronson, Melyssa; Newcomb, Polly A; Burnett, Terrilea; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pichurin, Pavel; Hampel, Heather; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Lu, Karen H; Thibodeau, Stephen; Lindor, Noralane M

    2016-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 have been shown to cause Lynch syndrome. The penetrance of the cancer and tumor spectrum has been repeatedly studied, and multiple professional societies have proposed clinical management guidelines for affected individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a reduced penetrance for monoallelic carriers of PMS2 mutations compared with the other mismatch repair (MMR) genes, but clinical management guidelines have largely proposed the same screening recommendations for all MMR gene carriers. The authors considered whether enough evidence existed to propose new screening guidelines specific to PMS2 mutation carriers with regard to age at onset and frequency of colonic screening. Published reports of PMS2 germ-line mutations were combined with unpublished cases from the authors' research registries and clinical practices, and a discussion of potential modification of cancer screening guidelines was pursued. A total of 234 monoallelic PMS2 mutation carriers from 170 families were included. Approximately 8% of those with colorectal cancer (CRC) were diagnosed before age 30, and each of these tumors presented on the left side of the colon. As it is currently unknown what causes the early onset of CRC in some families with monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations, the authors recommend against reducing cancer surveillance guidelines in families found having monoallelic PMS2 mutations in spite of the reduced penetrance.Genet Med 18 1, 13-19.

  9. Thermal induced carrier's transfer in bimodal size distribution InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilahi, B.; Alshehri, K.; Madhar, N. A.; Sfaxi, L.; Maaref, H.

    2018-06-01

    This work reports on the investigation of the thermal induced carriers' transfer mechanism in vertically stacked bimodal size distribution InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD). A model treating the QD as a localized states ensemble (LSE) has been employed to fit the atypical temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) emission energies and linewidth. The results suggest that thermally activated carriers transfer within the large size QD family occurs through the neighboring smaller size QD as an intermediate channel before direct carriers redistribution. The obtained activation energy suggests also the possible contribution of the wetting layer (WL) continuum states as a second mediator channel for carriers transfer.

  10. Next-generation DNA sequencing of HEXA: a step in the right direction for carrier screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jodi D; Greger, Valerie; Strovel, Erin T; Blitzer, Miriam G; Umbarger, Mark A; Kennedy, Caleb; Bishop, Brian; Saunders, Patrick; Porreca, Gregory J; Schienda, Jaclyn; Davie, Jocelyn; Hallam, Stephanie; Towne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is the prototype for ethnic-based carrier screening, with a carrier rate of ∼1/27 in Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians. HexA enzyme analysis is the current gold standard for TSD carrier screening (detection rate ∼98%), but has technical limitations. We compared DNA analysis by next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) plus an assay for the 7.6 kb deletion to enzyme analysis for TSD carrier screening using 74 samples collected from participants at a TSD family conference. ...

  11. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  12. Practitioner Review: The Effectiveness of Solution Focused Brief Therapy with Children and Families: A Systematic and Critical Evaluation of the Literature from 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Caroline; Woods, Kevin; Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy; Green, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Background and scope: Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a strengths-based therapeutic approach, emphasizing the resources that people possess and how these can be applied to a positive change process. The current study provides a systematic review of the SFBT evidence base and a critical evaluation of the use and application of SFBT in…

  13. Tunneling-assisted transport of carriers through heterojunctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The formulation of carrier transport through heterojunctions by tunneling and thermionic emission is derived from first principles. The treatment of tunneling is discussed at three levels of approximation: numerical solution of the one-band envelope equation for an arbitrarily specified potential profile; the WKB approximation for an arbitrary potential; and, an analytic formulation assuming constant internal field. The effects of spatially varying carrier chemical potentials over tunneling distances are included. Illustrative computational results are presented. The described approach is used in exploratory physics models of irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors within Sandia's QASPR program.

  14. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Palash; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2014-01-01

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT

  15. Solid phase carrier for radioimmuno analyses, as well as its manufacture and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriadec, B.; Roubertie, P.

    1979-01-01

    The solid phase carrier is in the form of a tablet containing freeze-dried protein-bonded gel, dicalcium phosphate and magnesium stearate. It is able to absorb 0.400 microlitre of an a solution containing antigen-antibody. When contacted with the solution, the tablet swells up and adapts to the shape of the column. The carrier is suitable for the TSH RIA test. (DG) [de

  16. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, J.L.

    1991-10-01

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2 + , for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  17. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce Act...

  18. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  19. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  20. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.J.; Nitsch, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities of an energetic utilisation of hydrogen. This energy carrier can be produced from the unlimited energy sources - solar energy, wind energy and hydropower - and from nuclear energy. It is also capable of one day supplementing or superseding the fossil energy carriers oil, coal and gas. What is special about the book is that it goes beyond a mere physical/technical description to discuss the economic and political aspects and ecological effects and requirements that are an essential part of sound energy planning today. Thus, the authors and editors outline the step-by-step development of a hydrogen economy, mainly based on solar energy, providing a solution to both the pollution problems caused by the use of fossil energy carriers and the energy requirements of the third world. (orig.) With 197 figs., 71 tabs

  1. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  2. Solution Structure of Archaeoglobus fulgidis Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase(Pth2) Provides Evidence for an Extensive Conserved Family of Pth2 Enzymes in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Robert; Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Huang, Yuanpeng; Ma, LiChung; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard; Honig, Barry; Murray, Diana; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The solution structure of protein AF2095 from the thermophilic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis, a 123-residue (13.6 kDa) protein, has been determined by NMR methods. The structure of AF2095 is comprised of four a-helices and a mixed b-sheet consisting of four parallel and anti-parallel b-strands, where the a-helices sandwich the b-sheet. Sequence and structural comparison of AF2095 with proteins from Homo sapiens, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Sulfolobus solfataricus, reveals that AF2095 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2). This structural comparison also identifies putative catalytic residues and a tRNA interaction region for AF2095. The structure of AF2095 is also similar to the structure of protein TA0108 from archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum, which is deposited in the Protein Database but not functionally annotated. The NMR structure of AF2095 has been further leveraged to obtain good quality structural models for 55 other proteins. Although earlier studies have proposed that the Pth2 protein family is restricted to archeal and eukaryotic organisms, the similarity of the AF2095 structure to human Pth2, the conservation of key active-site residues, and the good quality of the resulting homology models demonstrate a large family of homologous Pth2 proteins that are conserved in eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, providing novel insights in the evolution of the Pth and Pth2 enzyme families.

  3. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  4. Bolting multicenter solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bossard, Guillaume [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-01-30

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two extracytoplasmic solute receptors of the DctP family from Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucktooa, Prakash; Huvent, Isabelle; Antoine, Rudy; Lecher, Sophie; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise; Villeret, Vincent; Bompard, Coralie

    2006-01-01

    Sample preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are reported for two B. pertussis extracytoplasmic solute receptors. DctP6 and DctP7 are two Bordetella pertussis proteins which belong to the extracytoplasmic solute receptors (ESR) superfamily. ESRs are involved in the transport of substrates from the periplasm to the cytosol of Gram-negative bacteria. DctP6 and DctP7 have been crystallized and diffraction data were collected using a synchrotron-radiation source. DctP6 crystallized in space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.39, b = 108.39, c = 63.09 Å, while selenomethionyl-derivatized DctP7 crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 64.87, b = 149.83, c = 170.65 Å. The three-dimensional structure of DctP7 will be determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction, while the DctP6 structure will be solved by molecular-replacement methods

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two extracytoplasmic solute receptors of the DctP family from Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucktooa, Prakash; Huvent, Isabelle [UMR8161 CNRS Institut de Biologie de Lille, Laboratoire de Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 447, 59021 Lille CEDEX (France); IFR 142, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59021 Lille CEDEX (France); Antoine, Rudy; Lecher, Sophie; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise, E-mail: francoise.jacob@ibl.fr [IFR 142, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59021 Lille CEDEX (France); INSERM-U629, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59021 Lille CEDEX (France); Villeret, Vincent, E-mail: francoise.jacob@ibl.fr; Bompard, Coralie [UMR8161 CNRS Institut de Biologie de Lille, Laboratoire de Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 447, 59021 Lille CEDEX (France); IFR 142, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59021 Lille CEDEX (France)

    2006-10-01

    Sample preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are reported for two B. pertussis extracytoplasmic solute receptors. DctP6 and DctP7 are two Bordetella pertussis proteins which belong to the extracytoplasmic solute receptors (ESR) superfamily. ESRs are involved in the transport of substrates from the periplasm to the cytosol of Gram-negative bacteria. DctP6 and DctP7 have been crystallized and diffraction data were collected using a synchrotron-radiation source. DctP6 crystallized in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.39, b = 108.39, c = 63.09 Å, while selenomethionyl-derivatized DctP7 crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 64.87, b = 149.83, c = 170.65 Å. The three-dimensional structure of DctP7 will be determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction, while the DctP6 structure will be solved by molecular-replacement methods.

  7. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  8. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  9. Next-generation DNA sequencing of HEXA: a step in the right direction for carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jodi D; Greger, Valerie; Strovel, Erin T; Blitzer, Miriam G; Umbarger, Mark A; Kennedy, Caleb; Bishop, Brian; Saunders, Patrick; Porreca, Gregory J; Schienda, Jaclyn; Davie, Jocelyn; Hallam, Stephanie; Towne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is the prototype for ethnic-based carrier screening, with a carrier rate of ∼1/27 in Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians. HexA enzyme analysis is the current gold standard for TSD carrier screening (detection rate ∼98%), but has technical limitations. We compared DNA analysis by next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) plus an assay for the 7.6 kb deletion to enzyme analysis for TSD carrier screening using 74 samples collected from participants at a TSD family conference. Fifty-one of 74 participants had positive enzyme results (46 carriers, five late-onset Tay-Sachs [LOTS]), 16 had negative, and seven had inconclusive results. NGS + 7.6 kb del screening of HEXA found a pathogenic mutation, pseudoallele, or variant of unknown significance (VUS) in 100% of the enzyme-positive or obligate carrier/enzyme-inconclusive samples. NGS detected the B1 allele in two enzyme-negative obligate carriers. Our data indicate that NGS can be used as a TSD clinical carrier screening tool. We demonstrate that NGS can be superior in detecting TSD carriers compared to traditional enzyme and genotyping methodologies, which are limited by false-positive and false-negative results and ethnically focused, limited mutation panels, respectively, but is not ready for sole use due to lack of information regarding some VUS. PMID:24498621

  10. Norrie disease in a family with a manifesting female carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, K B; Irvine, A R; Good, W V

    1997-04-01

    To show that Norrie disease can occur in a girl and to describe her ophthalmologic and genetic features. Amplification of DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction for exon 3 were performed on the blood specimen obtained from a girl born with bilateral retinal detachments. A female child with bilateral retinal detachment who had 2 uncles in whom Norrie disease had already been diagnosed. The child had a mutation in the third exon (T776-->A; Ile 123-->Asn) identical to the mutation found in her uncles. Norrie disease can occur in girls. The most likely explanation is nonrandom or unfavorable X inactivation, although timing of development of the peripheral retina and its blood supply could render it vulnerable to effects of the mutant allele at a critical developmental phase.

  11. Connection conditions and the spectral family under singular potentials 03.65.Ge Solutions of wave equations: bound states; 03.65.-w Quantum mechanics;

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, I; Cheon, T

    2003-01-01

    To describe a quantum system whose potential is divergent at one point, one must provide proper connection conditions for the wavefunctions at the singularity. Generalizing the scheme used for point interactions in one dimension, we present a set of connection conditions which are well defined even if the wavefunctions and/or their derivatives are divergent at the singularity. Our generalized scheme covers the entire U(2) family of quantizations (self-adjoint Hamiltonians) admitted for the singular system. We use this scheme to examine the spectra of the Coulomb potential V(x)=-e sup 2 vertical bar x vertical bar and the harmonic oscillator with square inverse potential V(x)=(m omega sup 2 /2)x sup 2 +g/x sup 2 , and thereby provide a general perspective for these models which have previously been treated with restrictive connection conditions resulting in conflicting spectra. We further show that, for any parity invariant singular potential V(-x)=V(x), the spectrum is determined solely by the eigenvalues of ...

  12. Preconception carrier screening for multiple disorders: evaluation of a screening offer in a Dutch founder population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Inge B; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Ottenheim, Cecile P E; van Eeten-Nijman, Janneke M C; Lakeman, Phillis; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van Maarle, Merel C; Henneman, Lidewij

    2018-02-01

    Technological developments have enabled carrier screening for multiple disorders. This study evaluated experiences with a preconception carrier screening offer for four recessive disorders in a Dutch founder population. Questionnaires were completed by 182 attendees pretesting and posttesting and by 137 non-attendees. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven of the eight carrier couples. Attendees were mainly informed about the existence of screening by friends/colleagues (49%) and family members (44%). Familiarity with the genetic disorders was high. Knowledge after counseling increased (p influencers (family/friends) can be used to raise awareness of a screening offer. Our findings provide lessons for the implementation of expanded carrier screening panels in other communities and other settings.

  13. [Norrie syndrome: identification of carriers by segregation analysis with flanking DNA markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, J; Uhlhaas, S; Neugebauer, M; Gal, A

    1989-01-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder. Affected males present with congenital blindness. Additionally, hearing loss and psychotic behavior may occur at any time. Since carriers are clinically healthy, they can only be identified by genetic means. Daughters of carriers or sisters of affected males have an à priori 50% risk of being carriers themselves. Close linkage has been found between the Norrie disease locus (NDP) and the DNA locus DXS7 mapped to Xp11.3. For genetic counselling, this linkage relationship allows carriers of the disease to be identified in informative families. We describe a large pedigree with Norrie disease. Segregation analysis was carried out with DXS7 and a second flanking marker, DXS255, both linked to NDP. In this way, three females at risk were identified who had a high probability of being carriers for Norrie disease.

  14. One-carrier free space charge motion under applied voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de ALMEIDA, L E.C.; FERREIRA, G F.L. [SAO PAULO UNIV., SAO CARLOS (BRAZIL). INSTITUTO DE FISICA E QUIMICA

    1975-12-01

    It is shown how to transform the system of partial differential equations, describing the free one-carrier space charge motion in solid dielectrics under a given applied voltage and while the charge distribution touches only one of the electrodes, into a first order ordinary differential equation from whose solution all the interesting quantities may be easily derived. It was found that some charge distributions can display current reversal.

  15. Prognostic value of X-chromosome inactivation in symptomatic female carriers of dystrophinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Mateu Jonàs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 8% and 22% of female carriers of DMD mutations exhibit clinical symptoms of variable severity. Development of symptoms in DMD mutation carriers without chromosomal rearrangements has been attributed to skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI favouring predominant expression of the DMD mutant allele. However the prognostic use of XCI analysis is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between X-chromosome inactivation and development of clinical symptoms in a series of symptomatic female carriers of dystrophinopathy. Methods We reviewed the clinical, pathological and genetic features of twenty-four symptomatic carriers covering a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. DMD gene analysis was performed using MLPA and whole gene sequencing in blood DNA and muscle cDNA. Blood and muscle DNA was used for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI analysis thought the AR methylation assay in symptomatic carriers and their female relatives, asymptomatic carriers as well as non-carrier females. Results Symptomatic carriers exhibited 49.2% more skewed XCI profiles than asymptomatic carriers. The extent of XCI skewing in blood tended to increase in line with the severity of muscle symptoms. Skewed XCI patterns were found in at least one first-degree female relative in 78.6% of symptomatic carrier families. No mutations altering XCI in the XIST gene promoter were found. Conclusions Skewed XCI is in many cases familial inherited. The extent of XCI skewing is related to phenotype severity. However, the assessment of XCI by means of the AR methylation assay has a poor prognostic value, probably because the methylation status of the AR gene in muscle may not reflect in all cases the methylation status of the DMD gene.

  16. Efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of some spectrochemical carriers for the quantitative spectrographic analysis of Ag, Al, B, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, V and Zn in uranium-base materials is presented. The volatility behavior of the eighteen elements is verified by means of the moving plate technique and each of the mentioned carriers. The best results are obtained with 4% In 2 O 3 , 6% AgCl and 5% NaF in a U 3 O 8 matrix. The sensitivities for some elements were extended to fractions of p.p.m. The precision, accuracy and acceptability of the method are calculated for all elements. The total error values as approximately in the range of 16-45% [pt

  17. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-04-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers. Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier. Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles. Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  18. Effect of carrier on labeling and biodistribution of Re-188-Hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Young Soo; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Bo Kwang; Cho, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Seung Jin; Jin, Ren Jie; Lee, Sang Eun

    2000-01-01

    Re-188-Hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) is a new cost-effective agent for systemic radioisotope therapy of metastatic bone pain. We investigated the influence of carrier for labeling and biodistribution of Re-188-HEDP using HEDP kit with or without carrier (KReO 4 ). The kits (HEDP 15 mg, gentisic acid 4 mg and SnC1 2 .2H 2 O 4.5 mg) with or without carrier (KReO 4 0.1 mg) were labeled with Re-188 solution, made available from an in-house generator by boiling for 15 min. We compared the labeling efficiency and stability of carrier-added and carrier-free preparations of Re-188-HEDP. Biodistribution and imaging studies of each preparation were performed in ICR mice (1.85-3.7 MBq/0.1 ml) and SD rats (74.1-85.2 MBq/0.5 ml). The carrier-added preparation showed high labeling efficiency (95% at pH 5) and high stability in serum (88%, 3hr). However, the carrier-free preparation showed low labeling efficiency (59% at pH 5) and low stability (43%, 3 hr). The carrier-added preparation showed high uptake in bone and low uptake in stomach and kidneys. However, the carrier-free preparation showed lower uptake in bone and higher uptake in both stomach and kidneys, which is supposed to be due to released perrhenate. The carrier-added preparation also showed better images with higher skeletal accumulation, lower uptake in other organs and lower soft tissue uptake than the carrier-free preparation. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that addition of carrier perrhenate is required for high labeling efficiency, stability, bone uptake and good image quality of Re-188-HEDP.=20

  19. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  20. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or...

  1. 8 CFR 217.6 - Carrier agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier agreements. 217.6 Section 217.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217... may notify a carrier of the existence of a basis for termination of a carrier agreement under this...

  2. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.4 Carrier costs. (a) The reasonable costs projected for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  3. 14 CFR 271.5 - Carrier revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.5 Carrier revenues. (a) The projected passenger revenue for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  4. Electromigration of carrier-free radionuclides. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.; Reimann, T.; Buglanov, G.V.; Milanov, M.; Khalkin, V.A.; Dreyer, R.

    1988-01-01

    Using a special type of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials the electromigration behaviour of the carrier-free 241 Am-Am(III) in inert electrolytes, μ = 0.1 (ClO 4 - ), T = 298.1(1) K, was studied. Basing on experimental dependencies of the overall ion mobilities of 241 Am-Am(III) on pH between pH 5.5 and 12.9 the stoichiometric hydrolysis constants pβ 3 = 28.8(9) and pK 1 = 6.9(2) were obtained. For K 4 a limitation of pK 4 > 13.9(3) was possible, because no formation of anionic hydrolysis products in solutions pH 241 Am-Am(III) degrees in the range pH 5.5 - 3 from +6.85(15) up to +5.50(15) · 10 -4 cm 2 s -1 V -1 . Dependencies of this effect on overall ionic strength, inert electrolyte anion, and temperature of the electrolytes were studied in detail both in acidic and neutral solutions. (author)

  5. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in paragraph (c) of this section. In such cases the Board may determine in an adjudicatory... carrier shall not engage in joint public relations activities at points served by both carriers which tend... either carrier are performed in common with the other carrier or as part of a single system. In cases...

  6. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  7. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  8. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY...

  9. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  10. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  11. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  12. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces...

  13. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  14. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in female carriers of dyskeratosis congenita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devriendt, K.; Matthijs, G.; Legius, E. [Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we report on a family with X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Linkage analysis with markers in the factor VIII gene at Xq28 yielded a LOD score of 2 at a recombination of 0. Clinical manifestations of DC, such as skin lesions following the Blaschko lines, were present in two obligate carrier females. Highly skewed X inactivation was observed in white blood cells, cultured skin fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa from female carriers of DC in this family. This suggests a critical role for the DC gene in bone marrow-cell and fibroblast-cell proliferation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Comparison of allele-specific PCR, created restriction-site PCR, and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis methods used for screening complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınel, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is an inherited, autosomal recessive disorder of Holstein cattle. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and rapidity of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), created restriction-site PCR (CRS-PCR), and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA), three methods used in identification of CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. In order to screen for the G>T mutation in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 (SLC35A3) gene, DNA sequencing as the gold standard method was used. The prevalence of carriers and the mutant allele frequency were 3.2% and 0.016, respectively, among Holstein cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey. Among the three methods, the fastest but least accurate was AS-PCR. Although the rapidity of CRS-PCR and PCR-PIRA were nearly equal, the accuracy of PCR-PIRA was higher than that of CRS-PCR. Therefore, among the three methods, PCR-PIRA appears to be the most efficacious for screening of mutant alleles when identifying CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. PMID:28927256

  16. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A; Nueesch, P; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  17. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  18. Axions from chiral family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Silicon nanowire hot carrier electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, M. du, E-mail: monuko@up.ac.za; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-08-31

    Avalanche electroluminescence from silicon pn junctions has been known for many years. However, the internal quantum efficiencies of these devices are quite low due to the indirect band gap nature of the semiconductor material. In this study we have used reach-through biasing and SOI (silicon-on-insulator) thin film structures to improve the internal power efficiency and the external light extraction efficiency. Both continuous silicon thin film pn junctions and parallel nanowire pn junctions were manufactured using a custom SOI technology. The pn junctions are operated in the reach-through mode of operation, thus increasing the average electric field within the fully depleted region. Experimental results of the emission spectrum indicate that the most dominant photon generating mechanism is due to intraband hot carrier relaxation processes. It was found that the SOI nanowire light source external power efficiency is at least an order of magnitude better than the comparable bulk CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) light source. - Highlights: • We investigate effect of electric field on silicon avalanche electroluminescence. • With reach-through pn junctions the current and carrier densities are kept constant. • Higher electric fields increase short wavelength radiation. • Higher electric fields decrease long wavelength radiation. • The effect of the electric field indicates intraband transitions as main mechanism.

  20. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  1. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  2. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iroulard, M.G.

    2007-04-01

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  3. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  4. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  5. Understanding Family Caregiver Communication to Provide Family-Centered Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Buller, Haley; Ferrell, Betty; Koczywas, Marianna; Borneman, Tami

    2017-12-01

    To describe a family caregiver communication typology and demonstrate identifiable communication challenges among four caregiver types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone. Case studies based on interviews with oncology family caregivers. Each caregiver type demonstrates unique communication challenges that can be identified. Recognition of a specific caregiver type will help nurses to adapt their own communication to provide tailored support. Family-centered cancer care requires attention to the communication challenges faced by family caregivers. Understanding the challenges among four family caregiver communication types will enable nurses to better address caregiver burden and family conflict. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  7. Both Hemophilia Health Care Providers and Hemophilia A Carriers Report that Carriers have Excessive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroskie, Allison; Oso, Olatunde; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A, the result of reduced factor VIII (FVIII) activity, is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Previous reports of Hemophilia A carriers suggest an increased bleeding tendency. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and understanding of the Hemophilia A carrier bleeding phenotype, and opinions regarding timing of carrier testing from the perspective of both medical providers and affected patients. Data from this survey was used as preliminary data for an ongoing prospective study. Material and Methods An electronic survey was distributed to physicians and nurses employed at Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC), and Hemophilia A carriers who were members of Hemophilia Federation of America. Questions focused on the clinical understanding of bleeding symptoms and management of Hemophilia A carriers, and the timing and intensity of carrier testing. Results Our survey indicates that 51% (36/51) of providers compared to 78% (36/46) of carriers believe that Hemophilia A carriers with normal FVIII activity have an increased bleeding tendency (pHemophilia A carriers report a high frequency of bleeding symptoms. Regarding carrier testing, 72% (50/69) of medical providers recommend testing after 14 years of age, conversely 65% (29/45) of Hemophilia A carriers prefer testing to be done prior to this age (pHemophilia A carriers self-report a higher frequency of bleeding than previously acknowledged, and have a preference for earlier testing to confirm carrier status. PMID:24309601

  8. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  9. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  10. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  11. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some have two parents, while others have a single parent. Sometimes there is no parent and grandparents raise grandchildren. Some children live in foster families, adoptive families, or in stepfamilies. Families are much ...

  12. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  13. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form

  14. AN APPLICATION OF MULTICRITERIA OPTIMIZATION TO THE TWO-CARRIER TWO-SPEED PLANETARY GEAR TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stefanović-Marinović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the application of multi-criteria optimization to the two-carrier two-speed planetary gear trains. In order to determine mathematical model of multi-criteria optimization, variables, objective functions and conditions should be determined. The subject of the paper is two-carrier two-speed planetary gears with brakes on single shafts. Apart from the determination of the set of the Pareto optimal solutions, the weighted coefficient method for choosing an optimal solution from this set is also included in the mathematical model.

  15. Identification of mitochondrial carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by transport assay of reconstituted recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Ferdinando; Agrimi, Gennaro; Blanco, Emanuela; Castegna, Alessandra; Di Noia, Maria A; Iacobazzi, Vito; Lasorsa, Francesco M; Marobbio, Carlo M T; Palmieri, Luigi; Scarcia, Pasquale; Todisco, Simona; Vozza, Angelo; Walker, John

    2006-01-01

    The inner membranes of mitochondria contain a family of carrier proteins that are responsible for the transport in and out of the mitochondrial matrix of substrates, products, co-factors and biosynthetic precursors that are essential for the function and activities of the organelle. This family of proteins is characterized by containing three tandem homologous sequence repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, each folded into two transmembrane alpha-helices linked by an extensive polar loop. Each repeat contains a characteristic conserved sequence. These features have been used to determine the extent of the family in genome sequences. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 34 members of the family. The identity of five of them was known before the determination of the genome sequence, but the functions of the remaining family members were not. This review describes how the functions of 15 of these previously unknown transport proteins have been determined by a strategy that consists of expressing the genes in Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reconstituting the gene products into liposomes and establishing their functions by transport assay. Genetic and biochemical evidence as well as phylogenetic considerations have guided the choice of substrates that were tested in the transport assays. The physiological roles of these carriers have been verified by genetic experiments. Various pieces of evidence point to the functions of six additional members of the family, but these proposals await confirmation by transport assay. The sequences of many of the newly identified yeast carriers have been used to characterize orthologs in other species, and in man five diseases are presently known to be caused by defects in specific mitochondrial carrier genes. The roles of eight yeast mitochondrial carriers remain to be established.

  16. A Wronskian of Jost solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona-Corona, Gulmaro

    2004-01-01

    Based on the standard fact that any matrix potential u=u(x) determines a family of Jost solutions whose parameter runs analytically (continuously) on the (closed) half planes, respectively, the zeros of a suitable matrix valued Wronskian of a Jost solution pair are explored

  17. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  18. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation plays a crucial role in the onset of symptoms in carriers of Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Picillo, Esther; Ergoli, Manuela; Cirillo, Alessandra; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Politano, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting approximately 1: 18.000 male births. Female carriers are usually asymptomatic, although 2.5-18% may present muscle or heart symptoms. In the present study, the role of the X chromosome inactivation (XCI) on the onset of symptoms in BMD carriers was analysed and compared with the pattern observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. XCI was determined on the lymphocytes of 36 BMD carriers (both symptomatic and not symptomatic) from 11 families requiring genetic advice at the Cardiomyology and Medical Genetics of the Second University of Naples, using the AR methylation-based assay. Carriers were subdivided into two groups, according to age above or below 50 years. Seven females from the same families known as noncarriers were used as controls. A Student's t-test for nonpaired data was performed to evaluate the differences observed in the XCI values between asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers, and carriers aged above or below 50 years. A Pearson correlation test was used to evaluate the inheritance of the XCI pattern in 19 mother-daughter pairs. The results showed that symptomatic BMD carriers had a skewed XCI with a preferential inactivation of the X chromosome carrying the normal allele, whereas the asymptomatic carriers and controls showed a random XCI. No concordance concerning the XCI pattern was observed between mothers and related daughters. The data obtained in the present study suggest that the onset of symptoms in BMD carriers is related to a skewed XCI, as observed in DMD carriers. Furthermore, they showed no concordance in the XCI pattern inheritance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Legionella pneumophila secretes a mitochondrial carrier protein during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dolezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionellanucleotide carrier Protein (LncP, encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms.

  20. Symptomatic lipid storage in carriers for the PNPLA2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Mirian C H; van Engelen, Baziel; Kapusta, Livia; Lammens, Martin; van Dijk, Martin; Fischer, Judith; van der Graaf, Marinette; Wevers, Ron A; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Zimmermann, Robert; Morava, Eva

    2013-08-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease comprises a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by severe accumulation of cytoplasmic triglyceride droplets in several tissues and neutrophils. A novel type of autosomal recessive lipid myopathy due to PNPLA2 mutations was recently described with associated cardiac disease, myopathy and frequent infections, but without ichthyosis. Here we describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of a long surviving patient and report on four carrier family members with diverse clinical involvement. Interestingly, heterozygous patients show neutral lipid storage in muscle and in the keratocytes of the skin, Jordans' bodies, mild myopathy and frequent infections. Biochemical analysis of fibroblasts obtained from patients revealed increased triglyceride storage and reduced lipid droplet-associated triglyceride hydrolase activity. Together, our data implicate that the wild-type allele cannot fully compensate for the mutated dysfunctional allele of PNPLA2 leading to triglyceride accumulation in muscle and mild myopathy in PNPLA2 mutation carriers. The presence of neutral lipid droplets in the skin in PNPLA2 mutation carriers strengthens the link between NLSD and other neutral lipid storage diseases with ichthyosis.

  1. Lie families: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinena, Jose F; Grabowski, Janusz; De Lucas, Javier

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the families of non-autonomous systems of first-order ordinary differential equations admitting a common time-dependent superposition rule, i.e. a time-dependent map expressing any solution of each of these systems in terms of a generic set of particular solutions of the system and some constants. We next study the relations of these families, called Lie families, with the theory of Lie and quasi-Lie systems and apply our theory to provide common time-dependent superposition rules for certain Lie families.

  2. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  3. Determine the optimal carrier selection for a logistics network based on multi-commodity reliability criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2013-05-01

    From the perspective of supply chain management, the selected carrier plays an important role in freight delivery. This article proposes a new criterion of multi-commodity reliability and optimises the carrier selection based on such a criterion for logistics networks with routes and nodes, over which multiple commodities are delivered. Carrier selection concerns the selection of exactly one carrier to deliver freight on each route. The capacity of each carrier has several available values associated with a probability distribution, since some of a carrier's capacity may be reserved for various orders. Therefore, the logistics network, given any carrier selection, is a multi-commodity multi-state logistics network. Multi-commodity reliability is defined as a probability that the logistics network can satisfy a customer's demand for various commodities, and is a performance indicator for freight delivery. To solve this problem, this study proposes an optimisation algorithm that integrates genetic algorithm, minimal paths and Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products. A practical example in which multi-sized LCD monitors are delivered from China to Germany is considered to illustrate the solution procedure.

  4. Estudo de fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento não farmacológico em portadores de diabetes mellitus assistidos pelo Programa Saúde da Família, Ventosa, Belo Horizonte A study of factors associated to non-pharmacological treatment delivered by the Family Health Program in Ventosa, Belo Horizonte, to carriers of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Silva Assunção

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus vem se tornando um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no Brasil. Há vários fatores que podem contribuir para a baixa adesão ao tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre fatores educacionais, demográficos, socioeconômicos, de saúde, percepção da doença, suporte social e adesão ao tratamento não farmacológico em portadores de diabetes mellitus assistidos pelo Programa Saúde da Família do Centro de Saúde Ventosa, em Belo Horizonte. As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas com 164 diabéticos que estavam aguardando o acolhimento do Centro de Saúde. Na análise univariada, verificou-se associação significante entre a adesão ao tratamento não farmacológico e baixa renda, local de residência, conhecimento sobre complicações, motivação com o tratamento, fazer parte de grupo de diabéticos e orientações recebidas pelo enfermeiro e fisioterapeuta. Após análise multivariada, as variáveis "motivação com o tratamento" e "faz parte de algum grupo de diabético" foram estatisticamente significativas para a adesão total (pDiabetes Mellitus is turning into one of the main public health problems in Brazil. Many factors may contribute to the low adherence to treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between educational and social-economic factors and factors related to the health, the perception of disease, social support and adherence to non-pharmacological treatment of carriers of diabetes mellitus assisted in the family health program of the Health Center in Ventosa, Belo Horizonte. Data were collected in interviews with 164 diabetics who were waiting for assistance in the health center. Univariate analysis showed significant association between adhesion to the non-pharmacological treatment and low income; place of residence; knowledge about consequences; motivation with regard to the treatment; making part of a diabetics

  5. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  6. Method and apparatus for information carrier authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of enabling authentication of an information carrier, the information carrier comprising a writeable part and a physical token arranged to supply a response upon receiving a challenge, the method comprising the following steps; applying a first challenge to

  7. Immobilisation of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus using natural carriers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-02

    Apr 2, 2005 ... and Cloete, 1995) or ceramic (Kariminiaae-Hamedaani et al.,. 2003) carriers. Besides the synthetic carriers, natural zeolite. (NZ) has been shown as a .... ing 9 mℓ of sterile distilled water, crushed with a sterile glass rod and dispersed by mixing (2 700 r/min for 10 min using the test tube shaker Kartell TK3S) ...

  8. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2009-01-01

    OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  9. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  10. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  11. Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Yan, Qimin; Steiauf, Daniel; Van de Walle, Chris G

    2013-01-01

    Nitride light-emitting diodes are a promising solution for efficient solid-state lighting, but their performance at high power is affected by the efficiency-droop problem. Previous experimental and theoretical work has identified Auger recombination, a three-particle nonradiative carrier recombination mechanism, as the likely cause of the droop. In this work, we use first-principles calculations to elucidate the dependence of the radiative and Auger recombination rates on temperature, carrier density and quantum-well confinement. Our calculated data for the temperature dependence of the recombination coefficients are in good agreement with experiment and provide further validation on the role of Auger recombination in the efficiency reduction. Polarization fields and phase-space filling negatively impact device efficiency because they increase the operating carrier density at a given current density and increase the fraction of carriers lost to Auger recombination. (paper)

  12. Safety requirements for the Pu carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ministry of Transport of Japan has now set about studying requirements for Pu carriers to ensure safety. It was first studied what the basic concept of safe carriage of Pu should be, and the basic ideas have been worked out. Next the requirements for the Pu carriers were studied based on the above. There are at present no international requirements of construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers, but MOT of Japan has so far required special construction and equipment for the nuclear-material carriers which carry a large amount of radioactive material, such as spent fuel or low level radioactive waste, corresponding to the level of the respective potential hazard. The requirements of construction and equipment of the Pu carriers have been established considering the difference in heat generation between Pu and spent fuel, physical protection, and so forth, in addition to the above basic concept. (J.P.N.)

  13. Family Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  14. Interdot carrier's transfer via tunneling pathway studied from photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihani, J.; Sallet, V.; Yahyaoui, N.; Harmand, J.C.; Oueslati, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs(0 0 1) substrate were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at a growth temperature of 490 deg. C. Two different families of dots were observed in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image and ambiguously identified in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Temperature-dependent PL study was carried out in the 8-270 K temperature range. The integrated-PL intensity behavior of the two QDs populations was fit with the help of a rate equations model. It is found that the evolutions of the integrated-PL intensity of the two QDs population were governed by two regimes. The first one occurs in the 8-210 K temperature range and reveals an unusual enhancement of the integrated-PL intensity of the larger QDs (LQDs) class. This was attributed to the carrier supplies from the smaller QDs (SQDs) class via the tunneling process. The second one occurs in the 210-270 K temperature range and shows a common quench of the PL signals of the two QDs families, reflecting the same thermal escape mechanism of carriers

  15. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  16. Methylation state of the EDA gene promoter in Chinese X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yin

    Full Text Available Hypodontia, hypohidrosis, sparse hair and characteristic faces are the main characters of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED which is caused by genetic ectodysplasin A (EDA deficiency. Heterozygous female carriers tend to have mild to moderate XLHED phenotype, even though 30% of them present no obvious symptom.A large Chinese XLHED family was reported and the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of EDA gene were sequenced. To elucidate the mechanism for carriers' tempered phenotype, we analyzed the methylation level on four sites of the promoter of EDA by the pyrosequencing system.A known frameshift mutation (c.573-574 insT was found in this pedigree. Combined with the pedigrees we reported before, 120 samples comprised of 23 carrier females from 11 families and 97 healthy females were analyzed for the methylation state of EDA promoter. Within 95% confidence interval (CI, 18 (78.26% carriers were hypermethylated at these 4 sites.Chinese XLHED carriers often have a hypermethylated EDA promoter.

  17. Family Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Riquer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The scene is at the court of James I of Aragon in the mid-13th c., the place is the royal palace of Barcelona or any of the crown's other possessions, and the dramatis personae include the heir to the throne, prince Peire (future king Peire the Great, and the court's most famous troubadour, Cerverí de Girona (fl. 1259-85. Author of the largest corpus of any Occitan troubadour (114 poems, Cerverì distinguishes himself by the surprises and challenges he presents to his audience: an alba (the most openly erotic genre to the Virgin Mary, the Cobla in sis lengatges (Cobla in Six Languages, the apparently nonsensical Vers estrayn. Cerverì borrows equally from the folk-inspired Galician-Portuguese poetry and from the French tradition, including the chanson de malmariée, where a young woman bemoans being sold off by her family to an old man (gilos, "Jealous" and separated from her youthful doulz amis, some even praying for the death of their husband. Both within that tradition and among Cerverì's three chansons de malmariée, the Gelosesca stands out as "especially determined" to lose her husband, using every "solution" (prayer, black magic, potion or experimenta.

  18. Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Glutamate Carrier SLC25A22 in Astrocytes Leads to Intracellular Glutamate Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Goubert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 25 (SLC25 drives the import of a large diversity of metabolites into mitochondria, a key cellular structure involved in many metabolic functions. Mutations of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier SLC25A22 (also named GC1 have been identified in early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE and migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI but the pathophysiological mechanism of GC1 deficiency is still unknown, hampered by the absence of an in vivo model. This carrier is mainly expressed in astrocytes and is the principal gate for glutamate entry into mitochondria. A sufficient supply of energy is essential for the proper function of the brain and mitochondria have a pivotal role in maintaining energy homeostasis. In this work, we wanted to study the consequences of GC1 absence in an in vitro model in order to understand if glutamate catabolism and/or mitochondrial function could be affected. First, short hairpin RNA (shRNA designed to specifically silence GC1 were validated in rat C6 glioma cells. Silencing GC1 in C6 resulted in a reduction of the GC1 mRNA combined with a decrease of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier activity. Then, primary astrocyte cultures were prepared and transfected with shRNA-GC1 or mismatch-RNA (mmRNA constructs using the Neon® Transfection System in order to target a high number of primary astrocytes, more than 64%. Silencing GC1 in primary astrocytes resulted in a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (Phosphate (NAD(PH formation upon glutamate stimulation. We also observed that the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC was functional after glucose stimulation but not activated by glutamate, resulting in a lower level of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP in silenced astrocytes compared to control cells. Moreover, GC1 inactivation resulted in an intracellular glutamate accumulation. Our results show that mitochondrial glutamate transport via GC1 is important in sustaining glutamate homeostasis in

  19. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  20. Construction of carrier state viruses with partial genomes of the segmented dsRNA bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yang; Qiao Xueying; Mindich, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    The cystoviridae are bacteriophages with genomes of three segments of dsRNA enclosed within a polyhedral capsid. Two members of this family, PHI6 and PHI8, have been shown to form carrier states in which the virus replicates as a stable episome in the host bacterium while expressing reporter genes such as kanamycin resistance or lacα. The carrier state does not require the activity of all the genes necessary for phage production. It is possible to generate carrier states by infecting cells with virus or by electroporating nonreplicating plasmids containing cDNA copies of the viral genomes into the host cells. We have found that carrier states in both PHI6 and PHI8 can be formed at high frequency with all three genomic segments or with only the large and small segments. The large genomic segment codes for the proteins that constitute the inner core of the virus, which is the structure responsible for the packaging and replication of the genome. In PHI6, a carrier state can be formed with the large and middle segment if mutations occur in the gene for the major structural protein of the inner core. In PHI8, carrier state formation requires the activity of genes 8 and 12 of segment S

  1. Uniqueness and nonuniqueness of the GNSS carrier-phase compass readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we analyse the possible nonuniqueness in the least-squares solution of the GNSS carrier-phase compass model. It is shown that this lack of uniqueness may manifest itself in the fixed baseline estimator and therefore in the GNSS compass readings. We present the conditions under

  2. Ionizable polyethers as specific metal ion carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.; Charewicz, W.A.; Bartsch, R.A.; Ndip, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into competitive extraction and penetration through a liquid membrane of alkali and alkaline earth cations from aqueous solutions by a series of lipophilic and ionizable acyclic polyethers of various molecular structure. It is shown that specificity and selectiviy of cation carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separation depend on molecular structure of acyclic polyethers

  3. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  4. Correlation of ophthalmic examination with carrier status in females potentially harboring a severe Norrie disease gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Meyer, Brian

    2008-04-01

    To correlate ophthalmic findings with carrier status for a severe Norrie disease (ND) gene mutation (C95F). Prospective interventional case series. Six potential carriers and 1 obligate carrier from a family harboring the mutation. An ophthalmologist blind to the pedigree performed a full ophthalmic examination for the 7 asymptomatic family members. A peripheral blood sample was collected from each for ND gene sequencing. Ophthalmic examination findings (with attention to the presence or absence of retinal findings) and results of ND gene sequencing. Three carriers were identified by molecular genetics, and all 3 of them had peripheral retinal abnormality. However, 3 of the 4 genetically identified noncarriers also exhibited peripheral retinal abnormality. Two of these noncarriers with retinal findings were the offspring of a confirmed noncarrier. The genetically identified noncarrier with a normal peripheral retinal examination was the daughter of an obligate carrier. The presence of peripheral retinal changes was not useful for carrier prediction in a family harboring ND. There are likely additional loci responsible for phenotypic expression.

  5. Accurate calculation of field and carrier distributions in doped semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenji Yang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the numerical squeezing algorithm(NSA combined with the shooting method to accurately calculate the built-in fields and carrier distributions in doped silicon films (SFs in the micron and sub-micron thickness range and results are presented in graphical form for variety of doping profiles under different boundary conditions. As a complementary approach, we also present the methods and the results of the inverse problem (IVP - finding out the doping profile in the SFs for given field distribution. The solution of the IVP provides us the approach to arbitrarily design field distribution in SFs - which is very important for low dimensional (LD systems and device designing. Further more, the solution of the IVP is both direct and much easy for all the one-, two-, and three-dimensional semiconductor systems. With current efforts focused on the LD physics, knowing of the field and carrier distribution details in the LD systems will facilitate further researches on other aspects and hence the current work provides a platform for those researches.

  6. Superstrings fermionic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    1990-06-01

    The solutions proposed by the superstring theory are classified and compared. In order to obtain some of the equivalences, the demonstration is based on the coincidence of the excitation spectrum and the quantum numbers from different states. The fermionic representation of the heterotical strings is discussed. The conformal invariance and the supersymmetric results extended to two dimensions are investigated. Concerning the fermionic strings, the formalism and a phenomenological solution involving three families of quarks, chiral leptons and leptons from the E 6 gauge group are presented. The equivalence between real and complex fermions is discussed. The similarity between some of the solutions of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the orbifolds is considered. The formal calculation program developed for reproducing the theory's low energy spectra, in the fermionic string formalism is given [fr

  7. Cognitive impairment in the preclinical stage of dementia in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Teasdale, Thomas W; Johannsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -3). Subjects were assessed with neuropsychological tests in 2002, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses showed that the mutation carriers scored lower on tests of psychomotor speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory than a control group consisting of not-at-risk family...... members and spouses. Longitudinal analyses showed a gradual decline in psychomotor speed, working memory capacity and global executive measures in the group of non-demented mutation carriers that was not found in the control group. In contrast, there were no significant group differences in domain scores...

  8. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  9. Familial gigantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamilial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  10. Familial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. de Herder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  11. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  12. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  13. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  14. Part B Carrier Summary Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data sets are summarized at the carrier level by meaningful Healthcare Common Procedure Coding-Current Procedural Terminology, (HCPC-CPT), code ranges. The data set...

  15. Assessing the potential success of cystic fibrosis carrier screening: lessons learned from Tay-Sachs disease and beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, A-M; Watts, C; Porter, K; Burke, W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors involved in the success of 2 well-established population-based carrier screening programs - Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) in Ashkenazi Jews and beta-thalassemia in Sardinia and Cyprus - and to assess the potential for success of a population-based cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening strategy using these factors. We performed a literature review and key informant interviews. Factors involved in the success of TSD and beta-thalassemia carrier screening programs include disease characteristics (well-defined population at risk, severe disease with predictable course, availability of effective treatment), test characteristics (high sensitivity, straightforward interpretation of results), and community characteristics (involvement of community, support of families and advocacy groups, consensus in favor of avoiding affected births). Current CF screening strategies include few of the factors listed above. Unlike TSD and beta-thalassemia, the purpose of current CF carrier screening strategies is informed reproductive decision-making, without an explicit goal of reducing disease incidence. When compared to TSD and beta-thalassemia, CF is a less favorable candidate for population-based carrier screening. Because of its different purpose, CF carrier screening will require different measures of success than those used for TSD and beta-thalassemia carrier screening, and a consensus on the value or success of CF carrier screening may be difficult to achieve.

  16. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  17. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  18. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  19. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Yang, Junyi; Yang, Yong; Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Zhengguo; Zhou, Feng; Song, Yinglin

    2016-02-01

    The dependence of the carrier distribution on photoexcited carrier dynamics in a p-type Mg-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) wafer were systematically measured by femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the carrier distribution was modified by tuning the wavelength of the UV pulse excitation around the band gap of GaN:Mg. The TA kinetics appeared to be biexponential for all carrier distributions, and only the slower component decayed faster as the inhomogeneity of the carrier distribution increased. It was concluded that the faster component (50-70 ps) corresponded to the trap process of holes by the Mg acceptors, and the slower component (150-600 ps) corresponded to the combination of non-radiative surface recombination and intrinsic carrier recombination via dislocations. Moreover, the slower component increased gradually with the incident fluence due to the saturation of surface states.

  20. Special solutions of neutral functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győri István

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations we prove the existence of an -parameter family of "special solutions" which characterize the asymptotic behavior of all solutions at infinity. For retarded functional differential equations the special solutions used in this paper were introduced by Ryabov.

  1. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...

  2. Jamaican families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Dianne Cooney

    2003-01-01

    The study of the family in the Caribbean originated with European scholars who assumed the universality of the patriarchal nuclear family and the primacy of this structure to the healthy functioning of society. Matrifocal Caribbean families thus were seen as chaotic and disorganized and inadequate to perform the essential tasks of the social system. This article provides a more current discussion of the Jamaican family. It argues that its structure is the result of the agency and adaptation of its members and not the root cause of the increasing marginalization of peoples in the developing world. The article focuses on families living in poverty and how the family structure supports essential family functions, adaptations, and survival.

  3. Impact of anatase and rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles on uptake carriers and efflux pumps in Caco-2 gut epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorier, M.; Brun, E.; Veronesi, G.; Barreau, F.; Pernet-Gallay, K.; Desvergne, C.; Rabilloud, T.; Carapito, C.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Carrière, M.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 microparticles are widely used in food products, where they are added as a white food colouring agent. This food additive contains a significant amount of nanoscale particles; still the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on gut cells is poorly documented. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of rutile and anatase TiO2-NPs on the main functions of enterocytes, i.e. nutrient absorption driven by solute-liquid carriers (SLC transporters) and protection against other xenobiotics driven by efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We show that acute exposure of Caco-2 cells to both anatase (12 nm) and rutile (20 nm) TiO2-NPs induce early upregulation of a battery of efflux pumps and nutrient transporters. In addition they cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species and misbalance redox repair systems, without inducing cell mortality or DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that TiO2-NPs may increase the functionality of gut epithelial cells, particularly their property to form a protective barrier against exogenous toxicants and to absorb nutrients.TiO2 microparticles are widely used in food products, where they are added as a white food colouring agent. This food additive contains a significant amount of nanoscale particles; still the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on gut cells is poorly documented. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of rutile and anatase TiO2-NPs on the main functions of enterocytes, i.e. nutrient absorption driven by solute-liquid carriers (SLC transporters) and protection against other xenobiotics driven by efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We show that acute exposure of Caco-2 cells to both anatase (12 nm) and rutile (20 nm) TiO2-NPs induce early upregulation of a battery of efflux pumps and nutrient transporters. In addition they cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species and misbalance redox repair systems, without inducing cell mortality or DNA damage. Taken

  4. Reconstituted TOM core complex and Tim9/Tim10 complex of mitochondria are sufficient for translocation of the ADP/ATP carrier across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljev, Andreja; Ahting, Uwe; Nargang, Frank E; Go, Nancy E; Habib, Shukry J; Kozany, Christian; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard; Prokisch, Holger; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-03-01

    Precursor proteins of the solute carrier family and of channel forming Tim components are imported into mitochondria in two main steps. First, they are translocated through the TOM complex in the outer membrane, a process assisted by the Tim9/Tim10 complex. They are passed on to the TIM22 complex, which facilitates their insertion into the inner membrane. In the present study, we have analyzed the function of the Tim9/Tim10 complex in the translocation of substrates across the outer membrane of mitochondria. The purified TOM core complex was reconstituted into lipid vesicles in which purified Tim9/Tim10 complex was entrapped. The precursor of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) was found to be translocated across the membrane of such lipid vesicles. Thus, these components are sufficient for translocation of AAC precursor across the outer membrane. Peptide libraries covering various substrate proteins were used to identify segments that are bound by Tim9/Tim10 complex upon translocation through the TOM complex. The patterns of binding sites on the substrate proteins suggest a mechanism by which portions of membrane-spanning segments together with flanking hydrophilic segments are recognized and bound by the Tim9/Tim10 complex as they emerge from the TOM complex into the intermembrane space.

  5. The Dynamics of Current Carriers In Standing Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. N.; Allan, W.; Ruderman, M. S.; Elphic, R. C.

    The acceleration of current carriers in an Alfvén wave current system is considered. The model incorporates a dipole magnetic field geometry, and we present an analyt- ical solution of the two-fluid equations by successive approximations. The leading solution corresponds to the familiar single-fluid toroidal oscillations. The next order describes the nonlinear dynamics of electrons responsible for carrying a few µAm-2 field aligned current into the ionosphere. The solution shows how most of the elec- tron acceleration in the magnetosphere occurs within 1 RE of the ionosphere, and that a parallel electric field of the order of 1 mVm-1 is reponsible for energising the electrons to 1 keV. The limitations of the electron fluid approximation are considered, and a qualitative solution including electron beams and a modified E is developed in accord with observations. We find that the electron acceleration can be nonlinear, (ve )ve > ve , as a result of our nonuniform equilibrium field geometry even when ve is less than the Alfvén speed. Our calculation also elucidates the processes through which E is generated and supported.

  6. How Do I Talk to My Family about Gaucher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to my parents and the rest of our family. My father and mother did not want to accept the ... holding fundraisers and speaking to Jewish organizations. My family also got tested: My father had asymptomatic Gaucher, my mother is a carrier, ...

  7. Semiconductor nanoparticles with spatial separation of charge carriers: synthesis and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Roman B; Dirin, Dmitry N; Gaskov, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The results of studies on core/shell semiconductor nanoparticles with spatial separation of photoexcited charge carriers are analyzed and generalized. Peculiarities of the electronic properties of semiconductor/semiconductor heterojunctions formed inside such particles are considered. Data on the effect of spatial separation of charge carriers on the optical properties of nanoparticles including spectral shifts of the exciton bands, absorption coefficients and electron–hole pair recombination times are presented. Methods of synthesis of core/shell semiconductor nanoparticles in solutions are discussed. Specific features of the optical properties of anisotropic semiconductor nanoparticles with the semiconductor/semiconductor junctions are noted. The bibliography includes 165 references.

  8. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  9. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  10. Network degeneration and dysfunction in presymptomatic C9ORF72 expansion carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzee E. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common known genetic cause of familial and sporadic frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous work has shown that patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to C9ORF72 show salience and sensorimotor network disruptions comparable to those seen in sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, but it remains unknown how early in the lifespan these and other changes in brain structure and function arise. To gain insights into this question, we compared 15 presymptomatic carriers (age 43.7 ± 10.2 years, nine females to matched healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess gray matter, diffusion tensor imaging to interrogate white matter tracts, and task-free functional MRI to probe the salience, sensorimotor, default mode, and medial pulvinar thalamus-seeded networks. We further used a retrospective chart review to ascertain psychiatric histories in carriers and their non-carrier family members. Carriers showed normal cognition and behavior despite gray matter volume and brain connectivity deficits that were apparent as early as the fourth decade of life. Gray matter volume deficits were topographically similar though less severe than those in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to C9ORF72, with major foci in cingulate, insula, thalamus, and striatum. Reduced white matter integrity was found in the corpus callosum, cingulum bundles, corticospinal tracts, uncinate fasciculi and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. Intrinsic connectivity deficits were detected in all four networks but most prominent in salience and medial pulvinar thalamus-seeded networks. Carrier and control groups showed comparable relationships between imaging metrics and age, suggesting that deficits emerge during early adulthood. Carriers and non-carrier family members had comparable lifetime histories of psychiatric symptoms. Taken

  11. Peripheral retinopathy in offspring of carriers of Norrie disease gene mutations. Possible transplacental effect of abnormal Norrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Hittner, H A; Ferrell, R E; Sims, K B; Fernandez, K M; Gemmell, B S; Satriano, D R; Caster, J; Kretzer, F L

    1996-12-01

    The Norrie disease (ND) gene (Xp11.3) (McKusick 310600) consists of one untranslated exon and two exons partially translated as the Norrie disease protein (Norrin). Norrin has sequence homology and computer-predicted tertiary structure of a growth factor containing a cystine knot motif, which affects endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Norrie disease (congenital retinal detachment), X-linked primary retinal dysplasia (congenital retinal fold), and X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (congenital macular ectopia) are allelic disorders. Blood was drawn for genetic studies from members of two families to test for ND gene mutations. Sixteen unaffected family members were examined ophthalmologically. If any retinal abnormality were identified, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography was performed. Family A had ND (R109stp), and family B had X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (R121L). The retinas of 11 offspring of carrier females were examined: three of seven carrier females, three of three otherwise healthy females, and one of one otherwise healthy male had peripheral inner retinal vascular abnormalities. The retinas of five offspring of affected males were examined: none of three carrier females and none of two otherwise healthy males had this peripheral retinal finding. Peripheral inner retinal vascular abnormalities similar to regressed retinopathy of prematurity were identified in seven offspring of carriers of ND gene mutations in two families. These ophthalmologic findings, especially in four genetically healthy offspring, strongly support the hypothesis that abnormal Norrin may have an adverse transplacental (environmental) effect on normal inner retinal vasculogenesis.

  12. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  13. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  14. Quantifying family dissemination and identifying barriers to communication of risk information in Australian BRCA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Emma; Taylor, Natalie; Greening, Sian; Wakefield, Claire E; Warwick, Linda; Williams, Rachel; Tucker, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    PurposeRecommendations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers to disseminate information to at-risk relatives pose significant challenges. This study aimed to quantify family dissemination, to explain the differences between fully informed families (all relatives informed verbally or in writing) and partially informed families (at least one relative uninformed), and to identify dissemination barriers.MethodsBRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers identified from four Australian hospitals (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. Distress was measured at consent using the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). A structured telephone interview was used to assess the informed status of relatives, geographical location of relatives, and dissemination barriers. Family dissemination was quantified, and fully versus partially informed family differences were examined. Dissemination barriers were thematically coded and counted.ResultsA total of 165 families participated. Information had been disseminated to 81.1% of relatives. At least one relative had not been informed in 52.7% of families, 4.3% were first-degree relatives, 27.0% were second-degree relatives, and 62.0% were cousins. Partially informed families were significantly larger than fully informed families, had fewer relatives living in close proximity, and exhibited higher levels of distress. The most commonly recorded barrier to dissemination was loss of contact.ConclusionLarger, geographically diverse families have greater difficulty disseminating BRCA mutation risk information to all relatives. Understanding these challenges can inform future initiatives for communication, follow-up and support.

  15. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  16. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  17. Estimating Motor Carrier Management Information System Crash File Underreporting from Carrier Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...

  18. Estimating motor carrier management information system crash file underreporting from carrier records : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...

  19. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers: effects of carrier density and electric field [refereed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solns. of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility

  20. Archaeosomes: an excellent carrier for drug and cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Archaeosomes as liposomes made with one or more ether lipids that are unique to the domain of Archaeobacteria, found in Archaea constitute a novel family of liposome. Achaean-type lipids consist of archaeol (diether) and/or caldarchaeol (tetraether) core structures. Archaeosomes can be produced using standard procedures (hydrated film submitted to sonication, extrusion and detergent dialysis) at any temperature in the physiological range or lower, therefore making it possible to encapsulate thermally stable compounds. Various physiological as well as environmental factors affect its stability. Archaeosomes are widely used as drug delivery systems for cancer vaccines, Chagas disease, proteins and peptides, gene delivery, antigen delivery and delivery of natural antioxidant compounds. In this review article, our major aim was to explore the applications of this new carrier system in pharmaceutical field.

  1. Motor pathway excitability in ATP13A2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Kroeger, J; van der Vegt, J P M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe excitability of motor pathways in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), an autosomal recessive nigro-striatal-pallidal-pyramidal neurodegeneration caused by a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Five members of a Chilean family...... with an ATP13A2 mutation (one affected mutation carrier (MC) with a compound heterozygous mutation, 4 asymptomatic MC with a single heterozygous mutation) and 11 healthy subjects without mutations were studied. We measured motor evoked potentials (MEP), the contralateral silent period (cSP), short interval....... RESULTS: CSP duration was increased in the symptomatic ATP13A2 MC. The iSP measurements revealed increased interhemispheric inhibition in both the compound heterozygous and the heterozygous MC. CONCLUSION: A compound heterozygous mutation in the ATP13A2 gene is associated with increased intracortical...

  2. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  3. Family literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    I Projekt familielæsning, der er et samarbejde mellem Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning og Hillerød Bibliotek, arbejder vi med at få kontakt til de familier, som biblioteket ellers aldrig ser som brugere og dermed også de børn, der vokser op i familier, for hvem bøger og oplæsningssituationer ikk...... er en selvfølgelig del af barndommen. Det, vi vil undersøge og ønsker at være med til at udvikle hos disse familier, er det, man kan kalde family literacy....

  4. Community families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    : Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material...

  5. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  6. Seeding Solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?

  7. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  8. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  9. Vectorization of agrochemicals: amino acid carriers are more efficient than sugar carriers to translocate phenylpyrrole conjugates in the Ricinus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanxiang; Marhadour, Sophie; Lei, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wen; Marivingt-Mounir, Cécile; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Chollet, Jean-François

    2018-05-01

    Producing quality food in sufficient quantity while using less agrochemical inputs will be one of the great challenges of the twenty-first century. One way of achieving this goal is to greatly reduce the doses of plant protection compounds by improving the targeting of pests to eradicate. Therefore, we developed a vectorization strategy to confer phloem mobility to fenpiclonil, a contact fungicide from the phenylpyrrole family used as a model molecule. It consists in coupling the antifungal compound to an amino acid or a sugar, so that the resulting conjugates are handled by active nutrient transport systems. The method of click chemistry was used to synthesize three conjugates combining fenpiclonil to glucose or glutamic acid with a spacer containing a triazole ring. Systemicity tests with the Ricinus model have shown that the amino acid promoiety was clearly more favorable to phloem mobility than that of glucose. In addition, the transport of the amino acid conjugate is carrier mediated since the derivative of the L series was about five times more concentrated in the phloem sap than its counterpart of the D series. The systemicity of the L-derivative is pH dependent and almost completely inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). These data suggest that the phloem transport of the L-derivative is governed by a stereospecific amino acid carrier system energized by the proton motive force.

  10. Fragile X Syndrome in a Colombian Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldarriaga Gil, Wilmar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed on a family from Cali, Colombia in which nine patients were evaluated, three of which presented with intellectual disability with no previous etiological diagnosis. The proband was diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome by DNA molecular testing and, cascade testing, performed on all available family members, identifying two additional individuals with the full mutation and four carriers of a premutation allele. With this report we seek to contribute to Colombian epidemiology of the syndrome and emphasize the importance of diagnosis to provide a comprehensive and specific treatment to those affected. Further we seek to identify premutation carriers in their families or women with a full mutation without the classic phenotype for genetic counseling and education about potential associated pathologies.

  11. Premutation female carriers of fragile X syndrome: a pilot study on brain anatomy and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D G; Mentis, M J; Pietrini, P; Grady, C L; Moore, C J; Horwitz, B; Hinton, V; Dobkin, C S; Schapiro, M B; Rapoport, S I

    1999-10-01

    It was thought that premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome (FraX) have no neurobiological abnormalities, but there have been no quantitative studies of brain morphometry and metabolism. Thus the authors investigated brain structure and metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX. Eight normal IQ, healthy female permutation FraX carriers aged 39 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD) and 32 age-sex-handedness-matched controls (39 +/- 10 years) were studied; in vivo brain morphometry was measured using volumetric magnetic resonances imaging, and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were measured using positron emission tomography and (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Compared with controls, FraX premutation carriers had a significant (1) decrease in volume of whole brain, and caudate and thalamic nuclei bilaterally; (2) increase in volume of hippocampus and peripheral CSF bilaterally, and third ventricle; (3) relative hypometabolism of right parietal, temporal, and occipital association areas; (4) bilateral relative hypermetabolism of hippocampus; (5) relative hypermetabolism of left cerebellum; and (6) difference in right-left asymmetry of the Wernicke and Broca language areas. Premutation carriers of FraX, as defined by analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, have abnormalities in brain anatomy and metabolism. The biological basis for this is unknown, but most likely it includes tissue heterogeneity for mutation status. The findings may be of relevance to people counseling families with FraX and to understanding other neuropsychiatric disorders which are associated with expansion of triplet repeats and genetic anticipation.

  12. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carri...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions.......This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  13. Natural carriers in bioremediation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dzionek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater or soil is currently the cheapest and the least harmful method of removing xenobiotics from the environment. Immobilization of microorganisms capable of degrading specific contaminants significantly promotes bioremediation processes, reduces their costs, and also allows for the multiple use of biocatalysts. Among the developed methods of immobilization, adsorption on the surface is the most common method in bioremediation, due to the simplicity of the procedure and its non-toxicity. The choice of carrier is an essential element for successful bioremediation. It is also important to consider the type of process (in situ or ex situ, type of pollution, and properties of immobilized microorganisms. For these reasons, the article summarizes recent scientific reports about the use of natural carriers in bioremediation, including efficiency, the impact of the carrier on microorganisms and contamination, and the nature of the conducted research.

  14. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  15. [In vitro drug release behavior of carrier made of porous glass ceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-ping; Huang, Wen-hai; Zhou, Nai

    2002-09-01

    To conduct the in vitro test on drug release of rifampin encapsulated in a carrier made of porous phosphate glass ceramics and to analyze main factors which affect the drug release rate. A certain quantitative of rifampin was sealed in a hollow cylindrical capsule which consisted of chopped calcium phosphate crystal fiber obtained from glass crystallization. The rifampin concentration was measured in the simulated physiological solution in which the capsule soaked. Rifampin could be released in a constant rate from the porous glass ceramic carrier in a long time. The release rate was dependent on the size of crystal fiber and the wall thickness of the capsule. This kind of calcium phosphate glass ceramics can be a candidate of the carrier materials used as long term drug therapy after osteotomy surgery.

  16. Ambipolar carrier transport properties and molecular packing structure of octahexyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Koichi; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Itani, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-04-01

    The charge carrier mobility of a solution-processable low-molecular-weight organic semiconductor material, i.e., 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine copper complex (C6PcCu), was investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The anomalous ambipolar carrier mobility was discussed from the viewpoint of the molecular packing structure, which was clarified by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In the comparison between the molecular packing structures of C6PcCu and its metal-free-type homologue, it was found that the difference in carrier mobility originates from the rotation of the molecule, which is caused by the steric hindrance due to the introduction of a center metal and the interpenetration of the nonperipheral alkyl chains.

  17. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  18. The Mimivirus Genome Encodes a Mitochondrial Carrier That Transports dATP and dTTP▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monné, Magnus; Robinson, Alan J.; Boes, Christoph; Harbour, Michael E.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Kunji, Edmund R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the mitochondrial carrier family have been reported in eukaryotes only, where they transport metabolites and cofactors across the mitochondrial inner membrane to link the metabolic pathways of the cytosol and the matrix. The genome of the giant virus Mimiviridae mimivirus encodes a member of the mitochondrial carrier family of transport proteins. This viral protein has been expressed in Lactococcus lactis and is shown to transport dATP and dTTP. As the 1.2-Mb double-stranded DNA mimivirus genome is rich in A and T residues, we speculate that the virus is using this protein to target the host mitochondria as a source of deoxynucleotides for its replication. PMID:17229695

  19. Measuring Charge Carrier Diffusion in Coupled Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2013-06-25

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.

  1. Solution of the Baxter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method of construction of a family of solutions of the Baxter equation arising in the Generalized Leading Logarithmic Approximation (GLLA) of the QCD pomeron. The details are given for the exchange of N = 2 reggeons but everything can be generalized in a straightforward way to arbitrary N. A specific choice of solutions is shown to reproduce the correct energy levels for half integral conformal weights. It is shown that the Baxter's equation must be supplemented by an additional condition on the solution. (author)

  2. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)

  3. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced......Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...

  4. Interface recombination influence on carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konin, A

    2013-01-01

    A theory of interface recombination in the semiconductor–semiconductor junction is developed. The interface recombination rate dependence on the nonequilibrium carrier densities is derived on the basis of a model in which the interface recombination occurs through the mechanism of trapping. The general relation between the interface recombination parameters at small carrier density deviation from the equilibrium ones is obtained. The validity of this relation is proved considering the generation of the Hall electric field in the extrinsic semiconductor sample. The anomalous Hall electromotive force in a weak magnetic field was investigated and interpreted by means of a new interface recombination model. The experimental data corroborate the developed theory. (paper)

  5. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  6. Pore-Confined Carriers and Biomolecules in Mesoporous Silica for Biomimetic Separation and Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan

    Selectively permeable biological membranes composed of lipophilic barriers inspire the design of biomimetic carrier-mediated membranes for aqueous solute separation. This work imparts selective permeability to lipid-filled pores of silica thin film composite membranes using carrier molecules that reside in the lipophilic self-assemblies. The lipids confined inside the pores of silica are proven to be a more effective barrier than bilayers formed on the porous surface through vesicle fusion, which is critical for quantifying the function of an immobilized carrier. The ability of a lipophilic carrier embedded in the lipid bilayer to reversibly bind the target solute and transport it through the membrane is demonstrated. Through the functionalization of the silica surface with enzymes, enzymatic catalysis and biomimetic separations can be combined on this nanostructured composite platform. The successful development of biomimetic nanocomposite membrane can provide for efficient dilute aqueous solute upgrading or separations using engineered carrier/catalyst/support systems. While the carrier-mediated biomimetic membranes hold great potential, fully understanding of the transport processes in composite synthetic membranes is essential for improve the membrane performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique is demonstrated to be a useful tool for characterizing the thin film pore accessibility. Furthermore, the effect of lipid bilayer preparation methods on the silica thin film (in the form of pore enveloping, pore filling) on ion transport is explored, as a lipid bilayer with high electrically insulation is essential for detecting activity of proteins or biomimetic carriers in the bilayer. This study provides insights for making better barriers on mesoporous support for carrier-mediated membrane separation process. Porous silica nanoparticles (pSNPs) with pore sizes appropriate for biomolecule loading are potential for encapsulating dsRNA within the

  7. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these ''families'' is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  8. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these families is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  9. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Tests A physical exam may show fatty skin growths called xanthomas and cholesterol deposits in the eye (corneal arcus). The health care provider will ask questions about your personal and family medical history. There may be: A strong family history of ...

  10. FAMILY PYRGOTIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Ramon Luciano; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Pyrgotidae is a family of endoparasitics flies of beetles with worldwide distribution. The Neotropical fauna is composed by 59 valid species names disposed in 13 genera. The occurrence of Pyrgota longipes Hendel is the first record of the family in Colombia.

  11. Reconciling Work and Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Helle

    The problems of balancing work and family life have within the last years been heavily debated in the countries of the European Union. This anthology deals with the question of how to obtain a better balance between work and family life. Focus is set on the role of companies. The anthology tries...... to shed some light on questions such as: How can compagnies become more family friendly? What are the barriers and how can they be overcome? What is the social outcome when companies are playing an active role in employees’ possiblities for combining family life and work life? How are the solutions...... on work/ family unbalance/ problems related to the growing social problems related to unemployment? The anthology is the result of a reseach-network on ”Work-place Contributions ro Reconcile Work and Family Life” funded by the European Commission, DG V, and co-coordinated by the editors....

  12. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  13. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  14. Pricing Scheme of Ocean Carrier for Inbound Container Storage for Assistance of Container Supply Chain Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pricing scheme of ocean carrier for inbound container storage so as to assist container supply chain finance. In this paper, how an ocean carrier should set price of inbound container storage to the customer while facing the contract from the container terminal operator is first analyzed. Then, two different contract systems, the free-time contract system which is widely used in practice and the free-space contract system which is newly developed recently, are considered. In the two different contract systems, inbound container storage pricing models are constructed, and accordingly optimal solution approaches for the ocean carrier are provided. For comparison purpose, some numerical experiments for the two different contract systems are conducted to investigate the effects of the container terminal operator’s decision on the system outcomes. Numerical experiments show that (1 the carrier is more flexible in the free-space contract system and can receive more profit by using the free-storage-space as a pooling storage system and (2 the free-space contract system benefits both the carrier in profit and the busy terminal in traffic control.

  15. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  16. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  17. OCP: Opportunistic Carrier Prediction for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Many protocols have been proposed for medium access control in wireless networks. MACA [13], MACAW [3], and FAMA [8] are the earlier proposals for...world performance of carrier sense. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM E-WIND Workshop, 2005. [13] P. Karn. MACA : A new channel access method for packet radio

  18. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  19. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in silicon nanowires consisting of a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous shell, using femtosecond time resolved differential reflectivity and transmission spectroscopy at 3.15 eV and 1.57 eV photon energies. The complex behaviour of the ...

  20. European regulatory framework for person carrier robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, E.; Roig, A.

    The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless

  1. On safety of radioactive waste carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The waste generated by reprocessing the spent fuel from Japanese nuclear power stations in France and U.K. is to be returned to Japan. The first return transport was carried out from February to April when the waste management facility in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, was completed. Most of this return transport was the sea transport using the exclusively used carrier, Pacific Pintail, from Cherbourg, France, to Mutsu Ogawara, Japan. Ministry of Transport carried out the examination on the safety of this method of transport including the safety of the carrier based on the rule for the sea transport and storage of dangerous substances. The international rule on the sea transport of high level radioactive waste, the course of adopting the INF code and its outline, and the Japanese safety standard for the carriers exclusively used for high level radioactive waste are explained. The Pacific Pintail is the ship of 5087 GT, which was built in 1987 as the carrier exclusively used for radioactive substances, owned by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. of U.K. The main features related to the safety of the Pacific Pintail are explained, and the sufficient countermeasures are taken. (K.I.)

  2. Treatment of cyanide wastewater by bulk liquid membrane using tricaprylamine as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Xue, Juanqin; Liu, Nina; Yu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The transport of cyanide from wastewater through a bulk liquid membrane (BLM) containing tricaprylamine (TOA) as a carrier was studied. The effect of cyanide concentration in the feed solution, TOA concentration in the organic phase, the stirring speed, NaOH concentration in the stripping solution and temperature on cyanide transport was determined through BLM. Mass transfer of cyanide through BLM was analyzed by following the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions, and the kinetic parameters (k(1), k(2), R(m)(max), t(max), J(a)(max), J(d)(max)) were also calculated. Apparently, increase in membrane entrance (k(1)) and exit rate (k(2)) constants was accompanied by a rise in temperature. The values of activation energies were obtained as 35.6 kJ/mol and 18.2 kJ/mol for removal and recovery, respectively. These values showed that both removal and recovery steps in cyanide transport is controlled by the rate of the chemical complexation reaction. The optimal reaction conditions were determined by BLM using trioctylamine as the carrier: feed phase: pH 4, carrier TOA possession ratio in organic phase: 2% (V/V), stripping phase concentration of NaOH: 1% (W/V), reaction time: 60 min, stirring speed: 250 r/min. Under the above conditions, the removal rate was up to 92.96%. The experiments demonstrated that TOA was a good carrier for cyanide transport through BLM in this study.

  3. A mathematical model for the control of carrier-dependent infectious diseases with direct transmission and time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.K.; Mishra, S.N.; Pathak, A.L.; Srivastava, P.K.; Chandra, Peeyush

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a non-linear delay mathematical model for the control of carrier-dependent infectious diseases through insecticides is proposed and analyzed. In the modeling process, it is assumed that disease spreads due to direct contact between susceptibles and infectives as well as through carriers (indirect contact). Further, it is assumed that insecticides are used to kill carriers and the rate of introduction of insecticides is proportional to the density of carriers with some time lag. The model analysis suggests that as delay in using insecticides exceeds some critical value, the system loses its stability and Hopf-bifurcation occurs. The direction, stability and period of the bifurcating periodic solutions arising through Hopf-bifurcation are also analyzed using normal form concept and center manifold theory. Numerical simulation is carried out to confirm the obtained analytical results

  4. Cosmogenic radionuclide carriers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Lujanas, V.

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of radionuclides ( 7 Be 32,33 P and 35 S) and stable sulfur and phosphorus forms was based on the Tessier sequential extraction method. The properties of radionuclide carriers can be transformed in the atmosphere in a very short time (days, hours), in contrast to soil and the hydrosphere. Oxidation processes proceeding in the atmosphere induce changes in the aerosol carrier properties. The aerosol can be characterized by low pH and high Eh values corresponding to high 7Be solubility. The unexpectedly high negative Eh values obtained in dry summer period indicate that the 7 Be 32,33 P aerosol is bound to insoluble carriers. 137 Cs solubility does not depend on changes in pH. This can be explained by the fact that in contrast to 7 Be, 137 Cs is associated with the exchangeable fraction. Cs ions can be replaced not only by H + but also by NH 4 + and other ions. 7 Be aerosols collected at the seaside of the Baltic sea (Preila) were found to be more soluble than those in Vilnius, their solubility was up to 50-90 % and clear dependence between 7 Be solubility, pH and Eh was not observed. It can be attributed to differences in the atmospheric aerosol composition (e.g. soluble chlorides) in Vilnius and Preila. A great variety of 7 Be carriers properties as well as their dependence on the season and the existence of admixtures in the atmosphere require great caution in applying this isotope in tracer investigations. Soluble carriers are removed faster from the atmosphere by precipitation. The significance of this fact is confirmed by the ratio of 7 Be/ 32 P in the air and precipitation. Both soluble and insoluble aerosols can be formed depending on the environmental conditions

  5. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. New solutions of euclidean SU(2) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    1983-08-01

    New solutions of the Euclidean SU(2) gauge theory having finite field strength everywhere are presented. The solutions are self dual or antidual and constitute a two-parameter family which includes the instantons. (author)

  7. 77 FR 77184 - Hotard Coaches, Inc. and Calco Travel, Inc.-Corporate Family Transaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Coaches, Inc. and Calco Travel, Inc.--Corporate Family Transaction Hotard Coaches, Inc. (Hotard), a carrier, and Calco Travel, Inc. (Calco), a carrier, both wholly owned subsidiaries of All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), a noncarrier, have filed a verified notice of exemption under the Board's class...

  8. Cancer risks in BRCA2 families: estimates for sites other than breast and ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, C. J.; Brohet, R. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Verhoef, S.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; Menko, F. H.; Gomez Garcia, E. B.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; van Houwelingen, J. C.; van't Veer, L. J.; Rookus, M. A.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2005-01-01

    In BRCA2 mutation carriers, increased risks have been reported for several cancer sites besides breast and ovary. As most of the families included in earlier reports were selected on the basis of multiple breast/ovarian cancer cases, it is possible that risk estimates may differ in mutation carriers

  9. Reliability of nine programs of topological predictions and their application to integral membrane channel and carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Abhinay; Cho, Jaehoon; Ling, Sam; Reddy, Vamsee; Shlykov, Maksim; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated topological predictions for nine different programs, HMMTOP, TMHMM, SVMTOP, DAS, SOSUI, TOPCONS, PHOBIUS, MEMSAT-SVM (hereinafter referred to as MEMSAT), and SPOCTOPUS. These programs were first evaluated using four large topologically well-defined families of secondary transporters, and the three best programs were further evaluated using topologically more diverse families of channels and carriers. In the initial studies, the order of accuracy was: SPOCTOPUS > MEMSAT > HMMTOP > TOPCONS > PHOBIUS > TMHMM > SVMTOP > DAS > SOSUI. Some families, such as the Sugar Porter Family (2.A.1.1) of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS; TC #2.A.1) and the Amino Acid/Polyamine/Organocation (APC) Family (TC #2.A.3), were correctly predicted with high accuracy while others, such as the Mitochondrial Carrier (MC) (TC #2.A.29) and the K(+) transporter (Trk) families (TC #2.A.38), were predicted with much lower accuracy. For small, topologically homogeneous families, SPOCTOPUS and MEMSAT were generally most reliable, while with large, more diverse superfamilies, HMMTOP often proved to have the greatest prediction accuracy. We next developed a novel program, TM-STATS, that tabulates HMMTOP, SPOCTOPUS or MEMSAT-based topological predictions for any subdivision (class, subclass, superfamily, family, subfamily, or any combination of these) of the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org) and examined the following subclasses: α-type channel proteins (TC subclasses 1.A and 1.E), secreted pore-forming toxins (TC subclass 1.C) and secondary carriers (subclass 2.A). Histograms were generated for each of these subclasses, and the results were analyzed according to subclass, family and protein. The results provide an update of topological predictions for integral membrane transport proteins as well as guides for the development of more reliable topological prediction programs, taking family-specific characteristics into account. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Premature ovarian failure (POF in Brazilian fragile X carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Vianna-Morgante

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological and reproductive histories of 193 women from fragile X families were surveyed. Among the 101 carriers of the premutation, 14 experienced premature menopause, contrarily to their 37 fully mutated and 55 noncarrier female relatives. Although premature menopause showed a tendency to cluster in certain fragile X families, as a group, the premutated women experienced menopause earlier than noncarriers. This suggests that premature menopause may be the extreme effect of a spectrum of ovarian anomalies associated with the fragile X premutation.Entrevistamos 193 mulheres de famílias com afetados pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil, quanto a sua história ginecológica e reprodutiva. Entre as 101 portadoras da pré-mutação, 14 tiveram menopausa precoce, mas nenhuma das 37 portadoras da mutação completa ou das 55 não portadoras apresentaram esta anomalia. Observamos uma tendência para a concentração da menopausa precoce em certas famílias, o que poderia significar uma peculiariedade de certas pré-mutações. Entretanto, o fato de as mulheres pré-mutadas tenderem a entrar em menopausa mais cedo do que as não portadoras sugere que a menopausa precoce seja o extremo do espectro de efeitos ovarianos da pré-mutação.

  11. Family matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    brain injury participated. Family and brain injury characteristics were reported by the ill and healthy parents. Children self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) using the Child Impact of Events revised (CRIES). Emotional and behavioural problems among the children were also identified...... by the parents using the Achenbach’s Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: The family stress variables relating to the healthy spouse in all six comparisons were significant (p... scores for the children. For the adjusted associations, we again found the family stress variables in the healthy spouse to be related to the risk of emotional and behavioral problems in the children. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that in ABI families, the children’s emotional functioning...

  12. Small Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children of larger families. The financial costs of maintaining a household are lower. It is easier for ... separated from you, hindering the development of new relationships with peers. In fact, you may have that ...

  13. Familial hypercholesterolaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic disorder of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism. It is characterised .... Figure 2: Cumulative prevalence of physical signs in adult FH patients at the. GSH Lipid .... microvascular trauma.

  14. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family members to do your laundry, walk the dog, or update others on your progress. You may ... parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication As demonstrated above, good communication is important in ...

  15. Familial dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition. FD occurs most often in people of Eastern European Jewish ancestry (Ashkenazi Jews). It is caused ... also be used for prenatal diagnosis. People of Eastern European Jewish background and families with a history ...

  16. The use of carrier RNA to enhance DNA extraction from microfluidic-based silica monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Thain, Lauren; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-10-12

    DNA extraction was carried out on silica-based monoliths within a microfluidic device. Solid-phase DNA extraction methodology was applied in which the DNA binds to silica in the presence of a chaotropic salt, such as guanidine hydrochloride, and is eluted in a low ionic strength solution, such as water. The addition of poly-A carrier RNA to the chaotropic salt solution resulted in a marked increase in the effective amount of DNA that could be recovered (25ng) compared to the absence of RNA (5ng) using the silica-based monolith. These findings confirm that techniques utilising nucleic acid carrier molecules can enhance DNA extraction methodologies in microfluidic applications.

  17. Identification of circulating microRNAs in HNF1A-MODY carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, C; Nyhan, K C; Bacon, S; Kyithar, M P; Schmid, J; Concannon, C G; Bray, I M; Stallings, R L; Prehn, J H M; Byrne, M M

    2013-08-01

    HNF1A-MODY is a monogenic form of diabetes caused by mutations in the HNF1A gene. Here we identify, for the first time, HNF1A-MODY-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be detected in the serum of HNF1A-MODY carriers. An miRNA array was carried out in rat INS-1 insulinoma cells inducibly expressing the common human Pro291fsinsC-HNF1A frame shift mutation. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of miRNAs in the serum of HNF1A-MODY carriers (n = 31), MODY-negative family members (n = 10) and individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 17) was quantified by absolute real-time PCR analysis. Inducible expression of Pro291fsinsC-HNF1A in INS-1 cells caused a significant upregulation of three miRNAs (miR-103, miR-224, miR-292-3p). The differential expression of two miRNAs (miR-103 and miR-224) was validated in vitro. Strongly elevated levels of miR-103 and miR-224 could be detected in the serum of HNF1A-MODY carriers compared with MODY-negative family controls. Serum levels of miR-103 distinguished HNF1A-MODY carriers from HbA1c-matched individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY is associated with the overexpression of miR-103 and miR-224. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that these miRNAs can be readily detected in the serum of HNF1A-MODY carriers.

  18. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Broekmans, Frank J; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H; Mooij, Thea M; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Verhoef, Senno; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Adank, Muriel A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Doorn, Helena C; van Os, Theo A; Bos, Anna M; Rookus, Matti A; Ausems, Margreet G

    2016-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Cross-sectional assessment from an ongoing nationwide cohort study among members of BRCA1/2 mutated families. Information was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and Cox regression was used to assess the association between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM. Adjustments were made for birth cohort, family, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and parity. A total of 1,208 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 2,211 proven noncarriers were included. Overall, no association was found between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87-1.30]). We examined if the null finding was due to informative censoring by uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Indeed, within the oldest birth cohort, in which the percentage of surgical menopause events was lowest and comparable between carriers and noncarriers, the HR for earlier natural menopause in carriers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.94). The second oldest birth cohort, however, demonstrated a decreased HR (0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.98]), and thus no trend over birth cohorts was found. Various types of selection bias hamper the comparison of ANM between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers, genetically tested in the clinic.

  19. An Atypical Mitochondrial Carrier That Mediates Drug Action in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P de Macêdo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the mechanism of action of trypanocidal compounds is an important step in the development of more efficient drugs against Trypanosoma brucei. In a screening approach using an RNAi library in T. brucei bloodstream forms, we identified a member of the mitochondrial carrier family, TbMCP14, as a prime candidate mediating the action of a group of anti-parasitic choline analogs. Depletion of TbMCP14 by inducible RNAi in both bloodstream and procyclic forms increased resistance of parasites towards the compounds by 7-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to uninduced cells. In addition, down-regulation of TbMCP14 protected bloodstream form mitochondria from a drug-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Conversely, over-expression of the carrier in procyclic forms increased parasite susceptibility more than 13-fold. Metabolomic analyses of parasites over-expressing TbMCP14 showed increased levels of the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, suggesting a possible involvement of TbMCP14 in energy production. The generation of TbMCP14 knock-out parasites showed that the carrier is not essential for survival of T. brucei bloodstream forms, but reduced parasite proliferation under standard culture conditions. In contrast, depletion of TbMCP14 in procyclic forms resulted in growth arrest, followed by parasite death. The time point at which parasite proliferation stopped was dependent on the major energy source, i.e. glucose versus proline, in the culture medium. Together with our findings that proline-dependent ATP production in crude mitochondria from TbMCP14-depleted trypanosomes was reduced compared to control mitochondria, the study demonstrates that TbMCP14 is involved in energy production in T. brucei. Since TbMCP14 belongs to a trypanosomatid-specific clade of mitochondrial carrier family proteins showing very poor similarity to mitochondrial carriers of mammals, it may represent an interesting target for drug

  20. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/ N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers. (paper)

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF BADLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG (IBUPROFEN) BY USING SURFACTANTS AND CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zakaria Faruki*, Rishikesh, Elizabeth Razzaque, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Although there was a great interest in solid dispersion systems during the past four decades to increase dissolution rate and bioavailability of badly water-soluble drugs, their profitable use has been very limited, primarily because of manufacturing difficulties and stability problems. In this study solid solutions of drugs were generally produced by fusion method. The drug along with the excipients (surfactants and carriers) was heated first and then hardened by cooling to room te...

  2. Changing families, changing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child

  3. The Danish HD Registrya nationwide family registry of HD families in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Boonen, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    -8:100 000. 1451 individuals in the DHR had the size of the HTT CAG repeat determined of which 975 had 36 CAG repeats or more (mean ± SD: 43,5 ± 4,8). Two unrelated individuals were compound heterozygous for alleles ≥36 CAGs, and 60 individuals from 34 independent families carried an intermediate allele.......The Danish Huntington's Disease Registry (DHR) is a nationwide family registry comprising 14 245 individuals from 445 Huntington's disease (HD) families of which the largest family includes 845 individuals in 8 generations. 1136 DNA and/or blood samples and 18 fibroblast cultures are stored...... in a local biobank. The birthplace of the oldest HD carrier in each of the 261 families of Danish origin was unevenly distributed across Denmark with a high number of families in the middle part of the peninsula Jutland and in Copenhagen, the capital. The prevalence of HD in Denmark was calculated to be 5...

  4. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  5. Improving accuracy of Tay Sachs carrier screening of the non-Jewish population: analysis of 34 carriers and six late-onset patients with HEXA enzyme and DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Noh Jin; Morgan, Craig; Sharma, Rajesh; Li, Yuanyin; Lobo, Raynah M; Redman, Joy B; Salazar, Denise; Sun, Weimin; Neidich, Julie A; Strom, Charles M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining different testing modalities namely beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) enzyme analysis, HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and HEXA gene sequencing could improve the sensitivity for carrier detection in non-Ashkenazi (AJ) individuals. We performed a HEXA gene sequencing assay, a HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and a HEXA enzyme assay on 34 self-reported Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, six late-onset patients with TSD, and one pseudodeficiency allele carrier. Sensitivity of TSD carrier detection was 91% for gene sequencing compared with 91% for the enzyme assay and 52% for the DNA mutation assay. Gene sequencing combined with enzyme testing had the highest sensitivity (100%) for carrier detection. Gene sequencing detected four novel mutations, three of which are predicted to be disease causing [118.delT, 965A-->T (D322V), and 775A-->G (T259A)]. Gene sequencing is useful in identifying rare mutations in patients with TSD and their families, in evaluating spouses of known carriers for TSD who have indeterminate enzyme analysis and negative for common mutation analysis, and in resolving ambiguous enzyme testing results.

  6. Numerically satisfactory solutions of Kummer recurrence relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPairs of numerically satisfactory solutions as $n\\rightarrow \\infty$ for the three-term recurrence relations satisfied by the families of functions $_1\\mbox{F}_1(a+\\epsilon_1 n; b +\\epsilon_2 n;z)$, $\\epsilon_i \\in {\\mathbb Z}$, are given. It is proved that minimal solutions always

  7. A spherical collapse solution with neutrino outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-parameter family of solutions of Einstein's field equations is given that represents a collapsing perfect fluid with outgoing neutrino flux. Solutions with ''naked'' singularities are exhibited. They can be forbidden by requiring pressure less than or equal to the density as a condition of cosmic censorship

  8. Novel Handover Optimization with a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Shayea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrier aggregation (CA technique and Handover Parameters Optimization (HPO function have been introduced in LTE-Advanced systems to enhance system performance in terms of throughput, coverage area, and connection stability and to reduce management complexity. Although LTE-Advanced has benefited from the CA technique, the low spectral efficiency and high ping-pong effect with high outage probabilities in conventional Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (CADSs have become major challenges for cell edge User Equipment (UE. Also, the existing HPO algorithms are not optimal for selecting the appropriate handover control parameters (HCPs. This paper proposes two solutions by deploying a Coordinated Contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS and a Novel Handover Parameters Optimization algorithm that is based on the Weight Performance Function (NHPO-WPF. The CC-CADS uses two contiguous component carriers (CCs that have two different beam directions. The NHPO-WPF automatically adjusts the HCPs based on the Weight Performance Function (WPF, which is evaluated as a function of the Signal-to-Interference Noise Ratio (SINR, cell load, and UE’s velocity. Simulation results show that the CC-CADS and the NHPO-WPF algorithm provide significant enhancements in system performance over that of conventional CADSs and HPO algorithms from the literature, respectively. The integration of both solutions achieves even better performance than scenarios in which each solution is considered independently.

  9. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  10. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  11. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  12. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, R.; Chaput, M.

    1961-01-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [fr

  13. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  14. Entanglement of conjugated polymer chains influences molecular self-assembly and carrier transport

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2013-06-26

    The influence of polymer entanglement on the self-assembly, molecular packing structure, and microstructure of low-Mw (lightly entangled) and high-Mw (highly entangled) poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the carrier transport in thin-film transistors, are investigated. The polymer chains are gradually disentangled in a marginal solvent via ultrasonication of the polymer solution, and demonstrate improved diffusivity of precursor species (coils, aggregates, and microcrystallites), enhanced nucleation and crystallization of P3HT in solution, and self-assembly of well-ordered and highly textured fibrils at the solid-liquid interface. In low-Mw P3HT, reducing chain entanglement enhances interchain and intrachain ordering, but reduces the interconnectivity of ordered domains (tie molecules) due to the presence of short chains, thus deteriorating carrier transport even in the face of improving crystallinity. Reducing chain entanglement in high-Mw P3HT solutions increases carrier mobility up to ≈20-fold, by enhancing interchain and intrachain ordering while maintaining a sufficiently large number of tie molecules between ordered domains. These results indicate that charge carrier mobility is strongly governed by the balancing of intrachain and interchain ordering, on the one hand, and interconnectivity of ordered domains, on the other hand. In high-Mw P3HT, intrachain and interchain ordering appear to be the key bottlenecks to charge transport, whereas in low-Mw P3HT, the limited interconnectivity of the ordered domains acts as the primary bottleneck to charge transport. Conjugated polymer chains of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are gradually disentangled in solution and trends in carrier transport mechanisms in organic thin film transistors for low- and high-molecular weight P3HT are investigated. While intrachain and interchain ordering within ordered domains are the key bottlenecks to charge transport in high-Mw P3HT films, the limited interconnectivity of ordered

  15. Entanglement of conjugated polymer chains influences molecular self-assembly and carrier transport

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Su, Yisong; Amassian, Aram

    2013-01-01

    The influence of polymer entanglement on the self-assembly, molecular packing structure, and microstructure of low-Mw (lightly entangled) and high-Mw (highly entangled) poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the carrier transport in thin-film transistors, are investigated. The polymer chains are gradually disentangled in a marginal solvent via ultrasonication of the polymer solution, and demonstrate improved diffusivity of precursor species (coils, aggregates, and microcrystallites), enhanced nucleation and crystallization of P3HT in solution, and self-assembly of well-ordered and highly textured fibrils at the solid-liquid interface. In low-Mw P3HT, reducing chain entanglement enhances interchain and intrachain ordering, but reduces the interconnectivity of ordered domains (tie molecules) due to the presence of short chains, thus deteriorating carrier transport even in the face of improving crystallinity. Reducing chain entanglement in high-Mw P3HT solutions increases carrier mobility up to ≈20-fold, by enhancing interchain and intrachain ordering while maintaining a sufficiently large number of tie molecules between ordered domains. These results indicate that charge carrier mobility is strongly governed by the balancing of intrachain and interchain ordering, on the one hand, and interconnectivity of ordered domains, on the other hand. In high-Mw P3HT, intrachain and interchain ordering appear to be the key bottlenecks to charge transport, whereas in low-Mw P3HT, the limited interconnectivity of the ordered domains acts as the primary bottleneck to charge transport. Conjugated polymer chains of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are gradually disentangled in solution and trends in carrier transport mechanisms in organic thin film transistors for low- and high-molecular weight P3HT are investigated. While intrachain and interchain ordering within ordered domains are the key bottlenecks to charge transport in high-Mw P3HT films, the limited interconnectivity of ordered

  16. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jö rg; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  17. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  18. Association of TMEM106B gene polymorphism with age at onset in granulin mutation carriers and plasma granulin protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Graff, Caroline; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Wang, Jun; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Spiegel, Noah; Bertelsen, Sarah; Mayo, Kevin; Norton, Joanne B; Morris, John C; Goate, Alison

    2011-05-01

    To test whether rs1990622 (TMEM106B) is associated with age at onset (AAO) in granulin (GRN) mutation carriers and with plasma GRN levels in mutation carriers and healthy, elderly individuals. Rs1990622 (TMEM106B) was identified as a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA-binding protein inclusions (FTLD-TDP) in a recent genome-wide association. Rs1990622 was genotyped in GRN mutation carriers and tested for association with AAO using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox proportional hazards model. Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Subjects  We analyzed 50 affected and unaffected GRN mutation carriers from 4 previously reported FTLD-TDP families (HDDD1, FD1, HDDD2, and the Karolinska family). The GRN plasma levels were also measured in 73 healthy, elderly individuals. Age at onset and GRN plasma levels. The risk allele of rs1990622 was associated with a mean decrease of the AAO of 13 years (P = 9.9 × 10(-7)) and with lower plasma GRN levels in both healthy older adults (P = 4 × 10(-4)) and GRN mutation carriers (P = .0027). Analysis of the HapMap database identified a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3173615 (T185S) in perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs1990622. The association of rs1990622 with AAO explains, in part, the wide range in the AAO of disease among GRN mutation carriers. We hypothesize that rs1990622 or another variant in linkage disequilibrium could act in a manner similar to APOE in Alzheimer disease, increasing risk for disease in the general population and modifying AAO in mutation carriers. Our results also suggest that genetic variation in TMEM106B may influence risk for FTLD-TDP by modulating secreted levels of GRN.

  19. TMEM106B gene polymorphism is associated with age at onset in granulin mutation carriers and plasma granulin protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Graff, Caroline; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Wang, Jun; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Spiegel, Noah; Bertelsen, Sarah; Mayo, Kevin; Norton, Joanne B.; Morris, John C.; Goate, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Objective A recent genome-wide association study for frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA-binding protein inclusions (FTLD-TDP), identified rs1990622 (TMEM106B) as a risk factor for FTLD-TDP. In this study we tested whether rs1990622 is associated with age at onset (AAO) in granulin (GRN) mutation carriers and with plasma GRN levels in mutation carriers and healthy elderly individuals. Design Rs1990622 was genotyped in GRN mutation carriers and tested for association with AAO using the Kaplan-Meier and a Cox proportional hazards model. Subjects We analyzed 50 affected and unaffected GRN mutation carriers from four previously reported FTLD-TDP families (HDDD1, FD1, HDDD2 and the Karolinska family). GRN plasma levels were also measured in 73 healthy, elderly individuals. Results The risk allele of rs1990622 is associated with a mean decrease of the age at onset of thirteen years (p=9.9×10−7), with lower plasma granulin levels in both healthy older adults (p = 4×10−4) and GRN mutation carriers (p=0.0027). Analysis of the HAPMAP database identified a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, rs3173615 (T185S) in perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs1990622. Conclusions The association of rs1990622 with AAO explains, in part, the wide range in the age at onset of disease among GRN mutation carriers. We hypothesize that rs1990622 or another variant in linkage disequilibrium could act in a manner similar to APOE in Alzheimer’s disease, increasing risk for disease in the general population and modifying AAO in mutation carriers. Our results also suggest that genetic variation in TMEM106B may influence risk for FTLD-TDP by modulating secreted levels of GRN. PMID:21220649

  20. Electrodeposition of carrier-free 57Co on rhodium as an approach to the preparation of Moessbauer sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszykowska, Izabela; ZoLtowska, MaLgorzata; Mielcarski, MieczysLaw

    2011-01-01

    Electrodeposition of carrier-free 57 Co on a rhodium matrix as the first step of preparing Moessbauer sources was studied. To optimize the plating parameters, the influences of current density, volume and pH of the electrolyte solution, shape, thickness, and surface area of the rhodium cathode, mode of cathode pretreatment, concentration of 57 Co and duration of electrolysis were investigated.

  1. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers : Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more

  2. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  3. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  4. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  5. 14 CFR 158.69 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. 158.69 Section 158.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....69 Recordkeeping and auditing: Collecting carriers. (a) Collecting carriers shall establish and...

  6. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the...

  7. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  8. 14 CFR 271.3 - Carrier subsidy need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.3 Carrier subsidy need. In establishing the subsidy for an air carrier providing essential air service at an...

  9. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND...

  10. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  11. Literature review of the passenger airline business models : Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  12. Familial macrocephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuno, Masaru; Hayashi, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko

    1984-01-01

    We reported 63 macrocephalic children with special emphasis on 16 cases with familial macrocephaly. Of the 16 children with familial macrocephaly, 13 were boys. Foureen parents (13 fathers and 1 mother) had head sizes above 98th percentile. Three of 5 brothers and 5 of 8 sisters also had large heads. The head circumference at birth was known for 14 of the children and it was above the 98th percentile in 7 patients. Subsequent evaluations have shown the head size of these children to be following a normal growth curve. Some of the children were hypotonic as infants, but their development was generally normal. CT scans usually clearly distinguished these children from those with hydorocephalus. The familial macrocephalic children had ventricular measurements which were within the normal range, but absolute measurements of the ventricular size may be misleading, because the CT appearance was of mildly dilated ventricles in half of them. (author)

  13. Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2009-01-01

    We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z≥4 and z≥3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Loss of heterozygosity and carrier identification in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a familiar case with recombination event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Mendoza Dora Janeth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/BMD is an X-linked recessive disease characterizedby muscular weakness. It is caused by mutations on the dystrophin gen. Loss of heterozygosityallows us to identify female carriers of deletions on the dystrophin gen. Objective: identifyfemale carriers in a family with a patient affected by DMD. Material and methods: nine familymembers and the affected child were analyzed using DNA extraction and posterior amplificationof ten STRs on the dystrophin gen. Haplotypes were constructed and the carrier status determinedin two of the six women analyzed due to loss of heterozygosity in three STRs. Additionally, weobserved a recombination event. Conclusions: loss of heterozygosity allows us to establish witha certainty of 100% the carrier status of females with deletions on the dystrophin gen. By theconstruction of haplotypes we were able to identify the X chromosome with the deletion in twoof the six women analyzed. We also determined a recombination event in one of the sisters of theaffected child. These are described with a high frequency (12%. A possible origin for the mutationis a gonadal mosaicism in the maternal grandfather or in the mother of the affected childin a very early stage in embryogensis. This can be concluded using the analysis of haplotypes.

  15. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  16. Comparison of carrier-added [99mTc] EDTMP and carrier-free preparations of [99mTc] EDTMP and [99mTc] DPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcal, A.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R.; Pirich, C.; Mitterhauser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in malignant bone lesions is a prerequisite for adequate bone scanning. Visual image analysis is impaired due to high soft-tissue activity with currently available [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP-kits. This study aimed to compare carrier-added [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP with carrier-free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD preparations in clinical routine. 15 μg and 150 μg perrhenic acid respectively were added to [ 99m Tc]-pertechnetate (>6 GBq in 3 ml phys. saline). The solution was then transferred into a vial, containing 1 mg of EDTMP, 3.6 mg stannous(II)chloride and 10 mg ascorbic acid under inert conditions. Under vigorous stirring the reaction mixture was heated to 45 o C for 10 min. After cooling down to room temperature the labelling mixture was sterile filtrated (millipore 0.22 μm). Quality control was performed using radio-ITLC (Whatman SG; acetone or ethanol: R f perrhenate/pertechnetate 0.87, colloid/product 0.05; phys. saline: R f colloid 0.00, perrhenate/pertechnetate and product 0.9) allowing rapid and efficient assessment of the product. Carrier free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD were prepared according to instructions of the manufacturer. Clinical studies were performed in 29 patients according to a routine bone scanning protocol by injecting 700-800 MBq of the respective tracer and whole body imaging 3 h thereafter. Radiochemical purity and radiochemical yield relied on various parameters such as concentration of carrier and reducing agent and reaction conditions (pH, reaction time, temperature). Means of the labelling yield were 22 % for the preparation using 150 μg of carrier (5 preparations), 80 % for the preparation using 15 μpg of carrier (10 preparations) and 91 % for the carrier free products (5 preparations). Radiochemical purity was >96 % in all experiments. Colloid was formed in very low amounts, and was completely removed by sterile filtration. In clinical studies quantitative analysis

  17. Super families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study on phenomena in the super high energy region, Σ E j > 1000 TeV revealed events that present a big dark spot in central region with high concentration of energy and particles, called halo. Six super families with halo were analysed by Brazil-Japan Cooperation of Cosmic Rays. For each family the lateral distribution of energy density was constructed and R c Σ E (R c ) was estimated. For studying primary composition, the energy correlation with particles released separately in hadrons and gamma rays was analysed. (M.C.K.)

  18. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation.......Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  19. Adopted Individuals' Views on the Utility and Value of Expanded Carrier Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sara; Ewing, Sarah; Calcagno, Kathryn; O'Neill, Suzanne

    2018-03-30

    Adoptees may not have family medical history and ethnicity information. Carrier screening assesses reproductive risk. Expanded carrier screening (ECS) screens for many genetic conditions regardless of a patient's knowledge of family history and ethnicity. This study aimed to better understand the opinions and attitudes of adopted individuals on the use of ECS in determining a patient's reproductive genetic risks. Specifically, the study assessed how adopted individuals feel that results of ECS may be useful to them and whether adoptees feel that meeting with a genetics professional in the process of undergoing ECS would be useful. Adult adoptees (N = 124) were recruited online. Their opinions on ECS were explored. The majority reported they had never been offered carrier screening (92%). The majority of adoptees wanted ECS (76%). Neither the amount of contact with biological relatives nor having medical knowledge about biological relatives was significantly associated with adoptees' desire to pursue ECS. There was a significant positive correlation between adoptees of higher education levels and the amount they would pay for ECS (p = 0.004). The majority of participants (95%) indicated a genetics professional would be helpful when undergoing ECS. The findings suggest this population may want ECS and support from genetics healthcare professionals. Advocacy for genetic counseling and testing for adoptees appears justifiable.

  20. Appreciating the broad clinical features of SMAD4 mutation carriers: a multi-center chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, K.E.; Ellingson, M.S.; McDonald, J.; Gammon, A.; Roberts, M.; Pichurin, P.; Winship, I.; Riegert-Johnson, D.; Weitzel, J. N.; Lindor, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function (LOF) SMAD4 mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JP) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Some carriers exhibit symptoms of both conditions, leading to the name JP-HHT syndrome. Three families have been reported with connective tissue abnormalities. In order to better understand the spectrum and extent of clinical findings in SMAD4 carriers, medical records of 34 patients (20 families) from five clinical practices were reviewed. Twenty-one percent (7/34) had features suggesting a connective tissue defect: enlarged aortic root (n=3), aortic and mitral insufficiency (n=2), aortic dissection (n=1), retinal detachment (n=1), brain aneurysms (n=1), lax skin and joints (n=1). JP-specific findings were almost uniformly present but variable. Ninety-seven percent had colon polyps that were generally pan-colonic and of variable histology and number. Forty-eight percent (15/31) had extensive gastric polyposis. HHT features were documented in 76% including epistaxis (19/31, 61%), mucocutaneous telangiectases (15/31, 48%), liver arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (6/16, 38%), brain AVM (1/26, 4%), pulmonary AVM (9/17, 53%), and intrapulmonary shunting (14/23, 61%). SMAD4 carriers should be managed for JP and HHT, since symptoms of both are likely yet unpredictable. Connective tissue abnormalities are an emerging component of JP-HHT syndrome, and larger studies are needed to understand these manifestations. PMID:24525918

  1. Carrier mobility and crystal perfection of tetracene thin film FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, N.; Nishikawa, T.; Anezaki, T.; Unno, A.; Tachibana, M.; Kojima, K.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that the carrier mobility of an organic field effect semiconductor (FET) depended on the crystal quality and/or the crystal perfection of the organic thin films [T.W. Kelly, D.V. Muyres, P.F. Baude, T.P. Smith, T.D. Jones, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 771 (2003) L6.5.1; D.J. Gundlach, J.A. Nichols, L. Zhou, T.N. Jackson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 2925; H.K. Lauk, M. Halik, U. Zschieschang, G. Schmid, W. Radlik, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 5259; M. Shtein, J. Mapel, J.B. Benziger, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 268; D. Knipp, R.A. Street, A.R. Volkel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 3907; R. Ruiz, A.C. Mayer, G.G. Malliaras, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) 4926; R.W.I. de Boer, M.E. Gershenson, A.F. Morpurgo, V. Podzorov, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201 (2004) 1031]. To improve the crystal quality of the thin film many efforts were made. One of the important improvements was the surface treatment of the substrate. The tetracene thin film FET (top contact structure) was fabricated using the substrate, which was coated by a spin-coating method with a 0.1% poly α-methylstyrene (AMS) solution. The crystal quality was improved by this treatment so that the carrier mobility was higher than that of non-treatment. The maximum mobility of the AMS-treated sample was obtained to be 0.12 cm 2 /V s

  2. Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence, particularly its effects on children. But there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Advances recommendations for further research.…

  3. Family arizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.J.G.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Chen, L.; Djajadingrat, T.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Hu, J.; Kufin, S.H.M.; Rampino, L.; Rodriguez, E.; Steffen, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this demo we show the two main components of the Family Arizing system which allows parents to stay in contact with their child and, in cases of distress, provide the child with a remote comforting hug. The two components to be shown are the active necklace and the active snuggle.

  4. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  5. FAMILY ASILIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marta; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Asilidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 7,000 recognized species worldwide. All their species are predators on arthropods, mainly insects. This catalogue presents 71 species distributed in 26 genera, ten tribes or generic groups and four subfamilies. For each species we present the available geographical information and relevant references.

  6. Family Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  7. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  8. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud; Silander, Gustav; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Aravidis, Christos; Nilbert, Mef; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are

  9. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is characterized by severe low-solute polyuria and polydipisa. The disease is caused by a deficient neurosecretion of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The hormone is normally synthesized by the magnocellular neurons...... as one sporadic case of early-onset diabetes insipidus. Genetic testing of the sporadic case of diabetes insipidus revealed a highly unusual mosaicism for a variation in the gene encoding the AVP receptor (AVPR2). This mosaicism had resulted in a partial phenotype and initial diagnostic difficulties...

  10. Carrier dynamics in graphene. Ultrafast many-particle phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, E.; Brem, S.; Jago, R. [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Winzer, T.; Wendler, F.; Knorr, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Mittendorff, M.; Koenig-Otto, J.C.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ploetzing, T.; Neumaier, D. [Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen, AMO GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene is an ideal material to study fundamental Coulomb- and phonon-induced carrier scattering processes. Its remarkable gapless and linear band structure opens up new carrier relaxation channels. In particular, Auger scattering bridging the valence and the conduction band changes the number of charge carriers and gives rise to a significant carrier multiplication - an ultrafast many-particle phenomenon that is promising for the design of highly efficient photodetectors. Furthermore, the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point combined with ultrafast phonon-induced intraband scattering results in an accumulation of carriers and a population inversion suggesting the design of graphene-based terahertz lasers. Here, we review our work on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene and Landau-quantized graphene is presented providing a microscopic view on the appearance of carrier multiplication and population inversion. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. No differences in brain microstructure between young KIBRA-C carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Xu, Qunxing; Li, Jizhen; Wang, Feifei; Xu, Xinghua; Sun, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiangxing; Liu, Yong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Dawei

    2018-01-02

    KIBRA rs17070145 polymorphism is associated with variations in memory function and the microstructure of related brain areas. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) as an extension of diffusion tensor imaging that can provide more information about changes in microstructure, based on the idea that water diffusion in biological tissues is heterogeneous due to structural hindrance and restriction. We used DKI to explore the relationship between KIBRA gene polymorphism and brain microstructure in young adults. We recruited 100 healthy young volunteers, including 53 TT carriers and 47 C allele carriers. No differences were detected between the TT homozygotes and C-allele carriers for any diffusion and kurtosis parameter. These results indicate KIBRA rs17070145 polymorphism likely has little or no effect on brain microstructure in young adults.

  12. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E; Mancini, E; Dallera, C; Schwen, D; Ronning, C; Silvestri, S De

    2007-01-01

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  13. Model for transport and reaction of defects and carriers within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation

  14. Opportunistic tri-band carrier aggregation in licensed spectrum for multi-operator 5G hetnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymuk, Taras; Kyryk, Maryan; Klymash, Mykhailo; Jo, Minho; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Kotyra, Andrzej; Zhanpeisova, Aizhan; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    Increasing capacity of mobile networks is a real challenge due to rapid increasing of traffic demands and spectrum scarcity. Carrier aggregation technology is aimed to increase the user data rate by combining the throughput of few spectrum bands, even if they are not physically collocated. Utilization of unlicensed Wi-Fi 5 GHz band for mobile transmission opens new perspectives for carrier aggregation due to vast amount of spectrum range, which can be available for aggregation to supplement data rates for end users. There are many solutions proposed to enable mobile data transmission in unlicensed band without disturbing interference for the existing Wi-Fi users. The paper presents a new approach for opportunistic carrier aggregation in licensed and unlicensed band for multi-operator 5G network. It allows multiple network operators to utilize unlicensed spectrum opportunistically if it is not currently used by Wi-Fi or other mobile network operators. Performance of the proposed approach has been simulated in case of two competing operators. Simulation results reveal that applying the proposed method ensures achieving satisfactory performance of carrier aggregation for the case of two network operators.

  15. Crystal engineering of lactose using electrospray technology: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil; Mahadik, Abhijeet; Nalawade, Pradeep; More, Priyesh

    2017-12-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) consisting of a powder mixture containing coarse carrier particles (generally lactose) and micronized drug particles are used for lung drug delivery. The effective drug delivery to the lungs depends on size and shape of carrier particles. Thus, various methods have been proposed for engineering lactose particles to enhance drug delivery to lungs. The objective of current work was to assess suitability of electrospray technology toward crystal engineering of lactose. Further, utility of the prepared lactose particles as a carrier in DPI was evaluated. Saturated lactose solutions were electrosprayed to obtain electrosprayed lactose (EL) particles. The polymorphic form of EL was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, morphological, surface textural, and flow properties of EL were determined using scanning electron microscopy and Carr's index, respectively. The aerosolization properties of EL were determined using twin-stage impinger and compared with commercial lactose particles [Respitose ® (SV003, Goch, Germany)] used in DPI formulations. EL was found to contain both isomers (α and β) of lactose having flow properties comparable to Respitose ® (SV003). In addition, the aerosolization properties of EL were found to be significantly improved when compared to Respitose ® (SV003) which could be attributed to morphological (high elongation ratio) and surface characteristic (smooth surface) alterations induced by electrospray technology. Electrospray technology can serve as an alternative technique for continuous manufacturing of engineered lactose particles which can be used as a carrier in DPI formulations.

  16. CSF neurofilament light concentration is increased in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Nina; Roos, Peter; Portelius, Erik

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a mutation in the CHMP2B gene on chromosome 3 (FTD-3), described in a Danish family. Here we examine whether CSF biomarkers change in the preclinical phase of the disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional explorative study, we...... analyzed CSF samples from 16 mutation carriers and 14 noncarriers from the Danish FTD-3 family. CSF biomarkers included total tau (t-tau) and neurofilament light chain (NfL) as a marker for neurodegeneration, phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as a marker for tau pathology, β-amyloid (Aβ) 38, 40, and 42 (Aβ38, Aβ......40, and Aβ42) to monitor Aβ metabolism, and YKL-40 as a marker of neuroinflammation. Aβ isoform concentrations were measured using a multiplexed immunoassay; t-tau, p-tau, NfL, and YKL-40 concentrations were measured using sandwich ELISAs. RESULTS: CSF NfL concentration was significantly increased...

  17. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety...

  18. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory...

  19. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: Application to point mutation and carrier detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.; Western, L.M.; Bartolo, C.; Mendell, J.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Moxley, R.T. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, the authors identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. The authors conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    the macrocell or the picocell using simple cell range expansion (RE). Extensive system-level simulations have been conducted to investigate the performance gains that can be achieved with inter-site CA under different traffic models and user distributions. Results show that using inter-site CA between......) or picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either...

  1. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  2. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  3. Energy carriers within Europe: electricity and SNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, N J.D.

    1977-03-01

    The general aim of this paper is to make a case for substitute natural gas as an energy carrier with prospects for growth that are at least as good as those of electricity and a life expectancy as long as one can reasonably plan for. The bulk of the paper analyzes the determinants of commercial competition between SNG and electricity. Space heat is treated in detail because this is generally seen as the area in which rapid expansion of electricity sales is possible. The provision of process heat to industry is dealt with superficially. The principal conclusion is that, for space heating and some industrial process heating and over a wide range of future costs for fossil and nuclear fuels, SNG from the marginal source of bulk fuel will be of lower cost than electricity from an integrated system of nuclear generating stations and fossil-fired stations using the same marginal source of fossil fuel. This conclusion may be difficult to accept because it conflicts with intuition. In Europe now there is a good case for installing more nuclear plants if what is wanted is base-load power. There are also mines producing coal at higher cost than imported oil. The short-term economic pressure, therefore, is to install nuclear plants and retreat from coal. Moreover, natural gas from the North Sea and even LNG from distant sources is cheaper than SNG from indigenous coal is likely to be. If one believes that indigenous oil and gas will be available in large quantities, or if one believes it will be possible to import oil without difficulty or political risk, then it is right to ignore SNG as an energy carrier; but the fashionable perception of the future is that indigenous production and/or imports will be restricted by physical shortage or political constraint so that, at the margin, heat will be supplied from nuclear fuel. In these circumstances SNG appears a better carrier of energy for heat than electricity. (MCW)

  4. Carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, T.

    2007-01-01

    In semiconductor spintronics the key materials issue concerns ferromagnetic semiconductors that would, in particular, permit an integration (in a single multilayer heterostructure) of standard electronic functions of semiconductors with magnetic memory function. Although classical semiconductor materials, such as Si or GaAs, are nonmagnetic, upon substitutional incorporation of magnetic ions (typically of a few atomic percents of Mn 2+ ions) and very heavy doping with conducting carriers (at the level of 10 20 - 10 21 cm -3 ) a ferromagnetic transition can be induced in such diluted magnetic semiconductors (also known as semimagnetic semiconductors). In the lecture the spectacular experimental observations of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism will be discussed for three model semiconductor crystals. p - Ga 1-x Mn x As currently the most actively studied and most perspective ferromagnetic semiconductor of III-V group, in which ferromagnetism appears due to Mn ions providing both local magnetic moments and acting as acceptor centers. p - Sn 1-x Mn x Te and p - Ge 1-x Mn x Te classical diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV-VI group, in which paramagnet-ferromagnet and ferromagnet-spin glass transitions are found for very high hole concentration. n - Eu 1-x Gd x Te mixed magnetic crystals, in which the substitution of Gd 3+ ions for Eu 2+ ions creates very high electron concentration and transforms antiferromagnetic EuTe (insulating compound) into ferromagnetic n-type semiconductor alloy. For each of these materials systems the key physical features will be discussed concerning: local magnetic moments formation, magnetic phase diagram as a function of magnetic ions and carrier concentration as well as Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy engineering. Various theoretical models proposed to explain the effect of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors will be briefly discussed involving mean field approaches based on Zener and RKKY

  5. Carrier mobilities in microcrystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronger, T.; Carius, R.

    2007-01-01

    For a better understanding of electronic transport mechanisms in thin-film silicon solar cell quality films, we have investigated the Hall mobility for electrons in microcrystalline/amorphous silicon over a range of crystallinities and doping concentrations. We find that Hall mobility increases with increasing doping concentration in accordance with earlier measurements. With increasing amorphous fraction, the measured mobility decreases suggesting a negative influence of the additional disorder. The results suggest a differential mobility model in which mobility depends on the energy level of the carriers that contribute to the electrical current

  6. Hydrogen, an energy carrier with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The inefficient use, associated with pollutants, of the fossil energy carriers coal, crude oil and natural gas, will deplete resources, if the energy demand increases exponentially, in the not-too-distant future. That is the reason why the hydrogen-energy concept gains in importance. This requires drastic changes in structure in a lot of technological fields. This task is only to be mastered if there is cooperation between all special fields, in order to facilitate the economical production, distribution and utilization of hydrogen. (orig.) [de

  7. Families in the nonperturbative unification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Theisen, S. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Zoupanos, G. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-10-12

    Within the nonperturbative unification framework of Maiani, Parisi and Petronzio, we examine the influence of the number of fermion and Higgs families, when they are grouped in representations of horizontal family groups, on the low energy couplings of the standard model. In this way we find a number of new phenomenologically acceptable solutions for the standard model's low energy couplings. (orig.).

  8. Families in the nonperturbative unification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Theisen, S.; Zoupanos, G.

    1989-01-01

    Within the nonperturbative unification framework of Maiani, Parisi and Petronzio, we examine the influence of the number of fermion and Higgs families, when they are grouped in representations of horizontal family groups, on the low energy couplings of the standard model. In this way we find a number of new phenomenologically acceptable solutions for the standard model's low energy couplings. (orig.)

  9. FAMILY BOMBYLIIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2016-06-14

    Bombyliidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 4,500 recognized species worldwide. Their species vary from robust to thin, and may be small to large (2-20mm) and looks like bees or wasps. They also present great variation in color. Adults can often be seen either resting and sunning themselves on trails, rocks or twigs or feeding on flowering plants as they are nectar feeders. All reared bee flies are predators or parasitoids of arthropods. The Colombian fauna of bombyliids comprises at the moment 22 species, and 12 genera, of which, six are endemic species. Nonetheless, this number may be much higher, as Colombia is a megadiverse country and there are not many specimens of this family deposited in collections all over the world.

  10. Prostate screening uptake in Australian BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinley Joanne M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at increased risk for prostate cancer. However the efficacy of prostate screening in this setting is uncertain and limited data exists on the uptake of prostate screening by mutation carriers. This study prospectively evaluated uptake of prostate cancer screening in a multi-institutional cohort of mutation carriers. Subjects were unaffected male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, aged 40–69 years, enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab and who had completed a mailed, self-report follow-up questionnaire 3 yearly after study entry. Of the 75 male carriers in this study, only 26 (35% had elected to receive their mutation result. Overall, 51 (68% did not recall having received a recommendation to have prostate screening because of their family history, but 41 (55% had undergone a prostate specific antigen (PSA test and 32 (43% a digital rectal examination (DRE in the previous 3 years. Those who were aware of their mutation result were more likely to have received a recommendation for prostate screening (43 vs. 6%, p = 0.0001, and to have had a PSA test (77 vs. 43%, p = 0.005 and a DRE (69 vs. 29%, p = 0.001 in the previous 3 years. The majority of unaffected males enrolled in kConFab with a BRCA1/2 mutation have not sought out their mutation result. However, of those aware of their positive mutation status, most have undergone at least one round of prostate screening in the previous 3 years.

  11. Risk of metachronous colon cancer following surgery for rectal cancer in mismatch repair gene mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ko; Parry, Susan; Parry, Bryan; Kalady, Matthew F; Macrae, Finlay A; Ahnen, Dennis J; Young, Graeme P; Lipton, Lara; Winship, Ingrid; Boussioutas, Alex; Young, Joanne P; Buchanan, Daniel D; Arnold, Julie; Le Marchand, Loïc; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Lindor, Noralane M; Gallinger, Steven; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Despite regular surveillance colonoscopy, the metachronous colorectal cancer risk for mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation carriers after segmental resection for colon cancer is high and total or subtotal colectomy is the preferred option. However, if the index cancer is in the rectum, management decisions are complicated by considerations of impaired bowel function. We aimed to estimate the risk of metachronous colon cancer for MMR gene mutation carriers who underwent a proctectomy for index rectal cancer. This retrospective cohort study comprised 79 carriers of germline mutation in a MMR gene (18 MLH1, 55 MSH2, 4 MSH6, and 2 PMS2) from the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had had a proctectomy for index rectal cancer. Cumulative risks of metachronous colon cancer were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. During median 9 years (range 1-32 years) of observation since the first diagnosis of rectal cancer, 21 carriers (27 %) were diagnosed with metachronous colon cancer (incidence 24.25, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 15.81-37.19 per 1,000 person-years). Cumulative risk of metachronous colon cancer was 19 % (95 % CI 9-31 %) at 10 years, 47 (95 % CI 31-68 %) at 20 years, and 69 % (95 % CI 45-89 %) at 30 years after surgical resection. The frequency of surveillance colonoscopy was 1 colonoscopy per 1.16 years (95 % CI 1.01-1.31 years). The AJCC stages of the metachronous cancers, where available, were 72 % stage I, 22 % stage II, and 6 % stage III. Given the high metachronous colon cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers diagnosed with an index rectal cancer, proctocolectomy may need to be considered.

  12. Electroluminescence from porous silicon due to electron injection from solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Despo, R.W.; Kelly, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the electroluminescence from p‐type porous silicon due to minority carrier injection from an electrolyte solution. The MV+• radical cation formed in the reduction of divalent methylviologen is able to inject electrons into the conduction band of crystalline and porous silicon. The

  13. [New electronic data carriers in Bosnia-Herzegovina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masić, I; Pandza, H; Knezević, Z; Toromanović, S

    1999-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina has been developing new Health Care System based on Electronic Registration Card. Developing countries proceeded from the manual and semiautomatic method of medical data processing to the new method of entering, storage, transfer, searching and protection of data using electronic equipment. Currently, many European countries have developed a Medical Card Based Electronic Information System. Both technologies offer the advantages and disadvantages. Three types of electronic card are currently in use: Hybrid Card, Smart Card and Laser Card. Hybrid Card offers characteristics of both Smart Card and Laser Card. The differences among these cards, such as a capacity, total price, price per byte, security system are discussed here. The dilemma is, which card should be used as a data carrier. The Electronic Family Registration Card is a question of strategic interest for B&H, but also a big investment. We should avoid the errors of other countries that have been developing card-based system. In this article we present all mentioned cards and compare advantages and disadvantages of different technologies.

  14. Hot Charge Carrier Transmission from Plasmonic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Phillip; Moskovits, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Surface plasmons have recently been harnessed to carry out processes such as photovoltaic current generation, redox photochemistry, photocatalysis, and photodetection, all of which are enabled by separating energetic (hot) electrons and holes—processes that, previously, were the domain of semiconductor junctions. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of systems using plasmon excitation are low. However, the very large electron/hole per photon quantum efficiencies observed for plasmonic devices fan the hope of future improvements through a deeper understanding of the processes involved and through better device engineering, especially of critical interfaces such as those between metallic and semiconducting nanophases (or adsorbed molecules). In this review, we focus on the physics and dynamics governing plasmon-derived hot charge carrier transfer across, and the electronic structure at, metal-semiconductor (molecule) interfaces, where we feel the barriers contributing to low efficiencies reside. We suggest some areas of opportunity that deserve early attention in the still-evolving field of hot carrier transmission from plasmonic nanostructures to neighboring phases.

  15. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Short version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeck, W

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for Tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE program. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Government this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) 891 UA 892 ARA.

  16. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE programme. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Govenment this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) [de

  17. Nasal carriers are more likely to acquire exogenous Staphylococcus aureus strains than non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, H; Neela, V; van Wamel, W; Hamat, R A; Shamsudin, M Nor; Hussin, N Suhaila Che; Aziz, M N; Haspani, M S Mohammad; Johar, A; Thevarajah, S; Vos, M; van Belkum, A

    2015-11-01

    We performed a prospective observational study in a clinical setting to test the hypothesis that prior colonization by a Staphylococcus aureus strain would protect, by colonization interference or other processes, against de novo colonization and, hence, possible endo-infections by newly acquired S. aureus strains. Three hundred and six patients hospitalized for >7 days were enrolled. For every patient, four nasal swabs (days 1, 3, 5, and 7) were taken, and patients were identified as carriers when a positive nasal culture for S. aureus was obtained on day 1 of hospitalization. For all patients who acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus via colonization and/or infection during hospitalization, strains were collected. We note that our study may suffer from false-negative cultures, local problems with infection control and hospital hygiene, or staphylococcal carriage at alternative anatomical sites. Among all patients, 22% were prior carriers of S. aureus, including 1.9% whom carried MRSA upon admission. The overall nasal staphylococcal carriage rate among dermatology patients was significantly higher than that among neurosurgery patients (n = 25 (55.5%) vs. n = 42 (16.1%), p 0.005). This conclusion held when the carriage definition included individuals who were nasal culture positive on day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization (p 0.0001). All MRSA carriers were dermatology patients. There was significantly less S. aureus acquisition among non-carriers than among carriers during hospitalization (p 0.005). The mean number of days spent in the hospital before experiencing MRSA acquisition in nasal carriers was 5.1, which was significantly lower than the score among non-carriers (22 days, p 0.012). In conclusion, we found that nasal carriage of S. aureus predisposes to rather than protects against staphylococcal acquisition in the nose, thereby refuting our null hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical

  18. Solitons as candidates for energy carriers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Ye, Liu; Chen, Han-Shuang; Mao, Shi-Feng; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Currently, effective phonons (renormalized or interacting phonons) rather than solitary waves (for short, solitons) are regarded as the energy carriers in nonlinear lattices. In this work, by using the approximate soliton solutions of the corresponding equations of motion and adopting the Boltzmann distribution for these solitons, the average velocities of solitons are obtained and are compared with the sound velocities of energy transfer. Excellent agreements with the numerical results and the predictions of other existing theories are shown in both the symmetric Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β lattices and the asymmetric Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-α β lattices. These clearly indicate that solitons are suitable candidates for energy carriers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices. In addition, the root-mean-square velocity of solitons can be obtained from the effective phonons theory.

  19. Species dependent studies of no-carrier-added 93mMo: A green method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Swadesh; Nayak, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports a combination of radioanalytical and green methodology for the ultra-trace scale speciation of molybdenum. The differential attitude of iron-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) and chitosan biopolymers towards no-carrier-added 93m Mo radionuclide was studied to develop environmentally sustainable speciation methodology in ultra-trace scale. The affinity of 93m Mo towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of chitosan. Species information was obtained by comparing the adsorption profile of 93m Mo on Fe-CA and chitosan biopolymer with the software code CHEAQS PRO program. From the experimental results it is concluded that no-carrier-added 93m Mo radionuclide form mononuclear species instead of polynuclear species in aqueous solution. Use of biodegradable, non-toxic biopolymer makes this method a step forward towards green chemistry.

  20. Studies of the chemical behavior of carrier-free 68Ge. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Kahn, M.; Grant, P.M.; O'Brien, H.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnostic utilization of the 68 Ge- 68 Ga system in nuclear medicine stimulated the development of a rapid and efficient method for the purification of carrier-free 68 Ge. A standard procedure for the separation of macroscopic quantities for germanium from numerous other elements involves the distillation of Ge(IV) from HCl solution. The applicability of this method for the purification of carrier-free 68 Ge was studied, and it was found that 68 Ge quantitatively and conveniently distills from azetropic HCl. The distillation of 68 Ge from LiCl-HClO 4 , HCl-LiCl, and HCl-HClO 4 systems was also investigated. (orig.) [de

  1. Effect of carrier on labeling and biodistribution of Re-188-hydroxyethylidene disphosphonate (HEDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Y. S.; Jeong, J. M.; Kim, B. K.; Lee, D. S.; Jeong, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Cho, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    Re-188- hydroxyethylidene disphosphonate (HEDP) is a new cost-effective agent for systemic radioisotope therapy of metastatic bone pain. We investigated the influence of carrier for labeling and biodistribution of Re-188-HEDP using HEDP kit(HEDP 15 mg, gentisic acid 4 mg and SnCl 2 2H 2 O 4.5 mg) with or without carrier (KReO 4 0.1 mg). The kits labeled with Re-188 solution available from an in-house generator by boiling for 15 min. The generator provides high 70-80 % equil yields and has an indefnite self-life. We compared the stability of carrier-added(CA) and carrier-free(CF) preparations of Re-188-HEDP. Biodistribution and imaging studies of each preparation were performed in ICR mice(1.85-3.7 MBq/0.1 ml) and SD rats(74.1-85.2 MBq/0.5 ml). The CA preparation showed high labeling efficiency(95% at pH 5) and high stability in serum(88%, 3 hr). However, the CF preparation showed low labeling efficiency(59% at pH 5) and low stability(43%, 3 hr). The CA preparation showed high uptake in bone and low uptake in stomach and kidneys. However, the CF preparation showed lower uptake in bone and higher uptake in both stomach and kidney, which is supposed to be due to released perrhenate. The CA preparation also showed better images with higher skeletal accumulation, lower uptake in other organs and lower soft tissue uptake than the CF preparation of carrier perrhenate is required for high labeling efficiency, stability, bone uptake and good image quality of Re-188-HEDP

  2. Family roles as family functioning regulators

    OpenAIRE

    STEPANYAN ARMINE

    2015-01-01

    The author examines the problems of formation and functioning of family roles. Having social roots, family roles appear on individual level by performing the social function of the formation of family as a social institute.

  3. Investigation of cosmogenic radionuclide carriers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of 7 Be, 32 P, 33 P, 35 S and stable S carriers and their changes in the atmosphere were investigated. It has been determined that aerosol-carriers of 7 Be, 32 P and 33 P radionuclides can have different properties, and after several days their transformation was observed. The amount of water-soluble carriers in aerosol samples differed widely (from 11 to 95 %). The dependence of radionuclide carrier solubility on pH was obtained for 7 Be, 32 P and 33 P. It has been found that 7 Be carriers can be soluble compounds such as mixed chlorides, sulphates and nitrates as well as insoluble carbonates and insoluble hydrous Fe(III) oxides. High percentage of 32 P and 33 P was found in exchangeable fraction. The 35 S carriers were found to be more soluble than those of 7 Be, 32 P and 33 P and exhibited a lower or the same solubility as stable sulphur. (author)

  4. Biomacromolecules as carriers in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Sun, Tao; Jiang, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural biomacromolecules have attracted increased attention as carriers in biomedicine in recent years because of their inherent biochemical and biophysical properties including renewability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, long blood circulation time and targeting ability. Recent advances in our understanding of the biological functions of natural-origin biomacromolecules and the progress in the study of biological drug carriers indicate that such carriers may have advantages over synthetic material-based carriers in terms of half-life, stability, safety and ease of manufacture. In this review, we give a brief introduction to the biochemical properties of the widely used biomacromolecule-based carriers such as albumin, lipoproteins and polysaccharides. Then examples from the clinic and in recent laboratory development are summarized. Finally the current challenges and future prospects of present biological carriers are discussed.

  5. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  6. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  7. Cosmological solutions in string theory with dilaton self interaction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, C.; Pimentel, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present homogeneous and isotropic cosmological solutions for the low energy limit of string theory with a self interacting potential for the scalar field. For a potential that is a linear combination of two exponential, a family of exact solutions are found for the different spatial curvatures. Among this family a non singular accelerating solution for positive curvature is singled out and the violation of the energy conditions for that solution is studied, and also its astrophysical consequences. The string coupling for this solution is finite. (Author)

  8. The Role of Family in Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Bertrand; Antoinette Schoar

    2006-01-01

    History is replete with examples of spectacular ascents of family businesses. Yet there are also numerous accounts of family businesses brought down by bitter feuds among family members, disappointed expectations between generations, and tragic sagas of later generations unable to manage their wealth. A large fraction of businesses throughout the world are organized around families. Why are family firms so prevalent? What are the implications of family control for the governance, financing an...

  9. Nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal delivery of acid labile lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen Jen; Duh, Yi Shein

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for transdermal delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole (LPZ). The drug loading, particle size, zeta potential, thermal behavior and stability of NLCs were evaluated. The particle size of NLCs was in the range of 90-210nm and the zeta potential was -61.9 to +3.2mV dependent of the compositions. Stearylamine (SA) prevented lansoprazole degradation and maintained drug stable in NLCs. The anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) adsorbed on the lipid surface and formed complex with cationic SA to prevent NLCs aggregation. The effects of type (e.g., isopropyl myristate (IPM), menthol) and concentration (e.g., 1.25, 2.50, 3.75%w/w) of enhancers on penetration of lansoprazole NLC hydrogels were investigated in vitro using Wistar rat skin. The steady-state flux of lansoprazole NLC hydrogel containing 3.75% IPM was the highest which was enhanced by 2.7 folds as compared to enhancer-free NLC hydrogel. In vivo pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole following transdermal delivery of NLC hydrogel showed that the elimination of drug was significantly reduced and the mean residence time of drug was prominently prolonged as compared to intravenous drug solution (p<0.005). The accumulation of drug in the skin and continuous penetration of drug through the skin accounted for the maintenance of drug concentration for at least 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.

    2015-02-01

    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  11. Calcium carbonate microspheres as carriers for the anticancer drug camptothecin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Neng [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu ,610065 (China); Yin, Huabing, E-mail: huabing.yin@glasgow.ac.uk [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Ji, Bozhi; Klauke, Norbert; Glidle, Andrew [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yongkui; Song, Hang [Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu ,610065 (China); Cai, Lulu; Ma, Liang; Wang, Guangcheng [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuan17@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Wenwen [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate has come to the attention of many researchers as a promising drug delivery system due to its safety, pH sensitivity and the large volume of information already in existence on its medical use. In this study, we employed bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an additive to synthesize a series of porous calcium carbonate microspheres (CCMS). These spheres, identified as vaterite, are stable both in aqueous solutions and organic solvents. Camptothecin, an effective anticancer agent, was loaded into the CCMS by simple diffusion and adsorption. The camptothecin loaded CCMS showed sustained cell growth inhibitory activity and a pH dependent release of camptothecin. With a few hours, the release is negligible under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) but almost complete at pH 4 to 6 (i.e. pHs found in lysosomes and solid tumor tissue respectively). These findings suggest that porous, biogenic calcium carbonate microspheres could be promising carriers for the safe and efficient delivery of anticancer drugs of low aqueous solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BSA-doped calcium carbonate microspheres with porous structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Camptothecin was encapsulated in the spherical microparticles with encapsulation efficiency up to 11%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The release of encapsulated camptothecin is pH dependent Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro studies showed an effective anticancer activity of the camptothecin- microspheres.

  12. Coalitions and family problem solving with preadolescents in referred, at-risk, and comparison families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, S; Wood, B; Vuchinich, R

    1994-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the mother-father coalition, parent-child coalitions, and parental warmth expressed toward the child are associated with family problem solving in families with a preadolescent child referred for treatment of behavior problems (n = 30), families with a child at-risk for conduct disorder (n = 68), and a sample of comparison families (n = 90). Referred and at-risk families displayed less effective problem solving. A regression analysis, which controlled for gender of the child, family structure, family income, marital satisfaction, and severity of child problems, showed that strong parental coalitions were linked to low levels of family problem solving in at-risk and referred families. Parent-child coalitions had little apparent impact while parental warmth was highly correlated with better family problem solving. The results may be interpreted as evidence for a tendency for parents in at-risk and referred families to "scapegoat" a preadolescent during family problem-solving sessions. This may undermine progress on family problem solutions and may complicate family-based prevention and treatment programs that use family problem-solving sessions.

  13. Hot-carrier effects on irradiated deep submicron NMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jiangwei; Zheng Qiwen; Yu Xuefeng; Cong Zhongchao; Zhou Hang; Guo Qi; Wen Lin; Wei Ying; Ren Diyuan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how γ exposure impacts the hot-carrier degradation in deep submicron NMOSFET with different technologies and device geometries for the first time. The results show that hot-carrier degradations on irradiated devices are greater than those without irradiation, especially for narrow channel device. The reason is attributed to charge traps in STI, which then induce different electric field and impact ionization rates during hot-carrier stress. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  15. Computer assisted analysis of hand radiographs in infantile hypophosphatasia carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodirker, B.N.; Greenberg, C.R.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Roy, D.; Cheang, M.; Evans, J.A.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB; Reed, M.H.; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB

    1991-01-01

    Hand radiographs of 49 carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia and 67 non-carriers were evaluated using two Apple IIe Computer Programs and Apple Graphics Tablet. CAMPS was used to determine the bone lengths and calculate the metacarpophalangeal profiles. A newly developed program (ADAM) was used to determine bone density based on percent cortical area of the second metacarpal. Carriers of infantile hypophosphatasia had significantly less dense bones. (orig.)

  16. Insight into carrier lifetime impact on band-modulation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Hyung Jin; Lacord, Joris; Martinie, Sébastien; Barbé, Jean-Charles; Xu, Yue; El Dirani, Hassan; Taur, Yuan; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study to model and characterize the band-modulation Z2-FET device is developed bringing light to the relevance of the carrier lifetime influence. This work provides guidelines to optimize the Z2-FETs for sharp switching, ESD protection, and 1T-DRAM applications. Lower carrier lifetime in the Z2-FET helps in attaining the sharp switch. We provide new insights into the correlation between generation/recombination, diffusion, electrostatic barriers and carrier lifetime.

  17. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  18. Revealing the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite solar cell materials using time resolved THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, C. S., Jr.; Sundström, V.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite has been probed using time resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS). Current literature on its early time characteristics is unanimous: sub-ps charge carrier generation, highly mobile charges and very slow recombination rationalizing the exceptionally high power conversion efficiency for a solution processed solar cell material. Electron injection from MAPbI3 to nanoparticles (NP) of TiO2 is found to be sub-ps while Al2O3 NPs do not alter charge dynamics. Charge transfer to organic electrodes, Spiro-OMeTAD and PCBM, is sub-ps and few hundreds of ps respectively, which is influenced by the alignment of energy bands. It is surmised that minimizing defects/trap states is key in optimizing charge carrier extraction from these materials.

  19. Interdot carrier transfer in semimagnetic Pb1-xMnxSe nanocrystals embedded in oxide glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, S.A.; Silva, R.S.; Andrade, A.A.; Dantas, N.O.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature- and excitation-intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra of semimagnetic Pb 1-x Mn x Se nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been studied. Two types of dot families with different sizes and dispersions were identified by spectral deconvolution in Gaussian components with different full widths at half maxima values. Temperature induced carrier-transfer interdots are responsible for the sigmoidal temperature dependence of the higher PL peak energy and for anomalous enhanced photoluminescence emission efficiency, at low temperatures. The activation energy of nonradiative channel responsible for a strong thermal quenching, at T>80 K, is deduced from an Arrhenius plot of integrated PL intensity.

  20. Extraction of rare earth elements with organophosphorus extractants as carriers in supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopunec, R.; Benitez, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The membrane extraction of Y, Ce, Eu, Tm and their binary mixtures Ce-Y, Ce-Eu, Ce-Tm with supported liquid membranes containing TBP and HDEHP as carriers in decane-dodecane hydrocarbon solvent, has been studied. Upon extraction with TBP aqueous nitrate solutions of rare earth elements (REE) were used as feed phase. In some cases they also contained EDTA or DCTA. In most cases, the receiving phase was an aqueous solution of EDTA. Extraction with HDEHP was performed from nitrate and chloride solutions and the receiving phase was the corresponding dilute acid. Pertraction of an element through a membrane was studied as a function of time and of initial composition of phases. The results are presented in the following forms: flux of metal through membrane, coefficients of permeability, separation factors and effective diffusion coefficients. (author) 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Preparation of carrier-free 67Ga, by irradiation of natural zinc with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Barbosa, M.F. de.

    1983-02-01

    A method for the preparation of carrier-free 67 Ga is described. Natural zinc plates were irradiated with protons. After a decay period of four days, the irradiated targets were dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid and the solution percolated through a glass column containing a cationic resin. 67 Ga was eluted with 3,5 N HCl; the eluted solution was evaporated to dryness, taken up in 3,8% sodium citrate solution and sterilized. Sterility tests were carried out according to the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopeia. Chemical purity of 67 Ga citrate was determined by spot tests and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The radioactive purity was verified by gamma spectrometry. The product was endovenously injected into Wistar rats with experimental abcesses, and in a patient with adrenal neuroblastoma. The results shown a high accumulation of 67 Ga in soft tissue tumors. (Author) [pt

  2. Production of carrier-free 188Re in the past ten years in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan; Wan-Yu Lin; Tsai-Yueh Luo; Kai-Yuan Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Twenty clinical scale alumina-based 188 W/ 188 Re generators and carrier-free 188 Re has been produced at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER-Taiwan) for over ten years. 2845.6 GBq (76.9 Ci) of 188 Re-perrhenate solution has been eluted from generators during the past ten years. We have used the harvesting 188 Re solution for labeling radiopharmaceuticals, such as 188 Re-HEDP, 188 Re-MDP, 188 Re-microsphere, 188 Relipiodol, and 188 Re-sulfur colloid, etc. The average eluting yield of 188 Re is 78.6±5.8% that was investigated at 1115 harvesting times from 20 generators. Each generator can be used more than six months but the Millipore needs to be changed every two months for smooth harvesting and high yield of 188 Re solution. (author)

  3. Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Uskov, A.; Moerk, J.; Olesen, H.; Tromborg, B.; Jauho, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    We present a simple model for carrier heating in semiconductor lasers, from which the temperature dynamics of the electron and hole distributions can be calculated. Analytical expressions for two new contributions to the nonlinear gain coefficient ε are derived, which reflect carrier heating due to stimulated emission and free carrier absorption. In typical cases, carrier heating and spectral holeburning are found to give comparable contributions to nonlinear gain suppression. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements on InGaAsP laser diodes. (orig.)

  4. Slow hot carrier cooling in cesium lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Even, Jacky; Ogomi, Yuhei; Nishinaka, Koji; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Liu, Feng; Toyoda, Taro; Yoshino, Kenji; Minemoto, Takashi; Katayama, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2017-10-01

    Lead halide perovskites are attracting a great deal of interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, and lasers because of their unique properties. In solar cells, heat dissipation by hot carriers results in a major energy loss channel responsible for the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Hot carrier solar cells offer the possibility to overcome this limit and achieve energy conversion efficiency as high as 66% by extracting hot carriers. Therefore, fundamental studies on hot carrier relaxation dynamics in lead halide perovskites are important. Here, we elucidated the hot carrier cooling dynamics in all-inorganic cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite using transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that the hot carrier cooling rate in CsPbI3 decreases as the fluence of the pump light increases and the cooling is as slow as a few 10 ps when the photoexcited carrier density is 7 × 1018 cm-3, which is attributed to phonon bottleneck for high photoexcited carrier densities. Our findings suggest that CsPbI3 has a potential for hot carrier solar cell applications.

  5. Carrier concentration effects on radiation damage in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Ando, K.; Uemura, C.

    1984-01-01

    Minority carrier diffusion length and carrier concentration studies have been made on room-temperature 1-MeV electron irradiated liquid-encapsulated Czochralski grown Zn-doped p-InP. The damage rate for the diffusion length and carrier removal rate due to irradiation have been found to strongly decrease with an increase in the carrier concentration in InP. These phenomena suggest that the induced defects interact with impurities in InP. A preliminary study on the annealing behavior has also been performed

  6. Preparation of microorganism free carrier for biofertilizer product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah Norddin; Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Phua Choo Kwai Hoe

    2007-01-01

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier is free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming was used as a carrier for the biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation has been used to produce a ?clean? or sterile carrier. The sterilization effect of the carrier was checked by using serial dilution technique. Carriers that were irradiated at 50 kGy of gamma irradiation were found to be sterile. The shelf life of the sterile carriers was also determined. After six months the compost carriers were still free from microbial contamination. (Author)

  7. Carrier-mediated transport of peptides by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopicki, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Small peptide transport was characterized to determine if: (1) Multiple carriers are present in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells; (2) Carrier-mediated peptide transport is limited by size; and (3) Gentamicin inhibits carrier-mediated reabsorption of peptides. Uptake of glycyl-[ 3 H]proline (Gly-Pro) into renal brush border membrane vesicles demonstrated a dual affinity carrier system. Whether multiple carriers are present was further investigated by characterizing the uptake of [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidine. To determine if carrier-mediated transport of peptides is limited by size of the molecule, uptake of the hydrolytically resistant tripeptide, [ 3 H]pryroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophan (pGlu-His-Trp), and tetrapeptide, [ 3 H]pyroglutamyl-histidyl-tryptophyl-serine (pGlu-His-Trp-Ser) were assessed. These data indicate: multiple carriers exist on the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubular cells for the transport of dipeptides, and tripeptide pGlu-His-Trp and the tetrapeptide pGlu-His-Trp-Ser are not taken up by a carrier-mediated mechanism, suggesting that the carrier may be limited by the size of the substrate

  8. Controlling of carrier movement on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator ISG-500 is being designed. One of the design objects in the gamma irradiator is carrier movement and its controlling. Many possibilities of carrier movements can be implemented in the set-up design, such as using discrete or continuous mode. In this paper, selected discrete carriers movement and their controlling for the basic-design of the ISG-500 will be discussed. Nine stopper locations for nineteen carriers in operation will be controlled their carriers movement so that the movements have maximum positive transient load (increasing load) two carriers only. The controlling of the movement uses a train of pulses counting system as a one-dimension coordinate reference of a point on the rotated chain pulling the carrier. Every stopper location has a specific counting number in which will be used by the controlling system to let the carrier in the stopper location moving. By this movement, it is expected to prolong the life-time of the in use carrier mover motor. (author)

  9. One-parameter family of solitons from minimal surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solitons arising from a one parameter family of minimal surfaces. The process enables us to generate a new solution of the B–I equation from a given complex solution of a special type (which are abundant). We illustrate this with many examples. We find that the action or the energy of this family of solitons remains invariant ...

  10. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  11. Modeling malware propagation using a carrier compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.

    2018-03-01

    The great majority of mathematical models proposed to simulate malware spreading are based on systems of ordinary differential equations. These are compartmental models where the devices are classified according to some types: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. As far as we know, there is not any model considering the special class of carrier devices. This type is constituted by the devices whose operative systems is not targeted by the malware (for example, iOS devices for Android malware). In this work a novel mathematical model considering this new compartment is considered. Its qualitative study is presented and a detailed analysis of the efficient control measures is shown by studying the basic reproductive number.

  12. Electromigration of carrier-free radionuclides. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.; Reimann, T.; Buglanov, G.V.; Milanov, M.; Khalkin, V.A.; Dreyer, R.

    1988-01-01

    Using a special type of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous electrolytes free of supporting materials the hydrolysis and the complex formations of carrier-free 249 Cf-Cf(III) with oxalate in diluted perchlorate electrolytes, T = 2.98.1(1) K, were studied. Stoichiometric hydrolysis constants of pβ 3 18.6(9) and pK 1 = 6.2(2) were calculated in μ = 0.10 electrolytes. For the formation of anionic hydrolysis products a limitation of pK 4 ≥ 13.9(3) was derived. The stoichiometric stability constants of the oxalato complexes are lgK 1 4.80(8) and lgK 2 = 3.55(11), μ = 0.01. (author)

  13. 78 FR 55776 - Hainesport Industrial Railroad, LLC-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Industrial Railroad, LLC--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Hainesport Industrial Railroad, LLC... operates a series of tracks serving several customers located in the Hainesport Industrial Park in... the competitive balance with carriers outside the corporate family. Under 49 U.S.C. 10502(g), the...

  14. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  15. Phenotype-genotype correlation in potential female carriers of X-linked developmental cataract (Nance-Horan syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2012-06-01

    To correlate clinical examination with underlying genotype in asymptomatic females who are potential carriers of X-linked developmental cataract (Nance-Horan syndrome). An ophthalmologist blind to the pedigree performed comprehensive ophthalmic examination for 16 available family members (two affected and six asymptomatic females, five affected and three asymptomatic males). Facial features were also noted. Venous blood was collected for sequencing of the gene NHS. All seven affected family members had congenital or infantile cataract and facial dysmorphism (long face, bulbous nose, abnormal dentition). The six asymptomatic females ranged in age from 4-35 years old. Four had posterior Y-suture centered lens opacities; these four also exhibited the facial dysmorphism of the seven affected family members. The fifth asymptomatic girl had scattered fine punctate lens opacities (not centered on the Y-suture) while the sixth had clear lenses, and neither exhibited the facial dysmorphism. A novel NHS mutation (p.Lys744AsnfsX15 [c.2232delG]) was found in the seven patients with congenital or infantile cataract. This mutation was also present in the four asymptomatic girls with Y-centered lens opacities but not in the other two asymptomatic girls or in the three asymptomatic males (who had clear lenses). Lens opacities centered around the posterior Y-suture in the context of certain facial features were sensitive and specific clinical signs of carrier status for NHS mutation in asymptomatic females. Lens opacities that did not have this characteristic morphology in a suspected female carrier were not a carrier sign, even in the context of her affected family members.

  16. Carrier-added and no-carrier-added syntheses of [18F]spiroperidol and [18F]haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.; Dence, C.S.; Tewson, T.J.; Saji, H.; Maeda, M.

    1984-01-01

    Syntheses of [ 18 F]haloperidol and [ 18 F]spiroperidol in both no-carrier-added and carrier-added forms have been accomplished. The no-carrier-added [ 18 F]butyrophenone neuroleptics were prepared in low ( 18 F-neuroleptics were prepared in better (5-17%) yields by 18 F-for- 19 F nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The preparation of all synthetic precursors, and procedures for radiolabeling are fully described. (author)

  17. Roles within the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  18. Mutations causative of familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    causing mutations in 98 098 participants from the general population, the Copenhagen General Population Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped for LDLR[W23X;W66G;W556S] and APOB[R3500Q] accounting for 38.7% of pathogenic FH mutations in Copenhagen. Clinical FH assessment excluded mutation information......-cholesterol concentration to discriminate between mutation carriers and non-carriers was 4.4 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: Familial hypercholesterolaemia-causing mutations are estimated to occur in 1:217 in the general population and are best identified by a definite or probable phenotypic diagnosis of FH based on the DLCN criteria....... The prevalence of the four FH mutations was 0.18% (1:565), suggesting a total prevalence of FH mutations of 0.46% (1:217). Using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria, odds ratios for an FH mutation were 439 (95% CI: 170-1 138) for definite FH, 90 (53-152) for probable FH, and 18 (13-25) for possible FH...

  19. Guanidinium: A Route to Enhanced Carrier Lifetime and Open-Circuit Voltage in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Nicholas; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Zonghao; Meng, Lei; Yao, En-Ping; Liu, Yongsheng; Schiffer, Andy; Yang, Yang

    2016-02-10

    Hybrid perovskites have shown astonishing power conversion efficiencies owed to their remarkable absorber characteristics including long carrier lifetimes, and a relatively substantial defect tolerance for solution-processed polycrystalline films. However, nonradiative charge carrier recombination at grain boundaries limits open circuit voltages and consequent performance improvements of perovskite solar cells. Here we address such recombination pathways and demonstrate a passivation effect through guanidinium-based additives to achieve extraordinarily enhanced carrier lifetimes and higher obtainable open circuit voltages. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements yield carrier lifetimes in guanidinium-based films an order of magnitude greater than pure-methylammonium counterparts, giving rise to higher device open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. A reduction in defect activation energy of over 30% calculated via admittance spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence intensity mapping indicates successful passivation of recombination/trap centers at grain boundaries. We speculate that guanidinium ions serve to suppress formation of iodide vacancies and passivate under-coordinated iodine species at grain boundaries and within the bulk through their hydrogen bonding capability. These results present a simple method for suppressing nonradiative carrier loss in hybrid perovskites to further improve performances toward highly efficient solar cells.

  20. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant