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Sample records for soluble nickel exposure

  1. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  2. New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller James G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While epidemiological methods have grown in sophistication during the 20th century, their application in historical occupational (and environmental health research has also led to a corresponding growth in uncertainty in the validity and reliability of the attribution of risk in the resulting studies, particularly where study periods extend back in time to the immediate postwar era (1945–70 when exposure measurements were sporadic, unsystematically collected and primitive in technique; and, more so, to the pre-WWII era (when exposure data were essentially non-existent. These uncertainties propagate with animal studies that are designed to confirm the carcinogenicity by inhalation exposure of a chemical putatively responsible for historical workplace cancers since exact exposure conditions were never well characterized. In this report, we present a weight of scientific evidence examination of the human and toxicological evidence to show that soluble nickel is not carcinogenic; and, furthermore, that the carcinogenic potencies previously assigned by regulators to sulphidic and oxidic nickel compounds for the purposes of developing occupational exposure limits have likely been overestimated. Methods Published, file and archival evidence covering the pertinent epidemiology, biostatistics, confounding factors, toxicology, industrial hygiene and exposure factors, and other risky exposures were examined to evaluate the soluble nickel carcinogenicity hypothesis; and the likely contribution of a competing workplace carcinogen (arsenic on sulphidic and oxidic nickel risk estimates. Findings Sharp contrasts in available land area and topography, and consequent intensity of production and refinery process layouts, likely account for differences in nickel species exposures in the Kristiansand (KNR and Port Colborne (PCNR refineries. These differences indicate mixed sulphidic and oxidic nickel and arsenic exposures in KNR's historical

  3. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  4. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  5. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  6. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  7. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  8. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  9. Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilunen, M; Aitio, A; Tossavainen, A

    1997-04-01

    An occupational hygiene survey was made in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland and exposure to nickel was studied by means of biological measurements and, in three shops, by using air measurements. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16 mumol l.-1 (range 0.001-4.99 mumol l.-1). After the 1-5 week vacation the urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in the industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between the concentrations of nickel in the air and in the urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in the urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion.

  10. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  11. The solubility and sorption of nickel and niobium under high pH conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, N.J.; Stone, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilities of nickel and niobium were measured in a range of cement-equilibrated waters. For nickel the effects of cellulose degradation products and of chloride were examined and the dependence of nickel solubility on pH was measured. The sorption of nickel and niobium on to cement representative of the ''near field'' of a radioactive waste repository was also measured. (author)

  12. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  13. An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D K; Shaw, D S

    1991-12-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanizing plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analyzed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analyzed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  14. Solubility of nickel-cadmium ferrite in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'ski, V.; Vol'ska, Eh.; Politan'ska, U.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of a solid solution of nickel-cadmium ferrite containing an excess of ferric oxide, (CdO)sub(0.5), (NiO)sub(0.5) and (Fe 2 O 3 )sub(1.5), in hydrochloric and nitric acids at 20, 40 and 60 deg C, was determined colorimetrically and chelatometrically, as well as by studying the x-ray diffraction patterns of the preparations prior to dissolution and their residues after dissolution. It is shown that cadmium passes into the solution faster than iron and nickel; after 800 hours, the solution contains 40% of iron ions and more than 80% of cadmium ions. The kinetics of ferrite dissolution is studied

  15. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extended solubility and martensitic hcp nickel formation in antimony implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage microstructure and associated disorder have been investigated in antimony implanted nickel crystals using combined RBS and TEM analyses. In crystals implanted at and below room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5x10 20 m -2 , the retained antimony concentration in the implantation zone is approaching 15 at.%, with nearly all the antimony located substitutionally. The associated disorder as seen in the RBS analysis is insignificant. Annealing up to 600 0 C has little influence on the antimony distribution, whilst the dechanneling level is reduced. TEM and diffraction analysis of room temperature implanted samples show that the radiation damage consists of dense distributions of dislocation clusters and tangles, superimposed on a rather homogeneous background of new phase particles, identified as hcp nickel. The particles have a size 0.1-0.2 μm. The high substitutional antimony concentration at and below room temperature, which exceeds the solubility limit, indicates that its formation is thermally diffusionless and rather an effect of radiation enhanced solubility. The diffusionless nature of the microstructure is also indicated from the presence of martensitic hcp nickel, believed to form due to relief of radiation induced internal stress. (Auth.)

  17. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  18. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel......-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...

  19. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78-0.90 and 0.79-0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties.

  20. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  2. A retrospective analysis of nickel exposure data at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Monica M; Van Der Merwe, Cornelius J; Linde, Stefan J L; Du Plessis, Johan L

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze historical soluble nickel exposure data from a South African base metal refinery and to identify trends in the soluble nickel exposure from 1981 until 2014 in the electrowinning department. Exposure data were presented in an exposure matrix, which described exposure profiles for both area and personal exposures inside two tankhouses. Exposure data were standardized by converting total nickel aerosol concentrations to inhalable nickel concentrations (correction factor 3.0). One-way analyses of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to identify significant differences in log-transformed area and personal exposures from 1982 until 2014, and the trends were assessed with linear regression. Differences were evaluated in area exposure between sections inside the tankhouses, i.e., East, West, and Center bays and in personal exposure between occupations, i.e., cell workers, crane drivers, and supervisors. Area exposure in Tankhouse 1 declined significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) between 1982 and 1986 with a factor of 29. However, after 1986 no significant downward trend in area exposure was evident in Tankhouse 1. Personal exposures in Tankhouse 1 significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) decreased with a factor of three between 1991 and 2014. No significant trends were evident in area and personal exposure in Tankhouse 2. Downward exposure trends were evident in Tankhouse 1 and may be ascribed to the implementation of various control measures and process changes, e.g., increasing polypropylene bead load. Limited data were available for Tankhouse 2, therefore, no trend in exposure could be established. Retrospective analyses may be used to identify trends and anomalies in exposure which might not have been identified during daily exposure monitoring.

  3. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  4. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  5. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Oller, Adriana R

    2003-04-01

    Increased lung and nasal cancer risks have been reported in several cohorts of nickel refinery workers, but in more than 90% of the nickel-exposed workers that have been studied there is little, if any evidence of excess risk. This investigation utilizes human exposure measurements, animal data from cancer bioassays of three nickel compounds, and a mechanistic theory of nickel carcinogenesis to reconcile the disparities in lung cancer risk among nickel-exposed workers. Animal data and mechanistic theory suggest that the apparent absence of risk in workers with low nickel exposures is due to threshold-like responses in lung tumor incidence (oxidic nickel), tumor promotion (soluble nickel), and genetic damage (sulfidic nickel). When animal-based lung cancer dose-response functions for these compounds are extrapolated to humans, taking into account interspecies differences in deposition and clearance, differences in particle size distributions, and human work activity patterns, the predicted risks at occupational exposures are remarkably similar to those observed in nickel-exposed workers. This provides support for using the animal-based dose-response functions to estimate occupational exposure limits, which are found to be comparable to those in current use.

  6. Solubility of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) from 100 to 200 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bachet, Martin; Benezeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The solubility of nickel ferrite was measured in a Hydrogen-Electrode Concentration Cell (HECC) at temperatures of 100 deg. C, 150 deg. C and 200 deg. C and pH between 4 and 5.25. The experimental solution was composed of HCl and NaCl (0.1 mol.L -1 ). Based on other studies ([1,2]), pure nickel ferrite was experimentally synthesized by calcination of a mixture of hematite Fe 2 O 3 and bunsenite NiO in molten salts at 1000 deg. C for 15 hours in air. The so obtained powder was fully characterized. The Hydrogen-Electrode Concentration cell has been described in [3]. It allowed us to run solubility experiments up to 250 deg. C with an in-situ pH measurement. To avoid reduction of the solid phase to metallic nickel, a hydrogen/argon mixture was used instead of pure hydrogen. Consequently, the equilibration time for the electrodes was longer than with pure hydrogen. Eight samples were taken on a 70 days period. After the experiments, the powder showed no significant XRD evidence of Ni (II) reduction. Nickel concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and iron concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy. The protocol has been designed to be able to measure both dissolved Fe (II) and total iron. The nickel solubility of nickel ferrite was slightly lower than the solubility of nickel oxide in close experimental conditions [3]. Dissolved iron was mainly ferrous and the solution was under-saturated relative to both hematite and magnetite. The nickel/iron ratio indicated a non-stoichiometric dissolution. The solubility measurements were compared with equilibrium calculations using the MULTEQ database. [1] Hayashi et al (1980) J. Materials Sci. 15, 1491-1497. [2] Ziemniak et al (2007) J. Physics and Chem. of Solids. 68,10-21. [3] EPRI Report 1003155 (2002). (authors)

  7. Effect of nickel and iron co-exposure on human lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salnikow, Konstantin; Li Xiaomei; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in susceptible populations. The epidemiological data also suggest a relationship between PM air pollution and impairment of cardiopulmonary function. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are not fully understood and are likely related to perturbations of cellular and molecular functions. One type of PM, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), is of particular interest. ROFA does not contain much organic material, but does contain relatively high quantities of transition metals, predominantly nickel, vanadium, and iron, as well as black carbon and sulfates. In this study, we investigated the effect of two metals (iron and nickel) on the induction of 'hypoxia-like' stress and the production of interleukins (ILs) in minimally transformed human airway epithelial cells (1HAEo - ). We found that exposure to soluble nickel sulfate results in the induction of hypoxia-inducible genes and IL-8 production by the 1HAEo - cells. The simultaneous addition of iron in either ferric or ferrous form and nickel completely inhibited IL-8 production and had no effect on 'hypoxia-like' stress caused by nickel, suggesting the existence of two different pathways for the induction 'hypoxia-like' stress and IL-8 production. The effect of nickel was not related to the blocking of iron entry into cells since the level of intracellular iron was not affected by co-exposure with nickel. The obtained data indicate that nickel can induce different signaling pathways with or without interference with iron metabolism. Our observations suggest that in some cases the excess of iron in PM can cancel the effects of nickel

  8. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  9. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  10. Bulk diffusion and solubility of silver and nickel in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenzou-Badrour, H.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study of solubility and bulk diffusion of /sup 110/Ag and /sup 63/Ni in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions in the temperature range 220 to 88 0 C are reported. Owing to the low solubility of silver and nickel in lead, Fick's solution corresponding to the boundary condition of a constant concentration of solute at the surface has been used. Depth profile concentration analysis suggests a fundamental difference between the diffusion mechanisms of silver and nickel. Since silver penetration profiles in pure lead give diffusion coefficients independent of the penetration depth and silver concentration, it is suggested that slight decreases of silver diffusivity in lead-silver solid solutions have no significance. This implies that the interstitial silver atoms do not associate significantly with each other to form Ag-Ag dimers. In contrast, different behaviors of /sup 63/Ni depth profile concentration in pure lead and saturated PbNi solid solutions agree with a Ni-Ni interaction leading to the formation of less mobile dimers near the surface in pure lead

  11. Fundamental data: Solubility of nickel and oxygen and diffusivity of iron and oxygen in molten LBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abella, J.; Verdaguer, A.; Colominas, S.; Ginestar, K.; Martinelli, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments for determining nickel solubility limit and iron diffusion coefficient are presented and their results are discussed. Nickel solubility limit is determined by two methods: ex situ by solid sampling followed by ICP-AES analysis and in situ by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and their results are compared. The iron diffusion coefficient is obtained using the technique of rotating specimen dissolution. Also a method to determine the oxygen solubility and diffusivity in LBE is developed and results at 460, 500 and 540 deg. C are presented. It is based on the following electrochemical cell: O 2 (reference mixture), Pt //YSZ//O 2 (LBE) which can work as an oxygen sensor or as a coulometric pump.

  12. Investigation of the solubility of He in pressure-gassed and irradiated nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driesch, H.J. von den.

    1980-06-01

    The behaviour of helium in nickel and gold was investigated in pressure-gassed, homogeneously implanted surface loaded samples doped by the (p,α) and (d,a) nuclear reactions. The following results were obtained: The helium content of gassed nickel foil was mostly determined by a surface oxide film with a thickness that shows a temperature dependence similar to the helium content. Such an effect could not be detected in gassed gold foils. At gasification pressures above 300 bar a deformation of the samples could be observed that can be attributed to a change of the temperature distribution or of the convection flow. A helium solubility could not be detected for pure undeformed nickel. An upper limit of solubility of Ssub(He) -11 atom quota at 1500 K could be estimated from the measured data. Homogeneously implanted nickel samples released 1-30% of their helium content in several degassing stages at 600, 800 and 1200 K. The helium amount released, before the melting of the material is a clear function of the concentration in the investigated concentration range (10 -11 -10 -4 atom quota). A preirradiation of the samples with 6 MeV protons leads at high helium concentrations to an increased helium release before the melting of the samples. The largest quota of helium (70 to 99%) is released only during the melting of the nickel. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  14. Nickel nanoparticles exposure and reproductive toxicity in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-11-17

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  15. Nickel Solubility and Precipitation in Soils: A Thermodynamic Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, E.; Allada, R.; Navrotsky, A.; Sparks, D.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of mixed-metal-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases similar to hydrotalcite has been identified as a significant mechanism for immobilization of trace metals in some environmental systems. These precipitate phases become increasingly stable as they age, and their formation may therefore be an important pathway for sequestration of toxic metals in contaminated soils. However, the lack of thermodynamic data for LDH phases makes it difficult to model their behavior in natural systems. In this work, enthalpies of formation for Ni LDH phases with nitrate and sulfate interlayers were determined and compared to recently published data on carbonate interlayer LDHs. Differences in the identity of the anion interlayer resulted in substantial changes in the enthalpies of formation of the LDH phases, in the order of increasing enthalpy carbonatesolubility compared to Ni(OH)2 over pH 5-9 when soluble Al is present in the soil substrate. Over time, both of these precipitate phases will transform to more stable Ni phyllosilicates

  16. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Ertugrul Cagri; Erden, Abdulsamet; Kulekci, Cagri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer

    2017-10-06

    Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine). Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium), it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):963-967. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Cagri Bolek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967

  18. Experimental nickel elicitation thresholds--a review focusing on occluded nickel exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is the most frequent cause of contact allergy among the female population. This makes it interesting to examine thresholds for elicitation under different conditions. Even though Ni exposure may be open, occluded, penetrating or oral, most dose-response studies in the literature concern...... single occluded application. The aims of this study were to assess thresholds of response by making a statistical analysis of available dose-response studies with single occluded exposure and comparing the results to thresholds from other modes of exposure. 8 occluded Ni dose-response studies were...... 10% reacted in occluded exposure. When combining the exposure to Ni with an irritant, divagating results were found, although the literature shows evidence of an augmented response when combining exposure to an allergen and an irritant. The thresholds of penetrating exposure were found to be lower...

  19. Risk assessment for nickel and nickel compounds in the ambient air from exposure by inhalation. Review of the European situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepicard, S; Schneider, T [Centre d` Etude sur l` Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fritsch, P; Maximilien, R [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences du Vivant; Deloraine, A [Centre Rhone-Alpes d` Epidemiologie et de Prevention Sanitaire (France)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air, for the general public. The document is divided into three parts, comprising: A review of the regulatory context, a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of nickel and certain nickel compounds, a description of certain industrial processes involving nickel, and the characterization of human exposure (emissions, immissions, transport in the atmosphere); a risk assessment on the basis of human (occupational exposure) and animal data related to the presumed risk of lung cancer; an assessment of the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air for the general public. (R.P.) 55 refs.

  20. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. EU legislation has reduced the epidemic of nickel contact allergy affecting the consumer, and shifted the focus towards occupational exposure. The acid wipe sampling technique was developed to quantitatively determine skin exposure to metals. Objectives. To assess the clinical...... dilution series were performed. Results. Nickel was detected in all samples from the hands. In all patients, the nickel content on the hands was higher than on the non-exposed control area. Conclusions. Occupational exposure to nickel-releasing items raised the nickel content on exposed skin as compared...

  1. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Nielsen, Morten M; Schmidt, Jonas D; Bzorek, Michael; Poulsen, Steen S; Thomsen, Allan R; Woetmann, Anders; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Odum, Niels; Menné, Torkil; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2014-10-01

    Several attempts to establish a model in mice that reflects nickel allergy in humans have been made. Most models use intradermal injection of nickel in combination with adjuvant to induce nickel allergy. However, such models poorly reflect induction of nickel allergy following long-lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. This new model for nickel allergy that reflects epicutaneous exposure to nickel in humans shows that nickel allergy is dependent on MyD88 and IL-1 receptor signalling, but independent of TLR4. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone

    2014-01-01

    -lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. OBJECTIVE: To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. METHODS: Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation...... was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. RESULTS: Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization...... of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. CONCLUSION: This new model for nickel allergy that reflects...

  3. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m 3 and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m 3 . We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m 3 ) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.

  4. Oral nickel exposure may induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in nickel-sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköztürk, Suna; Gelincik, Aslı; Ünal, Derya; Demirtürk, Mustafa; Çelik, Dolay Damla; Erden, Sacide; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Erdem Kuruca, Serap

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical and immunological changes in the nickel allergic patients with systemic symptoms. We aimed to evaluate T helper cell responses of patients with different clinical presentations due to nickel. Patients having various allergic symptoms and positive patch test results to nickel and 20 controls underwent skin prick tests with nickel. IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated by nickel during lymphocyte proliferation test (LTT). 69 patients (56 female, mean age: 49.2 ± 13.1), 97% having nickel containing dental devices and 20 controls (8 female, mean age 34.9 ± 12.06) were evaluated. Skin prick tests with nickel were positive in 70% of the patients (pnickel. Nickel containing dental alloys and oral nickel intake seem to trigger systemic symptoms in previously nickel sensitized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Sino-American belt study: nickel and cobalt exposure, epidemiology, and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten; Li, Lin-Feng; Xiang, Hailian; Hamann, Kylin; Maibach, Howard; Taylor, James S; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt are common causes of metal allergy. The objective of this study was to investigate nickel and cobalt exposure in belt buckles by testing 701 belts purchased in China and the United States and to consider the prevalence of nickel allergy and its relevance among Chinese patients. Seven hundred one belt buckles purchased in China and the United States were tested for nickel and cobalt release. Six hundred thirty-one Chinese patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested and interviewed to determine clinical relevance of results. The Chinese and American literature was reviewed to investigate trends in nickel prevalence over the past decades. Sixty percent (n = 219) of belts purchased in China (n = 365) released nickel, and 0.5% (n = 2) released cobalt; 55.7% (n = 187) in the United States (n = 336) released nickel, and 0.9% (n = 3) released cobalt. Belt dermatitis was a significant clinical finding in 34.8% of Chinese nickel-allergic patients. Literature review suggests increasing nickel allergy prevalence in the United States and China. Metallic belt buckles are an important source of nickel exposure to consumers. Belts from lowest socioeconomic vendors were more likely to release nickel. Belts with silver color and dark metallic color were more likely to release nickel and cobalt, respectively. Clinical findings show belt dermatitis in China to be a problem.

  6. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Skare, Lizbet; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola

    2011-01-01

    EU legislation has reduced the epidemic of nickel contact allergy affecting the consumer, and shifted the focus towards occupational exposure. The acid wipe sampling technique was developed to quantitatively determine skin exposure to metals. To assess the clinical usefulness of the acid wipe sampling technique as part of the diagnostic investigation for occupational nickel allergy-associated hand dermatitis. Six patients with vesicular dermatitis on the hands were included. Acid wipe sampling of skin and patch testing with a nickel sulfate dilution series were performed. Nickel was detected in all samples from the hands. In all patients, the nickel content on the hands was higher than on the non-exposed control area. Occupational exposure to nickel-releasing items raised the nickel content on exposed skin as compared with a non-exposed control site. Nickel-reducing measures led to complete symptom relief in all cases. In cases of a positive nickel patch test reaction and hand eczema, patients should perform the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test on metallic items at home and at work. The acid wipe sampling technique is useful for the diagnosis of occupational hand eczema following screening with the inexpensive DMG test. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Effect of soluble zinc additions on the SCC performance of nickel alloys in deaerated hydrogenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.S.; Thompson, C.D.; Gladding, D.; Schurman, M.K.

    1997-08-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth rates (SCCGR) of alloy 600, EN82H and X-750 were measured in deaerated hydrogenated water to determine if soluble zinc mitigates SCCGR. Constant load compact tension specimen tests were conducted. Two test strategies were used to discern a possible zinc effect. The first strategy employed separate SCCGR tests in zinc and non-zinc environments and compared the resulting crack growth rates. The second strategy varied zinc levels at the midterm of single specimen SCCGR tests and characterized the resulting crack growth rate effect through an electrical potential drop in-situ crack monitor. Results from the direct comparison and midterm changing chemistry tests did not discern a zinc influence; any apparent zinc influence is within test to test variability (∼1.5x change in crack growth rate). AEM, AUGER and ESCA crack tip fracture surface studies identified that zinc was not incorporated within crack tip oxides. These studies identified nickel rich crack tip oxides and spinel, with incorporated zinc, (∼5 atom percent) bulk surface oxides

  8. Snapshot of cobalt, chromium and nickel exposure in dental technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettelarij, Jolinde; Nilsson, Sara; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2016-12-01

    It is not fully understood where and how people are exposed to sensitizing metals. Much can be learnt from studying occupational settings where metals are handled. To quantify cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) exposure on the skin and in the air, and urine levels, in dental technicians working with tools and alloys that may result in skin and respiratory exposure. The metal skin dose was quantified with acid wipe sampling in dental technicians (n = 13). Air exposure was monitored by personal air sampling. Spot urine samples were collected for 24 h. Metals were analysed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Before work, Co was detected on the skin of 10 participants (0.00025-0.0039 µg/cm 2 ), and Cr (0.00051-0.011 µg/cm 2 ) and Ni (0.0062-0.15 µg/cm 2 ) on the skin of all participants. After a 2-h period without hand washing, CoCr-exposed participants had more Co on the skin (p = 0.004) than non-CoCr-exposed participants. Co was found in 10 air samples (0.22-155 µg/m 3 ), Cr in nine (0.43-71 µg/m 3 ), and Ni in four (0.48-3.7 µg/m 3 ). Metal urine concentrations were considered to be normal. Dental technicians were exposed to Co, Cr and Ni on the skin and through the air, which was not reflected in the urine concentrations in this study. Cobalt skin doses may potentially elicit allergic contact dermatitis and cause sensitization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmensen, O J; Menne, T; Kaaber, K; Solgaard, P

    1981-01-01

    The nickel content of water specimens from consecutive stages during the cleaning process in a Danish hospital was analyzed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found from step to step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitizing safety limit. The relevance of the findings in relation to hand eczema is discussed.

  10. Environmental nickel exposure from oil refinery emissions: a case study in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry. Urinary nickel concentrations were used to assess the exposure to nickel. Students from the school next to the oil refinery showed the highest urinary nickel concentrations while workers from the refinery showed the lowest concentrations. Median nickel concentrations were > 2µg/L in all study groups. The populations living close to the oil refineries are potentially exposed to nickel from atmospheric emissions. Further studies investigating nickel-related health effects in the population residing close to the refinery of Esmeralda are needed.

  11. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie L. Holmes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D. Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the toxicity induced by nickel soluble and particulate forms in human airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forti, Efrat; Salovaara, Susan; Cetin, Yuksel; Bulgheroni, Anna; Tessadri, Richard; Jennings, Paul; Pfaller, Walter; Prieto, Pilar

    Epidemiological studies show that exposure to nickel (Ni) compounds is associated with a variety of pulmonary adverse health effects, such as lung inflammation, fibrosis, emphysema and tumours. However, the mechanisms leading to pulmonary toxicity are not yet fully elucidated. In the current study

  13. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R; Julander, Anneli; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread use. The key risk factor in this situation is the ability of metal alloys in coins to release nickel and contaminate the skin after repeated contact from coin handling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Effect of co-exposure to nickel and particulate matter on insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Rao, Xiaoquan; Wang, Tse-Yao; Jiang, Silis Y; Ying, Zhekang; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Zhong, Mianhua; Deiuliis, Jeffrey A; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-11-05

    It has been well recognized that toxicity of fine ambient air particulate matter (PM(2.5)) may depend on its chemical constituents, including components such as soluble metals that may theoretically exert distinctive effects. We have recently demonstrated an important effect of PM(2.5) on metabolic function. Since transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), represent an important component of exposure in certain environments, and may significantly influence the toxicity of inhalational exposure, we investigated the effects of Ni as a variable component of ambient PM(2.5) exposure. Male ApoE knockout mice were exposed to filtered air (FA), fine-sized nickel sulfate particles alone (Ni) at 0.44 μg/m(3), concentrated ambient air PM(2.5) (CAPs) at a mean of 70 μg/m(3), or CAPs+Ni in Tuxedo, NY, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 3 months. Exposure to Ni, irrespective of co-exposure to CAPs, resulted in body weight gain, while exposure to CAPs+Ni significantly enhanced fasting glucose and worsened insulin resistance measures (HOMA-IR), when compared with exposure to CAPs alone. CAPs+Ni exposure induced a significant decrease in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α. Exposure to Ni or CAPs+Ni significantly induced microcirculatory dysfunction and increased monocytic cell infiltration into lung and adipose, and decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression at gene and protein levels and several brown adipocyte-specific genes in adipose tissue. Ni exposure has effects on metabolic and inflammatory parameters that are comparable to that of CAPs. Additionally, Ni synergistically exacerbates CAPs-induced adverse effects on some of, but not all of, these parameters, that may be mediated via the AMPK signaling pathway. These findings have important implications for inhaled transition metal toxicity that may exert synergistic effects with other PM(2.5) components.

  15. Urinary nickel: measurement of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Chisato; Usuda, Kan; Hayashi, Satsuki; Dote, Tomotaro; Kono, Koichi

    2004-09-01

    Nickel is a rare earth metal and is widely used in modern industry. Its overexposure in human beings can provoke significant effects including lung, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. As an index of occupational exposure, urine is widely used for the monitoring of nickel concentration because it is a minimally invasive method. Recent studies have used atomic absorption spectrometry to measure nickel concentration. In this study, we introduced novel inductively coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry (ICPAES) which enables us to measure multiple elements simultaneously with smaller volume and with lower detection limits compared to conventional atomic absorption emission spectrometry, and we established the new measuring method by determining the appropriate wavelengths for nickel concentration. Furthermore, using the established new measuring method, we investigated the correlation between a single oral administration of nickel and urine elimination in rats. As a result, different concentrations of nickel standard solutions were measured by ICPAES, and among five specific wavelengths of nickel, 221.647 and 231.604 nm were chosen because they had the highest inclines of both signal to background ratio and emission intensity in simple linear regression analysis. Next, by using healthy human urine samples that had not been exposed to nickel, 231.604 nm was determined to be the most appropriate wavelength because it did not present abnormal intensity due to obstacle wavelength. Male Wistar rats received an oral administration of nickel ranging from 0.025 to 250 mg/kg, which is equivalent to 0.0015 - 15% of LD50, and during the following 24 h, urine samples were collected and the nickel concentration was measured by ICPAES. With a single oral administration of nickel, there was an increase in urine nickel concentration in a dose-dependent manner and the appropriate equation was developed. Acute renal failure was not observed in this dosage of oral nickel

  16. The solubility of nickel and its migration through the cementitious backfill of a geological disposal facility for nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M; Hinchliff, J; Field, L P; Milodowski, A E; Holt, J D; Taylor, S E; Read, D

    2016-08-15

    This work describes the solubility of nickel under the alkaline conditions anticipated in the near field of a cementitious repository for intermediate level nuclear waste. The measured solubility of Ni in 95%-saturated Ca(OH)2 solution is similar to values obtained in water equilibrated with a bespoke cementitious backfill material, on the order of 5×10(-7)M. Solubility in 0.02M NaOH is one order of magnitude lower. For all solutions, the solubility limiting phase is Ni(OH)2; powder X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy indicate that differences in crystallinity are the likely cause of the lower solubility observed in NaOH. The presence of cellulose degradation products causes an increase in the solubility of Ni by approximately one order of magnitude. The organic compounds significantly increase the rate of Ni transport under advective conditions and show measurable diffusive transport through intact monoliths of the cementitious backfill material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of respiratory carcinogenicity associated with exposure to metallic nickel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulka, Donna J

    2005-11-01

    Human studies prior to 1990 have shown an association between respiratory cancer and exposure to some nickel compounds, but not to metallic nickel. Numerous reviews have examined the nature of the association between nickel compounds and respiratory cancer, but little has been published on metallic nickel. This paper reviews the animal and human cancer-related data on metallic nickel to determine whether the conclusions regarding metallic nickel reached a decade ago still apply. Based upon past and current human studies, metallic nickel appears to show little evidence of carcinogenicity when present at the same or higher concentrations than those seen in current workplace environments. By comparison, animal studies currently available have shown mixed results. A number of studies have shown evidence of carcinogenicity in animals exposed to nickel powders via injection, but other studies have shown no or inconsistent results in animals exposed via inhalation or intratracheal instillation. Further studies in animals via inhalation and humans would be helpful in elucidating the respiratory carcinogenic potential of metallic nickel.

  18. Reconstruction of historical exposures at a Welsh nickel refinery (1953-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulka, Donna J; Seilkop, Steven K; Lascelles, Keith; Conard, Bruce R; Jones, Sian F; Collinson, Eric C

    2014-07-01

    Past epidemiological studies of workers in a nickel refinery in Clydach, Wales, have shown evidence of large excess respiratory cancer mortality risks [lung cancer relative risk (RR) ≈ 3; nasal cancer RR ≈ 140] in those employed prior to 1930, with risks dropping dramatically in workers hired subsequently. The pre-1930 risks have generally been attributed to high exposures to mixtures of nickel compounds. More recent studies of this refinery's workers have focused on those first hired in 1953, when many of the operations that presumably gave rise to the high exposures were no longer in operation. While these studies have shown greatly decreased lung cancer risks overall (RR ≈ 1.4), and no substantive evidence of increased nasal cancer risk, the absence of reliable exposure estimates have made it difficult to ascertain whether the increased lung cancer risks are nickel related or due to other factors. This study uses nickel measurements from the 1970s to the present, documentation of process changes, and dust measurements taken around the 1950s to construct an exposure matrix for the recent cohort. It provides evidence of at least 30-fold decreases in levels of nickel exposure from the 1950s to the present, with estimated inhalable nickel concentrations in the 1950s in excess of 5mg Ni m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  19. Microplasma synthesis on aluminum with additions of iron and nickel soluble complexes in electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogov, A.B., E-mail: alex-lab@bk.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry. 3, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Mironov, I.V.; Terleeva, O.P.; Slonova, A.I. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry. 3, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline homogeneous electrolyte with transition metals complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings contain metallic iron, nickel and their oxides in alumina-silica matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Fe/Ni ratio on coatings properties and process characteristics. - Abstract: The microplasma synthesis of coatings containing iron and nickel from homogeneous electrolytes has been studied. For stabilization of transition metals in solution, it is proposed to use chelation. It was found that the synthesis of coatings using alternating current leads to the formation of metallic iron and nickel particles in addition to oxide phases. The iron and nickel complexes concentrations ratio in the electrolyte correlates with the coatings composition. Obtained coatings have been studied by scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalyser and by X-ray diffraction with Cu and Mo radiation. The metal content in the coating was determined spectrophotometrically from the absorption of iron thiocyanate complexes and nickel dimethylglyoxime complex.

  20. The acute exposure effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles on murine endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-08-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures, such as increases in vascular inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen species, altered vasomotor tone and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500 µg/m(3) of nickel nanoparticles for 5 h, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. These data provide new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs and exacerbate cardiovascular disease states.

  1. Predicting patient exposure to nickel released from cardiovascular devices using multi-scale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, David M; Craven, Brent A; Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Simon, David D; Brown, Ronald P; Sussman, Eric M

    2018-04-01

    Many cardiovascular device alloys contain nickel, which if released in sufficient quantities, can lead to adverse health effects. However, in-vivo nickel release from implanted devices and subsequent biodistribution of nickel ions to local tissues and systemic circulation are not well understood. To address this uncertainty, we have developed a multi-scale (material, tissue, and system) biokinetic model. The model links nickel release from an implanted cardiovascular device to concentrations in peri-implant tissue, as well as in serum and urine, which can be readily monitored. The model was parameterized for a specific cardiovascular implant, nitinol septal occluders, using in-vitro nickel release test results, studies of ex-vivo uptake into heart tissue, and in-vivo and clinical measurements from the literature. Our results show that the model accurately predicts nickel concentrations in peri-implant tissue in an animal model and in serum and urine of septal occluder patients. The congruity of the model with these data suggests it may provide useful insight to establish nickel exposure limits and interpret biomonitoring data. Finally, we use the model to predict local and systemic nickel exposure due to passive release from nitinol devices produced using a wide range of manufacturing processes, as well as general relationships between release rate and exposure. These relationships suggest that peri-implant tissue and serum levels of nickel will remain below 5 μg/g and 10 μg/l, respectively, in patients who have received implanted nitinol cardiovascular devices provided the rate of nickel release per device surface area does not exceed 0.074 μg/(cm 2  d) and is less than 32 μg/d in total. The uncertainty in whether in-vitro tests used to evaluate metal ion release from medical products are representative of clinical environments is one of the largest roadblocks to establishing the associated patient risk. We have developed and validated a multi

  2. Gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in occupational exposure to nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Serena; Larese, Francesca Filon; Trevisan, Giusto; Avian, Andrea; Rui, Francesca; Stanta, Giorgio; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2011-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is preceded by a clinically silent phase of sensitisation. In this study, we investigated whether the expression levels of six genes were related to nickel exposure and/or nickel sensitisation, and whether they could predict allergic manifestations to nickel. The mRNA expression level of six genes involved in cell growth (PIM1 and ETS2), metabolism/synthesis (HSD11B1 and PRDX4), apoptosis (CASP8) and signal transduction (CISH) was investigated by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in a cohort of 110 subjects, including healthy controls (n=51), nickel-exposed workers (n=23) and patients allergic to nickel (n=36). Our findings show that the expression levels of the analysed genes did not differ between allergic patients and healthy controls, while higher expression levels of ETS2 and CASP8 were detected in the nickel-exposed workers. Changes in ETS2 and CASP8 expression are likely to be related to nickel exposure rather than to allergy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Nickel exposure is associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Liang; Pan, An; Zhu, Mingjiang; Li, Zi; ZhenzhenWang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xin; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Zheng, He; Ong, Choon Nam; Yin, Huiyong; Lin, Xu; Chen, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Nickel exposure can induce hyperglycaemia in rodents, but little is known about its association with abnormal glucose metabolism in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of nickel exposure with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. A total of 2115 non-institutionalized men and women aged 55 to 76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included, and urinary nickel concentration was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was compared across urinary nickel quartiles. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein and glycated haemoglobin A1c, as well as urinary albumin and creatinine were measured. The median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.63 mg/l (interquartile range: 2.29–5.89 mg/l), and the prevalence of diabetes was 35.3% (747 cases/2115 persons). Elevated levels of urinary nickel were associated with higher fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin A1c, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (all Pnickel quartiles were 1.27 (0.97–1.67), 1.78 (1.36–2.32) and 1.68 (1.29–2.20), respectively (referencing to 1.00), after multivariate adjustment including lifestyle factors, body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend nickel concentration is associated with elevated prevalence of type 2 diabetes in humans.

  4. Solubilities and stabilities of nickel species in aqueous solutions: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, E.N.; Choppin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes specific chemical properties of nickel compounds in water. The information sources were published reports rather than experimental data. The information is reviewed as a comprehensive, descriptive report. 4 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Permenter

    Full Text Available Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and chromium (Cr are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells.

  6. Occupational exposure to nickel, uranium and thorium in a nickel mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, A.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Dias da Cunha, K.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Miekeley, N.T.

    2002-01-01

    The workers involved in mining and milling ores are exposed in the workplace to many hazardous agents that can cause a health detriment. In this work, the measurements obtained in a nickel mineral processing facility in the Brazilian Central-West are presented. One of the most important hazardous agents in this facility is the aerosol present in the air that contains nickel, uranium and thorium. The aerosol is inhaled or ingested, metabolised and deposited in the whole body or in specific organs. The surveillance of internal contamination of workers was performed by analysis of urine, fecal and hair samples. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) method was used to analytically determine nickel, uranium and thorium in these biological samples. Additional data were obtained by the collection of air samples in the workplace. A cascade impactor with six stages was used to collect mineral dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.64 to 19.4 μm. The particles impacted in each stage of the cascade impactor were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission), which permits the determination of elemental mass air concentration and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter). The concentrations of nickel, uranium and thorium were determined in the aerosol samples. All the results were analysed using statistical methods and biokinetical modelling was applied to evaluate the internal contamination and to make a risk estimation. (author)

  7. Exposure to nickel and palladium from dental appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventura Da Cruz Rodrigues Milheiro, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The application of a dental material into the oral cavity is not free of biological implications, as deterioration of the material will undoubtedly occur. The adverse health effects of palladium and nickel are well known and their immunologic cross-reactivity is well established. The aim of this

  8. [Nickel exposure to A549 cell damage and L-ascorbic acid interference effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Wang, Yue; Dan, Han; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Wenhan; Pan, Yulin; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-05-01

    Studying different concentrations of nickel smelting smoke subjects of human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) carcinogenic effects, discusses the influence of L-ascorbic acid protection. The A549 cells were divided into experimental and L-ascorbic acid in the intervention group. Plus exposure group concentration of nickel refining dusts were formulated 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml suspension, the intervention group on the basis of the added exposure group containing L-ascorbic acid (100 mmol/L), contact 24 h. Detection of cell viability by MTT assay. When the test substance concentration select 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml experiment for internal Flou-3 fluorescent probe to detect cell Ca²⁺ concentration, within DCFH-DA detect intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) content, real-time quantitative PCR (real time, in the RT-PCR) was used to detect cell HIF-1α gene expression. With the increase of concentration, subjects increased cell growth inhibition rate, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration increases, ROS content increased, HIF-1α gene expression increased, differences were statistically significant (P nickel exposure damage to cells. With subjects following exposure to nickel concentration increased, its effect on A549 cell damage increases, L-ascorbic acid cell damage caused by nickel has certain protective effect.

  9. Effect of nickel and chromium exposure on buccal cells of electroplaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Saba; Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    The electroplating industry commonly involves the use of nickel and chromium. An assessment of the genotoxic effects of these metals can be carried out by micronucleus (MN) test in buccal cells. Other nuclear anomalies (NA) observed in buccal cells viz., karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis are also the indicators of genotoxicity. The current study aims at determining the extent of genotoxic damage in relation to the duration of exposure to nickel and hexavalent chromium via micronuclei induction and other nuclear anomalies. The present investigation included 150 subjects of which 50 individuals with no history of nickel/chromium exposure (Group I) were taken as control, 50 electroplaters exposed to nickel and hexavalent chromium for duration of less than 10 years (Group II) and 50 electroplaters exposed for ≥10 years (Group III) were included. Slides of buccal cells were prepared and the frequency of MN (‰) and NA (‰) were calculated. ANOVA was applied to test significance. Results were considered significant at p exposure increased. Plasma nickel and chromium levels were also determined which showed a positive correlation with frequency MN and other nuclear abnormalities (p < 0.01).

  10. Assessment of human exposure to environmental sources of nickel in Europe: Inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekers, Jurgen; De Brouwere, Katleen; Lefebvre, Wouter; Willems, Hanny; Vandenbroele, Marleen; Van Sprang, Patrick; Eliat-Eliat, Maxime; Hicks, Keegan; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2015-07-15

    The paper describes the inhalation nickel (Ni) exposure of humans via the environment for the regional scale in the EU, together with a tiered approach for assessing additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach was designed, in the context of REACH, for the purpose of assessing and controlling emissions and air quality in the neighbourhood of Ni producers and downstream users. Two Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) values for chronic inhalation exposure to total Ni in PM10 (20 and 60ngNi/m(3)) were considered. The value of 20ngNi/m(3) is the current EU air quality guidance value. The value of 60ngNi/m(3) is derived here based on recently published Ni data (Oller et al., 2014). Both values are protective for respiratory toxicity and carcinogenicity but differ in the application of toxicokinetic adjustments and cancer threshold considerations. Estimates of air Ni concentrations at the European regional scale were derived from the database of the European Environment Agency. The 50th and 90th percentile regional exposures were below both DNEL values. To assess REACH compliance at the local scale, measured ambient air data are preferred but are often unavailable. A tiered approach for the use of modelled ambient air concentrations was developed, starting with the application of the default EUSES model and progressing to more sophisticated models. As an example, the tiered approach was applied to 33 EU Ni sulphate producers' and downstream users' sites. Applying the EUSES model demonstrates compliance with a DNEL of 60ngNi/m(3) for the majority of sites, while the value of the refined modelling is demonstrated when a DNEL of 20ngNi/m(3) is considered. The proposed approach, applicable to metals in general, can be used in the context of REACH, for refining the risk characterisation and guiding the selection of risk management measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solubilities of iron and nickel oxides under high temperature and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ke-Chon; Jung, Yong-Ju; Yeon, Jei-Won; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of primary coolant chemistry are to assure fuel and material integrity and to minimize out of core radiation fields. During the PWR operation, crud deposits are expected on the cladding, leading to cladding failure and raising the radioactivity. Such deposits come from the corrosion products of system surface. To achieve optimal conditions for primary coolant, basic researches on mass transfer, deposition and solubility of corrosion products are needed. The initial stage of crud formation could be the studies on the solubility of a structural material. It has been known that the solubility of metal oxides in boric acid under high temperature and high pressure condition depends on the pH and dissolved hydrogen. Thus, the effect of various pH on the solubility of metal oxide in boric acid solution was investigated in this work

  12. Inhibition in fertilisation of coral gametes following exposure to nickel and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Francesca; Stauber, Jenny; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Harrison, Peter L; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-11-01

    The mining and production of nickel in tropical regions have the potential to impact on ecologically valuable tropical marine ecosystems. Currently, few data exist to assess the risks of nickel exposure to tropical ecosystems and to derive ecologically relevant water quality guidelines. In particular, data are lacking for keystone species such as scleractinian corals, which create the complex structural reef habitats that support many other marine species. As part of a larger study developing risk assessment tools for nickel in the tropical Asia-Pacific region, we investigated the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in three species of scleractinian corals: Acropora aspera, Acropora digitifera and Platygyra daedalea. In the literature, more data are available on the effects of copper on coral fertilisation, so to allow for comparisons with past studies, the toxicity of copper to A. aspera and P. daedalea was also determined. Overall, copper was more toxic than nickel to the fertilisation success of the species tested. Acropora aspera was the most sensitive species to nickel (NOEC 4610µg Ni/L). Acropora aspera was also the more sensitive species to copper with an EC10 of 5.8µg Cu/L. The EC10 for P. daedalea was 16µg Cu/L, similar to previous studies. This is the first time that the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in Acropora species has been reported, and thus provides valuable data that can contribute to the development of reliable water quality guidelines for nickel in tropical marine waters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...

  16. Combined experimental and computational modelling studies of the solubility of nickel in strontium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beale, A.M.; Paul, M.; Sankar, G.; Oldman, R.J.; Catlow, R.A.; French, S.; Fowles, M.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of X-ray techniques and atomistic computational modelling has been used to study the solubility of Ni in SrTiO3 in relation to the application of this material for the catalytic partial oxidation of methane. The experiments have demonstrated that low temperature, hydrothermal synthesis

  17. Nickel exposure and prevalent albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria: evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Qi; Zhu, Mingjiang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Huaixing; Li, Zi; Chen, Yan; Yin, Huiyong; Lin, Xu

    2016-05-01

    High exposure to nickel could induce renal dysfunction in rodents and occupational workers. However, little is known about the effects of non-occupational exposure to nickel on renal health in the general population. We aimed to examine the associations of urinary nickel concentrations with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese adults. 2115 non-institutionalised Chinese men and women aged 55-76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included. Urinary nickel concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Plasma uric acid, urea nitrogen, C reactive protein and urinary albumin, β2-microglobulin and creatinine were measured. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and β2-microglobulinuria was defined as urinary β2-microglobulin ≥200 µg/g creatinine. Median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.95 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 2.57-6.71 μg/g creatinine), and prevalence of albuminuria, β2-microglobulinuria and both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria was 22.1%, 24.5% and 9.7%, respectively. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of urinary nickel, the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.99 (1.46 to 2.78) for albuminuria, 1.44 (1.07 to 1.95) for β2-microglobulinuria, and 2.95 (1.74 to 4.97) for both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. The association remained significant when further controlling for inflammatory markers or other heavy metals (all p trend nickel levels were positively associated with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese men and women, who had relatively low background nickel exposure. More prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism.

  19. Genotoxic Effects Due to Exposure to Chromium and Nickel Among Electroplating Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Amal Mohamed Kamal; Samir, Aisha Mohamed; Mekkawy, Mona Kamal; Fouad, Marwa Mohamed

    Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed. Laboratory investigations included measurement of serum chromium, nickel, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei were measured in buccal cells. In exposed workers, serum chromium ranged from 0.09 to 7.20 µg/L, serum nickel ranged from 1.20 to 28.00 µg/L, serum 8-OHdG ranged from 1.09 to12.60 ng/mL, and these results were statistically significantly increased compared to nonexposed group ( P electroplating industry are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  20. Mast cell histamine-mediated transient inflammation following exposure to nickel promotes nickel allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinbara, Masayuki; Bando, Kanan; Shiraishi, Daisuke; Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Nagai, Yasuhiro; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that allergic responses to nickel (Ni) were minimal in mice deficient in the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO), suggesting an involvement of histamine in allergic responses to Ni. However, it remains unclear how histamine is involved in the process of Ni allergy. Here, we examined the role of histamine in Ni allergy using a murine model previously established by us. Mice were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of a NiCl2 -lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mixture. Ten days later, allergic inflammation was elicited by challenging ear-pinnas intradermally with NiCl2 . Then, ear-swelling was measured. Pyrilamine (histamine H1-receptor antagonist) or cromoglicate (mast cell stabilizer) was intravenously injected 1 h before the sensitization or the challenge. In cell-transfer experiments, spleen cells from Ni-sensitized donor mice were intravenously transferred into non-sensitized recipient mice. In both sensitized and non-sensitized mice, 1 mm or more NiCl2 (injected into ear-pinnas) induced transient non-allergic inflammation (Ni-TI) with accompanying mast cell degranulation. LPS did not affect the magnitude of this Ni-TI. Pyrilamine and cromoglicate reduced either the Ni-TI or the ensuing allergic inflammation when administered before Ni-TI (at either the sensitization or elicitation step), but not if administered when the Ni-TI had subsided. Experiments on HDC-KO and H1-receptor-KO mice, and also cell-transfer experiments using these mice, demonstrated histamine's involvement in both the sensitization and elicitation steps. These results suggest that mast cell histamine-mediated Ni-TI promotes subsequent allergic inflammatory responses to Ni, raising the possibility that control of Ni-TI by drugs may be effective at preventing or reducing Ni allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential gene expression profile of the calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, in response to nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie-Lan; Wang, Gui-Zhong; Mao, Ming-Guang; Wang, Ke-Jian; Li, Shao-Jing; Zeng, Chao-Shu

    2013-03-01

    To better understand the underlying mechanisms of reactions of copepods exposed to elevated level of nickel, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to elucidate the response of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei to nickel exposure at the gene level. P. annandale is one of a few copepod species that can be cultured relatively easy under laboratory condition, and it is considered to be a potential model species for toxicity study. In the present study, P. annandalei were exposed to nickel at a concentration of 8.86 mgL(-1) for 24h, after which the RNA was prepared for SSH using unexposed P. annandalei as drivers. A total of 474 clones on the middle scale in the SSH library were sequenced. Among these genes, 129 potential functional genes were recognized based on the BLAST searches in NCBI and Uniprot databases. These genes were then categorized into nine groups in association with different biological processes using AmiGO against the Gene Ontology database. Of the 129 genes, 127 translatable DNA sequences were predicted to be proteins, and the putative amino acid sequences were searched for conserved domains (CD) and proteins using the CD-Search service and BLASTp. Among 129 genes, 119 (92.2%) were annotated to be involved in different biological processes, while 10 genes (7.8%) were classified as an unknown-function gene group. To further confirm the up-regulation of differentially expressed genes, the quantitative real time PCR were performed to test eight randomly selected genes, in which five of them, i.e. α-tubulin, ribosomal protein L13, ferritin, separase and Myohemerythrin-1, exhibited clear up-regulation after nickel exposure. In addition, MnSOD was further studied for the differential expression pattern after nickel exposure and the results showed that MnSOD had a time- and dose-dependent expression pattern in the copepod after nickel exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate the toxicity

  2. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Zbigniew; Koch, Wojciech; Marzec, Agnieszka; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in the city of Lublin in south-east Poland to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants, compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one–MIBK, in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70% of PTWI/TDI values, and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years, whereas the exposures to nickel remains on a stable level.

  3. An evaluation of two types of nickel-titanium wires in terms of micromorphology and nickel ions' release following oral environment exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Abdul Razzak A; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Al-Sabbagh, Rabab; Alghoraibi, Ibrahim; Aldiry, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare superelastic and heat-activated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface morphology and potential release of nickel ions following exposure to oral environment conditions. Twenty-four 20-mm-length distal cuts of superelastic (NiTi Force I®) and 24 20-mm-length distal cuts of heat-activated (Therma-Ti Lite®) nickel-titanium wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) were divided into two equal groups: 12 wire segments left unused and 12 segments passively exposed to oral environment for 1 month. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology of the wires which were then immersed in artificial saliva for 1 month to determine potential nickel ions' release by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heat-activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires were rougher than superelastic wires, and both types of wires released almost the same amount of Ni ions. After clinical exposure, more surface roughness was recorded for superelastic NiTi wires and heat-activated NiTi wires. However, retrieved superelastic NiTi wires released less Ni ions in artificial saliva after clinical exposure, and the same result was recorded regarding heat-activated wires. Both types of NiTi wires were obviously affected by oral environment conditions; their surface roughness significantly increased while the amount of the released Ni ions significantly declined.

  4. Evaluation of health hazards by exposure to nickel in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    % for non-fasting individuals. Nickel is a well-known skin and respiratory sensitizer. Following repeated oral exposure, the developing foetus is the critical target with consistent evidence of toxicity seen (rats) at dose levels from 2.2 mg Ni/kg bw/day (NOAEL 1.1 mg Ni/kg bw/day). A TDI of 5.5 μg Ni/kg bw...

  5. Nickel exposure induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in Neuro2a cells: the neuroprotective roles of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shang-Cheng; He, Min-Di; Lu, Yong-Hui; Li, Li; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yan-Wen; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in the neurotoxicity of nickel. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly vulnerable to oxidative stress and melatonin can efficiently protect mtDNA against oxidative damage in various pathological conditions, the aims of this study were to determine whether mtDNA oxidative damage was involved in the neurotoxicity of nickel and to assay the neuroprotective effects of melatonin in mtDNA. In this study, we exposed mouse neuroblastoma cell lines (Neuro2a) to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl(2), 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mm) for 24 hr. We found that nickel significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial superoxide levels. In addition, nickel exposure increased mitochondrial 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG) content and reduced mtDNA content and mtDNA transcript levels. Consistent with this finding, nickel was found to destroy mtDNA nucleoid structure and decrease protein levels of Tfam, a key protein component for nucleoid organization. However, all the oxidative damage to mtDNA induced by nickel was efficiently attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. Our results suggest that oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of nickel. Melatonin has great pharmacological potential in protecting mtDNA against the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Mortality among population with exposure to industrial air pollution containing nickel and other toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Kari; Pukkala, Eero; Turunen, Anu W; Patama, Toni; Jussila, Ilkka; Makkonen, Sari; Salonen, Raimo O; Verkasalo, Pia K

    2012-05-01

    To assess disease mortality among people with exposure to metal-rich particulate air pollution. We conducted a cohort study on mortality from 1981 to 2005 among 33,573 people living near a nickel/copper smelter in Harjavalta, Finland. Nickel concentration in soil humus was selected as an indicator for long-term exposure. Relative risks--adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and calendar period--were calculated for three exposure zones. The relative risks for diseases of the circulatory system by increasing exposure were 0.93 (95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 1.09), 1.20 (1.04 to 1.39), and 1.18 (1.00 to 1.39) among men and 1.01 (0.88 to 1.17), 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38), and 1.14 (0.97 to 1.33) among women. Exclusion of smelter workers from the cohort did not materially change the results. Long-term environmental exposure to metal-rich air pollution was associated with increased mortality from circulatory diseases.

  7. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-02-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of thermal stress and nickel exposure on biomarkers responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, Hajer; Kamel, Naouel; Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Jamel, Jebali; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    The present work aimed to assess the Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland biomarkers responses to nickel (Ni) exposure along with a heat stress gradient. Mussels were exposed to a sublethal dose of nickel (13 μM) along with a temperature gradient (18 °C, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C and 26 °C) for 4 days. Metallothionein (MTs) content was assessed as specific response to metals. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The cholinergic system was monitored using the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Moreover, Ni uptakes along with the exposure temperatures were assessed. A correlation matrix (CM) between the investigated biomarkers and the exposure temperatures and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were achieved. Our data showed a negative effect of temperature increase on mussel's antioxidant and detoxification response to Ni exposure being more pronounced in animals exposed to the 24 °C and 26 °C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tainting by short-term exposure of Atlantic salmon to water soluble petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackman, R.G.; Heras, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the extent of tainting of salmon by exposure to the soluble fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons. The experiments were conducted on Atlantic salmon in tanks containing seawater artificially contaminated at three different concentrations with the soluble fraction of a North Sea crude. The salmon flesh was analyzed by gas chromatography and taste tests were conducted on cooked salmon samples to determine the extent of tainting. Salmon in control tanks with uncontaminated seawater had muscle accumulations of total hydrocarbons of ca 1 ppM. The muscle accumulations of total hydrocarbons in the salmon were 13.5 ppM, 25.6 ppM, and 31.3 ppM for water soluble fraction concentrations of 0.45, 0.87, and 1.54 ppM respectively. The threshold for taint was clearly inferred to be less than 0.45 ppM of water soluble fraction. 18 refs., 2 figs

  10. Metabolic responses of the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus to nickel exposure assessed by (1)H NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno G C; Saborano, Raquel; Morgado, Rui; Cardoso, Diogo N; Rocha, Cláudia M; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; Duarte, Iola F

    2016-03-30

    This work aimed at characterizing the metabolome of the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and at assessing its variations over 14 days under laboratory culture conditions and upon exposure to the contaminant metal Nickel (Ni). The spectral profiles obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were thoroughly assigned and subjected to multivariate analysis in order to highlight consistent changes. Over 50 metabolites could be identified, providing considerable new knowledge on the metabolome of these model organisms. Several metabolites changed non-linearly with Ni dose and exposure time, showing distinct variation patterns for initial (4 days) and later time points (7 and 14 days). In particular, at day 4, several amino acids were increased and sugars were decreased (compared to controls), whereas these variations were inverted for longer exposure, possibly reflecting earlier and more intensive moulting. Other variations, namely in betaines and choline-containing compounds, were suggested to relate with osmoregulation and detoxification mechanisms. Ni also had a marked effect on several nucleotides (increased upon exposure) and a moderate impact on lipids (decreased upon exposure). Overall, this study has provided new information on the Ni-induced metabolic adaptations of the P. pruinosus isopod, paving the way for improved mechanistic understanding of how these model organisms handle soil contamination. This study provided, for the first time to our knowledge, a detailed picture of the NMR-detectable metabolome of terrestrial isopods and of its fluctuations in time and upon exposure to the contaminant metal Nickel. Several time- and dose-dependent changes were highlighted, providing mechanistic insight into how these important model organisms handle Ni contamination.

  11. Ovarian hyperandrogenism in polycystosis which is associated with stress caused by exposure of manganese and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gunkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High concentrations of manganese and nickel in the serum of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS have been detected in our previous studies. The aim of this investigation was to study the features of the adrenal hormones metabolism in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS with a high level of manganese and nickel exposure. Material and Methods. Two groups of women were formed for study. The first group consisted of women with PCOS. Patients with Cushing's syndrome were not included in this group. The second group – control group, consisted of healthy women of reproductive age. Serum total testosterone (T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OP, cortisol (C were identified using ELISA in the early follicular phase. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using Student's test and Mann-Whitney. Results. Women with PCOS had enhanced levels of all studied hormones and metabolites in serum in comparison with the control group (P <0,05. An analysis of reference values frequency exceeding was done. Results showed that most often there was an increase in 17-OP level in 60.0% of cases and DHEAS in 52.38% of cases. Since 17-OP is not synthesized in the ovaries of women with PCOS, we assume that its synthesis is associated with activation of adrenal function. 17-ОР is a precursor for the synthesis of cortisol and androgens. According to the authors, adrenal function activation is associated with stress caused by manganese and nickel toxic concentrations. Cortisol relates to hormonal markers of stress. Women with PCOS had increased levels of C in 30.56%. In conditions of manganese and nickel increased level exposure determining of 17-OP can be useful in the diagnosis of hyperandrogenism. Conclusions. Significantly increased levels of hormones and metabolites predominantly of adrenal origin have been noted in women with PCOS. Revealed violations could be a

  12. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and zinc or nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Christina G; Picariello, Codie R; Thomason, Rachel K; Patel, Krina S; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO 2 , as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni). After exposure to four concentrations (nominal values=control, 10, 50, 100μg/L) of Zn or Ni over 7days, both metals accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. Anemones exposed to elevated CO 2 (1000ppm) accumulated significant tissue burdens of Zn or Ni faster (by 48h) than those exposed to the same metal concentrations at ambient CO 2 . No differences were observed in catalase activity due to Zn exposure; however, 50μg/L Ni caused a significant increase in catalase activity at ambient CO 2 . No significant effect on catalase activity from CO 2 exposure alone was observed. Glutathione reductase activity was affected by increased Zn or Ni exposure and those effects were influenced by increased CO 2 . Results of this study provide insight into the toxic mechanisms and environmental implications of CO 2 and Zn or Ni exposure to the cnidarian E. pallida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental and human toxicology of nickel - a review; Umwelt- und Humantoxikologie von Nickel - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersmann, D. [Fachbereich Biologie und Chemie, Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Nickel is a relatively rare element, and its concentrations in ambient air, soils and waters are very low. Higher burdens of nickel are found in nickel industries and their proximity. The human uptake of nickel from the ambient air is neglectably low, except in industrial exposures. The main fraction of human nickel uptake is from food, nearly 50% stems from vegetables. Only about 2% of the oral uptake of nickel are resorbed and distributed over all organs investigated. The uptake of nickel compounds through the skin generally is very low. However, chronic skin contact with nickel and nickel compounds causes a specific contact allergy. This disease was observed after occupational exposure but also frequently in the general population. The number of new cases has dropped considerably due to reinforced prevention. Epidemiological studies with workers of nickel smelting and refining plants have demonstrated increased risks of nose and lung cancer. Human data are supported by results from animal experiments which have shown that inhalation of various nickel compounds caused lung cancer. Furthermore, animal experiments have yielded evidence that oral and inhalative exposure to nickel compounds impair reproduction. National and international agencies have classified various nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans. The unit cancer risk attributed to life-long inhalation of 1 {mu}g Ni/m{sup 3} air is estimated to be between 2 x 10{sup -4} and 7 x 10{sup -4}. Occupational exposure limits in Germany have been the Technical Guidance Values of 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} for nickel and weakly soluble nickel compounds and of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for inhalable droplets of soluble nickel salts. The German limit value for ambient immission is 0.015 mg Ni/m{sup 2}. d, and for emission 0,5 mg Ni/m{sup 3}. Limit values for nickel in air are to be taken not as safe thresholds but as guidance values for the delimitation of the cancer risk. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of dermal exposure and skin condition of workers exposed to nickel at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Johannes L; Eloff, Frederik C; Badenhorst, Casper J; Olivier, Johretha; Laubscher, Petrus J; Van Aarde, Michiel N; Franken, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess dermal exposure of cell workers to nickel at a South African base metal refinery and to characterize their skin condition by measuring the skin hydration and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) indices. The skin hydration index of the index finger, palm, neck, and forehead was measured before, during and at the end of the shift. The TEWL index was measured before and at the end of the shift. Dermal exposure samples were collected with Ghostwipes from the index finger and palm of the dominant hand, before, during, and at the end of the shift. Neck and forehead samples were collected before and at the end of the shift. Wipe samples of various surfaces in the workplace were also collected. Wipes were analyzed for nickel according to NIOSH method 9102, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Hydration indices measured on the hands decreased significantly during the shift, but recovered to normal levels by the end of the shift. TEWL indices for the index finger and palm of the hands are indicative of a low barrier function even before commencement of the shift, which further deteriorated significantly during the shift. During the shift, substantial nickel skin loading occurred on the index finger and palm of the hand. Levels on the neck and forehead were much lower. Various workplace surfaces, which workers come into contact with, were also contaminated with nickel. The skin condition and high levels of nickel on the skin were most probably caused by inadequate chemical protection provided by protective gloves. Although, the permeability of nickel through intact skin is considered to be low, a decreased barrier function of dehydrated or slightly damaged skin will increase its permeability for nickel. The ethnicity of these exposed workers may contribute significantly toward the low incidence of allergic contact dermatitis observed. Several measures to lower dermal exposure to nickel are also recommended.

  15. Systematic Review of Chromium and Nickel Exposure During Pregnancy and Impact on Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne; Salzberg, Deborah C; Anderson, Anna Paige; Shaw, Timothy; Lead, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Some forms of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) are toxic, especially with chronic elevated exposure, and certain forms such as hexavalent chromium or nickel carbonyl were labeled as carcinogens. Since both metals are naturally occurring, and used in industrial processes, individuals may be exposed through ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation, or dermal contact. This study focused on the impact of toxic forms of Cr and Ni during pregnancy and outcomes in newborn and young children. A systematic literature review following "The Navigation Guide" was applied, and 16 reports that satisfied the inclusion criteria were scored. Six papers studied birth weight, prematurity, or gestational age: one found an association between Ni and small for gestational age, while another linked Ni with low birth weight; however, four reported no marked associations. Of six studies that examined birth defects, three found no significant associations; one noted an association between Ni and neural tube defects; one showed an association between Ni and structural birth defects; and one reported a weak effect for Cr exposure and musculoskeletal defects. In the remaining four studies, weak associations were found for hexavalent Cr and neuroblastoma, Ni and autism spectrum disorder, Cr and Ni and DNA damage, and Cr and lymphocyte damage. Among the studies that were rated as good for execution and reliability, there was weak evidence of an association between Ni and autism spectrum disorder and small for gestational age, but no significant association between Cr and a child outcome.

  16. Urinary nickel as bioindicator of workers' Ni exposure in a galvanizing plant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J P; de Siqueira, M E; da Silva, C S

    2000-01-01

    We measured urinary nickel (U-Ni) in ten workers (97 samples) from a galvanizing plant that uses nickel sulfate, and in ten control subjects (55 samples) to examine the association between occupational exposure to airborne Ni and Ni absorption. Samples from the exposed group were taken before and after the work shift on 5 successive workdays. At the same time airborne Ni (A-Ni) was measured using personal samplers. Ni levels in biological material and in the airborne were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry validated method. In the control group the urine samples were collected twice a day, in the before and after the work shift, on 3 successive days. Ni exposure low to moderate was detected in all the examined places in the plant, the airborne levels varying between 2.8 and 116.7 micrograms/m3 and the urine levels, from samples taken postshift, between 4.5 and 43.2 micrograms/g creatinine (mean 14.7 micrograms/g creatinine). Significant differences in U-Ni creatinine were seen between the exposed and control groups (Student's t test, P galvanizing plants regardless of the day of the workweek on which the samples are collected.

  17. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. -- Highlights: ► Decreased survival following simultaneous exposure to NiCl 2 and CoCl 2 . ► Enhanced caspase and PARP cleavage following co-exposure. ► Increased formation of ROS in dual exposed cells. ► N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment decreases Co and Ni toxicity. ► Co-exposure to Ni and Co enhances the formation of double strand

  18. Is beryllium-induced lung cancer caused only by soluble forms and high exposure levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Couch, James R; Deddens, James A

    2017-08-01

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently proposed a permissible exposure limit of 0.2 µg/m 3 for beryllium, based partly on extrapolated estimates of lung cancer risk from a pooled occupational cohort. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate whether cohort members exposed at lower levels to mainly insoluble forms of beryllium exhibit increased risk of lung cancer. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses among 75 lung cancer cases in age-based risk sets within two lower exposure plants in the pooled cohort followed from 1940 to 2005. We used categorical and power models to evaluate exposure-response patterns for mean and cumulative beryllium exposures in the two-plant cohort, comparing findings with the full pooled cohort. We also evaluated the distribution of exposure-years in each cohort by solubility class (soluble, insoluble and mixed). 98% of workers in the two-plant cohort were hired between 1955 and 1969. The mean beryllium exposure averaged 1.3 µg/m 3 and the predominant form was insoluble. Adjusting for confounders, we observed a monotonic increase in lung cancer mortality across exposure categories in the two-plant cohort. The exposure-response coefficients (per unit ln exposure) were 0.270 (p=0.061) for mean exposure and 0.170 (p=0.033) for cumulative exposure, compared with 0.155 and 0.094 (respectively) in the full cohort. The low-exposure levels at these two plants and the predominance of insoluble beryllium suggest that the overall pooled cohort findings on which OSHA's lung cancer risk assessment is based are relevant for current workers exposed to any form of beryllium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Chromium, Nickel and Zinc Levels from Canned and Non-Canned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Water soluble nickel salts do not readily enter cell. Therefore, these compounds are generally not carcinogenic in animals and, to a large extent, have not been considered potent human carcinogens, although recent studies have suggested an increase in cancer in nickel refinery areas where exposure to ...

  20. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  1. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwere, Katleen; Buekers, Jurgen; Cornelis, Christa; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the indirect human exposure to Ni via the oral route for the regional scale in the EU, together with a method to assess additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach fills a gap in the generic REACH guidance which is inadequate for assessing indirect environmental exposure of metals. Estimates of regional scale Ni dietary intake were derived from Ni dietary studies performed in the EU. Typical and Reasonable Worst Case dietary Ni intakes for the general population in the EU were below the oral Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) of Ni sulfate for systemic effects. Estimates for the Ni dietary intake at the local scale take into account the influence of aerial Ni deposition and transfer from soil to crops grown near industrial plants emitting Ni. The additional dietary exposure via this local contribution was small. Despite the use of conservative parameters for these processes, this method may underestimate dietary exposure around older industrial sites because REACH guidance does not account for historical soil contamination. Nevertheless, the method developed here can also be used as a screening tool for community-based risk assessment, as it accounts for historical soil pollution. Nickel exposure via drinking water was derived from databases on Ni tap water quality. A small proportion of the EU population (<5%) is likely to be exposed to tap water exceeding the EU standard (20 μg Ni/l). Taking into account the relative gastrointestinal absorption of Ni from water (30%) versus from solid matrices (5%), water intake constitutes, after dietary intake, the second most important pathway for oral Ni intake. Incidental ingestion of Ni from soil/dust at the regional scale, and also at the local scale, was low in comparison with dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression Changes in Metal-Resistance Genes in Microbacterium liquefaciens Under Nickel and Vanadium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros-Romero, Grisel; Wrosek-Cabrera, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Pless, Reynaldo C; Rivas-Castillo, A M; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2017-07-01

    Microbacterium liquefaciens MNSH2-PHGII-2 is a nickel-vanadium-resistant bacterium isolated from mine tailings located in Guanajuato, Mexico. In PHGII liquid media, M. liquefaciens has the ability to remove 29.5 ppm of Ni and 168.3 ppm of V. The present study reports, for the first time in M. liquefaciens, the presence of the genes nccA (Ni-Co-Cd resistance), hant (high-affinity nickel transporter), smtA, a metal-binding protein gene, and VAN2 (V resistance), which showed an increased expression under exposure to 200 ppm of Ni and 200 ppm of V during the logarithmic growth phase of the microorganism in PHGII liquid media. Data about the expression profile of genes conferring metal resistance to M. liquefaciens can improve the knowledge of those mechanisms involved in the processes of Ni-V resistance and probably in Ni-V removal processes. Based on our data, we can suggest that M. liquefaciens has the potential to be used in the biological treatment of toxic wastes with high Ni and V content.

  3. Embrittlement of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys by exposure to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Five nickel-base alloys (Inconel 718, Udimet 700, Rene 41, Hastelloy X, and TD-NiCr), one cobalt-base alloy (L-605), and an iron-base alloy (A-286) were exposed in hydrogen at 0.1 MN/sq m (15 psi) at several temperatures in the range from 430 to 980 C for as long as 1000 hours. These alloys were embrittled to varying degrees by such exposures in hydrogen. Embrittlement was found to be: (1) sensitive to strain rate, (2) reversible, (3) caused by large concentrations of absorbed hydrogen, and (4) not associated with any detectable microstructural changes in the alloys. These observations are consistent with a mechanism of internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement.

  4. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  5. Belt Buckles-Increasing Awareness of Nickel Exposure in Children: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Alina; Admani, Shehla; Pelletier, Janice L; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-09-01

    Children, especially those with atopic dermatitis, are at risk for nickel sensitization and subsequent dermatitis from metal-containing objects, namely belt buckles. We describe allergic contact dermatitis in 12 children with peri-umbilical nickel dermatitis (with and without generalized involvement) caused by dimethylglyoxime-positive belt buckles. The patients' symptoms resolved with avoidance of the nickel-containing products. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Global levels of histone modifications in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with exposure to nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Adriana; Niu, Jingping; Qu, Qingshan; Zhao, Najuan; Ruan, Ye; Nadas, Arthur; Chervona, Yana; Wu, Fen; Sun, Hong; Hayes, Richard B; Costa, Max

    2012-02-01

    Occupational exposure to nickel (Ni) is associated with an increased risk for lung and nasal cancers. Ni compounds exhibit weak mutagenic activity, cause gene amplification, and disrupt cellular epigenetic homeostasis. However, the Ni-induced changes in global histone modification levels have only been tested in vitro. This study was conducted in a Chinese population to determine whether occupational exposure to Ni is associated with alterations of global histone modification levels and to evaluate the inter- and intraindividual variance of global histone modification levels. Forty-five subjects with occupational exposure to Ni and 75 referents were recruited. Urinary Ni and global H3K4 trimethylation, H3K9 acetylation, and H3K9 dimethylation levels were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of subjects. H3K4me3 was elevated in Ni-exposed subjects (0.25% ± 0.11%) compared with referents (0.15% ± 0.04%; p = 0.0004), and H3K9me2 was decreased (Ni-exposed subjects, 0.11% ± 0.05%; referents, 0.15% ± 0.04%; p = 0.003). H3K4me3 was positively (r = 0.4, p = 0.0008) and H3K9ac was negatively (r = 0.1, p = 0.01) associated with urinary Ni. Interindividual variances of H3K4me3, H3K9ac, and H3K9me2 were larger compared with intraindividual variance in both exposure test groups, resulting in reliability coefficients (an estimate of consistency of a set of measurements) of 0.60, 0.67, and 0.79 for H3K4me3, H3K9ac, and H3K9me2, respectively, for Ni-exposed subjects and of 0.75, 0.74, and 0.97, respectively, for referent subjects. The results of this study indicate that occupational exposure to Ni is associated with alterations of global histone modification levels and that measurements of global levels of histone modifications are relatively stable over time in human PBMCs.

  7. The utility of in vitro solubility testing in assessment of uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Damon, E.G.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Assessment of accidental exposures in the uranium industry requires estimation of retention and excretion rates using bioassay measurements. This task is difficult if the solubility of the inhaled uranium compound is unknown. In our research, Beagle dogs were exposed to aerosols of commercial uranium milling products containing either pure ammonium diuranate (ADU) or U 3 0 8 . Dogs were exposed to ADU aerosols to achieve a median retained body burden of 0.058 mg U per kg body weight, or to U 3 0 8 aerosols to achieve a median retained body burden of 0.28 mg U per kg. A biokinetic model was applied to simulate retention and excretion of the two forms of uranium in vivo. Comparison of published in vitro dissolution data and modelling results with information from accidental human exposures showed that in vitro dissolution studies are necessary to characterise the differential solubilities of uranium compounds, and indicate the potential for kidney toxicity. Because variability in pulmonary clearance and urinary excretion rates is high among individual people, in vitro dissolution results are only marginally useful for estimating urinary excretion rates. (author)

  8. Exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticles induces pulmonary inflammation through NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhengwang; Fang, Yiliang; Lu, Yonghui; Qian, Fenghua; Ma, Qinglong; He, Mingdi; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    With recent advances in the manufacture and application of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs), concerns about their adverse effects on the respiratory system are increasing. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of NiONP-induced pulmonary toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the impacts of NiONPs on pulmonary inflammation and investigated whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in NiONP-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury. NiONP suspensions were administered by single intratracheal instillation to rats, and inflammatory responses were evaluated at 3 days, 7 days, or 28 days after treatment. NiONP exposure resulted in sustained pulmonary inflammation accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar proteinosis, and cytokine secretion. Expression of Nlrp3 was markedly upregulated by the NiONPs, which was accompanied by overexpression of the active form of caspase-1 (p20) and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in vivo. NiONP-induced IL-1β secretion was partially prevented by co-treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor in macrophages. Moreover, siRNA-mediated Nlrp3 knockdown completely attenuated NiONP-induced cytokine release and caspase-1 activity in macrophages in vitro. In addition, NiONP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation requires particle uptake and reactive oxygen species production. Collectively, our findings suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome participates in NiONP-induced pulmonary inflammation and offer new strategies to combat the pulmonary toxicity induced by NiONPs.

  9. The effect of zinc injection into PWR primary coolant on the reduction of radiation buildup and corrosion control. The solubilities of zinc, nickel and cobalt spinel oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Kaori; Hirano, Hideo

    1999-01-01

    The use of zinc injection into PWR primary coolant to reduce radiation buildup has been widely studied, and te reduction effect has been experimentally confirmed. However, some items, such as the optimal concentration of zinc required to reduce radiation buildup, the corrosion control effect of zinc injection, and the influence of zinc injection on the integrity of fuel cladding, have not been clarified yet. In particular, the corrosion suppression effect of zinc remains unconfirmed. Therefore, it is necessary to measure and calculate the solubilities of zinc and nickel spinel oxides, which are formed on the surface of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary systems. In this study, in order to assess the effectiveness of zinc injection in the reduction of radiation buildup and the corrosion control of Ni-based alloy, the potential-pH diagrams for Zn-Cr-H 2 O, Ni-Cr-H 2 O, and Co-Cr-H 2 O systems at 300degC were constructed and the solubilities of Zn-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr spinel oxides were calculated. It is concluded that under pH conditions for which NiCr 2 O 4 is stable, zinc injection is effective in corrosion control as well as in reducing radiation buildup. (author)

  10. Exploring the Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel-Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Keyuna S.; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel, a naturally occurring element that exists in various mineral forms, is mainly found in soil and sediment, and its mobilization is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the soil. Industrial sources of nickel include metallurgical processes such as electroplating, alloy production, stainless steel, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel industries, oil- and coal-burning power plants, and trash incinerators have been implicated in its release into the environment. In humans, nickel toxicity is influenced by the route of exposure, dose, and solubility of the nickel compound. Lung inhalation is the major route of exposure for nickel-induced toxicity. Nickel may also be ingested or absorbed through the skin. The primary target organs are the kidneys and lungs. Other organs such as the liver, spleen, heart and testes may also be affected to a lesser extent. Although the most common health effect is an allergic reaction, research has also demonstrated that nickel is carcinogenic to humans. The focus of the present review is on recent research concerning the molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We first present a background on the occurrence of nickel in the environment, human exposure, and human health effects. PMID:21905451

  11. Long-term exposure of the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus to nickel: Costs in the energy budget and detoxification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Morgado, Rui; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial isopods from the species Porcellionides pruinosus were exposed to the maximum allowed nickel concentration in the Canadian framework guideline (50 mg Ni/kg soil) and to 5× this concentration (250 mg Ni/kg soil). The exposure lasted for 28 days and was followed by a recovery period of 14 days where organisms were changed to clean soil. Organisms were sampled after 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days of exposure, and at days 35 and 42 during the recovery period. For each sampling time the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined as well as lipid peroxidation rate (LPO) along with lipids, carbohydrates, proteins content, energy available (Ea), energy consumption (Ec) and cellular energy allocation (CEA). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for each sampling time as well as for each one of the above parameters. In addition, mortality was also recorded throughout the assay. The results obtained showed that nickel induced oxidative stress, evidenced by results on GST, GPx, CAT or LPO, but also on changes in the energy reserves content of these organisms. In addition, this study showed that these organisms possess a specific strategy to handle nickel toxicity. In this case, biomarkers were associated with costs in the energy budget, and the increase of energy reserves has a compensation for that cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper, nickel and zinc complexes of a new water-soluble thiosemicarbazone ligand: Synthesis, characterization, stability and biological evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hosseini-Yazdi, S.A.; Mirzaahmadi, A.; Khandar, A.A.; Mahdavi, M.; Rahimian, A.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Zarrini, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 248, Dec (2017), s. 658-667 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cytotoxicity * thiosemicarbazone * water-soluble Schiff base * stability * antioxidant * crystal structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.648, year: 2016

  13. Simulated rat intestinal fluid improves oral exposure prediction for poorly soluble compounds over a wide dose range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Berghausen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solubility can be the absorption limiting factor for drug candidates and is therefore a very important input parameter for oral exposure prediction of compounds with limited solubility. Biorelevant media of the fasted and fed state have been published for humans, as well as for dogs in the fasted state. In a drug discovery environment, rodents are the most common animal model to assess the oral exposure of drug candidates. In this study a rat simulated intestinal fluid (rSIF is proposed as a more physiologically relevant media to describe drug solubility in rats. Equilibrium solubility in this medium was tested as input parameter for physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK simulations of oral pharmacokinetics in the rat. Simulations were compared to those obtained using other solubility values as input parameters, like buffer at pH 6.8, human simulated intestinal fluid and a comprehensive dissolution assay based on rSIF. Our study on nine different compounds demonstrates that the incorporation of rSIF equilibrium solubility values into PBPK models of oral drug exposure can significantly improve the reliability of simulations in rats for doses up to 300 mg/kg compared to other media. The comprehensive dissolution assay may help to improve further simulation outcome, but the greater experimental effort as compared to equilibrium solubility may limit its use in a drug discovery environment. Overall, PBPK simulations based on solubility in the proposed rSIF medium can improve prioritizing compounds in drug discovery as well as planning dose escalation studies, e.g. during toxicological investigations.

  14. Human biomonitoring of chromium and nickel from an experimental exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes of low and high alloyed steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The uptake and elimination of metals from welding fumes is currently not fully understood. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL) it is possible to investigate the impact of welding fumes on human subjects under controlled exposure conditions. In this study, the uptake and elimination of chromium or chromium (VI) respectively as well as nickel was studied in subjects after exposure to the emissions of a manual metal arc welding process using low or high alloyed steel. In this present study 12 healthy male non-smokers, who never worked as welders before, were exposed for 6h to welding fumes of a manual metal arc welding process. In a three-fold crossover study design, subjects were exposed in randomized order to either clean air, emissions from welding low alloyed steel, and emissions from welding high alloyed steel. Particle mass concentration of the exposure aerosol was 2.5mg m(-3). The content of chromium and nickel in the air was determined by analysing air filter samples on a high emission scenario. Urine analysis for chromium and nickel was performed before and after exposure using methods of human biomonitoring. There were significantly elevated chromium levels after exposure to welding fumes from high alloyed steel compared to urinary chromium levels before exposure to high alloyed welding fumes, as well as compared to the other exposure scenarios. The mean values increased from 0.27 µg l(-1) to 18.62 µg l(-1). The results were in good agreement with already existing correlations between external and internal exposure (German exposure equivalent for carcinogenic working materials EKA). The variability of urinary chromium levels was high. For urinary nickel no significant changes could be detected at all. Six-hour exposure to 2.5mg m(-3) high alloyed manual metal arc welding fumes lead to elevated urinary chromium levels far higher (7.11-34.16 µg l(-1)) than the German biological exposure reference value (BAR) of 0.6 µg l(-1) directly after

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delclos, G.L.; Flitcraft, D.G.; Brousseau, K.P.; Windsor, N.T.; Nelson, D.L.; Wilson, R.K.; Lawrence, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67 Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases

  16. Gene expression dose-response changes in microarrays after exposure of human peripheral lung epithelial cells to nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Robert Y S; Zhao, Ailian; Alvord, W Gregory; Powell, Douglas A; Bare, Robert M; Masuda, Akira; Takahashi, Takashi; Anderson, Lucy M; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S

    2003-08-15

    Occupational exposure to nickel compounds is associated with lung cancer risk; both genotoxic and epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed. For comprehensive examination of the acute effects of nickel(II) acetate on gene expression in cultured human peripheral lung epithelial HPL1D cells, microarray analyses were carried out with cDNA chips (approximately 8000 cDNAs). Cells were exposed for 24 h to nontoxic (50, 100, and 200 microM) or toxic (400, 800, and 1600 microM) nickel(II) concentrations. Cluster analysis was applied to the 868 genes with > or = 2-fold change at any concentration. Two main clusters showed marked up- or down-regulation at the highest, toxic concentrations. The data further subdivided into 10 highly cohesive clusters with high probability, and of these only 2 had the same response trend at low nontoxic as at high concentrations, an observation of clear relevance to the process of high- to low-dose extrapolation in risk assessment. There were 113 genes showing > or = 2-fold change at the three lower nontoxic concentrations, those most relevant to in vivo carcinogenesis. In addition to expected responses of metallothionein, ferritin, and heat-shock proteins, the results revealed for the first time changed expression of some potential cancer-related genes in response to low-dose Ni(II): RhoA, dyskerin, interferon regulatory factor 1, RAD21 homologue, and tumor protein, translationally controlled. Overall, most of the genes impacted by nontoxic concentrations of nickel(II) acetate related to gene transcription, protein synthesis and stability, cytoskeleton, signaling, metabolism, cell membrane, and extracellular matrix.

  17. Identification of molecular candidates and interaction networks via integrative toxicogenomic analysis in a human cell line following low-dose exposure to the carcinogenic metals cadmium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jee Young; Weon, Jong-Il; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Park, Kang-Sik; Kim, Im Soon; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium and nickel have been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. Given their prevalence in the environment, the fact that cadmium and nickel may cause diseases including cancer even at low doses is a cause for concern. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the toxicological effects induced by low-dose exposure to cadmium and nickel remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, it has recently been recognized that integrative analysis of DNA, mRNA and proteins is required to discover biomarkers and signaling networks relevant to human toxicant exposure. In the present study, we examined the deleterious effects of chronic low-dose exposure of either cadmium or nickel on global profiling of DNA copy number variation, mRNA and proteins. Array comparative genomic hybridization, gene expression microarray and functional proteomics were conducted, and a bioinformatics tool, which predicted signaling pathways, was applied to integrate data for each heavy metal separately and together. We found distinctive signaling networks associated with subchronic low-dose exposure to cadmium and nickel, and identified pathways common to both. ACTB, HSP90AA1, HSPA5 and HSPA8, which are key mediators of pathways related to apoptosis, proliferation and neoplastic processes, were key mediators of the same pathways in low-dose nickel and cadmium exposure in particular. CASP-associated signaling pathways involving CASP3, CASP7 and CASP9 were observed in cadmium-exposed cells. We found that HSP90AA1, one of the main modulators, interacted with HIF1A, AR and BCL2 in nickel-exposed cells. Interestingly, we found that HSP90AA1 was involved in the BCL2-associated apoptotic pathway in the nickel-only data, whereas this gene interacted with several genes functioning in CASP-associated apoptotic signaling in the cadmium-only data. Additionally, JUN and FASN were main modulators in nickel-responsive signaling pathways. Our

  18. Sub-acute nickel exposure impairs behavior, alters neuronal microarchitecture, and induces oxidative stress in rats' brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijomone, Omamuyovwi Meashack; Okori, Stephen Odey; Ijomone, Olayemi Kafilat; Ebokaiwe, Azubike Peter

    2018-02-26

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal with wide industrial uses. Environmental and occupational exposures to Ni are potential risk factors for neurological symptoms in humans. The present study investigated the behavior and histomorphological alterations in brain of rats sub-acutely exposed to nickel chloride (NiCl 2 ) and the possible involvement of oxidative stress. Rats were administered with 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg NiCl 2 via intraperitoneal injections for 21 days. Neurobehavioral assessment was performed using the Y-maze and open field test (OFT). Histomorphological analyses of brain tissues, as well as biochemical determination of oxidative stress levels were performed. Results showed that Ni treatments significantly reduced body weight and food intake. Cognitive and motor behaviors on the Y-maze and OFT, respectively, were compromised following Ni treatments. Administration of Ni affected neuronal morphology in the brain and significantly reduced percentage of intact neurons in both hippocampus and striatum. Additionally, markers of oxidative stress levels and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly altered following Ni treatments. These data suggest that compromised behavior and brain histomorphology following Ni exposures is associated with increase in oxidative stress.

  19. Chronic exposure to iron oxide, chromium oxide, and nickel oxide fumes of metal dressers in a steelworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. Graham; Warner, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Graham Jones, J., and Warner, C. G. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 169-177. Chronic exposure to iron oxide, chromium oxide, and nickel oxide fumes of metal dressers in a steelworks. Occupational and medical histories, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms, chest radiographs, and ventilatory capacities were studied in 14 steelworkers employed as deseamers of steel ingots for periods of up to 16 years. The men were exposed for approximately five hours of each working shift to fume concentrations ranging from 1·3 to 294·1 mg/m3 made up mainly of iron oxide with varying proportions of chromium oxide and nickel oxide. Four of the men, with 14 to 16 years' exposure, showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis classified as ILO categories 2 or 3. Of these, two had pulmonary function within the normal range and two had measurable loss of function, moderate in one case and mild in the other. Many observers would diagnose these cases as siderosis but the authors consider that this term should be reserved for cases exposed to pure iron compounds. The correct diagnosis is mixed-dust pneumoconiosis and the loss of pulmonary function is caused by the effects of the mixture of metallic oxides. It is probable that inhalation of pure iron oxide does not cause fibrotic pulmonary changes, whereas the inhalation of iron oxide plus certain other substances obviously does. Images PMID:5021996

  20. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanic; Vladimir Ilic; Biljana Jovic

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to signif...

  2. Effects of nickel-oxide nanoparticle pre-exposure dispersion status on bioactivity in the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Tina; Wolfarth, Michael; Keane, Michael; Porter, Dale; Castranova, Vincent; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the world's most promising new technologies. From a toxicology perspective, nanoparticles possess two features that promote their bioactivity. The first involves physical-chemical characteristics of the nanoparticle, which include the surface area of the nanoparticle. The second feature is the ability of the nanoparticle to traverse cell membranes. These two important nanoparticle characteristics are greatly influenced by placing nanoparticles in liquid medium prior to animal exposure. Nanoparticles tend to agglomerate and clump in suspension, making it difficult to reproducibly deliver them for in vivo or in vitro experiments, possibly affecting experimental variability. Thus, we hypothesize that nanoparticle dispersion status will correlate with the in vivo bioactivity/toxicity of the particle. To test our hypothesis, nano-sized nickel oxide was suspended in four different dispersion media (phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), dispersion medium (DM), a combination of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and albumin in concentrations that mimic diluted alveolar lining fluid), Survanta®, or pluronic (Pluronic F-68). Well-dispersed and poorly dispersed suspensions were generated in each media by varying sonication time on ice utilizing a Branson Sonifer 450 (25W continuous output, 20 min or 5 min, respectively). Mice (male, C57BL/6J, 7-weeks-old) were given 0-80 µg/mouse of nano-sized nickel oxide in the different states of dispersion via pharyngeal aspiration. At 1 and 7 d post-exposure, mice underwent whole lung lavage to assess pulmonary inflammation and injury as a function of dispersion status, dose and time. The results show that pre-exposure dispersion status correlates with pulmonary inflammation and injury. These results indicate that a greater degree of pre-exposure dispersion increases pulmonary inflammation and cytotoxicity, as well as decreases in the integrity of the blood-gas barrier in the lung.

  3. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  4. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  5. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Chronic exposure to aluminum, nickel, thallium and uranium and their relationship with essential elements in human whole blood and blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Daci, Nexhat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exposure to aluminum, nickel, thallium and uranium on the metabolism of essential elements in humans, as well as the relationship between uranium, thallium, nickel, and aluminum and essential elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, Se, Mn, Co, Cr, and Mo) in the whole blood and blood serum of healthy men who were occupationally exposed. This study included 97 healthy men, 31-64 years age, including 70 workers in a thermo power plant and 27 control subjects. The results showed that chronic, moderate exposure of trace elements (Al, Ni, Tl, and U) lead to decreased serum chromium (SCr) and blood molybdenum levels (BMo), whereas by the results achieved in terms of correlations between non-essential and essential elements, non-essential elements such as uranium, thallium, nickel, and aluminum, despite their concentration within the reference values, are strongly competitive with essential elements in biochemical processes.

  7. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  8. Experimental exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process--part II: biomonitoring of chromium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gube, Monika; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Bertram, Jens; Gerards, Kerstin; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the external exposure dose of chromium and nickel caused by a metal active gas welding process with a solid high-alloyed steel welding wire and inner exposure of subjects. In order to perform welding fume exposure under controlled and standardized conditions, the investigations were conducted in the "Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory". To perform biological monitoring of chromium and nickel, blood and urine samples of 12 healthy male non-smokers who never worked as welders were collected before and after a 6-h exposure to ambient air (0 mg/m(3)) and to welding fumes of a metal active gas welding process once with a concentration of the welding fume of 1 mg/m(3) and once with a concentration of 2.5 mg/m(3). Although the internal exposure to chromium and nickel in this study was comparatively low, the subjects showed significantly increased concentrations of these metals in urine after exposure to welding fume compared to the values at baseline. Moreover, the observed increase was significantly dose dependent for both of the substances. For the biological monitoring of chromium and nickel in urine of subjects exposed to welding fumes, a dependency on exposure dose was seen under standardized conditions after a single exposure over a period of 6 h. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between ambient and biological exposures from welding fumes and provides a good basis for evaluating future biological threshold values for these metals in welding occupation.

  9. A preliminary report on the effects of long-term exposure of LiOH on pure nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    A 'bread pan' capsule has been designed which allows large numbers of tensile specimens to be simultaneously exposed to molten LiOH, its vapor, and vacuum. Capsules and specimens fabricated from the pure nickel alloy Ni-200 were annealed for 401 hours and 2500 hours at 775 K. Examination of the exposed materials revealed that little outward damage in terms of visible attack, weight change, or loss of room temperature tensile properties occurred. In particular, the mechanical behavior of hydroxide-contaminated alloy was essentially identical to that receiving a simple thermal exposure in vacuum. Examination of the microstructures revealed that LiOH did produce some nonuniform, shallow intergranular corrosion in NI-200; however, the extent of the damage was insufficient to produce weakening or embrittlement.

  10. Levels and predictors of airborne and internal exposure to chromium and nickel among welders--results of the WELDOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tobias; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Gutwinski, Eleonore; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Hartwig, Andrea; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate levels and determinants of exposure to airborne and urinary chromium (Cr, CrU) and nickel (Ni, NiU) among 241 welders. Respirable and inhalable welding fume was collected during a shift, and the metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In post-shift urine, CrU and NiU were measured by means of graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry, with resulting concentrations varying across a wide range. Due to a large fraction below the limits of quantitation we applied multiple imputations to the log-transformed exposure variables for the analysis of the data. Respirable Cr and Ni were about half of the concentrations of inhalable Cr and Ni, respectively. CrU and NiU were determined with medians of 1.2 μg/L (interquartile range exposure-modulating variables in form of multiplicative factors and revealed slightly better model fits for Cr (R(2) respirable Cr 48%, CrU 55%) than for Ni (R(2) respirable Ni 42%, NiU 38%). The air concentrations were mainly predicted by the metal content in electrodes or base material in addition to the welding technique. Respirable Cr and Ni were good predictors for CrU and NiU, respectively. Exposure was higher when welding was performed in confined spaces or with inefficient ventilation, and lower in urine when respirators were used. In conclusion, statistical modelling allowed the evaluation of determinants of internal and external exposure to Cr and Ni in welders. Welding parameters were stronger predictors than workplace conditions. Airborne exposure was lowest inside respirators with supply of purified air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. ON THE INFLUENCE OF COLD WORK ON RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS WITH THERMAL EXPOSURE IN IN-718 NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Elhoucine; Nagy, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    In nickel-base superalloys, irreversible electrical conductivity changes occur above a transition temperature where thermally-activated microstructural evolution initiates. The electrical conductivity first decreases above about 450 deg. C then increases above 600 deg. C. However, the presence of plastic deformation results in accelerated microstructure evolution at an earlier transition temperature. It was recently suggested that this well-known phenomenon might explain the notable conductivity difference between the peened near-surface part and the intact part at sufficiently large depth in surface-treated specimens. The influence of cold work on the electrical conductivity change with thermal exposure offers a probable answer to one of the main remaining questions in eddy current residual stress assessment, namely unusually fast and occasionally even non-monotonic decay of the apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) change that was observed at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. To validate this explanation, the present study investigates the influence of cold work on low-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) resistivity variations with thermal exposure. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the ACPD technique. IN-718 nickel-base superalloy specimens with different levels of cold work were exposed to gradually increasing peak temperatures from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The results indicate that the initial irreversible rise in resistivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher and occurs at about 50 deg. C lower temperature in cold-worked samples of 30% plastic strain than in the intact material.

  12. Effect of sub-acute exposure to nickel nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Abdul Rahuman, Abdul; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Perumal, Pachiappan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the oxidative stress, antioxidant response and histopathological changes of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) exposure (14 days) in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ni NPs were synthesized by metal salt reduction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD peaks at 44°, 51° and 76° were indexed to the (111), (200) and (220) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of Nickel, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 56nm. TEM images showed that the synthesized Ni NPs are spherical in shape. Biochemical analysis indicated that the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was significantly affected by Ni NPs treated O. mossambicus. Reduced antioxidant enzymes and the contents of antioxidants were lowered in the liver and gills of fishes treated with Ni NPs. After 14 days of exposure, a significant accumulation of Ni in the Ni NPs in experimental group was observed in the gill and skin tissues, with the highest levels found in the liver. Ni NPs exposed fish showed nuclear hypertrophy (NH), nuclear degeneration (ND), necrosis (NC) and irregular-shaped nuclei were observed in liver tissue. The hyperplasia of the gill epithelium (GE), lamellar fusion of secondary lamellae (LF), dilated marginal channel (MC), epithelial lifting (EL) and epithelial rupture were observed in gill tissue. Degeneration in muscle bundles (DM), focal area of necrosis (NC) vacuolar degeneration in muscle bundles (VD), edema between muscle bundles (ED) and splitting of muscle fibers were noticed in skin tissue. Further ecotoxicological evaluation will be made concerning the risk of Ni NPs on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel route of toxicant exposure in an ancient extant vertebrate: nickel uptake by hagfish skin and the modifying effects of slime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Chris N; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-02-03

    Utilizing an in vitro technique, the skin of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) was shown to take up nickel from the water via a high affinity, low capacity transport pathway. Uptake was biphasic, with saturation occurring at low nickel exposure concentrations, superseded by linear, diffusive uptake at levels greater than 50 μM. In vivo exposures showed that nickel accumulated mainly in the gill, heart, and brain, representing a tissue distribution distinct from that found in teleosts. Slime on the epidermal surface was shown to significantly reduce the uptake of low concentrations (10 μM) of the metals zinc and nickel, but slime had no effect on organic nutrient (the amino acid l-alanine) absorption. At a higher metal exposure concentration (1 mM), slime was no longer protective, indicating saturation of metal-binding sites. This is the first study to show that metals can be taken up by the integument of hagfish. The ability of the skin to act as a transport epithelium may be of particular importance for a burrowing, benthic scavenger, such as hagfish, which are likely to be exposed to relatively enriched levels of metal toxicants through their habitat and lifestyle, and this may have consequences for human health through hagfish consumption.

  14. Long-term nickel exposure altered the bacterial community composition but not diversity in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel pollution imposes deleterious effects on soil ecosystem. The responses of soil microorganisms to long-term nickel pollution under field conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the impacts of long-term nickel pollution on soil bacterial communities in two contrasting agricultural soils. Our results found that the soil microbial biomass carbon consistently decreased along the nickel gradients in both soils. Nickel pollution selectively favored or impeded the prevalence of several dominant bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes displayed sensitivity. Despite the apparent shifts in the bacterial community composition, no clear tendency in the bacterial diversity and abundance was identified along the nickel gradients in either soil. Collectively, we provide evidence that long-term nickel pollution shifted the soil bacterial communities, resulting in the decrease of microbial biomass although the bacterial diversity was not significantly changed.

  15. Developable images produced by x-rays using the nickel-hypophosphite system. 2: Exposure and development parameters for sodium hypophosphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    Crystalline sodium hypophosphite was X-irradiated and then treated with an ammoniacal nickel hypophosphite solution. Treatment resulted in the precipitation of nickel metal. The yield of nickel metal varied directly with particle size, sample weight, X-ray voltage, target current, exposure time, and development time. These findings show the process to be potentially useful in X-ray type photography. The half-life for the latent image species was found to be relatively short; but this is not critical in most X-ray photography applications. Furthermore, the work can be interpreted on the basis that a hydrogen atom is involved in the mechanism and indicates that the autocatalytic development step may be self-poisoning.

  16. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts’ exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1–4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. Spearman correlation (rs) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately-high (weighted kappa range=0.60–0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (rs= -0.37–0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47–78%) than airborne measurements (16–50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately-high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies. PMID:24736099

  18. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-11-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts' exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1-4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. The Spearman correlation (r(s)) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately high (weighted kappa range=0.60-0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (r(s)=-0.37-0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47-78%) than airborne measurements (16-50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies.

  19. Inhibition and reversal of nickel-induced transformation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qunwei; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, L.C.; Su, W.C.; Costa, Max

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenic process initiated by nongenotoxic carcinogens involves modulation of gene expression. Nickel compounds have low mutagenic activity, but are highly carcinogenic. In vitro both mouse and human cells can be efficiently transformed by soluble and insoluble nickel compounds to anchorage-independent growth. Because previous studies have shown that carcinogenic nickel compounds silence genes by inhibiting histone acetylation and enhancing DNA methylation, we investigated the effect of enhancing histone acetylation on cell transformation. The exposure of nickel-transformed cells to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) resulted in the appearance of significant number of revertants measured by their inability to grow in soft agar. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip we found that the level of expression of a significant number of genes was changed (suppressed or upregulated) in nickel-transformed clones but returned to a normal level in revertants obtained following TSA treatment. Moreover, we found that treatment of cells with TSA inhibited the ability of nickel to transform mouse PW cells to anchorage-independent growth. Treatment with TSA also inhibited the ability of nickel to transform human HOS cells, although to a lesser extent. In contrast, treatment with TSA was not able to revert established cancer cell lines as readily as the nickel-transformed cells. These data indicated that modulation of gene expression is important for nickel-induced transformation

  20. Blood nickel and chromium levels in association with smoking and occupational exposure among head and neck cancer patients in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2013-11-01

    Chronic exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer (HNC) incidence among exposed human populations. This study represents the first biomonitoring of Cr and Ni exposure in Tunisia and focuses on a possible association with HNC risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of Cr and Ni in the blood of HNC patients and controls. Metals blood levels of 169 HNC patients and 351 controls were determined using a Perkin-Elmer Analyst 800 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Mean blood levels of Cr and Ni in HNC cases (52.15 and 111.60 μg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (37.04 and 30.50 μg/L, respectively). Cases' blood levels of Cr and Ni were significantly higher than those of controls after controlling for the other risk factors of HNC, including smoking, shisha consumption, occupational exposure, and nearby environment (Pexposure presented the most significant association with HNC (odds ratio (OR)=6.54 and 7.66, respectively, P<0.001). Cr and Ni levels in blood sample of cases and controls that are smoker/occupationally exposed were higher than that of non-smoker/non-occupationally exposed (P<0.05). Smokers who are occupationally exposed present the most significant association with HNC (OR=25.08, P<0.0001). High levels of blood Cr (OR=2.09) and high levels of blood Ni (OR=8.87) were strongly associated with HNC after other potential confounders were controlled (P=0.004 and P<0.0001, respectively). This study suggested a potential role of Cr and Ni in the mechanism of HNC development.

  1. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...

  3. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  4. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  5. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  6. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  7. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  8. Bioavailability and Toxicity of Copper, Manganese, and Nickel in Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola), and Biomarker Discovery for Their Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Shin, Key-Il; Cho, Kijong

    2017-01-01

    Bioavailability and toxicity of Cu, Mn, and Ni in Paronychiurus kimi were investigated after 28 days of exposure to OECD artificial soil spiked with these metals. Uptake and effect of Cu, Mn, and Ni on the reproduction of P. kimi were related to different metal fractions (water-soluble, 0.01 M CaCl 2 -extractable or porewater metal concentrations). Cu and Mn concentrations in P. kimi increased with increasing Cu and Mn concentrations in the soil, while Ni contents in P. kimi reached a plateau at a concentration higher than 200 mg/kg in soil. Both uptake and juvenile production related well to different metal fractions, suggesting that these metal fractions are suitable for assessing bioavailability and toxicity of metals in P. kimi. When toxicity for reproduction was compared, as reflected by EC 50 values, the order of metal toxicity varied depending upon how exposure concentration was expressed. Moreover, the results of proteomic analysis showed that several proteins involved in the immune system, neuronal outgrowth, and metal ion binding were up-regulated in P. kimi following short-term (7 days) exposure to sublethal level (corresponding to 50% of the EC 50 ) of Cu, Mn, or Ni, respectively. This suggests that the ecotoxicoproteomic approach seems to be a promising tool for early exposure warnings below which significant adverse effects are unlikely to occur. This study demonstrated that a combination of chemical and biological measures can provide information about metal bioavailability and toxicity to which P. kimi has been exposed.

  9. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  10. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive and the D......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  11. Kinetics of nickel bioaccumulation and its relevance to selected cellular processes in leaves of Elodea canadensis during short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria G; Malec, Przemysław; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2016-03-01

    Elodea canadensis is an aquatic macrophyte used widely as a bioindicator for the monitoring of water quality and in the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated waters. This study considers the kinetics of nickel bioaccumulation and changes in accompanying metabolic and stress-related physiological parameters. These include photosynthetic activity, pigment content, the accumulation of thiol-containing compounds, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) products, and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase). Elodea leaves accumulated nickel according to pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the protective responses followed a time sequence which was related to the apparent rates of nickel accumulation. The applicability of second-order kinetics to the Ni uptake by Elodea leaves during the first 8 h of exposure to the metal suggested that the passive binding of metal ions (chemisorption) was a rate-limiting step at the initial phase of Ni accumulation. This phase was accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic activity together with elevated photosynthetic pigments and protein synthesis, the enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, and increased thiol concentration. In contrast, there was a decrease in metabolic activity upon the accumulation of TBARS, and the decline in enzyme activity was observed in the saturation phase of Ni accumulation (8-24 h). These results show that a correlation exists between the protective response and the apparent kinetic rate of Ni uptake. Thus, the time of exposure to the toxicant is a crucial factor in the activation of specific mechanisms of Ni detoxification and stress alleviation.

  12. Toxicological Risk Assessment of a Nickel Compound Found on the Surfaces of Replacement Hyperstretch Neoprene (CWU-83P) Neck and Wrist Seals for a Cold water Submersion Survival Suit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arfsten, Darryl

    2001-01-01

    .... The conservative approach for estimating the toxicological risk of nickeldialkyldithiocarbamate exposure to humans is to assume that these compounds have the same toxic properties as soluble nickel compounds. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) estimates for persons wearing cold water survival suits were calculated using conservative exposure assumptions.

  13. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions. Part I: Chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium in the workplace air of stainless steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, J; Bencko, V; Pápayová, A; Saligová, D; Tejral, J; Borská, L

    2001-11-01

    Exposure to workplace airborne pollutants was examined in a group of 20 workers dealing mainly with welding, polishing, drilling and assembling of stainless steel constructions. Airborne particulate matter (APM) collected using both personal and stationary samplers was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Quality assurance procedures of both sampling and analytical stages are described. Of the elements determined, results are presented for chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium. The median values of element concentrations exceeded the maximum admissible limits for workplace pollutants only for chromium, while for nickel the limit was exceeded in several individual cases. Sampling of hair, nails, blood, urine and saliva to be used for biological monitoring of the exposed and control groups is also described.

  14. Increased opercular rates of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry after exposure to the eater-soluble fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R E [Chico State Univ., CA; Rice, S D

    1976-01-01

    The opercular rates of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry were measured during 24-h exposure to sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Opercular rates increased significantly for as long as 9 and 12 h after exposure to water-soluble fractions prepared from oil-water solutions of 2.83 and 3.46 ppM. The increases in rates were proportional to increases in dose. Recording changes in opercular rates appears to be a suitable method for detecting sublethal physiological effects of stress, because the observed changes occurred at approximately 20 percent of the 96 h-LC50.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  16. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Borné, Yan; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su

  17. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Borné, Yan [Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar [Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su

  18. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SRBE, LRTOX, BP 166, 26702 Pierrelatte Cedex (France); Blanchardon, E. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SDI, LEDI, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay Aux Roses Cedex (France); Bouisset, P. [IRSN/ DEI/ STEME, LMRE, Bois des rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/ DEI/ SESURE, LERCM, BP3, 13 115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 {mu}m, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 {mu} Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  19. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F.; Blanchardon, E.; Bouisset, P.; Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 μm, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 μ Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  20. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  1. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  3. Effects of chronic waterborne nickel exposure on growth, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Som; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Ni. We undertook a series of experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) for this observed hypersensitivity. Consistent with previous experiments, juvenile snail growth in a 21-day exposure was reduced by 48% relative to the control when exposed to 1.3 μg l(-1) Ni (EC20 less than the lowest concentration tested). Ca(2+) homeostasis was significantly disrupted by Ni exposure as demonstrated by reductions in net Ca(2+) uptake, and reductions in Ca(2+) concentrations in the hemolymph and soft tissues. We also observed reduced soft tissue [Mg(2+)]. Snails underwent a significant alkalosis with hemolymph pH increasing from 8.1 to 8.3 and hemolymph TCO2 increasing from 19 to 22 mM in control versus Ni-exposed snails, respectively. Unlike in previous studies with Co and Pb, snail feeding rates were found to be unaffected by Ni at the end of the exposure. Snails accumulated Ni in the soft tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, and Ni uptake experiments with (63)Ni revealed a biphasic uptake profile - a saturable high affinity component at low exposure concentrations (36-189 nM) and a linear component at the high exposure concentrations (189-1,897 nM). The high affinity transport system had an apparent Km of 89 nM Ni(2+) and Vmax of 2.4 nmol g(-1)h(-1). This equates to a logK of 7.1, significantly higher than logK's (2.6-5.2) for any other aquatic organisms evaluated to date, which will have implications for Biotic Ligand Model development. Finally, pharmacological inhibitors that block Ca(2+) uptake pathways in snails did not inhibit Ni uptake, suggesting that the uptake of Ni does not occur via Ca(2+) uptake pathways. As with Cu and Pb, the exact mechanism for the significant disruption in Ca(2+) homeostasis and reduction in juvenile snail growth remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  5. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  6. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  7. Properties of pure nickel after long term exposures to LiOH and vacuum at 775 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The solid to liquid phase transformation of LiOH at 744.3 K is considered to be an ideal candidate thermal energy storage (TES) mechanism for a Rankine heat engine based solar dynamic system operating at approximately 682 K. While pure nickel is thought to be a suitable containment material for LiOH, long term containment is of concern because molten hydroxides are usually corrosive. Two commercially pure nickel alloys, Ni-200 and Ni-201, were exposed to molten LiOH, its vapor, and vacuum at 775 K for periods ranging from 50 to 5000 h, and simple mechanical property measurements (77 to 900 K tensile and 750 K creep rupture) of exposed alloys were undertaken. The mechanical property test procedures are described and tabular lists of the test data are presented.

  8. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  9. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  10. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  11. Ni(ii) ions cleave and inactivate human alpha-1 antitrypsin hydrolytically, implicating nickel exposure as a contributing factor in pathologies related to antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezynfeld, Nina Ewa; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Bal, Wojciech; Frączyk, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an abundant serum protein present at a concentration of 1.0-1.5 g L(-1). AAT deficiency is a genetic disease that manifests with emphysema and liver cirrhosis due to the accumulation of a misfolded AAT mutant in hepatocytes. Lung AAT amount is inversely correlated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a serious and often deadly condition, with increasing frequency in the aging population. Exposure to cigarette smoke and products of fossil fuel combustion aggravates AAT deficiency and COPD according to mechanisms that are not fully understood. Taking into account that these fumes contain particles that can release nickel to human airways and skin, we decided to investigate interactions of AAT with Ni(ii) ions within the paradigm of Ni(ii)-dependent peptide bond hydrolysis. We studied AAT protein derived from human blood using HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry. These studies were aided by spectroscopic experiments on model peptides. As a result, we identified three hydrolysis sites in AAT. Two of them are present in the N-terminal part of the molecule next to each other (before Thr-13 and Ser-14 residues) and effectively form one N-terminal cleavage site. The single C-terminal cleavage site is located before Ser-285. The N-terminal hydrolysis was more efficient than the C-terminal one, but both abolished the ability of AAT to inhibit trypsin in an additive manner. Nickel ions bound to hydrolysis products demonstrated an ability to generate ROS. These results implicate Ni(ii) exposure as a contributing factor in AAT-related pathologies.

  12. 125I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for 125 I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for 125 I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific 125 I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors

  13. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  14. Chronic exposure to uranium compounds: medical surveillance problems related to their physico-chemical properties and their solubility: actual data and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developped to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on industrial experience acquired in Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4), the method involves five steps: 1/ Characterization of the industrial compound, including physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment). 2/ In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids like Gamble solution added with differents gaz or compounds (Oxygen or hydrogen peroxyde), in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y. 3/ Assessment of work station concentration in Bq m -3 and particle size distribution (AMAD). 4/ Monitoring workers by routine urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ spectrometry. 5/ Use of individual protection filters or masks. Results and actual data on UF4 are presented and future prospects of studies on calcinated uranates are dealed with [fr

  15. Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

    2013-01-01

    Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions. Part I: Chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium in the workplace air of stainless steel welders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Papayova, A.; Saligova, D.; Tejral, J.; Borska, L.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to workplace airborne pollutants was examined in a group of 20 workers dealing mainly with welding, polishing, drilling and assembling of stainless steel constructions. Monitoring of airborne particulate matter (ARM) was performed using both personal and stationary samplers. For the personal full-shift monitoring, a SKC 224 PCRX-4 constant flow rate pump was used which was connected to a sampling head with mixed cellulose matched-weight filters having a diameter of 32 mm and a 0.8 μm pore size. The constant flow rate amounted to 2 L min -1 . For the stationary sampling, the ''Gent'' stacked filter unit PM10 sampler was used, operating at a flow rate of 16 L min -1 . It collects particles having an equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD) of less than 10,um in the separate ''coarse'' (2-10 μm EAD) and ''fine'' (< 2 μm EAD) size fractions on two sequential polycarbonate (Costar, Nuclepore) filters with a 47 mm diameter. The filters of both types were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Of the elements determined, results for chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium are presented. Procedures for quality assurance of both sampling and analytical stages are described. Sampling of biological material for elemental analysis (hair, nails, urine and blood and/or serum) of exposed and control persons in contamination-free conditions was also performed. In addition, saliva samples were collected for studying immunological and genotoxicity aspects of occupational exposure. (author)

  17. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  18. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  19. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  20. Reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin epidermal cells after exposure to nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alakhtani, Saad; Al Suhaibani, Entissar S; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) are increasingly used in various applications due to their unique properties. However, there is little information concerning the toxicity of NiNPs in the human skin cell (A431). The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and DNA damage due to NiNPs in A431 cells. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed that NiNPs induce significant cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. NiNPs were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mitigated the ROS generation due to NiNPs, suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. NiNPs also induced significant elevation of lipid peroxidation, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and caspase-3 activity in A431 cells. In addition, NAC suppressed NiNP-induced caspase-3 activity. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the NiNPs cause genotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Therefore, the study points out the capability of the NiNPs to induce oxidative stress resulting in apoptosis and genotoxicity. This study warrants more careful assessment of NiNPs before their industrial applications.

  1. Effects of chronic exposure to waterborne copper and nickel in binary mixture on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Jamwal, Ankur; Niyogi, Som

    2017-10-01

    The current study evaluated the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Fish trios (1 male: 2 female; n = 5-6) were exposed for 21 days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Ni), (ii) waterborne Cu (45 μg/L), (iii) waterborne Ni (270 μg/L), and (iv) binary mixture of waterborne Cu and Ni (45 and 270 μg/L, respectively). Fish fecundity (cumulative egg production) was found to be the most sensitive reproductive endpoint, and the interaction of Cu and Ni elicited an additive effect on egg production. Tissue-specific accumulation of both metals was not influenced by the interaction of Cu and Ni, except an increased Cu and Ni burden in the carcass and ovary, respectively, were recorded. The expressions of hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) and the circulating estradiol level in females were also not affected by the metal-mixture treatment. However, co-exposure to waterborne Cu and Ni resulted in a significant downregulation of the hepatic vitellogenin gene in females, which was associated with the maximum upregulation of the hepatic metallothionein gene. In addition, a significant alteration of ovarian histopathology (decreased abundance of post-vitellogenic follicles, and increased follicular atresia) was also observed only in females exposed to Cu and Ni in mixture. Collectively, these observations suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu and Ni in binary mixture may impair fish reproductive capacity by inducing histopathological damage in ovarian tissue, and disrupting of energy homeostasis in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  3. Urea increased nickel and copper accumulation in the leaves of Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. during short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezhda; Kumar, Adarsh

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, two fresh water plant species Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were subjected to separate and combined action of urea (2mМ) and metals (Ni and Cu, 10μM) to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these two submerged macrophytes during short-term experiments (48h). Both submerged macrophytes demonstrated high accumulative potential for Ni and Cu (average bioconcentration factors were 2505 for Ni and 3778 for Cu). The urea (2 mM) was not significantly toxic for studied plant species. Futhermore, urea worked as an additional source of nitrogen and stimulated some metabolic processes such as the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and activated some enzymes. Adding urea to the metals increased their accumulation in both macrophytes (on average by 35% for Ni and 15% for Cu). Combined action of urea and Ni did not have a significant effect on antioxidant response, but caused a sharp increase of urease activity (4 folds on an average) in both plants. The copper exerted a stronger toxic effect on both studied macrophytes compared to nickel. Adding urea to copper in some cases diminished the toxic action of this metal. Study concludes that the responses of E. densa and C. demersum to urea and metal action (separate and combined) were depended on the type of pollutant and the activity of antioxidant defence system. Therefore, the studied aquatic macrophytes found to be potential phytoremediators of water bodies, the addition of an organic nitrogen source in the form of urea in environmentally relevant concentration will increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nickel allergy in a Danish population 25 years after the first nickel regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading...... reactions within 30 min of contact were reported by 30.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel exposures that led to the implementation of a nickel regulation seem to persist. The durations of contact with metallic items to fall under the current REACH regulation of nickel correspond well with the results...... to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet. within the last 5 years at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Gentofte Hospital. RESULTS...

  5. The effect of composition, size, and solubility on acute pulmonary injury in rats following exposure to Mexico city ambient particulate matter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Thomas, Ronald F; Schladweiler, Mette C; McGee, John; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM)-associated metals can contribute to adverse cardiopulmonary effects following exposure to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate how variation in the composition and size of ambient PM collected from two distinct regions in Mexico City relates to toxicity differences. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (14 wk) were intratracheally instilled with chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from the north and PM10 from the south of Mexico City (3 mg/kg). Both water-soluble and acid-leachable fractions contained several metals, with levels generally higher in PM10 South. The insoluble and total, but not soluble, fractions of all PM induced pulmonary damage that was indicated by significant increases in neutrophilic inflammation, and several lung injury biomarkers including total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity 24 and 72 h postexposure. PM10 North and PM2.5 North also significantly decreased levels of the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Elevation in lung mRNA biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase [HO]-1, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor [LOX]-1, and inducibile nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), and thrombosis (tissue factor [TF] and plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1), as well as reduced levels of fibrinolytic protein tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), further indicated pulmonary injury following PM exposure. These responses were more pronounced with PM10 South (PM10 South > PM10 North > PM2.5 North), which contained higher levels of redox-active transition metals that may have contributed to specific differences in selected lung gene markers. These findings provide evidence that surface chemistry of the PM core and not the water-soluble fraction played an important role in regulating in vivo pulmonary toxicity responses to Mexico City PM.

  6. Hydrogen solubility in austenite of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnova, V.V.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Tomilin, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys at 600-1000 deg C is determined. Hydrogen solubility in ternary alloys can not be predicted on the basis of the data on its solubility in binary Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr alloys. Chromium and nickel effect on hydrogen solubility in iron is insignificant in comparison with the effect of these elements on carbon or nitrogen solubility [ru

  7. Nickel silicide formation in silicon implanted nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Z.; Williams, J. S.; Pogany, A. P.; Sood, D. K.; Collins, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    Nickel silicide formation during the annealing of very high dose (≥4.5×1017 ions/cm2) Si implanted Ni has been investigated, using ion beam analytical techniques, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. An initial amorphous Si-Ni alloy, formed as a result of high dose ion implantation, first crystallized to Ni2Si upon annealing in the temperature region of 200-300 °C. This was followed by the formation of Ni5Si2 in the temperature region of 300-400 °C and then by Ni3Si at 400-600 °C. The Ni3Si layer was found to have an epitaxial relationship with the substrate Ni, which was determined as Ni3Si∥Ni and Ni3Si∥Ni for Ni(100) samples. The minimum channeling yield in the 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectra of this epitaxial layer improved with higher annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, and reached a best value measured at about 8%. However, the epitaxial Ni3Si dissolved after long time annealing at 600 °C or annealing at higher temperatures to liberate soluble Si into the Ni substrate. The epitaxy is attributed to the excellent lattice match between the Ni3Si and the Ni. The annealing behavior follows the predictions of the Ni-Si phase diagram for this nickel-rich binary system.

  8. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds: comprehensive report of overall activities during the three-year period from December 1, 1977 to November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, Jr, F W

    1980-08-15

    The main research accomplishments during the past three years are summarized. The principle areas of investigation are: 1. embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity of nickel carbonyl; 2. metabolism, detoxification, and excretion of nickel compounds; 3. studies of nickel carcinogenesis; 4. nickel analysis in body fluids and tissues to monitor occupational exposures; 5. nephrotoxicity of nickel compounds; and 6. hematological effects of nickel compounds. (ACR)

  9. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  10. The Bioavailability of Soluble Cigarette Smoke Extract Is Reduced through Interactions with Cells and Affects the Cellular Response to CSE Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Jeffrey S; Jacob, Jeeva; Garewal, Aram; Ndahayo, Renata; Paxson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to cigarette smoke leads to an array of complex responses including apoptosis, cellular senescence, telomere dysfunction, cellular aging, and neoplastic transformation. To study the cellular response to cigarette smoke, a common in vitro model exposes cultured cells to a nominal concentration (i.e. initial concentration) of soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). However, we report that use of the nominal concentration of CSE as the only measure of cellular exposure is inadequate. Instead, we demonstrate that cellular response to CSE exposure is dependent not only on the nominal concentration of CSE, but also on specific experimental variables, including the total cell number, and the volume of CSE solution used. As found in other similar xenobiotic assays, our work suggests that the effective dose of CSE is more accurately related to the amount of bioavailable chemicals per cell. In particular, interactions of CSE components both with cells and other physical factors limit CSE bioavailability, as demonstrated by a quantifiably reduced cellular response to CSE that is first modified by such interactions. This has broad implications for the nature of cellular response to CSE exposure, and for the design of in vitro assays using CSE.

  11. Impact of nickel (Ni) on hematological parameters and behavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... The effect of nickel on hematological parameters and behaviour in Cyprinus carpio after a 96 h exposure to nickel test was investigated. .... important food item in human diet. Nickel is a natural element in the earth's makeup. This must be a factor in assessing its ability to harm the environment. Although,.

  12. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of nickel on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini Shirazi, Seyed Farshad; Aghvami, Marjan; Salimi, Ahmad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2018-02-01

    Nickel compounds possess many applications in different industrial processes. Human beings are exposed to nickel commonly through occupational exposure and food. Although a few studies so far have investigated the effects of nickel compounds on human lymphocytes, the complete mechanism of cytotoxicity of this metal on human lymphocytes is yet to be determined. The intention of this paper was to determine the cytotoxicity mechanism of water soluble NiCl 2 toward human lymphocytes using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanisms screening (ACMS) technique. Human lymphocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy subjects based on Ficoll-Paque PLUS standard method. For the assessment of cell viability, lymphocytes were incubated with 0.05-1 mM NiCl 2 for 12 h. Determination of mechanistic parameters was performed 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment of cells with ½ EC50 12h , EC50 12h and 2EC50 12h of NiCl 2 . Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of NiCl 2 on human lymphocytes is associated with increased ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, glutathione depletion, lysosomal membrane damage, cellular proteolysis and activation of caspase-3 before cytotoxicity ensued.

  13. Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene is associated with a decline in lymphocyte subsets and soluble CD27 and CD30 markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Q.; Zhang, L.; Tang, X.; Shen, M.; Smith, M.T.; Qiu, C.; Ge, Y.; Ji, Z.; Xiong, J.; He, J.; Reiss, B.; Hao, Z.; Liu, S.; Xie, Y.; Guo, W.; Purdue, M.P.; Galvan, N.; Xin, K.X.; Hu, W.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Blair, A.; Li, L.; Rothman, N.; Vermeulen, R.; Huang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational cohort and case-control studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but findings are not consistent. There is a need for mechanistic studies to evaluate the biologic plausibility of this association. We carried out a

  14. Ocean acidification stimulates alkali signal pathway: A bicarbonate sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase from oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates physiological changes induced by CO2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Mengqiang; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to have severe effects on marine organisms, especially marine calcifiers. However, the impacts of OA on the physiology of marine calcifiers and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an acid-base sensor in response to [HCO 3 - ] and an intracellular source of cyclic AMP (cAMP). In the present study, an ortholog of sAC was identified from pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated as CgsAC) and the catalytic region of CgsAC was cloned and expressed. Similar to the native CgsAC from gill tissues, the recombinant CgsAC protein (rCgsAC) exhibited [HCO 3 - ] mediated cAMP-forming activity, which could be inhibited by a small molecule KH7. After 16days of CO 2 exposure (pH=7.50), the mRNA transcripts of CgsAC increased in muscle, mantle, hepatopancreas, gill, male gonad and haemocytes, and two truncated CgsAC forms of 45kD and 20kD were produced. Cytosolic CgsAC could be translocated from the cytoplasm and nuclei to the membrane in response to CO 2 exposure. Besides, CO 2 exposure could increase the production of cAMP and intracellular pH of haemocytes, which was regulated by CgsAC (pocean acidification on marine calcifiers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential reproductive, neurobehavioral and systemic effects of soluble sodium tungstate exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturf, S.M.; Bekkedal, M.Y.V.; Wilfong, E.; Arfsten, D.; Chapman, G.; Gunasekar, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of daily pre-and postnatal exposure via oral gavage to 5, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg/day of NaW through mating, gestation and weaning (PND 0-20). Daily administration of NaW produced no overt evidence of toxicity and had no apparent effect on mating success or offspring physical development. Distress vocalizations were elevated in F 1 offspring from the high dose group, whereas righting reflex showed unexpected sex differences where males demonstrated faster righting than females; however, the effects were not dose-dependent. Locomotor activity was affected in both low and high-dose groups of F 1 females. Low-dose group showed increased distance traveled, more time in ambulatory movements and less time in stereotypic behavior than controls or high dose animals. The high-dose group had more time in stereotypical movements than controls, and less time resting than controls and the lowest exposure group. Maternal retrieval was not affected by NaW exposure. Tungsten analysis showed a systemic distribution of NaW in both parents and offspring, with preferential uptake within the immune organs, including the femur, spleen and thymus. Histopathological evidence suggested no severe chronic injury or loss of function in these organs. However, the heart showed histological lesions, histiocytic inflammation from minimal to mild with cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis in several P 0 animals of 125 mg NaW dose group. The result of this study suggests that pre and postnatal exposure to NaW may produce subtle neurobehavioral effects in offspring related to motor activity and emotionality.

  16. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  17. Solubility of simulated PWR primary circuit corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunig, R.H.; Sandler, Y.L.

    1986-08-01

    The solubility behavior of non-stoichiometric nickel ferrites, nickel-cobalt ferrites, and magnetite, as model substances for the corrosion products (''crud'') formed in nuclear pressurized water reactors, was studied in a flow system in aqueous solutions of lithium hydroxide, boric acid, and hydrogen with pH, temperature, and hydrogen concentrations as parameters. Below the temperature region of 300 to 330 0 C, at hydrogen concentrations of 25 to 40 cm 3 /kg H 2 O as used during reactor operation, the solubility of nickel-cobalt ferrite is the same as that of Ni and Co/sub x/Fe/sub 3-x/O 4 (x 3 /kg of hydrogen, the equilibrium iron and nickel solubilities increase congruently down to about 100 0 C, in a manner consistent with the solubility of Fe 3 O 4 , but sharply decline at lower temperatures, apparently due to formation of a borated layer. A cooldown experiment on a time scale of a typical Westinghouse reactor shutdown, as well as static experiments carried out on various ferrite samples at 60 0 C show that after addition of oxygen or peroxide evolution of nickel (and possibly cobalt) above the equilibrium solubility in hydrogen depends on the presence of dissociation products prior to oxidation. Thermodynamic calculations of various reduction and oxidative decomposition reactions for stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric nickel ferrite and cobalt ferrite are presented. Their significance to evolutions of nickel and cobalt on reactor shutdown is discussed. 30 refs., 38 figs., 34 tabs

  18. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA A R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA A R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA A R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor alters

  19. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  20. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  1. A longitudinal study on urinary cadmium and renal tubular protein excretion of nickel-cadmium battery workers after cessation of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanhua; Zhang, Yanfang; Yi, Juan; Zhou, Jinpeng; Huang, Xianqing; Shi, Xinshan; Xiao, Shunhua; Lin, Dafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to predict the outcome of urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion and renal tubular function by analyzing their evolution through 10 years after Cd exposure ceased. Forty-one female, non-smoking workers were recruited from the year 2004 to 2009 when being removed from a nickel-cadmium battery factory, and they were asked to provide morning urine samples on three consecutive days at enrollment and in every follow-up year until 2014. Urinary Cd and renal tubular function biomarkers including urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentrations were determined with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The medians of baseline Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations at enrollment were 6.19, 105.38 and 71.84 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary β2-m and RBP concentrations were both related to Cd concentrations over the years (β absolute-β2-m = 9.16, P = 0.008 and β absolute-RBP = 6.42, P < 0.001, respectively). Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations in the follow-up years were all associated with their baseline concentrations (β absolute-Cd = 0.61, P < 0.001; β absolute-β2-m = 0.64, P < 0.001; and β absolute-RBP = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively), and showed a decreasing tendency with the number of elapsed years relative to their baseline concentrations (β relative-Cd = -0.20, P = 0.010; β relative-β2-m = -17.19, P = 0.002; and β relative-RBP = -10.66, P < 0.001, respectively). Urinary Cd might eventually decrease to the general population level, and Cd-related tubular function would improve under the baseline conditions of this cohort.

  2. How does exposure to nickel and cadmium affect the transcriptome of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) – Results from a 1000 candidate-gene microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougas, Bérénice; Normandeau, Eric; Pierron, Fabien; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Bernatchez, Louis; Couture, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The transcriptional responses of Perca flavescens to both metal and non metal stressors were measured with a 1000 candidate-gene microarray. •475, 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed depending on temperature, Ni and Cd concentrations, respectively. •Genes involved in iron metabolism, transcriptional and translational processes, vitamin metabolism, blood coagulation, and calcium transport were impacted by metals. •The developed microarray contributes to a better characterization of the impact of different stressors on the transcriptome. -- Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity and their specific effects on fish are poorly understood. Documenting gene transcription profiles offers a powerful approach toward identifying the molecular mechanisms affected by these metals and to discover biomarkers of their toxicity. However, confounding environmental factors can complicate the interpretation of the results and the detection of biomarkers for fish captured in their natural environment. In the present study, a 1000 candidate-gene microarray, developed from a previous RNA-seq study on a subset of individual fish from contrasting level of metal contamination, was used to investigate the transcriptional response to metal (Ni and Cd) and non metal (temperature, oxygen, and diet) stressors in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Specifically, we aimed at (1) identifying transcriptional signatures specific to Ni and Cd exposure, (2) investigating the mechanisms of their toxicity, and (3) developing a predictive tool to identify the sublethal effects of Ni and Cd contaminants in fish sampled from natural environments. A total of 475 genes displayed significantly different transcription levels when temperature varied while 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed at different concentrations of Ni and Cd, respectively. These metals were found to mainly affect the transcription level of genes

  3. How does exposure to nickel and cadmium affect the transcriptome of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) – Results from a 1000 candidate-gene microarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: Berenice.Bougas@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Normandeau, Eric [Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Couture, Patrice [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre INRS Eau Terre et Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The transcriptional responses of Perca flavescens to both metal and non metal stressors were measured with a 1000 candidate-gene microarray. •475, 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed depending on temperature, Ni and Cd concentrations, respectively. •Genes involved in iron metabolism, transcriptional and translational processes, vitamin metabolism, blood coagulation, and calcium transport were impacted by metals. •The developed microarray contributes to a better characterization of the impact of different stressors on the transcriptome. -- Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) toxicity and their specific effects on fish are poorly understood. Documenting gene transcription profiles offers a powerful approach toward identifying the molecular mechanisms affected by these metals and to discover biomarkers of their toxicity. However, confounding environmental factors can complicate the interpretation of the results and the detection of biomarkers for fish captured in their natural environment. In the present study, a 1000 candidate-gene microarray, developed from a previous RNA-seq study on a subset of individual fish from contrasting level of metal contamination, was used to investigate the transcriptional response to metal (Ni and Cd) and non metal (temperature, oxygen, and diet) stressors in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Specifically, we aimed at (1) identifying transcriptional signatures specific to Ni and Cd exposure, (2) investigating the mechanisms of their toxicity, and (3) developing a predictive tool to identify the sublethal effects of Ni and Cd contaminants in fish sampled from natural environments. A total of 475 genes displayed significantly different transcription levels when temperature varied while 287 and 176 genes were differentially transcribed at different concentrations of Ni and Cd, respectively. These metals were found to mainly affect the transcription level of genes

  4. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  5. Protective effects of zinc acetate toward the toxicity of nickelous acetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Kasprzak, K.S.; Ohshima, M.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of zinc pretreatment on the acute toxicity of nickel. Male Fischer rats received either nickel alone (i.p.), zinc alone (s.c.), zinc plus nickel, or saline (i.p. and s.c.; controls). Zinc pretreatment significantly increased the 14-day survival of nickel-related rats. Zinc did not, however, prevent the reduction in weight gain over 2 weeks seen with nickel treatment. Histopathologically, at 120 h following nickel exposure, kidneys in the group receiving nickel alone generally showed moderate nephropathy (multifocal proximal tubule degeneration with necrosis) while in the zinc plus nickel group the nephropathy was generally mild. Zinc pretreatment had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of nickel over 24 h as assessed by urinary excretion, blood levels or organ distribution. Zinc pretreatment also did not alter the subcellular distribution of renal nickel 6 h after nickel exposure. Enhanced synthesis of metallothionein did not appear to play a critical role in the reduction of nickel toxicity, since renal concentrations of this metalbuilding protein, although elevated compared to control, were not different in rats receiving zinc and nickel or zinc alone. Zinc pretreatment did, however, have marked effect on nickel-induced hyperglycemia, reducing both the duration and severity of elevated blood glucose levels. Results of the study show that zinc can prevent some of the toxic effects of nickel and that the mechanism of this action does not appear to involve either metalothionein or alterations in the pharmacokinetics of nickel. (author)

  6. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.

    2005-01-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain β-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding

  7. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  8. Mortality of workers at a nickel carbonyl refinery, 1958–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T; Williams, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Excess risks of respiratory cancer have been shown in some groups of nickel exposed workers. It is clear, however, that not all forms of nickel exposure are implicated in these excess risks.

  9. Evaluation of Beryllium, Total Chromium and Nickel in the Surface Contaminant Layer Available for Dermal Exposure After Abrasive Blasting in a Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    workers are potentially exposed to metals including cadmium, chromium, beryllium, iron, lead, nickel, tin, zinc and copper (43). 2 Potential worker...identified in the breathing zone air samples at Portsmouth NSY, coal slag was the abrasive in use. Within Portsmouth NSY, there are two main areas...where coal slag is used for blasting: the dry docks for blasting of submarines and in Building 286. Building 286 is a large bay room building where

  10. Binding of Nickel to Testicular Glutamate–Ammonia Ligase Inhibits Its Enzymatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, YINGBIAO; OU, YOUNG; CHENG, MIN; RUAN, YIBING; VAN DER HOORN, FRANS A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to nickel has been shown to cause damage to the testis in several animal models. It is not known if the testis expresses protein(s) that can bind nickel. To test this, we used a nickel-binding assay to isolate testicular nickel-binding proteins. We identified glutamate–ammonia ligase (GLUL) as a prominent nickel-binding protein by mass spectrometry. Protein analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that GLUL is expressed in the testis, predominantly in interstitial cells. We determined that GLUL has a higher affinity for nickel than for its regular co-factor manganese. We produced an enzymatically active, recombinant GLUL protein. Upon binding, nickel interferes with the manganese-catalyzed enzymatic activity of recombinant GLUL protein. We also determined that GLUL activity in testes of animals exposed to nickel sulfate is reduced. Our results identify testicular GLUL as the first testicular protein shown to be affected by nickel exposure. PMID:21254280

  11. Austenitic stainless steel alloys with high nickel contents in high temperature liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konvicka, H.R.; Schwarz, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni base alloys (nickel content: from 15 to 70 wt%, Chromium content: 15 wt%, iron: balance) together with stainless steel (W.Nr. 1.4981) have been exposed to flowing liquid sodium at 730 0 C in four intervals up to a cumulative exposure time of 1500 hours. Weight change data and the results of post-exposition microcharacterization of specimens are reported. The corrosion rates increase with increasing nickel content and tend to become constant after longer exposure times for each alloy. The corrosion rate of stainless steel is considerably reduced due to the presence of the base alloys. Different kinetics of nickel poor (up to 35% nickel) and nickel rich (> 50% nickel) alloys and nickel transport from nickel rich to nickel poor material is observed. (orig.)

  12. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro biological activities of new water-soluble copper(II), zinc(II), and nickel(II) complexes with sulfonato-substituted Schiff base ligand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hosseini-Yazdi, S.A.; Mirzaahmadi, A.; Khandar, A.A.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Lotfipour, F.; Mahdavi, M.; Soltani, S.; Dehghan, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 458, Mar (2017), s. 171-180 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : water-soluble Schiff base * thiosemicarbazone * antimicrobial * antioxidant * cytotoxicity * crystal structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  14. Reactions of copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) acetates with a new water-soluble 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone Schiff base ligand: synthesis, characterization, unexpected cyclization, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hosseini-Yazdi, S.A.; Mirzaahmadi, A.; Khandar, A.A.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Mahdavi, M.; Soltani, S.; Lotfipour, F.; White, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 124, Mar (2017), s. 156-165 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antimicrobial * antioxidant * cytotoxicity * thiosemicarbazone * water-soluble Schiff base Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  15. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, Adriana R.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  16. Exposure of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) to a combination of resin acids and a water soluble fraction of diesel fuel oil: A model to investigate the chemical causes of pigmented salmon syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, B.; Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Aberdeen; Stagg, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pigmented salmon syndrome is a pollutant-induced hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. As part of an investigation of this condition, S2 Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) were exposed to a diesel fuel oil, water soluble fraction (WSF) in combination with a mixture of three resin acids (isopimaric, dehydroabietic, and abietic acids) in a continuous-flow freshwater system. The total nominal concentrations of resin acids in the exposure tanks were 10, 50, and 100 microg/L; the diesel WSF was generated in situ and provided a mean hydrocarbon concentration of 2.0 ± 0.1 mg/L (n = 12) during the 9-d exposure period. Exposure to the diesel WSF alone depressed liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and induced phenol UDPGT activity. Exposure to the diesel WSF in the absence or presence of resin acids induced liver cytochrome P4501A and increased the concentrations in the plasma of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. The combined exposure to diesel WSF with either 50 or 100 microg/L total resin acid caused significant elevations in the concentrations of bilirubin in the plasma and many of these fish had yellow pigmentation on the ventral surface and around the gill arches. The results demonstrate that exposure to combinations of two groups of contaminants can result in the manifestation of toxic effects not apparent from exposure to either of these chemicals in isolation

  17. 76 FR 47996 - Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Significant New Use Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 0.1 mg/m\\3\\ for nickel. The... 2070-AB27 Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Significant New Use Rule AGENCY: Environmental... lithium manganese nickel oxide (CAS No. 182442-95-1), which was the subject of premanufacture notice (PMN...

  18. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  19. Analytical approaches for the characterization of nickel proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Lamana, Javier; Szpunar, Joanna

    2017-08-16

    The use of nickel in modern industry and in consumer products implies some health problems for the human being. Nickel allergy and nickel carcinogenicity are well-known health effects related to human exposure to nickel, either during production of nickel-containing products or by direct contact with the final item. In this context, the study of nickel toxicity and nickel carcinogenicity involves the understanding of their molecular mechanisms and hence the characterization of the nickel-binding proteins in different biological samples. During the last 50 years, a broad range of analytical techniques, covering from the first chromatographic columns to the last generation mass spectrometers, have been used in order to fully characterize the nickel proteome. The aim of this review is to present a critical view of the different analytical approaches that have been applied for the purification, isolation, detection and identification of nickel-binding proteins. The different analytical techniques used are discussed from a critical point of view, highlighting advantages and limitations.

  20. Differential pulmonary and cardiac effects of pulmonary exposure to a panel of particulate matter-associated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenborn, J. Grace; Schladweiler, Mette J.; Richards, Judy H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological mechanisms underlying the association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased cardiovascular health effects are under investigation. Water-soluble metals reaching systemic circulation following pulmonary exposure are likely exerting a direct effect. However, it is unclear whether specific PM-associated metals may be driving this. We hypothesized that exposure to equimolar amounts of five individual PM-associated metals would cause differential pulmonary and cardiac effects. We exposed male WKY rats (14 weeks old) via a single intratracheal instillation (IT) to saline or 1 μmol/kg body weight of zinc, nickel, vanadium, copper, or iron in sulfate form. Responses were analyzed 4, 24, 48, or 96 h after exposure. Pulmonary effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, protein, albumin, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and n-acetyl glucosaminidase. Copper induced earlier pulmonary injury/inflammation, while zinc and nickel produced later effects. Vanadium or iron exposure induced minimal pulmonary injury/inflammation. Zinc, nickel, or copper increased serum cholesterol, red blood cells, and white blood cells at different time points. IT of nickel and copper increased expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in the lung. Zinc, nickel, vanadium, and iron increased hepatic MT-1 expression. No significant changes in zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) expression were noted in the lung or liver; however, zinc increased cardiac ZnT-1 at 24 h, indicating a possible zinc-specific cardiac effect. Nickel exposure induced an increase in cardiac ferritin 96 h after IT. This data set demonstrating metal-specific cardiotoxicity is important in linking metal-enriched anthropogenic PM sources with adverse health effects.

  1. Nickel and ocean warming affect scleractinian coral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscéré, T; Lorrain, A; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Gilbert, A; Wright, A; Devissi, C; Peignon, C; Farman, R; Duvieilbourg, E; Payri, C; Houlbrèque, F

    2017-07-15

    The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A. muricata. The in situ experiment highlighted that nickel enrichment, at ambient temperature, stimulated by 27 to 47% the calcification rates of both species but not their photosynthetic performances. In contrast, an exposure to higher nickel concentration, in combination with elevated temperature simulated in aquaria, severely depressed by 30% the growth of A. muricata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the slag from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rosilda M G; Carneiro, Luana G; Afonso, Júlio C; Cunha, Kenya M D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) for nickel, cadmium, zinc and manganese compounds present in a pile of slag accumulated under exposure to weathering. This slag was generated by a metallurgical industry that produced zinc and zinc alloys from hemimorphite (Zn(4)(OH)(2)Si(2)O(7).H(2)O) and willemite (Zn(2)SiO(4)) minerals. A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters and Gamble's solution was used as the simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the slag samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). There are significant differences in terms of solubility parameters among the metals. The results indicated that the zinc, nickel, cadmium and manganese compounds present in the slag were moderately soluble in the SLF. The rapid dissolution fractions of these metals are associated with their sulfates. In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the slag.

  3. Concentration-dependent induction of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human liver cells after nickel nanoparticles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-02-01

    Due to advent of nanotechnology, nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in various applications including catalysts, sensors and electronics. However, the environmental and human health effects of Ni NPs have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined toxic effects of Ni NPs in human liver (HepG2) cells. Ni NPs were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. We observed that Ni NPs (size, ∼28 nm; concentration range, 25-100 μg/mL) induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and degree of induction was concentration-dependent. Ni NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner evident by induction of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione. Cell cycle analysis of cells treated with Ni NPs exhibited significant increase of apoptotic cell population in subG1 phase. Ni NPs also induced caspase-3 enzyme activity and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Upregulation of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and bax/bcl-2 ratio with a concomitant loss in mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Ni NPs induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells was mediated through mitochondrial pathway. This study warrants that applications of Ni NPs should be carefully assessed as to their toxicity to human health. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nickel Allergy and Our Children's Health: A Review of Indexed Cases and a View of Future Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz S; Usatine, Richard; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Nickel is the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from early childhood through adolescence. Studies have shown that skin piercings and other nickel-laden exposures can trigger the onset of nickel ACD in those who are susceptible. Nickel ACD causes a vast amount of cutaneous disease in children. Cases of nickel ACD in children have been reported in peer-reviewed literature from 28 states. Common items that contain inciting nickel include jewelry, coins, zippers, belts, tools, toys, chair studs, cases for cell phones and tablets, and dental appliances. The diagnosis of nickel ACD has been routinely confirmed by patch testing in children older than 6 months suspected of ACD from nickel. Unlike in Europe, there are no mandatory restrictions legislated for nickel exposure in the United States. Denmark has demonstrated that regulation of the nickel content in metals can lower the risk of ACD and the associated health care-related costs that arise from excess nickel exposure. To further awareness, this article reviews the prominent role of nickel in pediatric skin disease in the United States. It discusses the need for a campaign by caretakers to reduce nickel-related morbidity. Lastly, it promotes the model of European legislation as a successful intervention in the prevention of nickel ACD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  6. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  7. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Corynybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 4 tables.

  8. Soluble transition metals cause the pro-inflammatory effects of welding fumes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeilly, Jane D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.; Howe, Alan; Gibson, Mark D.; Hibbs, Leon R.; MacNee, William; Donaldson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a higher incidence of respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, metal fume fever (MFF), and chronic pneumonitis among welders exposed to high concentrations of metal-enriched welding fumes. Here, we studied the molecular toxicology of three different metal-rich welding fumes: NIMROD 182, NIMROD c276, and COBSTEL 6. Fume toxicity in vitro was determined by exposing human type II alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) to whole welding fume, a soluble extract of fume or the 'washed' particulate. All whole fumes were significantly toxic to A549 cells at doses >63 μg ml -1 (TD 50; 42, 25, and 12 μg ml -1 , respectively). NIMROD c276 and COBSTEL 6 fumes increased levels of IL-8 mRNA and protein at 6 h and protein at 24 h, as did the soluble fraction alone, whereas metal chelation of the soluble fraction using chelex beads attenuated the effect. The soluble fraction of all three fumes caused a rapid depletion in intracellular glutathione following 2-h exposure with a rebound increase by 24 h. In addition, both nickel based fumes, NIMROD 182 and NIMROD c276, induced significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in A549 cells after 2 h as determined by DCFH fluorescence. ICP analysis confirmed that transition metal concentrations were similar in the whole and soluble fractions of each fume (dominated by Cr), but significantly less in both the washed particles and chelated fractions. These results support the hypothesis that the enhanced pro-inflammatory responses of welding fume particulates are mediated by soluble transition metal components via an oxidative stress mechanism

  9. Gene expression profiling of chicken cecal tonsils and ileum following oral exposure to soluble and PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, and lysate of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Yitbarek, Alexander; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C. jejuni lysate, are effective in reducing the intestinal burden of C. jejuni in chickens; however, the mechanisms behind this protection have yet to be determined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of host responses conferred by these treatments. Chickens were treated orally with soluble CpG ODN, or PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, or C. jejuni lysate, and expression of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides was evaluated in cecal tonsils and ileum using quantitative RT-PCR. Oral administration of soluble CpG ODN upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCLi2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4/1, IL-10 and IL-13, while treatment with PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN upregulated the expression of IL-1β, CXCLi2, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). C. jejuni lysate upregulated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, AvBD1, and CATHL-3. In conclusion, induction of cytokine and antimicrobial peptides expression in intestinal microenvironments may provide a means of reducing C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens, a key step in reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry to adulthood following a 10-day exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble fraction of crude oil and release to the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtwell, I. K.; Fink, R.; Brand, D.; Alexander, R.; McAllister, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Potential effects of hydrocarbons on salmonids were investigated. In the course of the experiment pink salmon fry were exposed for 10 days to seawater containing varying controlled doses of the water-soluble fractions of North Slope crude oil, comprised primarily of monoaromatics. After exposure the fry were released into the Pacific Ocean to complete their life cycle. The experiments were replicated for three years following the original experiment. No consistent dose-dependent effect of the 10-day exposure on the growth and survival to maturity of the pink salmon was observed, although there was high mortality following each initial release. These results may be considered as one measure of resistance to exposure to contaminants, however, the method is not recommended for general use because it is based on a highly selected sample (i.e. those that survived the initial exposure), and the same results may not apply to populations that have not been subjected to intensive nonselective fishing pressures. In summary, the survival of some fraction of the population of pink salmon is evidence of the robustness of some of these fish, but it is at best a crude indicator of environmental health. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Adverse effects of nickel in transosseous wires and surgical implants: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwashindi, A; Dim, E M

    2014-01-01

    Transosseous wires used in the management of fractures are stainless steel alloys which contain nickel 14.5%, chromium 17.6%, iron 62.5% and molybdenum 2.8%. Gradual disintegration of the transosseous wires release nickel into the blood leading to increase nickel concentration in the blood. Nickel has been found to have some adverse systemic effects on the body. The aim of this paper is to discuss the sources of Nickel in the body as well as the systemic adverse effects of Nickel as a degradation product of stainless steel surgical implants. A study of pertinent literature on nickel as a content of stainless steel alloy used in implant surgery was done, taking note also of other sources of nickel in the body, the toxicokinetics of nickel and the related adverse effects of this metal and its compound in humans. As outcome,the sources of human exposure to nickel,distribution and metabolism of nickel in the body, host responseto stainless steel wires and the adverse effects of nickel in the body are presented. It may be necessary to discourage the use of wires or implants containing nickel in the management of fractures.The need for removal of these implants after they have served their purposes is emphasized.

  12. Impact of humic substances on the aqueous solubility, uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum, palladium and rhodium in exposure studies with Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sures, Bernd; Zimmermann, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were exposed to different types of water containing PGE salts (PtCl 4 , PdSO 4 , RhCl 3 ) to investigate the influence of humic substances on the aqueous solubility, uptake and bioaccumulation of noble metals. The results showed a time dependent decrease of the aqueous PGE concentrations in tank water for all groups. This could mainly be related to non-biological processes. The aqueous solubility of Pd and Rh was higher in humic water compared with non-chlorinated tap water, whereas Pt showed opposing results. Highest metal uptake rates and highest bioaccumulation plateaus were found for Pd, followed by Pt and Rh. Pd uptake and bioaccumulation was significantly hampered by humic substances, whose presence appear to increase Pt uptake and bioaccumulation. No clear trend emerged for Rh. Differences in effects of humic matter among the PGE may be explained by formation of metal complexes with different fractions of humic substances. - Precious metal accumulation in Dreissena polymorpha is affected by humic substances

  13. Impact of humic substances on the aqueous solubility, uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum, palladium and rhodium in exposure studies with Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, Bernd [Department of Applied Zoology/Hydrobiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45177 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: bernd.sures@uni-due.de; Zimmermann, Sonja [Department of Applied Zoology/Hydrobiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45177 Essen (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were exposed to different types of water containing PGE salts (PtCl{sub 4}, PdSO{sub 4}, RhCl{sub 3}) to investigate the influence of humic substances on the aqueous solubility, uptake and bioaccumulation of noble metals. The results showed a time dependent decrease of the aqueous PGE concentrations in tank water for all groups. This could mainly be related to non-biological processes. The aqueous solubility of Pd and Rh was higher in humic water compared with non-chlorinated tap water, whereas Pt showed opposing results. Highest metal uptake rates and highest bioaccumulation plateaus were found for Pd, followed by Pt and Rh. Pd uptake and bioaccumulation was significantly hampered by humic substances, whose presence appear to increase Pt uptake and bioaccumulation. No clear trend emerged for Rh. Differences in effects of humic matter among the PGE may be explained by formation of metal complexes with different fractions of humic substances. - Precious metal accumulation in Dreissena polymorpha is affected by humic substances.

  14. Amplification of the Ect2 proto-oncogene and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein in nickel compound and methylcholanthrene-transformed 10T1/2 mouse fibroblast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Farrah; Verma, Rini; Ramnath, Jamuna; Landolph, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Occupational exposure of humans to mixtures of insoluble and soluble nickel (Ni) compounds correlates with increased incidences of lung, sinus, and pharyngeal tumors. Specific insoluble Ni compounds are carcinogenic to animals by inhalation and induce morphological and neoplastic transformation of cultured rodent cells. Our objectives were to (1) understand mechanisms of nickel ion-induced cell transformation, hence carcinogenesis and (2) develop biomarkers of nickel ion exposure and nickel ion-induced cell transformation. We isolated mRNAs from green nickel oxide (NiO), crystalline nickel monosulfide (NiS), and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) transformed C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 cell lines, and determined by mRNA differential display that nine mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between Ni transformed and non-transformed 10T1/2 cell lines. Fragment R2-5 was expressed at higher steady-state levels in the transformed cell lines. R2-5 had 100% sequence identity to part of the coding region of Ect2, a mouse proto-oncogene encoding a GDP-GTP exchange factor. The 3.9-kb Ect2 transcript was expressed at 1.6- to 3.6-fold higher steady-state levels in four Ni transformed, and in two MCA-transformed, cell lines. Ect2 protein was expressed at 3.0- to 4.5-fold higher steady-state levels in Ni-transformed and in MCA-transformed cell lines. The Ect2 gene was amplified by 3.5- to 10-fold in Ni transformed, and by 2.5- to 3-fold in MCA transformed cell lines. Binding of nickel ions to enzymes of DNA synthesis likely caused amplification of the Ect2 gene. Ect2 gene amplification and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein can cause microtubule disassembly and cytokinesis, contributing to induction and maintenance of morphological, anchorage-independent, and neoplastic transformation of these cell lines. Over-expression of Ect2 protein is a useful biomarker to detect exposure to nickel compounds and nickel ion-induced morphological and neoplastic cell transformation

  15. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  16. Nickel and cobalt release from children's toys purchased in Denmark and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Jellesen, Morten S; Jacob, Sharon E; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance to identify new sources of nickel exposure in this age group is important. Recent case reports have described allergic nickel contact dermatitis in children following exposure to toys, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate nickel and cobalt release from children's toys. We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released cobalt. Toys are a commonly overlooked source of nickel exposure and sensitization. Therefore, dermatologists, allergists, and pediatricians should consider the role of toys in their evaluation of children with dermatitis, and the parents of children with positive nickel patch test reactions should be told that toys may release nickel and be a potential chemical source in the manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. The solubility of metals in Pb-17Li liquid alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.; Feuerstein, H.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility data of iron in the eutectic alloy Pb-17Li which were evaluated from corrosion tests in a turbulent flow of the molten alloy are discussed in the frame of solubilities of the transition metals in liquid lead. It is shown that the solubility of iron in the alloy is close to that in lead. This is also the fact for several other alloying elements of steels. A comparison of all known data shows that they are in agreement with generally shown trends for the solubility of the transition metals in low melting metals. These trends indicate comparably high solubilities of nickel and manganese in the liquid metals, lower saturation concentration of vanadium, chromium, iron, and cobalt, and extremely low solubility of molybdenum. (orig.)

  18. Study of solubility of akaline earth metals in liquid iron and in alloys on its base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, Yu.A.; Archugov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Solubility of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium in liquid iron and its alloys with aluminium, silicon, nickel, chromium and carbon at 1600 deg C has been measured. Interaction parameters taking account of the effect of added elements on alkaline earth metal solubility in liquid iron have been estimated

  19. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  20. Nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination by inhibiting histone deubiquitinating enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Qingdong; Ellen, Thomas P.; Costa, Max

    2008-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are known carcinogens but underlying mechanisms are not clear. Epigenetic changes are likely to play an important role in nickel ion carcinogenesis. Previous studies have shown epigenetic effects of nickel ions, including the loss of histone acetylation and a pronounced increase in dimethylated H3K9 in nickel-exposed cells. In this study, we demonstrated that both water-soluble and insoluble nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination (uH2A and uH2B) in a variety of cell lines. Investigations of the mechanism by which nickel increases histone ubiquitination in cells reveal that nickel does not affect cellular levels of the substrates of this modification, i.e., ubiquitin, histones, and other non-histone ubiquitinated proteins. In vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays have been developed to further investigate possible effects of nickel on enzymes responsible for histone ubiquitination. Results from the in vitro assays demonstrate that the presence of nickel did not affect the levels of ubiquitinated histones in the ubiquitinating assay. Instead, the addition of nickel significantly prevents loss of uH2A and uH2B in the deubiquitinating assay, suggesting that nickel-induced histone ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of (a) putative deubiquitinating enzyme(s). Additional supporting evidence comes from the comparison of the response to nickel ions with a known deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor, iodoacetamide (IAA). This study is the first to demonstrate such effects of nickel ions on histone ubiquitination. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in altering the steady state of this modification. The study provides further evidence that supports the notion that nickel ions alter epigenetic homeostasis in cells, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis

  1. Screening of Trichoderma isolates for their potential of biosorption of nickel and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Nabakishor; Roy, Ayon; Bhattacharya, Prateek Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentrations of the genotoxic metals, chromium and nickel, in whales, tar balls, oil slicks, and released oil from the gulf of Mexico in the immediate aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil crisis: is genotoxic metal exposure part of the deepwater horizon legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster.

  3. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  4. Nickel deposited on the skin-visualization by DMG test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Skare, Lizbet; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2011-03-01

    Nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy and an important risk factor for hand eczema. Visualization techniques may be powerful in showing exposures. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test might be used to establish skin exposure to nickel. To develop and evaluate methods for visualization of nickel on the skin by the DMG test and hand imprints. Nickel solutions at different concentrations were applied in duplicate on the hands in healthy subjects (n = 5). The DMG test and acid wipe sampling for quantification were then performed. Hand imprints were taken after manipulation of nickel-releasing tools (n = 1), and in workers performing their normal tasks (n = 7). The imprints were developed by the DMG test. The DMG test on hands gave positive results in all subjects. The lowest concentration giving rise to a colour change was set to 0.13 µg/cm(2) for DMG testing on skin. DMG test-developed imprints worked well except when hands were heavily contaminated by other particles/dust. The DMG test may be used as a simple and powerful tool for visualization of nickel on skin. DMG test-developed hand imprints may, in the future, be used for semi-quantitative or quantitative exposure assessment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  6. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  7. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  8. Nickel speciation in cement-stabilized/solidified metal treatment filtercakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: reroy@lsu.edu [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA (United States); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment, Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • XAS shows the same Ni speciation in untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Ni solubility is the same for untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Leaching is controlled by pH and physical encapsulation for all binders. - Abstract: Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is used to decrease environmental leaching of contaminants from industrial wastes. In this study, two industrial metal treatment filtercakes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR); speciation of nickel was examined by X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Although the degree of carbonation and crystallinity of the two untreated filtercakes differed, α-nickel hydroxide was identified as the primary nickel-containing phase by XRD and nickel K edge XAS. XAS showed that the speciation of nickel in the filtercake was unaltered by treatment with any of five different S/S binder systems. Nickel leaching from the untreated filtercakes and all their stabilized/solidified products, as a function of pH in the acid neutralization capacity test, was essentially complete below pH ∼5, but was 3–4 orders of magnitude lower at pH 8–12. S/S does not respeciate nickel from metal treatment filtercakes and any reduction of nickel leaching by S/S is attributable to pH control and physical mechanisms only. pH-dependent leaching of Cr, Cu and Ni is similar for the wastes and s/s products, except that availability of Cr, Cu and Zn at decreased pH is reduced in matrices containing ground granulated blast furnace slag.

  9. Vorinostat with Sustained Exposure and High Solubility in Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) Micelle Nanocarriers: Characterization and Effects on Pharmacokinetics in Rat Serum and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A.; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M.; Remsberg, Connie M.; Borg, Thanaa M.; Foda, Abdel Monem M.; Takemoto, Jody K.; Sayre, Casey; Martinez, Stephanie; Davies, Neal M.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anti-cancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat’s pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared to a conventional PEG400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 mg/ml to 8.15 ± 0.60 mg/ml and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/ml at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 nm and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19 %, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. PMID:22806441

  10. Vorinostat with sustained exposure and high solubility in poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) micelle nanocarriers: characterization and effects on pharmacokinetics in rat serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M; Remsberg, Connie M; Borg, Thanaa M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Takemoto, Jody K; Sayre, Casey L; Martinez, Stephanie E; Davies, Neal M; Forrest, M Laird

    2012-10-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anticancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat's pharmacokinetics in rats was investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (p.o.) (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared with a conventional polyethylene glycol 400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 to 8.15 ± 0.60 and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/mL at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19%, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the p.o. and i.v. pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of metallic items that caused nickel dermatitis in Danish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-09-01

    Nickel allergy is prevalent as assessed by epidemiological studies. In an attempt to further identify and characterize sources that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis, we analysed items identified by nickel-allergic dermatitis patients as causative of nickel dermatitis by using the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test. Dermatitis patients with nickel allergy of current relevance were identified over a 2-year period in a tertiary referral patch test centre. When possible, their work tools and personal items were examined with the DMG test. Among 95 nickel-allergic dermatitis patients, 70 (73.7%) had metallic items investigated for nickel release. A total of 151 items were investigated, and 66 (43.7%) gave positive DMG test reactions. Objects were nearly all purchased or acquired after the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive. Only one object had been inherited, and only two objects had been purchased outside of Denmark. DMG testing is valuable as a screening test for nickel release and should be used to identify relevant exposures in nickel-allergic patients. Mainly consumer items, but also work tools used in an occupational setting, released nickel in dermatitis patients. This study confirmed 'risk items' from previous studies, including mobile phones.

  12. Nickel films: Nonselective and selective photochemical deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.V.; Boitsova, T.B.; Gorbunova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.V.; Pronin, V.P.; Kon'uhov, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel films deposited on quartz surfaces by the photochemical reduction of a chemical nickel plating solution were studied. It was found that the deposition of the films occurs after an induction period, the length of which depends on the composition of the photolyte and the light intensity. Ni particles with a mean diameter of 20-30 nm were detected initially by transmission electron microscopy. The particles then increased in size (50 nm) upon irradiation and grouped into rings consisting of 4-5 particles. Irradiation with high-intensity light produces three-dimensional films. The calculated extinction coefficient of the nickel film was found to be 4800 L mol -1 cm -1 . Electron diffraction revealed that the prepared amorphous nickel films crystallize after one day of storage. It was determined that the films exhibit catalytic activity in the process of nickel deposition from nickel plating solution. The catalytic action remains for about 5-7 min after exposure of the films to air. The processes of selective and nonselective deposition of the nickel films are discussed. The use of poly(butoxy titanium) in the process of selective photochemical deposition enables negative and positive images to be prepared on quartz surfaces

  13. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  14. Solubility of cobalt in primary circuit solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.; Joyer, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) was measured in PWR primary circuit conditions, in the temperature range 250-350 deg C, and the results were compared with the ones obtained on magnetite and nickel ferrite. As in the former cases, it was found that, in the prevailing primary circuit conditions, the solubility of the cobalt ferrite was minimum at temperatures around 300 deg C, for cobalt as well as for iron. The equilibrium iron concentration is significantly lower than in the case of magnetite. The results are discussed in relation with the POTHY code, based only on thermodynamic laws and data, used for the prediction of the primary circuit chemistry

  15. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  16. Experimental nickel-induced pulmonary lesions in nonhuman primates: Histologic and ultrastructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, P.J.; Bice, D.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The histologic and ultrastructural alterations of lung were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys instilled with nickel subsulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ) at a final dose of 0.06 μmol/g lung with and without repeated intrapulmonary exposure to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). individual lung lobes were exposed to nickel alone, SRBC alone, or nickel and SRBC together. Lesions were found in nickel-exposed lobes only, regardless of exposure to SRBC. Lesions were more developed at 14 days than at 21 days after exposure to nickel, and were characterized by multifocal perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltrates along with microgranuloma formation, occasional fibrosis and moderate type II epithelial cell hyperplasia. Microgranulomas consisted of either central histiocytic cores surrounded by lymphocytic mantles or dense aggregates of epithelioid cells forming irregular interstitial nodules. Tracheobronchial lymph nodes had marked reactive hyperplasia of cortical and paracortical zones. Ultrastructural analysis of lung lesions revealed numerous well-differentiated lymphocytes intermixed with macrophages, in a background of mature collagen bundles. Cell associated particles were evaluated by energy dispersive microanalysis and found to consist of nickel and sulfur. These lesions appeared to be distinct from pneumoconiotic lesions induced by inert dusts and had histologic qualities compatible with immune-mediated phenomena. Because nickel compounds stimulate strong humoral and cellular immune responses in man, we conclude that pulmonary exposure of nonhuman primates to nickel compounds may provide information useful in delineating Immune mediated pulmonary disorders of man. (author)

  17. Genotoxic Changes to Rodent Cells Exposed in Vitro to Tungsten, Nickel, Cobalt and Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bardack

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten-based materials have been proposed as replacements for depleted uranium in armor-penetrating munitions and for lead in small-arms ammunition. A recent report demonstrated that a military-grade composition of tungsten, nickel, and cobalt induced a highly-aggressive, metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into the leg muscle of laboratory rats to simulate a shrapnel wound. The early genetic changes occurring in response to embedded metal fragments are not known. In this study, we utilized two cultured rodent myoblast cell lines, exposed to soluble tungsten alloys and the individual metals comprising the alloys, to study the genotoxic effects. By profiling cell transcriptomes using microarray, we found slight, yet distinct and unique, gene expression changes in rat myoblast cells after 24 h metal exposure, and several genes were identified that correlate with impending adverse consequences of ongoing exposure to weapons-grade tungsten alloy. These changes were not as apparent in the mouse myoblast cell line. This indicates a potential species difference in the cellular response to tungsten alloy, a hypothesis supported by current findings with in vivo model systems. Studies examining genotoxic-associated gene expression changes in cells from longer exposure times are warranted.

  18. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  19. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    %), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian...... Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently...

  20. Phosphorus effect on structure and physical properties of iron-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseneva, F.N.; Kalinin, V.M.; Rybalko, O.F.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and properties of iron-nickel alloys (30-50 % Ni) containing from 0.02 to 0.5 wt. % P have been investigated. It has been found that phosphorus solubility in iron-nickel alloys at most purified from impurities exceeds limiting solubility values usually observed for commercial alloys. Phosphide eutectics precipitation over the grain boundaries of studied alloys occurs but with phosphorus content equal 0.45 wt. %. The 0.4 wt. % P addition in invar alloys increases saturation magnetization and the Curie point and leads to a more homogeneous structure

  1. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  2. Nickel and Cobalt Release From Children's Toys Purchased in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R.

    2014-01-01

    from children's toys. Methods : We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. Results : A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released......Background : Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance...

  3. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2009-01-01

    with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P exposures was available. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel allergy decreased among young female patients with dermatitis between 1985 and 2007 whereas it increased among older patients, probably......BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...

  4. Use of zeolite to neutralise nickel in a soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2017-12-30

    Nickel is a heavy metal which is a stable soil pollutant which is difficult to remediate. An attempt to reduce its impact on the environment can be made by changing its solubility. The right level of hydrogen ions and the content of mineral and organic colloids are crucial in this regard. Therefore, methods to neutralise heavy metals in soil are sought. There are no reports in the literature on the possibility of using minerals in the detoxication of a soil environment contaminated with metals. It is important to fill the gap in research on the effect of zeolites on the microbiological, biochemical and physicochemical properties of soils under pressure from heavy metals. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted on two soils which examined the effect of various levels of contamination of soil with nickel on the activity of soil enzymes, physical and chemical properties and growth and development of plants. An alleviating effect of zeolite Bio.Zeo.S.01 on the negative impact of nickel on the soil and a plant (oats) was examined. The enzyme activity and the oat yield were found to be significantly and negatively affected by an excess of nickel in the soil, regardless of the soil type. The metal was accumulated more in the oat roots than in the above-ground parts. An addition of zeolite decreased the level of accumulation of nickel in oats grown only on sandy-silty loam. Zeolite Bio.Zeo.S.01 used in the study only slightly alleviated the negative effect of nickel on the biochemical properties of soil. Therefore, its usability in the remediation of soil contaminated with nickel is small.

  5. Nickel sulfate induces numerous defects in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be transferred to progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dayong; Wang Yang

    2008-01-01

    Whether the multiple biological toxicities from nickel exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In this report, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities of nickel and their possibly transferable properties. The nickel toxicity caused multiple biological defects in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred and could be only partially rescued in progeny. Some specific phenotypes in progeny were also found to exhibit no obvious rescue phenotypes or to show even more severe defects than their parents. The defects caused by nickel exposure could be classified into four groups according to their transferring properties. That is, the defects caused by nickel exposure could be largely, or partially, or unable to be rescued, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, most of the nickel exposure-caused defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny to different degrees in C. elegans. - Nickel exposure can cause multi-biological toxicities and these defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny in C. elegans

  6. Nickel sulfate induces numerous defects in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be transferred to progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dayong [Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education (China)], E-mail: dayongw@seu.edu.cn; Wang Yang [Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education (China)

    2008-02-15

    Whether the multiple biological toxicities from nickel exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In this report, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities of nickel and their possibly transferable properties. The nickel toxicity caused multiple biological defects in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred and could be only partially rescued in progeny. Some specific phenotypes in progeny were also found to exhibit no obvious rescue phenotypes or to show even more severe defects than their parents. The defects caused by nickel exposure could be classified into four groups according to their transferring properties. That is, the defects caused by nickel exposure could be largely, or partially, or unable to be rescued, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, most of the nickel exposure-caused defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny to different degrees in C. elegans. - Nickel exposure can cause multi-biological toxicities and these defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny in C. elegans.

  7. Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  9. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  10. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  11. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  12. Effect of L-ascorbic acid on nickel-induced alterations in serum lipid profiles and liver histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Gupta, Amrita Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Patil, Ashok M; Das, Swastika N; Ambekar, Jeevan G

    2006-01-01

    Nickel exposure greatly depletes intracellular ascorbate and alters ascorbate-cholesterol metabolism. We studied the effect of the simultaneous oral treatment with L-ascorbic acid (50 mg/100 g body weight (BW) and nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g BW, i.p) on nickelinduced changes in serum lipid profiles and liver histopathology. Nickel-treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and a significant decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In the liver, nickel sulfate caused a loss of normal architecture, fatty changes, extensive vacuolization in hepatocytes, eccentric nuclei, and Kupffer cell hypertrophy. Simultaneous administration of L-ascorbic acid with nickel sulfate improved both the lipid profile and liver impairments when compared with rats receiving nickel sulfate only. The results indicate that L-ascorbic acid is beneficial in preventing nickel-induced lipid alterations and hepatocellular damage.

  13. Combined effect of vanadium and nickel on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exposure to nickel led to a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in SOD, GST activities in liver and GSH content in kidney and a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the hepatic MDA content and renal SOD activity. When the metals were administered in combination, the elevation of lipid peroxidation did not potentiate. However ...

  14. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of nickel in Enchytraeus crypticus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal toxicity is usually determined at a fixed time point, which may bias the assessment of risks associated with varied exposure time. Time-dependent accumulation and toxicity of nickel in the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus were investigated in solutions embedded in an inert quartz sand matrix.

  15. Sensitization to nickel: etiology, epidemiology, immune reactions, prevention, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostynek, Jurij J

    2006-01-01

    Nickel is a contact allergen causing Type I and Type IV hypersensitivity, mediated by reagins and allergen-specific T lymphocytes, expressing in a wide range of cutaneous eruptions following dermal or systemic exposure. As such, nickel is the most frequent cause of hypersensitivity, occupational as well as among the general population. In synoptic form, the many effects that nickel has on the organism are presented to provide a comprehensive picture of the aspects of that metal with many biologically noxious, but metallurgically indispensable characteristics. This paper reviews the epidemiology, the prognosis for occupational and non-occupational nickel allergic hypersensitivity, the types of exposure and resulting immune responses, the rate of diffusion through the skin, and immunotoxicity. Alternatives toward prevention and remediation, topical and systemic, for this pervasive and increasing form of morbidity are discussed. The merits and limitations of preventive measures in industry and private life are considered, as well as the effectiveness of topical and systemic therapy in treating nickel allergic hypersensitivity.

  16. The biological importance of nickel in the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anke, M [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Angelow, L [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Glei, M [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Mueller, M [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Illing, H [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment

    1995-05-01

    The ultra trace element nickel (Ni) is both essential and toxic for animals and humans. A Ni-poor nutrition of < 0.1 mg/kg dry matter led to Ni deficiency symptoms. Ni is a component of the urease and it is also essential for several species of bacteria which occur in the rumen of ruminants. Ni deficiency symptoms, however, have not yet been found in animals and humans since the Ni offer exceeds the Ni requirement. On the other hand, an external Ni exposure to nickel alloys induces Ni dermatitis in 8 to 14% of nickel-sensitive women and in > 1% of men after the filling of the Ni depot in the body. Experiments with 4 animal species showed that Ni exposure leads to disturbances in the Mg and above all in the Zn metabolism. Ni excess induces Zn deficiency symptoms which are similar to parakeratosis in pigs. They correspond to the symptoms of nickel allergy in humans. Therefore, the Ni intake of humans, which leads to the gradual filling of the Ni pool in the body and which can then induce nickel dermatitis in Ni-sensitive women and men, is of particular importance. The Ni requirement of adults does not exceed 25 to 35 {mu}g/day. The Ni balance of men and women was positive (+ 20%) and shows the Ni incorporation even in the case of a Ni consumption which exceeds by far the requirement. (orig.)

  17. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  18. Reaction of nickel with uranium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselin, F.; Calais, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Passefort, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    UN-Ni system has been investigated in solid phase by diffusion couples UN-Ni or by mixed powders pressed and sintered. Studies have been carried out by micrography, X-rays and microanalysis with a CASTAING microprobe. UN-Ni compatibility is quite good up to 600 C; beyond this temperature diffusion zones corresponding to UNi 5 and U 2 N 3 appear in the couples either reaction : 3 U N + 5 Ni → U 2 N 3 + UNi 5 ; UN + 5 Ni → UNi 5 + 1/2 N 2 takes place from 700 C according to nitrogen pressure involved. For temperatures between 800 and 1000 C nickel solubility in uranium nitride is 1500 ± 500 wt ppm. (authors) [fr

  19. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  20. Mortality study of nickel platers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1945-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, D; Burges, D C; Sorahan, T

    1996-10-01

    To re-examine mortality patterns in a cohort of nickel platers with no history of chromium plating. All 284 men first employed by the company in 1945-75 with a minimum employment of three months in the nickel plating department were identified. Workers who had worked in the chromium plating or nickel/chromium plating departments were excluded. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), P values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Poisson regression was used to carry out statistical modelling of mortalities within the cohort (internal standard). Four variables were considered to have the potential to influence mortality within the cohort: attained age (age at follow up or age at death), year of starting nickel work, period of follow up (measured from the first period of work with nickel exposure), and duration of exposure to nickel. The only significant difference between observed and expected numbers, when investigated by site of cancer and by broad non-cancer groupings, was that for stomach cancer (observed eight, expected 2.49, SMR 322). The study provides only weak evidence that nickel plating is associated with an excess risk of stomach cancer. This cohort of nickel platers does not seem to have experienced any discernible risk of occupational lung cancer. Other studies of nickel platers rather than nickel/chromium platers would be useful.

  1. Substitution effects of a carbonated hydroxyapatite biomaterial against intoxication chloride nickel-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Salha; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Oudadesse, Hassane; Elfeki, Hafed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a synthetic apatite (carbonated hydroxyapatite) on the detoxification of a group of male "Wistar" rats exposed to nickel chloride. Toxicity was evaluated by rats' bioassay of nickel chloride. Wistar rats received this metal daily by gavage for seven days (4 mg/ml nickel chloride/200 g body weight, BW). To detoxify this organism, a subcutaneous implantation of the apatite is made. The results revealed that exposure to nickel induced oxidative stress, disorders in the balances of ferric phosphocalcic, renal failures, liver toxicity and significant increase in nickel rates in the bones of intoxicated rats. The application of the carbonated hydroxyapatite presented in this study restored those disorders back to normal. The synthetic apatite protected the rats against the toxic effects of nickel by lowering the levels of lipid peroxidation markers and improving the activities of defense enzymes. It also amended ferric and phosphocalcic equilibriums, protected liver and kidney functions and reduced the nickel rate in the bones of the rats. Overall, the results provided strong support for the protective role of carbonated hydroxyapatite in the detoxification of rats exposed to nickel. Those beneficial effects were further confirmed by physico-chemical characterization (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), which revealed its property of anionic and cationic substitution, thus supporting its promising candidacy for future biomedical application. The hydroxyapatite is an effective biomaterial to solve health problems, particularly detoxification against metals (nickel).

  2. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  3. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  4. Derivation of an oral toxicity reference value for nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Bates, Hudson K; Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Oller, Adriana R

    2017-06-15

    Nickel (Ni) is in the earth's crust and can be found in environmental compartments such as water, soil, and air, as well as food. This paper presents an assessment of the oral nickel toxicity data in support of non-cancer health-based oral exposure limits or toxicity reference values (TRVs). This paper derives TRVs for three populations of interest: adults, toddlers, and people who have been dermally sensitized to nickel. The adult/lifetime TRV of 20 μg Ni/kg-day is based on post-implantation loss/perinatal mortality in a 2-generation reproductive study in rats. Several recent assessments by regulatory agencies have used the same study and endpoint, but the dose-response modeling conducted here was more appropriate for the study design. Toxicokinetic data from rats and humans indicate that the applied uncertainty factors are very conservative. Because the endpoint relates to fetal exposure and is not relevant to toddlers, a toddler TRV was derived based on decreased body weight in young rats; this TRV was also 20 μg Ni/kg-day. A separate TRV of 4 μg Ni/kg in addition to Ni in food was derived for protection of nickel-sensitized populations from flare-up of dermatitis, based on studies of single exposures in humans under conditions that maximize oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metallic nickel nanoparticles and their effect on the embryonic development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanold, Julia Maxi; Wang, Jiabin; Brümmer, Franz; Šiller, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The presence of nanoparticles in many industrial applications and daily products is making it nowadays crucial to assess their impact when exposed to the environment. Metallic nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are of high industrial interest due to their ability to catalyze the reversible hydration of CO_2 to carbonic acid at ambient conditions. We characterized metallic Ni NPs by XRD, HRTEM and EDS and determined the solubility of free nickel ions from 3 mg/L metallic Ni NPs in seawater by ICP-MS over 96 h, which was below 3%. Further, embryonic development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was investigated for 48 h in the presence of metallic Ni NPs (0.03 mg/L to 3 mg/L), but no lethal effects were observed. However, 3 mg/L metallic Ni NPs caused a size reduction similar to 1.2 mg/L NiCl_2*6 H_2O. The obtained results contribute to current studies on metallic Ni NPs and point to their consequences for the marine ecosystem. - Highlights: • Low solubility of nickel ions from metallic nickel nanoparticles in seawater. • No lethality of sea urchin embryos up to 3 mg/L metallic nickel nanoparticles. • Considerable size reduction after 48 h was comparable to the reduction for 1.2 mg/L nickel salt. • Contributes to the overall understanding of metallic Ni NPs in the marine environment. - Metallic nickel nanoparticles display weak dissolution rates in seawater, but higher concentrations resulted in similar effects on sea urchin embryonic development as nickel salt.

  6. Assessment of nickel and cobalt release from 200 unused hand-held work tools for sale in Denmark — Sources of occupational metal contact dermatitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P.; Jensen, Peter; Lidén, Carola

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionNickel and cobalt allergy remain frequent in dermatitis patients. It is important to determine possible nickel and cobalt exposures at work as these may offer important information to regulators and physicians who perform patch testing. Clinical relevance of metal exposure is usually ...

  7. Assessment of nickel and cobalt release from 200 unused hand-held work tools for sale in Denmark - Sources of occupational metal contact dermatitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Jensen, Peter; Lidén, Carola

    2011-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt allergy remain frequent in dermatitis patients. It is important to determine possible nickel and cobalt exposures at work as these may offer important information to regulators and physicians who perform patch testing. Clinical relevance of metal exposure is usually assessed...

  8. Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Katherine E.; Bates, Hudson K.; Rush, Rusty E.; Oller, Adriana R.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, existing data on the oral carcinogenicity of nickel substances have been inconclusive. Yet, the assessment of oral carcinogenicity of nickel has serious scientific and regulatory implications. In the present study, nickel sulfate hexahydrate was administered daily to Fischer 344 rats by oral gavage for 2 years (104 weeks) at exposure levels of 10, 30 and 50 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg. This treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in body weight of male and female rats, compared to controls, in an exposure-related fashion at 30 and 50 mg/kg/day. An exposure-dependent increase in mortality was observed in female rats. However, the overall study survival rate (males and females) was at least 25 animals per group (compliant with OECD guidelines) in the treated animals. Daily oral administration of nickel sulfate hexahydrate did not produce an exposure-related increase in any common tumor type or an increase in any rare tumors. One tumor type was statistically increased in a nickel sulfate-treated group compared to the study controls (keratoacanthoma in the 10 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg/day males), but there was no exposure-response relationship for this common tumor type. This study achieved sufficient toxicity to reach the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) while maintaining a sufficiently high survival rate to allow evaluation for carcinogenicity. The present study indicated that nickel sulfate hexahydrate does not have the potential to cause carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure in the Fischer 344 rat. Data from this and other studies demonstrate that inhalation is the only route of exposure that might cause concern for cancer in association with nickel exposures

  9. Responses of Landoltia punctata to cobalt and nickel: Removal, growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant system and starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Ding, Yanqiang; Xu, Yaliang; Li, Zhidan; Jin, Yanling; He, Kaize; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-09-01

    Landoltia punctata has been considered as a potential bioenergy crop due to its high biomass and starch yields in different cultivations. Cobalt and nickel are known to induce starch accumulation in duckweed. We monitored the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, total chlorophyll content, Rubisco activity, Co 2+ and Ni 2+ contents, activity of antioxidant enzymes, starch content and activity of related enzymes under various concentrations of cobalt and nickel. The results indicate that Co 2+ and Ni 2+ (≤0.5mgL -1 ) can facilitate growth in the beginning. Although the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and Rubisco activity were significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (5mgL -1 ), the starch content increased sharply up to 53.3% dry weight (DW) in L. punctata. These results were attributed to the increase in adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and soluble starch synthase (SSS) activities and the decrease in α-amylase activity upon exposure to excess Co 2+ and Ni 2+ . In addition, a substantial increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and high flavonoid contents in L. punctata may have largely resulted in the metal tolerance. Furthermore, the high Co 2+ and Ni 2+ contents (2012.9±18.8 and 1997.7±29.2mgkg -1 DW) in the tissue indicate that L. punctata is a hyperaccumulator. Thus, L. punctata can be considered as a potential candidate for the simultaneous bioremediation of Co 2+ - and Ni 2+ -polluted water and high-quality biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fe-solubility of Ni7S6 and Ni9S8: Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, P.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data on phase equilibria have been used for thermodynamic analysis of the iron solubility of the nickel sulfides Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 . For both compounds, a two-sublattice approach within the framework of the compound energy formalism has been applied to perform Gibbs free energy modelling at 0.1 MPa total pressure consistently embedded in recent thermodynamic assessment studies of other iron-nickel-sulfides. The predicted maxima of iron solubility around 3 at% of Ni 7 S 6 and 5.5 at% of Ni 9 S 8 are confirmed by experimental data. The calculations of complex ternary phase relations with Fe-bearing Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 gain further improvement. The first internally consistent description of all thermodynamically stable phases known in the literature for the iron-nickel-sulfur system is completed.

  11. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. X-radiation effect on soluble proteins of gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Chajka, Ya.P.; Fedorovich, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Using the method of electrophoresis in agar gel soluble proteins of gastric mucosa of rats were separated into 11 fractions. Proteins posessing a proteolytic (pH 1.8) and lipase (pH 7.4) activity were localized within the second and third prealbumin fractions. Soluble proteins of gastric mucosa contain glyco- and lipoproteid complexes. Exposure of rats to 1000 R of X-rays induces quantitative redistribution within the electrophoretic spectrum of soluble proteins and a considerable disturbance of the proteolytic activity of total soluble proteins throughout the entire period of observation (from 10 min to 72h)

  13. Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nickel sensitization is frequent among US patients with dermatitis and in the general population. In Europe, decreasing prevalences of nickel sensitization are observed as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive. However, no directive exists in the United States. Objectives: We...... sought to examine nickel release from inexpensive earrings and discuss possible methods of reducing nickel exposure among consumers. Methods: A total of 34 different stores and artists were visited. A total of 277 earrings were purchased and examined with the dimethylglyoxitne (DMG) test. Results: DMG......-positive earrings were identified from local artists (69%) and tourist stores (42.9%) but also chain stores targeting young (24.1%) and mature (1.7%) women. No correlation between price and outcome of DMG testing was identified. Limitations. Our study does not reflect buying trends in the United States...

  14. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Maibach, Howard I; Lidén, Carola

    2010-05-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the DMG test. DMG spot testing, chemical analysis according to the EN 1811 reference method, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were performed concomitantly on 96 metallic components from earrings recently purchased in San Francisco. The sensitivity of the DMG test was 59.3% and the specificity was 97.5% based on DMG-test results and nickel release concentrations determined by the EN 1811 reference method. The DMG test has a high specificity but a modest sensitivity. It may serve well for screening purposes. Past exposure studies may have underestimated nickel release from consumer items.

  16. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  17. Etude multi-échelle des mécanismes d'élaboration de revêtements d'alliage zinc-nickel à base d'électrolytes alcalins : germination, complexation et structures cristallines

    OpenAIRE

    Fedi , Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of zinc-nickelelectrodeposition in alkaline baths. Zinc-nickel deposits containing between 12% and 16%nickel known for their anti-corrosion performance. Complexing agents are required toobtain soluble and reactive nickel forms, and to stabilize the electrolytes. A study ofthe complexing mechanisms has improved the understanding of their respective role andbehavior, and their influence on the stability and the morphology and c...

  18. Electroless nickel-plating for the PWSCC mitigation of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study has been performed as an effort to apply the electroless nickel-plating method for a proposed countermeasure to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of nickel-plating at high temperature water, the electrochemical properties of electroless nickel-plated alloy 600 specimens exposed to simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water were experimentally characterized in high temperature and high pressure water condition. And, the resistance to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was investigated to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity water-flowing environment at high temperature. The plated surfaces were examined by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after exposures to the condition. From this study, it is found that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-plated Alloy 600 is higher than that of electrolytic plating in 290 deg. C water

  19. Synthesis and analysis of nickel dithiolene dyes in a nematic liquid crystal host. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippa, I.

    1999-03-01

    The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) can be employed to evaluate the Omega Laser system for optimum firing capabilities. This device utilizes a nickel dithiolene infrared absorbing liquid crystal dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host medium (Merck E7). Three nickel dithiolene dyes were characterized for both their solubility in the E7 host and their infrared spectral absorption

  20. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  1. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  2. Mechanisms of c-myc degradation by nickel compounds and hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni compounds have been found to cause cancer in humans and animal models and to transform cells in culture. At least part of this effect is mediated by stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1a and activating its downstream signaling. Recent studies reported that hypoxia signaling might either antagonize or enhance c-myc activity depending on cell context. We investigated the effect of nickel on c-myc levels, and demonstrated that nickel, hypoxia, and other hypoxia mimetics degraded c-myc protein in a number of cancer cells (A549, MCF-7, MDA-453, and BT-474. The degradation of the c-Myc protein was mediated by the 26S proteosome. Interestingly, knockdown of both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha attenuated c-Myc degradation induced by Nickel and hypoxia, suggesting the functional HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha was required for c-myc degradation. Further studies revealed two potential pathways mediated nickel and hypoxia induced c-myc degradation. Phosphorylation of c-myc at T58 was significantly increased in cells exposed to nickel or hypoxia, leading to increased ubiquitination through Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. In addition, nickel and hypoxia exposure decreased USP28, a c-myc de-ubiquitinating enzyme, contributing to a higher steady state level of c-myc ubiquitination and promoting c-myc degradation. Furthermore, the reduction of USP28 protein by hypoxia signaling is due to both protein degradation and transcriptional repression. Nickel and hypoxia exposure significantly increased the levels of dimethylated H3 lysine 9 at the USP28 promoter and repressed its expression. Our study demonstrated that Nickel and hypoxia exposure increased c-myc T58 phosphorylation and decreased USP28 protein levels in cancer cells, which both lead to enhanced c-myc ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation.

  3. Spectrochemical analysis of impurities in nickel and in nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Lorber, A.; Harel, A.

    1981-11-01

    Various spectrochemical methods are described for the quantitative determination of 23 impurities in metallic nickel and in nickel oxide. The average limit of detection is from 1 to 5 ppm and the dynamic range lies over 2.5 orders of magnitude. The elements that were determined are: Al,B,Ba,Bi,Ca,Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Ga,Ge,In,Mg,Mn,Mo,Nb,Si,Sn,Sr,Ti,Cr,V. (author)

  4. Cancer Stem-Like Cells Accumulated in Nickel-Induced Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Jia; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wise, James T.F.; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are known as human carcinogens. Chronic environmental exposure to nickel is a worldwide health concern. Although the mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood, recent studies suggest that stem cells/cancer stem cells are likely important targets. This study examines the role of cancer stem cells in nickel-induced cell transformation. The nontransformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) was chronically exposed to nickel chloride for 12 months to induce cell transformation. Nickel induced Beas-2B cell transformation, and cancer stem-like cells were enriched in nickel-transformed cell (BNiT) population. The BNiT cancer stem-like cells demonstrated enhanced self-renewal and distinctive differentiation properties. In vivo tumorigenesis studies show that BNiT cancer stem-like cells possess a high tumor-initiating capability. It was also demonstrated that superoxide dismutase 1 was involved in the accumulation of cancer stem-like cells; the regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression was different in transformed stem-like cells and nontransformed. Overall, the accumulation of stem-like cells and their enhanced stemness functions contribute to nickel-induced tumorigenesis. Our study provides additional insight into the mechanisms by which metals or other chemicals can induce carcinogenesis. PMID:26962057

  5. Nickel on the market: a baseline survey of articles in 'prolonged contact' with skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringborg, Evelina; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2016-08-01

    In April 2014, the European Chemicals Agency defined the concept of 'prolonged contact with skin' as used in the EU nickel restriction. To establish a baseline of nickel-releasing items on the Swedish market conforming with the EU nickel restriction according to the definition of 'prolonged contact' with the skin. We performed a limited market survey in Stockholm, Sweden. Items with metallic parts that come into contact with the skin, except those explicitly mentioned in the legal text, were chosen. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to evaluate nickel release. One hundred and forty-one items belonging to one of three categories - accessories, utensils for needlework, painting and writing (called utensils), and electronic devices - were tested in the study. Forty-four percent of all items were DMG test-positive (releasing nickel), and 9% gave a doubtful DMG test result. The large proportion of nickel-releasing items in the present study shows clearly that broader parts of industry need to take action to prevent nickel allergy. The high proportion of DMG test-positive items indicates that there is still much work to be done to reduce the nickel exposure of the population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  7. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  8. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.; Vitiello, V.; Casals, E.; Puntes, V.F.; Iamunno, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Changwen, W.; Benvenuto, G.; Buttino, I.

    2016-01-01

    . Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl_2 than NiNPs with EC_5_0 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl_2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025 mg L"−"1 NiCl_2 and by 8.5 mg L"−"1 NiNPs. At NiNP concentration below the acute EC_5_0 (17 mg L"−"1) only 9% of embryos hatched after 4 days. Interestingly, the percentage of naupliar mortality (>82%) observed in the semichronic test at the nominal concentration of 10 mg L"−"1 NiNPs corresponding to almost 0.10 mg L"−"1 of dissolved Ni, was similar to that recorded at the same Ni salt concentration. Electron microscopical analyses revealed that A. tonsa adults ingest NiNPs and excrete them through fecal pellets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the toxicity of two different forms of Ni on the reproductive physiology of the copepod A. tonsa and showing the ability of the calanoid copepod to ingest nanoparticles from seawater.

  9. Risk assessment of human intake Nickel from food, feed and water in Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bobcek, Rastislav

    2011-01-01

    Nickel is a metal which is found in nature in the form of compounds with sulfur, arsenic and oxygen. Located in water and many foods (eg offal, soya, various fruits and vegetables, chocolate, cocoa, various kinds of nuts in foods in nickel cans ...). People receive food small amount of nickel, which is necessary for his health. It occurs in soil, air gets influence of volcanic activity. It is used in many alloys and chemical compounds. The main source of human exposure is contaminated food an...

  10. The effects of trace metal exposure on agonistic encounters in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, K.A.; Baker, D.W.; Ho, C.G.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of five trace metals, copper, cadmium, nickel, zinc and lead (presented as soluble salts) on the ability of juvenile rainbow trout to form social relationships were investigated. Comparable concentrations of the five metals in relation to their acute 96 h LC50s (concentration at which population mortality=50% at 96 h) were used (i.e. 15% of the 96 h LC50) and water quality parameters (hardness=120 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 , pH 8; DOC=3 mg l -1 ) were kept constant throughout. In the first experiment, trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium for 24 h displayed significantly lower numbers of aggressive attacks during pair-wise agonistic encounters than fish paired in the copper, nickel, zinc, lead and control water. In a second experiment, fish were exposed to the same concentration of metal for 24 h, and then returned to normal water for 24 h. When these metal pre-exposed fish were paired with non-exposed fish only cadmium pre-exposure had a significant effect on social interaction. All of the cadmium pre-exposed fish became subordinate when paired with non-exposed fish, whereas the probability of a fish pre-exposed to copper, nickel, zinc or lead becoming subordinate did not significantly differ from random. Therefore, at around 15% of the 96 h LC50, different metals exert different effects on the social behaviour of fish, suggesting potential implications for social structure and population stability

  11. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  12. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  13. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  14. Comparison of interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine thin films with chemical vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Singh, Sukhdeep; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with comparing interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine with versatile chemical vapours: reducing, stable aromatic and oxidizing vapours namely; diethylamine, benzene and bromine. The variation in electrical current of phthalocyanines with exposure of chemical vapours is used as the detection parameter for studying interaction behaviour. Nickel phthalocyanine is found to exhibit anomalous behaviour after exposure of reducing vapour diethylamine due to alteration in its spectroscopic transitions and magnetic states. The observed sensitivities of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalcyanine films are different in spite of their similar bond numbers, indicating significant role of central metal atom in interaction mechanism. The variations in electronic transition levels after vapours exposure, studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed our electrical sensing results. Bromine exposure leads to significant changes in vibrational bands of metal phthalocyanines as compared to other vapours.

  15. Dependence of secondary ion emission current on the composition of beryllium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistryak, V.M.; Kozlov, V.F.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Fogel', Ya.M.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence is studied of the secondary ions emission current on the composition of beryllium-nickel alloys. It is established that appearance of intermetallide phases in the Be-Ni alloys has no effect on the linear character of the secondary ions Ni + and Be + of emission current. The phase transformation from the solid solution to the compound Ni 5 Be 21 with a change in the alloys concentration is fixed by appearance of the secondary ion NiBe + emission. The limited solubility of nickel in solid beryllium at a temperature close to room temperature is determined to be equal to 1.3+-0.27 at%

  16. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function o...

  18. Solubility Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bolea, Eduardo; Bouwmeester, H.; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, C.A.A.; Dogné, Jean Michel; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N.; Undas, A.K.; Zande, van der M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different methods that can potentially be used to determine the solubility of nanomaterials. In general, the methods presented can be broadly divided into four categories: separation methods, methods to quantify free ions, methods to quantify total dissolved

  19. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis. [Cornybacterium; E. coli; S. typhimurium; B. subtillis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Research on nickel carcinogenesis from 1979 to 1983 is reviewed. Epidemiological studies have strengthened the evidence that workers in nickel refineries have increased risks of lung and sinonasal cancers, but have not substantiated increased risks of respiratory cancers in other nickel-exposed workers. Carcinogenesis bioassays have demonstrated carcinogenicity of certain nickel sulfide, hydroxide, selenide, arsenide, antimonide, and telluride compounds following parenteral administration to rodents. Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Cornybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein cross-links, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 6 tables.

  20. Three dimensional graphene synthesis on nickel foam by chemical vapor deposition from ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinsoutrot, Pierre; Vergnes, Hugues; Caussat, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D multi-layers graphene networks were synthesized from ethylene on nickel foam. • The weight of graphene increased with run duration and when decreasing temperature. • Weight percentages of graphene as high as 15% were obtained. • A continuous mechanism of graphene formation probably exists in presence of ethylene. -- Abstract: 3D multi-layers graphene networks were synthesized on nickel foam from ethylene between 700 and 1000 °C by chemical vapor deposition. Large nickel foam substrates were used allowing the accurate measurement of graphene masses. The weight of graphene increased with run duration and when decreasing temperature. Graphene was also present inside the hollow branches of the foam. We demonstrated that the weights of graphene formed largely exceed the masses corresponding to carbon solubility into nickel. Indeed weight percentages of graphene as high as 15% were obtained, corresponding to graphene layers of 500 nm to 1 μm thick. This means that graphene formation could not be due only to carbon dissolution into nickel and then precipitation during the cooling step. Another mechanism probably co-exists, involving continuous graphene formation in presence of ethylene either by segregation from the dissolved carbon into nickel or by surface CVD growth

  1. Sodium hypophosphite radiographic process using an ammoniacal nickel developer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of four factors on the yield of nickel from samples of sodium hypophosphite which were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation and then treated to an ammoniacal nickel chloride developer. The factors included sample mass, radiation exposure, development time, and concentration of NiCl 2 in the developer. Optimum normalized yields were obtained with a sample mass of 0.5 g, an exposure of 1.2 x 10 6 rad, and a development time of 8 h. The yield of Ni was observed to increase linearly with developer concentration. Attempts to prepare radiographic emulsions containing sodium hypophosphite met with limited success as only ethyl cellulose proved successful, and even these exhibited reduced sharpness of the image after only one or two days of storage

  2. Physical and ionic characteristics in water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of ionic and physical characteristics at 25, 50 and 100% water soluble fraction (WSF) of Olomoro well-head crude oil before and after exposure to Azolla africana were investigated. The WSF values before and after exposure to the plants showed that more ions were available after the introduction of the test plant.

  3. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  4. Nickel-induced hypersensitivity: etiology, immune reactions, prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostýnek, Jurij J

    2002-08-01

    As a contact allergen causing type I and type IV hypersensitivity, mediated by reagins and allergen-specific T lymphocytes, expressed in a wide range of cutaneous eruptions following dermal or systemic exposure, nickel has acquired the distinction of being among the most frequent causes of hypersensitivity, occupationally as well as among the general population. In synoptic form the many effects that nickel has on the organism are presented, to provide a comprehensive picture of the aspects of that metal with many biologically noxious, but metallurgically indispensable characteristics. This paper reviews the epidemiology, the prognosis for occupational and non-occupational nickel allergic hypersensitivity (NAH), the many types of exposure and the resulting immune responses, immunotoxicity and rate of diffusion through the skin. Alternatives towards prevention and remediation, topical and systemic, for this pervasive and increasing form of morbidity resulting from multiple types of exposure are discussed. Merits and limitations of preventive measures in industry and private life are considered, as well as the effectiveness of topical and systemic therapy in treating NAH.

  5. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  6. The association between null mutations in the filaggrin gene and contact sensitization to nickel and other chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2010-01-01

    It was recently shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are positively associated with nickel sensitization. We have hypothesized that histidine-rich filaggrin proteins in the epidermis chelate nickel ions and prevent their skin penetration and exposure to Langerhans cells. Furthermore, we...... have proposed that the low degree of genetic predisposition to nickel sensitization found by a Danish twin study was explained by a high prevalence of ear piercing among participants resulting in 'bypassing' of the filaggrin proteins....

  7. Ni(0-CMC-Na Nickel Colloids in Sodium Carboxymethyl-Cellulose: Catalytic Evaluation in Hydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A recyclable catalyst, Ni(0-CMC-Na, composed of nickel colloids dispersed in a water soluble bioorganic polymer, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na, was synthesized by a simple procedure from readily available reagents. The catalyst thus obtained is stable and highly active in alkene hydrogenations.

  8. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue; Bruno, Maribel; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wallace, Kathleen; Andrews, Debora; Swank, Adam; Winnik, Witold; Ross, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses and protein response-based biochemical pathways represents a key mechanism through which nickel induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To identify protein responses and biochemical pathways that are critical to nickel-induced toxicity responses, we measured cytotoxicity and changes in expression and phosphorylation status of 14 critical biochemical pathway regulators in human BEAS-2B cells exposed to four concentrations of nickel using an integrated proteomic approach. A subset of the pathway regulators, including interleukin-6, and JNK, were found to be linearly correlated with cell viability, and may function as molecular determinants of cytotoxic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures. In addition, 128 differentially expressed proteins were identified by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analyses, and ingenuity signaling pathway analysis (IPA) identified putative nickel toxicity pathways. Some of the proteins and pathways identified have not previously been linked to nickel toxicity. Based on the consistent results obtained from both ELISA and 2-DE proteomic analysis, we propose a core signaling pathway regulating cytotoxic responses of human BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures, which integrates a small set of proteins involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, apoptosis, protein degradation, and stress responses including inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27626938

  9. Engineered nickel oxide nanoparticle causes substantial physicochemical perturbation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Indrani; Bandyopadhyay, Maumita

    2017-11-01

    Concentration of engineered NiO-NP in nature is on the rise, owing to large scale industrial uses and human interventions, which have accreted the scope of exposure especially at the primary trophic levels of the ecosystem. Nickel content in air, drinking water and soil is already above permissible limits in most parts of the developed world. Though nickel oxide is an essential micronutrient in the animal system, it has already been graded as a human carcinogen by WHO, and numerous studies have established the toxic nature of nickel in higher dosage in the animal system. Though studies depicting toxicity and bioaccumulation of nickel in plants is documented, the interaction of nickel oxide nanoparticle with plants is not fully a well-studied, well elucidated topic. What is known is that, exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticle, arouses stress response and leads to cytotoxicity and growth retardation in a handful of plants, a defined work on the intricate physicochemical cellular responses and genotoxic challenges has been so far absent. We have tried to fill in such gaps with this study. We planned the work around pertinent hypotheses like: whether NiO-NP cause cytotoxicity in a model plant system (Allium cepa L.)?If so, does internalization of nickel ion (the potent toxic) take place in the tissue? Does internalized NiO-NP create furore in the antioxidant enzyme system of the plant leading to cytotoxicity? In that case, whether the ENP causes genotoxicity and leads to pycknosis of the cell. The study has been designed to assess the change in biochemical profile and genotoxicity potential of NiO-NP at a wide range of concentrations using root tips of Allium cepa L., the model system for study of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and four of its closest relatives, Allium sativum L., Allium schoenoprasum L., Allium porrum L., Allium fistulosum L., chosen for their immense economic importance. Growing root tips were treated with seven different concentrations of Ni

  10. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  11. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  12. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org

    2012-04-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses — most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

  13. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  14. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  15. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  16. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, J. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: jhersh@anl.gov; Ajayi, O.O. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fenske, G.R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing.

  17. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing

  18. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  19. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  1. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  2. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  3. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.

    1960-01-01

    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  4. Nickel induces transcriptional down-regulation of DNA repair pathways in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Susan E; Scanlon, Christine D; Hegan, Denise C; Sulkowski, Parker L; Glazer, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    The heavy metal nickel is a known carcinogen, and occupational exposure to nickel compounds has been implicated in human lung and nasal cancers. Unlike many other environmental carcinogens, however, nickel does not directly induce DNA mutagenesis, and the mechanism of nickel-related carcinogenesis remains incompletely understood. Cellular nickel exposure leads to signaling pathway activation, transcriptional changes and epigenetic remodeling, processes also impacted by hypoxia, which itself promotes tumor growth without causing direct DNA damage. One of the mechanisms by which hypoxia contributes to tumor growth is the generation of genomic instability via down-regulation of high-fidelity DNA repair pathways. Here, we find that nickel exposure similarly leads to down-regulation of DNA repair proteins involved in homology-dependent DNA double-strand break repair (HDR) and mismatch repair (MMR) in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic human lung cells. Functionally, nickel induces a defect in HDR capacity, as determined by plasmid-based host cell reactivation assays, persistence of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks and cellular hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Mechanistically, we find that nickel, in contrast to the metalloid arsenic, acutely induces transcriptional repression of HDR and MMR genes as part of a global transcriptional pattern similar to that seen with hypoxia. Finally, we find that exposure to low-dose nickel reduces the activity of the MLH1 promoter, but only arsenic leads to long-term MLH1 promoter silencing. Together, our data elucidate novel mechanisms of heavy metal carcinogenesis and contribute to our understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on the regulation of DNA repair pathways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  6. Drastic nickel ion removal from aqueous solution by curcumin-capped Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, S.; Pagano, R.; Valli, L.; Giancane, G.

    2014-08-01

    A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%.A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02583k

  7. A Cross-Talk Between NFAT and NF-κB Pathways is Crucial for Nickel-Induced COX-2 Expression in Beas-2B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, T.; Li, X.; Ding, J.; Luo, W.; Li, J.; Huang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critical enzyme implicated in chronic inflammation-associated cancer development. Our studies have shown that the exposure of Beas-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, to lung carcinogenic nickel compounds results in increased COX-2 expression. However, the signaling pathways leading to nickel-induced COX-2 expression are not well understood. In the current study, we found that the exposure of Beas-2B cells to nickel compounds resulted in the activation of both nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The expression of COX-2 induced upon nickel exposure was inhibited by either a NFAT pharmacological inhibitor or the knockdown of NFAT3 by specific siRNA. We further found that the activation of NFAT and NF-κB was dependent on each other. Since our previous studies have shown that NF-κB activation is critical for nickel-induced COX-2 expression in Beas-2B cells exposed to nickel compounds under same experimental condition, we anticipate that there might be a cross-talk between the activation of NFAT and NF-κB for the COX-2 induction due to nickel exposure in Beas-2B cells. Furthermore, we showed that the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by introduction of mitochondrial catalase inhibited the activation of both NFAT and NF-κB, and the induction of COX-2 due to nickel exposure. Taken together, our results defining the evidence showing a key role of the cross-talk between NFAT and NF-κB pathways in regulating nickel-induced COX-2 expression, further provide insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking nickel exposure to its lung carcinogenic effects. PMID:21486220

  8. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  9. Long-term mortality study of workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbold, J.H. Jr.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether mortality from respiratory cancer among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) differed from that of workers at the same plant with no record of occupational exposure to metallic nickel or any nickel compound. A cohort of 814 nickel-exposed workers and one of 1600' controls were identified. The members of both cohorts had a minimum follow-up period of 19 years. Mortality from respiratory cancer and from other causes was examined in both groups. The data showed no evidence of an increased risk of mortality due to respiratory cancer among the nickel-exposed workers. The exposed cohort experienced lower mortality than the controls, both in deaths due to respiratory cancer and in deaths due to all causes, although neither of these differences was statistically significant

  10. The Effects of Inhaled Nickel Nanoparticles on Murine Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N.

    Introduction. Particulate air pollution, specifically nickel found on or in particulate matter, has been associated with an increased risk of mortality in human population studies and can cause increases in vascular inflammation, generate reactive oxygen species, alter vasomotor tone, and potentiate atherosclerosis in murine exposures. With the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a door has been opened which may explain these observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled air particles and nickel exposure. In order to further quantify the effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles and attempt to elucidate how the observed findings from other studies may occur, several whole body inhalation exposure experiments to nickel nanoparticles were performed. Methods. Following whole body exposure to approximately 500mug/m3 of nickel nanoparticles for 5 hrs, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation, and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells, circulating endothelial cells (CECs), and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the inhalation exposure. Plasma proteins were assessed using the 2D DIGE proteomic approach and commercially available ELISAs. Results and Conclusions. Exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation. CECs were significantly upregulated suggesting that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. This decrease in EPC function

  11. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  12. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [fr

  13. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karenko, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    A specification is given for iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloys suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding, which utilize the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and are characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. A range of compositions is given. (author)

  14. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  15. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  16. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-12-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones. To investigate the proportion of mobile phones sold in Denmark that release nickel after regulation. Metallic parts from 50 randomly selected mobile phones currently for sale in Denmark were tested for nickel release by use of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-nickel spot test. Nine (18%) phones showed at least one positive DMG test reaction and two phones had more than one DMG test-positive spot. Apparently, the proportion of mobile phones with significant nickel release remains unchanged, despite the 2009 revision of the EU Nickel Directive. We encourage manufacturers to measure nickel release from metallic components used in the assembly of mobile phones to ensure safe products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Reaction of nickel with uranium mononitride; Reaction du nickel avec le nitrure d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselin, F; Calais, D; Lorenzelli, N; Passefort, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    UN-Ni system has been investigated in solid phase by diffusion couples UN-Ni or by mixed powders pressed and sintered. Studies have been carried out by micrography, X-rays and microanalysis with a CASTAING microprobe. UN-Ni compatibility is quite good up to 600 C; beyond this temperature diffusion zones corresponding to UNi{sub 5} and U{sub 2}N{sub 3} appear in the couples either reaction : 3 U N + 5 Ni {yields} U{sub 2}N{sub 3} + UNi{sub 5}; UN + 5 Ni {yields} UNi{sub 5}+ 1/2 N{sub 2} takes place from 700 C according to nitrogen pressure involved. For temperatures between 800 and 1000 C nickel solubility in uranium nitride is 1500 {+-} 500 wt ppm. (authors) [French] Le systeme UN-Ni a ete etudie par diffusion en phase solide a partir de couples (UN-Ni) ou de melanges pulverulents presses et frittes. Les techniques utilisees sont la micrographie, les rayons X et l'analyse ponctuelle a la microsonde de CASTAING. La compatibilite UN-Ni est bonne jusqu'a 600 C; au-dela il apparait dans les couples de diffusion des zones correspondant a UNi{sub 5} et U{sub 2}N{sub 3}. L'une ou l'autre des deux reactions: 3UN + 5 Ni {yields} U{sub 2}N{sub 3} + UNi{sub 5}; UN + 5 Ni {yields} UNi{sub 5} + 1/2 N{sub 2} se produisant des 700 C suivant la pression d'azote exercee. La solubilite du nickel dans le nitrure d'uranium pour des temperatures comprises entre 800 et 1000 C est de 1500 {+-} 500 ppm en poids. (auteurs)

  18. A review of pH calculation and corrosion product solubilities under PWR primary coolant chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.W.; Polley, M.V.

    1986-12-01

    The calculation of high temperature pH in boric acid solutions is discussed and various relationships for the ionisation constant Ksub(w) or ion product Qsub(w) for water are reviewed. It is shown that the boric acid equilibria of Mesmer, Baes and Sweeton remain virtually unaltered when Marshall and Franck's relationship for Ksub(w) is substituted in a re-analysis of Mesmer, Baes and Sweeton's original experimental data. Magnetite solubility data and Westinghouse's studies of iron, nickel and cobalt solubility from mixed ferrites are collated and consideration is given to experimental difficulties which could have contributed to the variability in the data. Thermodynamic model fits have been computerised and used to compare different studies and to determine pH values at which the temperature dependence of solubility is predicted to be zero. Consideration is given to the differing dependences of solubility on dissolved hydrogen concentration in the three model fits. Two models for predicting iron and nickel solubility with respect to non-stoichiometric nickel ferrites are briefly discussed showing that only one of these is likely to be credible. (author)

  19. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    . The main focus will be on the corrosion properties where the following corrosion investigations will be covered; corrosion potential measurements for the different coatings, estimation of corrosion rates for materials in galvanic coupling with tin/nickel coatings, salt spray test, medical tests...

  20. L-carnitine protects against nickel-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function in Neuro-2a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Mindi; Xu Shangcheng; Lu Yonghui; Li Li; Zhong Min; Zhang Yanwen; Wang Yuan; Li Min; Yang Ju; Zhang Guangbin; Yu Zhengping; Zhou Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be a part of the mechanism underlying nickel-induced neurotoxicity. L-carnitine (LC), a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine in all mammalian species, manifests its neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial energetics and function. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LC could efficiently protect against nickel-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we exposed a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro-2a) to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl 2 ) (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM) for 24 h, or to 0.5 mM and 1 mM NiCl 2 for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h). We found that nickel significantly increased the cell viability loss and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in Neuro-2a cells. In addition, nickel exposure significantly elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), reduced adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers and mtRNA transcript levels. However, all of the cytotoxicities and mitochondrial dysfunctions that were triggered by nickel were efficiently attenuated by pretreatment with LC. These protective effects of LC may be attributable to its role in maintaining mitochondrial function in nickel-treated cells. Our results suggest that LC may have great pharmacological potential in protecting against the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system.

  1. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2015-12-22

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 µm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  2. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose E; Contreras, Maria F; Vilanova, Enrique; Felix, Laura P; Margineanu, Michael B; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  3. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.; Contreras, Maria F.; Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Felix Servin, Laura P.; Margineanu, Michael B.; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E.; Dunlop, Iain E.; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 µm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  4. Degradation of creep properties in a long-term thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrnik, J.; Strunz, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Muransky, O.; Novy, Z.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    When exposed for long time at elevated temperatures of 430 and 650 deg. C the nickel base superalloy EI 698 VD can experience a significant decrease in creep resistance. The cause of the creep degradation of nickel base superalloy is generally attributed to the microstructural instability at prolonged high temperature exposure. In this article, the creep-life data, generated on long thermally exposed nickel base superalloy EI698 VD were related to the local microstructural changes observed using SEM and TEM analysing techniques. While structure analysis provided supporting evidence concerning the changes associated with grain boundary carbide precipitation, no persuasive evidence of a morphological and/or dimensional gamma prime change was showed. For clarifying of the role of gamma prime precipitates on alloy on creep degradation, the SANS (small angle neutron scattering) experiment was crucial in the characterization of the bulk-averaged gamma prime morphology and its size distribution with respect to the period of thermal exposure

  5. Effects of nickel treatment on H3K4 trimethylation and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Meng Tchou-Wong

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to nickel compounds has been associated with lung and nasal cancers. We have previously shown that exposure of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to NiCl(2 for 24 hr significantly increased global levels of trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3, a transcriptional activating mark that maps to the promoters of transcribed genes. To further understand the potential epigenetic mechanism(s underlying nickel carcinogenesis, we performed genome-wide mapping of H3K4me3 by chromatin immunoprecipitation and direct genome sequencing (ChIP-seq and correlated with transcriptome genome-wide mapping of RNA transcripts by massive parallel sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq. The effect of NiCl(2 treatment on H3K4me3 peaks within 5,000 bp of transcription start sites (TSSs on a set of genes highly induced by nickel in both A549 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed. Nickel exposure increased the level of H3K4 trimethylation in both the promoters and coding regions of several genes including CA9 and NDRG1 that were increased in expression in A549 cells. We have also compared the extent of the H3K4 trimethylation in the absence and presence of formaldehyde crosslinking and observed that crosslinking of chromatin was required to observe H3K4 trimethylation in the coding regions immediately downstream of TSSs of some nickel-induced genes including ADM and IGFBP3. This is the first genome-wide mapping of trimethylated H3K4 in the promoter and coding regions of genes induced after exposure to NiCl(2. This study may provide insights into the epigenetic mechanism(s underlying the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds.

  6. Cancer incidence among copper smelting and nickel refining workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Markku; Uitti, Jukka; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Among workers employed at a nickel refinery in Harjavalta, Finland an increased risk of lung and sinus cancer has been demonstrated in two previous studies. The current study adds 16 more years of follow-up to these studies. A total of 1,115 persons exposed to nickel and 194 non-exposed workers in the Harjavalta nickel smelter and refinery were followed up for cancer from 1967 to 2011 through the Finnish Cancer Registry. The total number of cancer cases in men was 251 (Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.05) and in women 12 (SIR 1.22). In the most nickel-exposed work site (refinery), there were 14 lung cancers (SIR 2.01) and 3 sinonasal cancers (SIR 26.7, 95%). It is likely that exposure to nickel compounds is the main reason for elevated nasal cancer risk among the nickel refinery employees and may also contribute to the excess risk of lung cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:87-95, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nano powders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tientong, J.; Garcia, S.; Thurber, C.R.; Golden, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nano powders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at ph ∼ 12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54-65 °C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution ph affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (ph ∼10) of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  9. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  10. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  11. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  12. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Logutenko, Olga A.; Titkov, Alexander I.; Vorob’yov, Alexander M.; Yukhin, Yriy M.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission ...

  13. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  16. Sensitization to palladium and nickel in Europe and the relationship with oral disease and dental alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.; Goossens, A.; Gonçalo, M.; Bircher, A.J.; Giménez-Arnau, A.; Foti, C.; Rustemeyer, T.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of palladium and nickel sensitization in oral disease and dermatitis is not fully understood. Objectives To investigate whether sensitization to these metals was associated with exposure to dental alloys and oral and skin complaints/symptoms in a European multicentre study.

  17. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  18. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flare up of Nickel Contact Dermatits Following Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient having contact dermatitis due to nickel on the wrist, sides of neck, thighs and legs, confirmed by patch tests with nickel sulphate, showed aggravation of the dermatitis following oral provocation with 25 mg nickel sulphate.

  20. Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.

  1. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  2. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  3. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  4. On the reflectivity of nickel neutron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Kenawy, M.A.; Wahba, M.; Ashry, A.H. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-02-01

    Neutron reflectivities were determined for 300 nm thick films of natural nickel and nickel 58 coated on glass plates. The measurements were performed at glancing angles between 40' and 60'. The incident neutron beam from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels covered neutron wavelengths between 0.55 and 0.80 nm. It was found that nickel 58, because of the high value of its critical glancing angle, is more efficient as a neutron mirror than natural nickel. (orig.).

  5. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  6. [Nickel levels in female dermatological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, U; Twardella, D; Fedorov, M; Darsow, U; Schaller, K-H; Habernegg, R; Behrendt, H; Fromme, H

    2009-07-01

    Nickel levels in urine were determined among 163 female dermatological patients aged 18 to 46 years. Data on life-style factors were collected in parallel via a questionnaire. Urinary nickel excretion was in the normal range of the German female population (0.2-46.1 microg Ni/g creatinine). The 95th percentile (3.9 microg Ni/l urine) exceeded the German reference value (3.0 microg Ni/l urine). In the multivariate regression analyses we found a statistically significant increase of ln-transformed nickel levels with increase in age and in women using dietary supplements. The following variables were not associated with Nickel urine levels: suffering from nickel eczema, smoking, drinking stagnated water, eating foods with high nickel contents and using nickel-containing kitchen utensils as, for example, an electric kettle with an open heater coil. We conclude that personal urinary levels should be assessed with simultaneous consideration of habits and life-style factors. A German national survery would be useful. Those patients who experience the exacerbation of their eczema in cases of oral provocation, for example, by a high nickel diet should be aware of potential sources of nickel, such as supplements.

  7. An aerosol-mediated magnetic colloid: Study of nickel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Y.; He, Y.; Swihart, M. T.; Wang, S.; Luo, H.; Furlani, E.P.; Prasad, P.N.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of high-quality nickel nanoparticles. Laser-driven decomposition of nickel carbonyl vapors is used to produce particles in the form of an aerosol, followed by exposure to a solvent containing an appropriate surfactant to yield a stable dispersion of particles. This method is scalable and yields a substantially monodisperse distribution of particles at a relatively high rate of production. The particles produced by this method are subjected to a detailed characterization using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and dc magnetization. They have an average diameter of 5 nm, and the observed magnetization curves show no hysteresis above 200 K. The normalized magnetization curves follow a scaling law proportional to the quotient of the applied field over temperature. This data indicates the presence of randomly oriented superparamagnetic particles. The measured magnetization is significantly smaller than that of the bulk, probably due to an effective surface anisotropy and spin canting. The coercivity is the same in either direction of the applied field which indicates that there is negligible exchange coupling between the nickel particles and any possible antiferromagnetic oxide layer on their surfaces

  8. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Academic Centre for Innovation and Development in the Food Industry (CAISIAL), Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici (Italy); Vitiello, V. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Casals, E. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puntes, V.F. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Iamunno, F. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Pellegrini, D. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Changwen, W. [Zhejiang Ocean University, 1 Rd. South Haida, Lincheng New Area, Dinghai District Zhoushan City, 316022 (China); Benvenuto, G. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Buttino, I., E-mail: isabella.buttino@isprambiente.it [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    }, showed EC{sub 50} of 0.164 and 0.039 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl{sub 2} than NiNPs with EC{sub 50} being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl{sub 2} and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025 mg L{sup −1} NiCl{sub 2} and by 8.5 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs. At NiNP concentration below the acute EC{sub 50} (17 mg L{sup −1}) only 9% of embryos hatched after 4 days. Interestingly, the percentage of naupliar mortality (>82%) observed in the semichronic test at the nominal concentration of 10 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs corresponding to almost 0.10 mg L{sup −1} of dissolved Ni, was similar to that recorded at the same Ni salt concentration. Electron microscopical analyses revealed that A. tonsa adults ingest NiNPs and excrete them through fecal pellets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the toxicity of two different forms of Ni on the reproductive physiology of the copepod A. tonsa and showing the ability of the calanoid copepod to ingest nanoparticles from seawater.

  9. Gold and Nickel Extended Thiophenic-TTF Bisdithiolene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. L. Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gold and nickel bisdithiolene complexes with methyl and tert-butyl substituted thiophenetetrathiafulavalenedithiolate ligands (α-mtdt and α-tbtdt were prepared and characterized. These complexes were obtained, under anaerobic conditions, as tetrabutylammonium salts. The diamagnetic gold monoanion (n-Bu4N[Au(α-mtdt2] (3 and nickel dianionic species (n-Bu4Nx[Ni(α-mtdt2] (x = 1,2 (4 were similar to the related non-substituted extended thiophenic-TTF (TTF = tetrathiafulvalene bisdithiolenes. However the introduction of the large, bulky substituent tert-butyl, led to the formation of a Au (I dinuclear complex, (n-Bu4N2[Au2(α-tbtdt2] (5. The neutral methyl substituted gold and nickel complexes were easily obtained through air or iodine exposure as polycrystalline or amorphous fine powder. [Au(α-mtdt2] (6 and [Ni(α-mtdt2] (7 polycrystalline samples display properties of a metallic system with a room temperature electrical conductivity of 0.32 S/cm and ≈4 S/cm and a thermoelectric power of ≈5 µV/K and ≈32 µV/K, respectively. While [Au(α-mtdt2] (6 presented a Pauli-like magnetic susceptibility typical of conducting systems, in [Ni(α-mtdt2] (7 large magnetic susceptibilities indicative of high spin states were observed. Both electric transport properties and magnetic properties for gold and nickel [M(α-mtdt2] are indicative that these compounds are single component molecular conductors.

  10. The large-scale process of microbial carbonate precipitation for nickel remediation from an industrial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Li, Weila; Zhan, Lu; Huang, Minsheng; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam

    2016-12-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation is known as an efficient process for the remediation of heavy metals from contaminated soils. In the present study, a urease positive bacterial isolate, identified as Bacillus cereus NS4 through 16S rDNA sequencing, was utilized on a large scale to remove nickel from industrial soil contaminated by the battery industry. The soil was highly contaminated with an initial total nickel concentration of approximately 900 mg kg -1 . The soluble-exchangeable fraction was reduced to 38 mg kg -1 after treatment. The primary objective of metal stabilization was achieved by reducing the bioavailability through immobilizing the nickel in the urease-driven carbonate precipitation. The nickel removal in the soils contributed to the transformation of nickel from mobile species into stable biominerals identified as calcite, vaterite, aragonite and nickelous carbonate when analyzed under XRD. It was proven that during precipitation of calcite, Ni 2+ with an ion radius close to Ca 2+ was incorporated into the CaCO 3 crystal. The biominerals were also characterized by using SEM-EDS to observe the crystal shape and Raman-FTIR spectroscopy to predict responsible bonding during bioremediation with respect to Ni immobilization. The electronic structure and chemical-state information of the detected elements during MICP bioremediation process was studied by XPS. This is the first study in which microbial carbonate precipitation was used for the large-scale remediation of metal-contaminated industrial soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of current density and saccharin addition on the grain size of nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Yung; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, the main advantage of a radioisotope 'fuel' is concentrated, because it is 'burned' at the rate of the isotopes half life. In other words, given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery would still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on thin non radioactive nickel foil. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To establish the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles were dissolved in an acid solution and electroplated on the Ni sheet. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of the Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the influence of current density and saccharin concentration on the grain size, was investigated. The proposed model can also be applied for radioactive Ni 63 electroplating.

  12. The effect of current density and saccharin addition on the grain size of nickel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Yung; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the main advantage of a radioisotope 'fuel' is concentrated, because it is 'burned' at the rate of the isotopes half life. In other words, given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery would still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on thin non radioactive nickel foil. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To establish the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles were dissolved in an acid solution and electroplated on the Ni sheet. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of the Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the influence of current density and saccharin concentration on the grain size, was investigated. The proposed model can also be applied for radioactive Ni 63 electroplating

  13. Uranium solubility and solubility controls in selected Needle's Eye groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility control of uranium in selected groundwater samples from the cliff and sediments at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site is investigated using the speciation code PHREEQE and the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database (release 3). Alkali-earth bearing uranyl carbonate secondary minerals are likely to exert influence on the solubility . Other candidates are UO 2 and arsenates, depending on the prevailing redox conditions. In the absence of literature data, solubility products for important arsenates have been estimated from analogy with other arsenates and phosphates. Phosphates themselves are unlikely to exert control owing to their comparatively high solubilities. The influence of seawater flooding into the sediments is also discussed. The importance of uranyl arsenates in the retardation of uranium in shallow sediments has been demonstrated in theory, but there are some significant gaps in the thermodynamic databases used. (author)

  14. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  15. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  16. Prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in exudate in nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Kassis, V

    1989-01-01

    Ten nickel-allergic patients and 5 healthy control subjects participated in a study of the kinetics of the flux and concentration of migrated leukocytes and extracellular PGE1 and PGF2 alpha during a 48 h period, using a skin chamber technique. The patients were provided with two skin chambers, one...... with and one without nickel challenge. A higher flux of leukocytes, PGE1 and PGF2 alpha was observed during the second day of allergen exposure, while the concentrations probably due to dilution were unchanged or diminished, indicating an unspecific role of the prostaglandins during the contact allergic...

  17. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    .4% versus 19.8%) (p = 0.02), in female dermatitis patients aged ≤17 years (14.3% versus 29.2%) (p women: 20.2% versus 36.6%) (p men: 4.9% versus 6.6%) (p ..., and generally remained high, affecting 8-18% of the general population. A consistent pattern of decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy in some EU countries was observed, although the prevalence among young women remains high. Steps should be taken for better prevention of nickel allergy in EU countries.......Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...

  18. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  19. Technology development for producing nickel metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A technology to produce metallic filters by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-Brazilian CNEN) providing the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-Brazilian CNEN) in obtaining nickel alloy filters used for filtration process of uranium hexafluoride, was developed. The experiences carried out for producing nickel conical trunk filters from powder metallurgy are related. (M.C.K.)

  20. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  1. Evolution of the nickel/zirconia interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Olson, D.A.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The changes taking place at the nickel zirconia interface during oxidation in air at 900 0 C were studied using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The nickel oxide layer growing at the interface and the stabilizers used in zirconia interact, giving different interface morphologies

  2. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  3. Structure investigations of electrodeposited nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Brauer, G.; Leidheiser, H. Jr

    1981-01-01

    Electrodeposited nickel samples were investigated by positron annihilation (lifetime and Doppler-broadening), Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements. Two-component positron lifetime spectra were obtained. The first component is thought to result from bulk annihilation and trapping at single trapping centres (TC), their concentrations are obtained from the trapping model. The second one possibly denotes annihilation at voids, the number of which is dependent on the stress in the deposit. The Moessbauer results show differences in the magnetic orientation in the three samples examined. (author)

  4. Determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite from Milli (Sirnak) Deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Fidan, Celal; Kavak, Orhan; Erek, Figen; Aydin, Firat

    2017-12-01

    Asphaltite is one of the naturally occurring black, solid bitumen’s, which are soluble at heating in carbon disulphide band fuse. Asphaltite is also a solidified hydro carbon compound derived from petroleum [1]. According to the World Energy Council, Turkish National Committee (1998), the total reserve of the asphaltic substances that are found in south eastern Turkey is about 82 million tons, with Silopi and Sirnak reserves to get her comprising the major part of the Asphaltite deposits. Selenium and Nickel are very important elements both environmental and health. Selenium plays an important role in the formation of the enzyme antioxidant effect in the cell. The need for Selenium increases in situations such as pregnancy, menopause, grow than development, air pollution. Nickel is used for preventing iron-poor blood, increasing iron absorption, and treating weak bones. In this study, asphaltites were taken from Milli vein from Sirnak deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey. A total of 6.500.000 tons of Asphaltite reserves have been identified as asphaltites in Milli (Sirnak). The sample preparation method was developed in Asphaltite by spectroanalytical techniques, wet acid digestion. MW-AD followed by ICP-OES were used for the determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite. Proximate analysis of Asphaltite fly ash samples was made. It also, Selenium and Nickel element analysis in Asphaltite were made.

  5. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  6. The TEXTOR helium self-pumping experiment: Design, plans, and supporting ion-beam data on helium retention in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Krauss, A.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Nygren, R.E.; Doyle, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Walsh, D.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate helium self-pumping in a tokamak is being undertaken in TEXTOR. The experiment will use a helium self-pumping module installed in a modified ALT-I limiter head. The module consists of two, ∼25 x 25 cm 2 heated nickel alloy trapping plates, a nickel deposition filament array, and associated diagnostics. Between plasma shots a coating of ∼50 angstrom nickel will be deposited on the two trapping plates. During a shot helium and hydrogen ions will impinge on the plates through a ∼3 cm wide entrance slot. The helium removal capability, due to trapping in the nickel, will be assessed for a variety of plasma conditions. In support of the tokamak experiment, the trapping of helium over a range of ion fluences and surface temperatures, and detrapping during subsequent exposure to hydrogen, were measured in ion beam experiments using evaporated nickel surfaces similar to that expected in TEXTOR. Also, the retention of H and He after exposure of a nickel surface to mixed He/H plasmas has bee measured. The results appear favorable, showing high helium trapping (∼10--50% He/Ni) and little or no detrapping by hydrogen. The TEXTOR experiment is planned to begin in 1991. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The TEXTOR helium self-pumping experiment: Design, plans, and supporting ion-beam data on helium retention in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Krauss, A.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Nygren, R.E.; Doyle, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Walsh, D.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate helium self-pumping in a tokamak is being undertaken in TEXTOR. The experiment will use a helium self-pumping module installed in a modified ALT-I limiter head. The module consists of two, ≅ 25x25 cm 2 heated nickel alloy trapping plates, a nickel deposition filament array, and associated diagnostics. Between plasma shots a coating of ≅ 50A nickel will be deposited on the two trapping plates. During a shot helium and hydrogen ions will impinge on the plates through a ≅ 3 cm wide entrance slot. The helium removal capability, due to trapping in the nickel, will be assessed for a variety of plasma conditions. In support of the tokamak experiment, the trapping of helium over a range of ion fluences and surface temperatures, and detrapping during subsequent exposure to hydrogen, were measured in ion beam experiments using evaporated nickel surfaces similar to that expected in TEXTOR. Also, the retention of H and He after exposure of a nickel surface to mixed He/H plasmas has been measured. The results appear favorable, showing high helium trapping (≅ 10-50% He/Ni) and little or no detrapping by hydrogen. The TEXTOR experiment is planned to begin in 1991. (orig.)

  8. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  9. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.

    2007-01-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  10. Effects of nickel, chromate, and arsenite on histone 3 lysine methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xue; Li Qin; Arita, Adriana; Sun Hong; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposure to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) containing compounds has been associated with lung cancer and other adverse health effects. Their carcinogenic properties may be attributable in part, to activation and/or repression of gene expression induced by changes in the DNA methylation status and histone tail post-translational modifications. Here we show that individual treatment with nickel, chromate, and arsenite all affect the gene activating mark H3K4 methylation. We found that nickel (1 mM), chromate (10 μM), and arsenite (1 μM) significantly increase tri-methyl H3K4 after 24 h exposure in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Seven days of exposure to lower levels of nickel (50 and 100 μM), chromate (0.5 and 1 μM) or arsenite (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) also increased tri-methylated H3K4 in A549 cells. This mark still remained elevated and inherited through cell division 7 days following removal of 1 μM arsenite. We also demonstrate by dual staining immunofluorescence microscopy that both H3K4 tri-methyl and H3K9 di-methyl marks increase globally after 24 h exposure to each metal treatment in A549 cells. However, the tri-methyl H3K4 and di-methyl H3K9 marks localize in different regions in the nucleus of the cell. Thus, our study provides further evidence that a mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of nickel, chromate, and arsenite metal compounds may involve alterations of various histone tail modifications that may in turn affect the expression of genes that may cause transformation

  11. Experiences of ultra-low-crud high-nickel control in Onagawa nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Goto, Y.; Shinomiya, T.; Sato, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Hirasawa, H.; Yotsuyanagi, T.

    2002-01-01

    We have adopted various countermeasures for worker dose reduction to plants in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. ''Ni/Fe ratio control'' has been adopted to Unit 1, and ''ultra-low-crud high-nickel control'' has been adopted to Unit 2 and 3, along with other countermeasures like wide utilization of low Co materials, for the purpose of dose rate reduction of primary recirculation piping which is thought to be one of the main exposure sources. In this paper, we describe, first, the reason and background that ultra-low-crud high-nickel control has been adopted to Unit 2, and, second, water chemistry of Unit 2 up to the 5. cycle under ultra-low-crud high-nickel control compared to that of Unit 1 under Ni/Fe ratio control. Following those, we show brief analysis of the fuel crud of Unit 2 and water chemistry of Unit 3 only at the startup stage. (authors)

  12. Combined action of radiation, salts of copper and nickel on cell viability in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Gapeenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the combined action of heavy metals and ionizing radiation on the viability of cells in culture was made. We established a significant toxic effect of copper and nickel in the proliferative and mitotic activity of cells in vitro. Under the combined effects of radiation and copper ions on cells we observed the mor-phological changes in morphologically-functional properties of cells that were determined by or radiation dose or by concentration of copper ions. While incubation of irradiated cells with nickel ions we observed sensitiza-tion of cells by nickel ions under the irradiation dose of 0.5 and 5.0 Gy, and the resistance of cells to exposure to sublethal dose of 10.0 Gy.

  13. The performance of electroless nickel deposits in oil-field environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.; Bayes, M.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on an electroless nickel plated (represented by Enplate NI-422) C-90 steel, uncoated C-90 steel, AISI 420, 174 PH, SAF 2205, and HASTELLOY /sup R/ G-3 to determine their corrosion-performance in twelve simulated downhole oil or gas production environments during 28 day exposures. These environments were aqueous brines containing various concentrations of Cl - , H 2 S and/or CO 2 , and over a range of temperatures. The results from this study and oilfield data for electroless nickel plated low alloy steels are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the feasibility of electroless nickel coated low alloy steels as an economical substitute for some highly alloyed materials in certain oilfield applications; the field data support this

  14. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  15. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  16. Helium solubility and bubble growth in metals under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakmann, J.

    1985-07-01

    Helium solubility and bubble growth in metals under high pressure polycrystals and single crystals of gold were heated in helium at temperatures between 475 K and 1250 K in a pressure regime of 200 to 2700 bar to measure the solubility of helium in gold. After quenching to room temperature the helium content, measured by mass spectrometry, showed the following properties: 1) A linear dependence of the He solubility on pressure. 2) Thinning of the specimen reduces the helium content by a factor 10 to 100 but does not change the linear pressure dependence. 3) The thermal release of He from thinned polycrystals and single crystals occurs mainly in a single peak at 500 K. 4) The He concentration of the thinned single crystals was lower by a factor of 10 to 50 than that of the thinned polycrystals. 5) The He solubility in single crystals can be described by an enthalpy of solution Hsub(s)sup(f) = 0.85 +- 0.7 eV and a non-configurational entropy of Ssub(s)sup(f) between 0 k and 1 k (k: Boltzmann-constant). In order to measure the pressure dependence of helium bubble growth in nickel polycrystal Ni-foils were α-implanted to a helium content of 130 appm. The evaluation of the size distribution of the helium bubbles after heat treatments shows 1) The helium content of the observable bubbles - assumed to be in equilibrium - equals the amount of helium implanted into the specimen. 2) The activation energy for the growth of helium bubbles is 1.25 +- 0.3 eV. The comparison of specimen which had been heated at low pressures up to 10 bar with others heated at 2500-2700 bar does not show an unequivocal pressure dependence for helium bubble growth. (orig./IHOE) [de

  17. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  18. Solubility of metallic elements in LBE under extra low oxygen potential. JFY2003 joint research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

    2004-03-01

    Lead-Bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) has been considered as a prospective coolant for a fast-breeder reactor. However a corrosion of cooling pipe is anticipated when it is used at the similar temperature as sodium coolant. In this study, solubility of major metallic elements in LBE was measured under extra low oxygen potential. The interactive effect of those elements on the solubility was also to be examined. (1) The solubility of oxygen in LBE was measured by the gas equilibrium method (1223 k-1323 K). The standard Gibbs free energy change of oxygen solution reaction and the self-interaction parameter of oxygen in LBE were calculated, respectively. (2) The solubility of iron in LBE was measured by both the gas equilibrium method and the oxide equilibrium method (873 K-1323 K). The standard Gibbs free energy change of iron solution reaction, interaction parameter of oxygen on iron and self-interaction parameter of iron in LBE were calculated, respectively. (3) The interactive effect of iron and oxygen on the solubility in LBE was considered thermodynamically. (4) The solubility of chromium and nickel in LBE were measured under Ar-H 2 atmosphere. (author)

  19. Cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires in human fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Felix Servin, Laura P.

    2016-03-09

    The increasing interest in the use of magnetic nanostructures for biomedical applications necessitates rigorous studies to be carried out in order to determine their potential toxicity. This work attempts to elucidate the cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires (NWs) in human fibroblasts WI-38 by a colorimetric assay (MTT) under two different parameters: NW concentration and exposure time. This was complemented with TEM and confocal images to assess the NWs internalization and to identify any changes in the cell morphology. Ni NWs were fabricated by electrodeposition using porous alumina templates. Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging were used for NW characterization. The results showed decreased cell metabolic activity for incubation times longer than 24 hours and no negative effects for exposure times shorter than that. The cytotoxicity effects for human fibroblasts were then compared with those reported for HCT 116 cells, and the findings point out that it is relevant to consider the cellular size. In addition, the present study compares the toxic effects of equivalent amounts of nickel in the form of its salt to those of NWs and shows that the NWs are more toxic than the salts. Internalized NWs were found in vesicles inside of the cells where their presence induced inflammation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. External self-gettering of nickel in float zone silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, N.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1997-05-01

    During indiffusion of Ni atoms in silicon crystals at 950 °C from a nickel layer source, Ni-Si alloys can be formed close to the surface. Metal solubility in these alloys is higher than in silicon, which induces a marked segregation gettering of the Ni atoms which have diffused in the bulk of the wafers. Consequently, the regions of the wafers covered with the Ni layer are less contaminated than adjacent regions in which Ni atoms have also penetrated, as shown by the absence of precipitates and the higher diffusion length of minority carriers. The results suggest the existence of external self-gettering of Ni atoms by the nickel source.

  1. Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke OLUWOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

  2. Evaluation of nickel-based materials for VHTR heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlet, H.; Gentzbittel, J.M.; Cabet, C.; Lamagnere, P.; Blat, M.; Renaud, D.; Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Pierron, D.

    2008-01-01

    Two available conventional nickel-based alloys (617 and 230) have been selected as structural materials for the advanced gas-cooled reactors, especially for the heat exchanger. An extensive research programme has been launched in France within the framework of the ANTARES programme to evaluate the performances of these materials in VHTR service environment. The experimental work is focused on mechanical properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance in the temperature range (700-1 000 deg C) over long time. Thus the experimental work includes creep and fatigue tests on as-received materials, short- and medium-term thermal exposure tests followed by tensile and impact toughness tests, short- and medium-term corrosion exposure tests under impure He environment. The status of the results obtained up to now is given in this paper. Additional tests such as long-term thermal ageing and long-term corrosion tests are required to conclude on the selection of the material. (author)

  3. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  4. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  5. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  6. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  7. Solubility and bioavailability improvement of pazopanib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrink, Maikel; Groenland, Stefanie L; Huitema, Alwin D R; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Steeghs, Neeltje; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2018-06-10

    The anti-cancer drug pazopanib hydrochloride (PZH) has a very low aqueous solubility and a variable oral bioavailability. A new pharmaceutical formulation with an improved solubility may enhance the bioavailability and reduce the variability. A broad selection of polymer excipients was tested for their compatibility and solubilizing properties by conventional microscopic, thermal and spectrometric techniques. A wet milling and mixing technique was used to produce homogenous powder mixtures. The dissolution properties of the formulation were tested by a pH-switch dissolution model. The final formulation was tested in vivo in cancer patient following a dose escalation design. Of the tested mixture formulations, the one containing the co-block polymer Soluplus® in a 8:1 ratio with PZH performed best in terms of in vitro dissolution properties. The in vivo results indicated that 300 mg of the developed formulation yields similar exposure and a lower variability (379 μg/mL∗h (36.7% CV)) than previously reported values for the standard PZH formulation (Votrient®) at the approved dose of 800 mg. Furthermore, the expected plasma-C through levels (27.2 μg/mL) exceeds the defined therapeutic efficacy threshold of 20 μg/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion and biofouling resistance evaluation of 90-10 copper-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Carol [Consultant to Copper Development Association, UK, Square Covert, Caynham, Ludlow, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Copper-nickel alloys for marine use were developed for naval applications in the early part of the 20. century with a view to improving the corrosion resistance of condenser tubes and seawater piping. They still enjoy widespread use today not only for many navies but also in commercial shipping, floating production, storage and off loading vessels (FPSOs), and in multistage flash desalination. The two popular alloys contain 90% or 70% copper and differ in strength and maximum sea water velocity levels they can handle but it is the 90-10 copper-nickel (CuNi10Fe1Mn) which is the more economic and extensively used. An additional benefit of this alloy is its high resistance to biofouling: in recent years this has led to sheathing developments particularly for structures and boat hulls. This paper provides a review of the corrosion and biofouling resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel based on laboratory test data and documented experience of the alloy in marine environments. Particular attention is given to exposure trials over 8 years in Langstone Harbour, UK, which have recently been completed by Portsmouth University on behalf of the Nickel Institute. These examined four sheathing products; plate and foil as well as two composite products with rubber backing. The latter involved copper-nickel granules and slit sheet. The trial results are consistent with the behaviour of the alloy in the overall review. There is an inherent high resistance to marine biofouling when freely exposed. Prolonged exposure to quiet conditions can result in some growth of marine organisms but this is loosely attached and can readily be removed by wiping or a light scraping. The good corrosion resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel in sea water is also confirmed and associated with the formation of a thin, complex, protective and predominantly cuprous oxide surface film, which forms and matures naturally on exposure to seawater. Sound initial oxide film formation is also known to help protect against

  9. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T; Burges, D C; Hamilton, L; Harrington, J M

    1998-04-01

    To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexavalent chromium). Detailed job histories were abstracted from original company personnel records and individual cumulative durations of employment in three types of chrome work were derived as time dependent variables (chrome bath work, other chrome work, any chrome work). Two analytical approaches were used--indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. Based on mortalities for the general population of England and Wales, male workers with some period of chrome bath work had higher lung cancer mortalities (observed deaths 40, expected deaths 25.41, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 157, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 113 to 214, p chrome workers (observed 9, expected 13.70, SMR 66, 95% CI 30 to 125). Similar findings were shown for female workers (chrome bath workers: observed 15, expected 8.57, SMR 175, 95% CI 98 to 289, p = 0.06; other chrome workers: observed 1, expected 4.37, SMR 23, 95% CI 1 to 127). Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer relative to four categories of cumulative duration of chrome bath work and four categories of cumulative duration of other chrome work (none, or = 5 y). After adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, year of starting chrome work, period from first chrome work, and employment status (still employed v left employment), there was a significant positive trend (p chrome bath work and risks of mortality for lung cancer. Relative to a risk of unity for those chrome workers without any period of chrome bath work, risks were 2.83 (95% CI 1.47 to

  10. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  11. Interaction of gold nanoparticles and nickel(II) sulfate affects dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Sarah; Bare, Birgit; Piella, Jordi; Tirez, Kristof; Hoet, Peter; Monopoli, Marco P.; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Puntes, Victor F.; Nelissen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Despite many investigations have focused on the pristine toxicity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), little is known about the outcome of co-exposure and interaction of GNPs with heavy metals which can possibly detoxify or potentiate them. Here, the combined exposure of nickel (II) sulfate (NiSO4) and GNPs on the maturation response of dendritic cells (DCs) was explored. Exposure to GNPs or NiSO4 separately induced cell activation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of both, however, the observe...

  12. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone fondue

  13. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone

  14. On nitrogen solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajda, Yu.A.; Katkov, Yu.D.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Lastovtsev, A.Yu.; Lastochkin, A.P.; Susoev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental investigations on nitrogen solubility in water under 0-15 MPa pressure, at the temperature of 100-340 deg C and nitrogen concentration of 0-5000 n.ml. N 2 /kg H 2 O. Empiric equations are derived and a diagram of nitrogen solubility in water is developed on the basis of the experimental data, as well as critically evaluated published data. The investigation results can be used in analyzing water-gas regime of a primary heat carrier in stream-generating plants with water-water reactors

  15. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  16. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  17. Solubility database for TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water ({approx}70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites

  18. Solubility database for TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T.; Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M.

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water (∼70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites. The

  19. Physical models of corrosion of iron and nickel in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1975-11-01

    The possible physical models for the corrosion of iron and nickel in liquid sodium loops are considered. The models are assessed in the light of available experimental evidence, in particular the magnitude of the corrosion rate and the velocity, downstream, temperature and oxygen effects. Currently recommended solubility values are used throughout. It is shown that the simple model based on these recommended values, which assumes that the dissolved metals are in equilibrium throughout the loop, overestimates the corrosion rate by three orders of magnitude. (author)

  20. Dynamic variation of histone H3 trimethyl Lys4 (H3K4me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) with employment length in nickel smelting workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Cheng, Ning; Dai, Min; Pu, Hongquan; Zheng, Tongzhang; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie; Bai, Yana

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic variation in H3K4me3 and HP1 with employment length in nickel smelting workers. Blood samples were collected from 140 nickel smelting workers and 140 age-matched office workers to test for H3K4me3, and HP1 levels. H3K4me3 was statistically significantly different (p exposure to nickel can induce oxidative damage, and increase H3K4me3 expression and inhibit HP1 expression.

  1. Near-infrared dichroism of a mesogenic transition metal complex and its solubility in nematic hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.L.; Jacobs, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    A transition metal complex possessing the nematic phase, bis (p-n-butylstyryl-1, 2-dithiolato) nickel, was synthesized and its optical properties and solubility in the nematic hosts K15 and MBBA were investigated. The metal complex displayed a high solubility in both host materials (up to 10% wt/wt) and a strong near-infrared absorption band centered at 860 nm. A blocking extinction of greater than OD = 3 was obtained with a 100 micron pathlength of a 0.5% wt/wt mixture of the nematic metal complex in K15, suggesting its usefulness for passive blocking of near infrared radiation. A 24 micron thick, homogeneously aligned guest-host cell containing a 1% wt/wt mixture of the metal complex in K15 possessed a contrast ratio of nearly 5:1 and a blocking extinction of OD = 3.5 at 860 nm, demonstrating for the first time the existence of near-infrared dichroism in this class of materials. The solubility and blocking extinction of the mesogenic metal complex in K15 was considerably superior to the non-mesogenic near ir laser dye bis(dimethylaminodithiobenzil) nickel in the same host. An interaction of the nematic metal complex in mixtures with MBBA which resulted in the creation of a new absorption band at 1050 nm was also observed. 21 refs., 9 figs

  2. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Nigro, Raffaella Lo; Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico; Bongiorno, Corrado; Fragala, Ignazio L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac) 2 (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl 2 was formed from CCl 4 solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl 2 films

  3. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; O`Donnell, P.M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (>30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4,000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft.

  4. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  5. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  6. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979. [Hamsters and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds were investigated in rats and hamsters. The new knowledge includes; demonstration that nickel carbonyl is teratogenic for hamsters; elucidation of physiological factors which influence ..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/-induced erythrocytosis in rats; development of a sensitive assay for heme oxygenase activity in renal microsomes for use in studies of renal effects of nickel compounds; demonstration that administration of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ to rats inhibits incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into DNA during hepatic regeneration; demonstration that clones of Syrian hamster fetal cells which have been transformed by in vitro exposure to ..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ consistently cause sarcomas following sc injection into nude mice; demonstration that nickel carbonyl-cyclopentadiene dimer induces rhabdomyosarcomas following im injection in rats; observation of differences in carcinogenic activities of several insoluble nickel compounds; discovery that intraocular injection of ..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ induces amelanotic melanomas in rats; and refinement of analytical methods for nickel in biological materials.

  7. Simulation of weathering processes of uranium-nickel ore from Key Lake, Sask., Canada - a contribution of uranium mineralogy to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechmann, E. von; Voultsidis, V.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of frost and rain on stockpiles of uranium-nickel or from the Key Lake deposits has been investigated in simulation tests. Frost splitting causes strong disaggregation of the rock and fragmentation of the mineral grains. The ore is much less affected in the sandstone than in the mylonitized basement. During the tests, the uranium minerals have nearly not been weathered. The nickel minerals are quickly transformed into water soluble secondary minerals (sulphates and arsenate). The weathering effects on stored ore depend on the degree of ore comminution and its exposition to the atmospheric elements. (orig.) [de

  8. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  9. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  10. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zheng, Tongzhang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); Wise, John Pierce, E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  11. Physical models of mass transport of iron and nickel in liquid sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.; Polley, M.V.; Skyrme, G.

    1975-12-01

    Experimental observations on corrosion of pure iron and nickel specimens in non-isothermal loops containing flowing sodium have been used to derive values of the concentration of dissolved material at the entrance to the test section and diffusion coefficients of the test material in sodium. The former values differ from the saturation value by only 10 -3 ppm, which is small compared to currently recommended solubility values. The phenomenon cannot be explained in terms of circulating particles. Two other possible explanations are also dismissed. The diffusion coefficient values are consistent with the corroding species being atoms, or molecules containing a few atoms. It is also shown that the observations are better explained in terms of boundary layer controlled mass transfer, rather than a surface controlled process. A computer model based on an alternative solubility relationship is shown to produce results which describe well the observed variation of corrosion rate with oxygen concentration, sodium velocity and downstream position. (author)

  12. Time-dependent uptake and toxicity of nickel to Enchytraeus crypticus in the presence of humic acid and fulvic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Erkai; Qiu, Hao; Qiu, Rongliang; Rentenaar, Charlotte; Devresse, Quentin; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the uptake and toxicity of nickel (Ni) in the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus after different exposure times. The addition of DOC as humic acid or fulvic acid significantly

  13. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  14. Improvement of black nickel coatings. [product development for use in solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. E.; Lin, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Selectively absorbing black nickel coatings are among the most optically efficient low cost coatings for use on flat plate solar collectors. However, a current Ni-Zn-S-O coating in use is quite susceptible to a humid environment, degrading badly in less than ten days at 38 C (100 F) at 95 percent relative humidity. Therefore, a black nickel formula was developed which can withstand such exposures with no loss of optical efficiency, solar absorption of 0.92 and an infrared emittance (at 100 C) of 1.00 were still present after 14 days of humidity exposure. This compares to a solar absorptance of only 0.72 for the previous formula after a similar time period. The electroplating bath and conditions were changed to obtain the more stable coating configuration. The effect of bath composition, temperature, pH, and plating current density and time on the coating composition, spectral optical properties and durability were investigated systematically.

  15. Phase Transformations in Nickel base Superalloy Inconel 718 during Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jambor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base superalloys are hi-tech materials intended for high temperature applications. This property owns a complex microstructure formed by matrix of Ni and variety of precipitates. The type, form and the amount of these phases significantly affect the resulting properties of these alloys. At sufficiently long exposure to high temperatures, the transformation phase can occur, which can lead to degradation of properties of these alloys. A cyclic plastic deformation can accelerate these changes, and they could occur at significantly lower temperatures or in shorter time of exposure. The aim of this study is to describe phase transformation, which can occur by a cyclic plastic deformation at high temperatures in nickel base superalloy Inconel 718.

  16. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  17. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nanopowders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanopowders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at pH ~12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54–65°C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution pH affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (pH~10 of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  19. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  20. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  1. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  2. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  3. Nickel allergy from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood, and the ......Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood...

  4. Hydrotropic solubilization of lipophilic drugs for oral delivery: The effects of urea and nicotinamide on carbamazepine solubility-permeability interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Beig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotropy refers to increasing the water solubility of otherwise poorly soluble compound by the presence of small organic molecules. While it can certainly increase the apparent solubility of a lipophilic drug, the effect of hydrotropy on the drugs' permeation through the intestinal membrane has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solubility-permeability interplay when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. The concentration-dependent effects of the commonly used hydrotropes urea and nicotinamide, on the solubility and the permeability of the lipophilic antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were studied. Then, the solubility-permeability interplay was mathematically modeled, and was compared to the experimental data. Both hydrotropes allowed significant concentration-dependent carbamazepine solubility increase (up to ~30-fold. A concomitant permeability decrease was evident both in-vitro and in-vivo (~17-fold for nicotinamide and ~9-fold for urea, revealing a solubility-permeability tradeoff when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. A relatively simplified simulation approach based on proportional opposite correlation between the solubility increase and the permeability decrease at a given hydrotrope concentration allowed excellent prediction of the overall solubility-permeability tradeoff. In conclusion, when using hydrotropic drug solubilization it is prudent to not focus solely on solubility, but to account for the permeability as well; achieving optimal solubility-permeability balance may promote the overall goal of the formulation to maximize oral drug exposure.

  5. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Torres1

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Torres1, Maria das Graças Mota Melo2, Antonella Tosti31Department of Dermatology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Occupational Dermatology Sector, Center for the Study of Worker Health and Human Ecology, National School of Public Health, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, metals, contact hypersensitivity, occupational exposure, children, contact dermatitis

  6. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  7. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T.; Burges, D. C.; Hamilton, L.; Harrington, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. METHODS: The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexaval...

  9. The solubility-permeability interplay and oral drug formulation design: Two heads are better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Beig, Avital; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M

    2016-06-01

    Poor aqueous solubility is a major challenge in today's biopharmaceutics. While solubility-enabling formulations can significantly increase the apparent solubility of the drug, the concomitant effect on the drug's apparent permeability has been largely overlooked. The mathematical equation to describe the membrane permeability of a drug comprises the membrane/aqueous partition coefficient, which in turn is dependent on the drug's apparent solubility in the GI milieu, suggesting that the solubility and the permeability are closely related, exhibit a certain interplay between them, and treating the one irrespectively of the other may be insufficient. In this article, an overview of this solubility-permeability interplay is provided, and the available data is analyzed in the context of the effort to maximize the overall drug exposure. Overall, depending on the type of solubility-permeability interplay, the permeability may decrease, remain unchanged, and even increase, in a way that may critically affect the formulation capability to improve the overall absorption. Therefore, an intelligent design of solubility-enabling formulation needs to consider both the solubility afforded by the formulation and the permeability in the new luminal environment resulting from the formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization in Helicobacter pylori of a Nickel Transporter Essential for Colonization That Was Acquired during Evolution by Gastric Helicobacter Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlin, Evelyne; Mancuso, Francesco; Michel, Valérie; Richaud, Pierre; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; De Reuse, Hilde; Vinella, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Metal acquisition is crucial for all cells and for the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. In particular, nickel is a virulence determinant for the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori as it is the cofactor of two enzymes essential for in vivo colonization, urease and a [NiFe] hydrogenase. To import nickel despite its scarcity in the human body, H. pylori requires efficient uptake mechanisms that are only partially defined. Indeed, alternative ways of nickel entry were predicted to exist in addition to the well-described NixA permease. Using a genetic screen, we identified an ABC transporter, that we designated NiuBDE, as a novel H. pylori nickel transport system. Unmarked mutants carrying deletions of nixA, niuD and/or niuB, were constructed and used to measure (i) tolerance to toxic nickel exposure, (ii) intracellular nickel content by ICP-OES, (iii) transport of radioactive nickel and (iv) expression of a reporter gene controlled by nickel concentration. We demonstrated that NiuBDE and NixA function separately and are the sole nickel transporters in H. pylori. NiuBDE, but not NixA, also transports cobalt and bismuth, a metal currently used in H. pylori eradication therapy. Both NiuBDE and NixA participate in nickel-dependent urease activation at pH 5 and survival under acidic conditions mimicking those encountered in the stomach. However, only NiuBDE is able to carry out this activity at neutral pH and is essential for colonization of the mouse stomach. Phylogenomic analyses indicated that both nixA and niuBDE genes have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer by the last common ancestor of the gastric Helicobacter species. Our work highlights the importance of this evolutionary event for the emergence of Helicobacter gastric species that are adapted to the hostile environment of the stomach where the capacity of Helicobacter to import nickel and thereby activate urease needs to be optimized. PMID:27923069

  11. In vitro evaluation of matrix metalloproteinases as predictive testing for nickel, a model sensitizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberti, Monica; Perfetto, Brunella; Costabile, Teresa; Canozo, Nunzia; Baroni, Adone; Liotti, Francesco; Sannolo, Nicola; Giuliano, Mariateresa

    2004-01-01

    The identification of potential damage due to chemical exposure in the workplace is a major health and regulatory concern. Traditional tests that measure both sensitization and elicitation responses require the use of animals. An alternative to this widespread use of experimental animals could have a crucial impact on risk assessment, especially for the preliminary screening of new molecules. We developed an in vitro model for the screening of potential toxic compounds. Human keratinocytes (HaCat) were used as target cells while matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were selected as responders because they are key enzymes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in physiological and pathological conditions. Chemical exposure was performed using nickel sulphate as a positive tester. Nickel contact induced upregulation of MMP-2 and IL-8 mRNA production. Molecular activation occurred even at very low nickel concentrations even though no phenotypic changes were observed. MMP-9 accumulation was found in the medium of treated cells with respect to controls. These observations led to the hypothesis that even minimal exposure can accumulate transcriptional activity resulting in long-term clinical signs after contact. Our simple in vitro model can be applied as a useful preliminary complement to the animal studies to screen the effects of new potential toxic compounds

  12. Near-field solubility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Experimental determinations of the solubilities of americium, plutonium, neptunium, protactinium, thorium, radium, lead, tin, palladium and zirconium are reported. These elements have radioactive isotopes of concern in assessments of radioactive waste disposal. All measurements were made under the highly alkaline conditions typical of the near field of a radioactive waste repository which uses cementitious materials for many of the immobilisation matrices, the backfill and the engineered structures. Low redox potentials, typical of those resulting from the corrosion of iron and steel, were simulated for those elements having more than one accessible oxidation state. The dissolved concentrations of the elements were defined using ultrafiltration. In addition, the corrosion of iron and stainless steel was shown to generate low redox potentials in solution and the solubility of iron(II) at high pH was measured and found to be sufficient for it to act as a redox buffer with respect to neptunium and plutonium. (author)

  13. Magnetite solubility studies under simulated PWR primary-side conditions, using lithiated, hydrogenated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, John; Morrison, Jonathan; Cooper, Christopher; Ponton, Clive; Connolly, Brian; Dickinson, Shirley; Henshaw, Jim

    2014-01-01

    As software for modelling dissolution, precipitation, and transport of metallic species and subsequent CRUD deposition within nuclear plant becomes more advanced, there is an increasing need for accurate and reliable thermodynamic data. The solubility behaviour of magnetite is an example of such data, and is central to any treatment of CRUD solubility due to the prevalence of magnetite and nickel ferrites in CRUD. Several workers have shown the most consistent solubility data comes from once-through flowing systems. However, despite a strong consensus between the results in acidic to mildly alkaline solutions, there is disagreement between the results at approximately pH 25C 9 and higher. A programme of experimental work is on-going at the University of Birmingham, focusing on solubility of metal oxides (e.g., magnetite) in conditions relevant to PWR primary coolant. One objective of this programme is to calculate thermodynamic constants from the data obtained. Magnetite solubility from 200 to 300°C, in lithiated, hydrogenated water of pH 25C 9–11 is being studied using a once-through rig constructed of 316L stainless steel. The feedwater is pumped at 100 bar pressure through a heated bed of magnetite granules, and the output solution is collected and analysed for iron and several other metals by ICP-MS. This paper presents results from preliminary tests without magnetite granules, in which the corroding surface of the rig itself was used as the sole source of soluble iron and of dissolved hydrogen. Levels of iron were generally within an order of magnitude of literature solubility values. Comparison of results at different flow rates and temperatures, in conjunction with conclusions drawn from the published literature, suggests that this is likely due to the presence of particulate matter in a greatly under-saturated solution, compensating for the low surface area of oxide in contact with the solution. (author)

  14. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.

  15. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  16. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated.

  17. Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline -Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kirchner; Bernd Kieback

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in -iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. Therefor...

  18. Numerous dilemmas surrounding the 1917 nickel coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Extraordinary Loans Amounting to 200 Million Dinars and the Minting of Silver and Nickel Coins in 1916 was the legal basis for minting the 5-, 10-, and 20-para nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia featuring the year 1917 as their minting year. Some authors believe that these coins were minted in the Minting House in Paris, whereas the others agree that they were certainly minted in France, but in a still unidentified minting house. There are authors who in recent reference literature underline the possibility of their minting in the USA Gorham Company, in Providence, Rhode Island. These coins had all the characteristics of the nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1883, 1884, 1904 and 1912. Although, according to the Law, the Minister of Finance was authorized to mint 10 million dinars of these nickel coins, only 5 million pieces in each denomination were actually minted, in the total nominal value of just 1,750,000 dinars. The general opinion is that after the war only a small amount of these nickel coins reached Serbia, because the ships transporting the Serbian coins from the minting house sank on their way. The only varying aspect in this explanation is the location from which the ships were sailing towards Corfu, i.e. from the USA or from France. These coins stopped being legal tender as of 30 November 1931.

  19. Optimising mechanical properties of hot forged nickel superalloy 625 components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singo, Nthambe; Coles, John; Rosochowska, Malgorzata; Lalvani, Himanshu; Hernandez, Jose; Ion, William

    2018-05-01

    Hot forging and subsequent heat treatment were resulting in substandard mechanical properties of nickel superalloy, Alloy 625, components. The low strength was found to be due to inadequate deformation during forging, excessive grain growth and precipitation of carbides during subsequent heat treatment. Experimentation in a drop forging company and heat treatment facility led to the establishment of optimal parameters to minimise grain size and mitigate the adverse effects of carbide precipitation, leading to successful fulfilment of mechanical property specifications. This was achieved by reducing the number of operations, maximising the extent of deformation by changing the slug dimensions and its orientation in the die, and minimising the time of exposure to elevated temperatures in both the forging and subsequent heat treatment processes to avoid grain growth.

  20. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally.......Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  1. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  2. Nickel-based gadolinium alloy for neutron adsorption application in ram packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robino, C.; McConnell, P.; Mizia, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will outline the results of a metallurgical development program that is investigating the alloying of gadolinium into a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy matrix. Gadolinium has been chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element due to its high thermal neutron absorption cross section and low solubility in the expected U.S. repository environment. The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy family was chosen for its known corrosion performance, mechanical properties, and weldability. The workflow of this program includes chemical composition definition, primary and secondary melting studies, ingot conversion processes, properties testing, and national consensus codes and standards work. The microstructural investigation of these alloys shows that the gadolinium addition is not soluble in the primary austenite metallurgical phase and is present in the alloy as gadolinium-rich second phase. This is similar to what is observed in a stainless steel alloyed with boron. The mechanical strength values are similar to those expected for commercial Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. The alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated Yucca Mountain aqueous chemistries with acceptable results. The initial results of weldability tests have also been acceptable. Neutronic testing in a moderated critical array has generated favorable results. An American Society for Testing and Materials material specification has been issued for the alloy and a Code Case has been submitted to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for code qualification. The ultimate goal is acceptance of the alloy for use at the Yucca Mountain repository

  3. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  4. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of new nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel nickel molybdenum complex with the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid ligand was success- ... made for preparing nanoparticles with controllable size and shape. 2. ... Formula weight ..... talline nickel molybdates J. Alloys Compd.

  5. THE LOCAL LASER-STIMULATED ELECTRODEPOSITION OF THE NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovskyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mask-free method for obtaining the local nickel coatings using laser radiation is developed. The parameters of local nickel coatings are calculated. The rate of electroplating process is estimated.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Plated Alloy 600 in High Temperature Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, electrochemical and microstructural characteristics of nickel-plated Alloy 600 wee investigated in order to identify the performance of electroless Ni-plating on Alloy 600 in high-temperature aqueous condition with the comparison of electrolytic nickel-plating. For high temperature corrosion test of nickel-plated Alloy 600, specimens were exposed for 770 hours to typical PWR primary water condition. During the test, open circuit potentials (OCP's) of all specimens were measured using a reference electrode. Also, resistance to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was examined in order to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity flow environment at high temperature. After exposures to high flow rate aqueous condition, the integrity of surfaces was confirmed by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). For the field application, a remote process for electroless nickel-plating was demonstrated using a plate specimen with narrow gap on a laboratory scale. Finally, a practical seal design was suggested for more convenient application

  7. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  8. Design of a single variable helium effects experiment for irradiation in FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] using alloys enriched in nickel 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Brager, H.R.; Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Nickel enriched in nickel 59 was extracted from the fragments of a fracture toughness specimen of Inconel 600 irradiated in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The nickel contained 2.0% nickel 59. Three heats of austenitic steel doped with nickel-59 were prepared and inserted in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The experiment was single variable in helium effects because chemically identical alloys without nickel-59 were being irradiated side by side with the doped material. The alloys doped with nickel 59 produced 10 to 100 times more helium than the control alloys. The materials included ternary and quaternary alloys in the form of transmission electron microscope (TEM) discs and miniature tensile specimens. The helium to dpa ratio was in the range 5 to 35 and was nearly constant throughout the irradiation. The exposures ranged from 0.25 to 50 displacements per atom (dpa) over the duration of the experiment. The irradiation temperatures covered the range of 360 to 600 0 C

  9. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni 2 P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni 2 P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , or α-Al 2 O 3 ) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni 2 P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N 2 -sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al 2 O 3 results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni 2 P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni 3 P, Ni 12 P 5 , Ni 2 P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni 2 P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy

  10. Engineered Nickel Oxide Nanoparticle Causes Substantial Physicochemical Perturbation in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Manna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of engineered nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiO-NP in nature is on the rise, owing to large scale industrial uses, which have accreted the scope of its exposure to plants, the primary producers of the ecosystem. Though an essential micronutrient for the animal system, supported by numerous studies confirming its toxicity at higher dosages, nickel oxide is graded as a human carcinogen by WHO. A few studies do depict toxicity and bioaccumulation of nickel in plants; however, interaction of NiO-NP with plants is not well-elucidated. It is known that exposure to NiO-NP can incite stress response, leading to cytotoxicity and growth retardation in some plants, but a defined work on the intricate physicochemical cellular responses and genotoxic challenges is wanting. The present study was planned to explore cytotoxicity of NiO-NP in the model plant, Allium cepa L., its internalization in the tissue and concomitant furore created in the antioxidant enzyme system of the plant. The prospect of the NiO-NP causing genotoxicity was also investigated. Detailed assessments biochemical profiles and genotoxicity potential of NiO-NP on A. cepa L. was performed and extended to four of its closest economically important relatives, Allium sativum L., Allium schoenoprasum L., Allium porrum L., and Allium fistulosum L. Growing root tips were treated with seven different concentrations of NiO-NP suspension (10–500 mg L−1, with deionised distilled water as negative control and 0.4 mM EMS solution as positive control. Study of genotoxic endpoints, like, mitotic indices (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CAs, and chromosome breaks confirmed NiO-NP induced genotoxicity in plants, even at a very low dose (10 mg L−1. That NiO-NP also perturbs biochemical homeostasis, disrupting normal physiology of the cell, was confirmed through changes in state of lipid peroxidation malonaldehyde (MDA, as well as, in oxidation marker enzymes, like catalase (CAT, super oxide

  11. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  12. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  13. Mineral contents and their solubility on calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals from cockle shell powder (Anadara granosa Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, S.; Pramushinta, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Prepared and characterized calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals improves solubility. Calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals were synthesized using precipitation method from the waste of blood clam cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). This study was conducted to analyze mineral composition of nanocrystals calcium carbonat calcite cockle (Anadara granosa) shell for calcium fortification of food applications and to evaluate the solubilities of Calsium and Phospor. The sample of nanocrystals from cockle shells was evaluated to determine the content of 11 macro-and micro-elements. These elements are Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Ferrum (Fe), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Zink (Zn), Boron (B) and Silica (Si)). Cockleshell powders were found to contain toxic elements below detectable levels. The solubilities of Calcium and Phospor were p<0.05.

  14. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  15. Chemistry of nickel and copper production from sulphide ores | Love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nickel is one of Zimbabwe's principle metallurgical exports. It is processed to a very high level of purity and hence has a high value. The economics of nickel production can be difficult, as the selling value of nickel varies tremendously with time, from a low of US$ 3 900 per ton in late 1998 to US$ 10 100 per ton in May 2000, ...

  16. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  17. Nickel sensitisation in mice: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    The market release of new domestic and industrial chemical and metal products requires certain safety certification, including testing for skin sensitisation. Although various official guidelines have described how such testing is to be done, the validity of the available test models are in part dubious, for which reason regulatory agencies and research aim to further improve and generalise the models for testing of skin sensitisation. We applied a recently published murine model of nickel allergy as to test its applicability in a regulatory setting and to study and better understand the events leading to type-IV hypersensitivity. Nickel was chosen as model hapten since it induces allergic contact dermatitis with high incidence in the general population. Typically, C57BL/6 mice were sensitised and challenged by intradermal applications of nickel, and cutaneous inflammation was analysed by the mouse ear-swelling test, by histology, and by lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. Surprisingly, the study suggested that the skin reactions observed were results of irritant reactions rather than of adaptive immune responses. Non-sensitised mice responded with cutaneous inflammation and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity which were comparable with nickel-sensitised mice. Furthermore, histological examinations as well as experiments in T-cell deficient mice demonstrated that lymphocytes were not involved and that nickel caused an irritant contact dermatitis rather a true allergic type-IV contact dermatitis. The authors question the validity of the described murine model of nickel allergy. Copyright 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.