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Sample records for solubilized human zona

  1. Solubilization and Humanization of Paraoxonase-1

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    Mohosin Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a serum protein, the activity of which is related to susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and intoxication by organophosphorus (OP compounds. It may also be involved in innate immunity, and it is a possible lead molecule in the development of a catalytic bioscavenger of OP pesticides and nerve agents. Human PON1 expressed in E. coli is mostly found in the insoluble fraction, which motivated the engineering of soluble variants, such as G2E6, with more than 50 mutations from huPON1. We examined the effect on the solubility, activity, and stability of three sets of mutations designed to solubilize huPON1 with fewer overall changes: deletion of the N-terminal leader, polar mutations in the putative HDL binding site, and selection of the subset of residues that became more polar in going from huPON1 to G2E6. All three sets of mutations increase the solubility of huPON1; the HDL-binding mutant has the largest effect on solubility, but it also decreases the activity and stability the most. Based on the G2E6 polar mutations, we “humanized” an engineered variant of PON1 with high activity against cyclosarin (GF and found that it was still very active against GF with much greater similarity to the human sequence.

  2. Solubilization of human erythrocyte membranes by ASB detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Domingues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the membrane solubilization process and finding effective solubilizing agents are crucial challenges in biochemical research. Here we report results on the interaction of the novel linear alkylamido propyl dimethyl amino propanosulfonate detergents, ASB-14 and ASB-16, with human erythrocyte membranes. An estimation of the critical micelle concentration of these zwitterionic detergents (ASB-14 = 100 µM and ASB-16 = 10 µM was obtained using electron paramagnetic resonance. The amount of proteins and cholesterol solubilized from erythrocytes by these detergents was then determined. The hemolytic activities of the ASB detergents were assayed and the detergent/lipid molar ratios for the onset of hemolysis (Re sat and total lysis (Re sol were calculated, allowing the determination of the membrane binding constants (Kb. ASB-14 presented lower membrane affinity (Kb = 7050 M-1 than ASB-16 (Kb = 15610 M-1. The amount of proteins and cholesterol solubilized by both ASB detergents was higher while Re sat values (0.22 and 0.08 detergent/lipid for ASB-14 and ASB-16, respectively were smaller than those observed with the classic detergents CHAPS and Triton X-100. These results reveal that, besides their well-known use as membrane protein solubilizers to enhance the resolution of two dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry, ASB-14 and ASB-16 are strong hemolytic agents. We propose that the physicochemical properties of ASB detergents determine their membrane disruption efficiency and can help to explain the improvement in the solubilization of membrane proteins, as reported in the literature.

  3. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC

  4. Solubilization of human cells by the styrene-maleic acid copolymer: Insights from fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Jonas M; van Coevorden-Hameete, Marleen H; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Killian, J Antoinette

    2017-11-01

    Extracting membrane proteins from biological membranes by styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMAs) in the form of nanodiscs has developed into a powerful tool in membrane research. However, the mode of action of membrane (protein) solubilization in a cellular context is still poorly understood and potential specificity for cellular compartments has not been investigated. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy to visualize the process of SMA solubilization of human cells, exemplified by the immortalized human HeLa cell line. Using fluorescent protein fusion constructs that mark distinct subcellular compartments, we found that SMA solubilizes membranes in a concentration-dependent multi-stage process. While all major intracellular compartments were affected without a strong preference, plasma membrane solubilization was found to be generally slower than the solubilization of organelle membranes. Interestingly, some plasma membrane-localized proteins were more resistant against solubilization than others, which might be explained by their presence in specific membrane domains with differing properties. Our results support the general applicability of SMA for the isolation of membrane proteins from different types of (sub)cellular membranes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of solubilized human and rat brain US -endorphin-receptor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmeste, D.M.; Li, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been solubilized from human striatal and rat whole-brain membranes by use of 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Tritiated human US -endorphin (TH-US /sub h/-EP) binding revealed high-affinity competition by morphine, naloxone, and various US -EP analogues. Lack of high-affinity competition by (+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50-488, Upjohn) indicated that k sites were not labeled by TH-US -/sub h/-EP under these conditions. Affinities were similar in both soluble and membrane preparations except for (Met)enkephalin, which appears to be rapidly degraded by the solubilized extract. Size differences between human and rat solubilized TH-US /sub h/-EP-receptor complexes were revealed by exclusion chromatography.

  6. Human sperm degradation of zona pellucida proteins contributes to fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.

  7. Interaction of complement-solubilized immune complexes with CR1 receptors on human erythrocytes. The binding reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, H H; Svehag, S E; Jarlbaek, L

    1986-01-01

    showed no binding. IC solubilized in 50% human serum in the presence of autologous RBC bound rapidly to RBC-CR1, with maximal binding within less than 1 min at 37 degrees C. Release of CR1-bound IC under these conditions occurred slowly, requiring more than 30 min. Only binding of 'partially' solubilized...... of an intact classical pathway in preparing the IC for binding to RBC-CR1. C-solubilized IC could be absorbed to solid-phase conglutinin or antibody to C3c and C4c, and these ligands were able to inhibit the binding of solubilized IC to RBC. Heparin also exerted a marked, dose-dependent inhibitory effect...

  8. High pH solubilization and chromatography-based renaturation and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Fan, Hua; Liu, Jiahua; Wang, Minhong; Wang, Lili; Wang, Chaozhan

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is a very efficient therapeutic protein drug which has been widely used in human clinics to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In this study, rhG-CSF was solubilized from inclusion bodies by using a high-pH solution containing low concentration of urea. It was found that solubilization of the rhG-CSF inclusion bodies greatly depended on the buffer pH employed; alkalic pH significantly favored the solubilization. In addition, when small amount of urea was added to the solution at high pH, the solubilization was further enhanced. After solubilization, the rhG-CSF was renatured with simultaneous purification by using weak anion exchange, strong anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, separately. The results indicated that the rhG-CSF solubilized by the high-pH solution containing low concentration of urea had much higher mass recovery than the one solubilized by 8 M urea when using anyone of the three refolding methods employed in this work. In the case of weak anion exchange chromatography, the high pH solubilized rhG-CSF could get a mass recovery of 73%. The strategy of combining solubilization of inclusion bodies at high pH with refolding of protein using liquid chromatography may become a routine method for protein production from inclusion bodies.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tendon and Ligament: Solubilization and Analysis of Insoluble Extracellular Matrix in Connective Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nori; Taniguchi, Takako; Goda, Yuichiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2016-12-02

    Connective tissues such as tendon, ligament and cartilage are mostly composed of extracellular matrix (ECM). These tissues are insoluble, mainly due to the highly cross-linked ECM proteins such as collagens. Difficulties obtaining suitable samples for mass spectrometric analysis render the application of modern proteomic technologies difficult. Complete solubilization of them would not only elucidate protein composition of normal tissues but also reveal pathophysiology of pathological tissues. Here we report complete solubilization of human Achilles tendon and yellow ligament, which is achieved by chemical digestion combined with successive protease treatment including elastase. The digestion mixture was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The low specificity of elastase was overcome by accurate mass analysis achieved using FT-ICR-MS. In addition to the detailed proteome of both tissues, we also quantitatively determine the major protein composition of samples, by measuring peak area of some characteristic peptides detected in tissue samples and in purified proteins. As a result, differences between human Achilles tendon and yellow ligament were elucidated at molecular level.

  10. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  11. Human proton coupled folic acid transporter is a monodisperse oligomer in the lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol solubilized state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduri, Nanda G; Ernst, Heidi A; Prabhala, Bala K; Bhatt, Shweta; Boesen, Thomas; Gajhede, Michael; Mirza, Osman

    2018-01-08

    The human proton coupled folic acid transporter PCFT is the major import route for dietary folates. Mutations in the gene encoding PCFT cause hereditary folic acid malabsorption, which manifests itself by compromised folate absorption from the intestine and also in impaired folate transport into the central nervous system. Since its recent discovery, PCFT has been the subject of numerous biochemical studies aiming at understanding its structure and mechanism. One major focus has been its oligomeric state, with some reports supporting oligomers and others a monomer. Here, we report the overexpression and purification of recombinant PCFT. Following detergent screening, n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside (DDM) and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) were chosen for further work as they exhibited the most optimal solubilization. We found that purified detergent solubilized PCFT was able to bind folic acid, thus indicating a functionally active protein. Size exclusion chromatography showed that PCFT in DDM was polydisperse; the LMNG preparation was clearly monodisperse but with shorter retention time than the major DDM peak. To assess the oligomeric state negative stain electron microscopy was performed which showed a particle with the size of a PCFT dimer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping of Minimal Motifs of B-Cell Epitopes on Human Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein-3

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    Wan-Xiang Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (hZP3 by virtue of its critical role during fertilization has been proposed as a promising candidate antigen to develop a contraceptive vaccine. In this direction, it is imperative to map minimal motifs of the B cell epitopes (BCEs so as to avoid ZP-specific oophoritogenic T cell epitopes (TCEs in the ZP3-based immunogens. In this study, based on known results of mapping marmoset and bonnet monkey ZP3 (mstZP3 and bmZP3, two predictable epitopes23–30  and  301–320 on hZP3 were first confirmed and five minimal motifs within four epitopes on hZP3 were defined using serum to recombinant hZP3a22–176 or hZP3b177–348 as well as a biosynthetic peptide strategy. These defined minimal motifs were QPLWLL23–28 for hZP323–30, MQVTDD103–108 for hZP393–110, EENW178–181 for hZP3172–190, as well as SNSWF306–310 and EGP313–315 for hZP3301–320, respectively. Furthermore, the antigenicity of two peptides for hZP3172–187 and hZP3301–315 and specificity of the antibody response to these peptides were also evaluated, which produced high-titer antibodies in immunized animals that were capable of reacting to ZP on human oocytes, r-hZP3b177–348 protein, as well as r-hZP3172–190, r-hZP3303–310, and r-hZP3313–320 epitope peptides fused with truncated GST188 protein.

  13. Human proton coupled folic acid transporter is a monodisperse oligomer in the lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol solubilized state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aduri, Nanda G.; Ernst, Heidi A.; Prabhala, Bala K.

    2018-01-01

    and purification of recombinant PCFT. Following detergent screening n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside (DDM) and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) were chosen for further work as they exhibited the most optimal solubilization. We found that purified detergent solubilized PCFT was able to bind folic acid, thus indicating...

  14. Zona pellucida damage to human embryos after cryopreservation and the consequences for their blastomere survival and in-vitro viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Abbeel, E; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-02-01

    The study objective was to quantify zona pellucida (ZP) damage in cryopreserved human embryos. The influence of two different freezing containers was investigated, and the influence of freezing damage on the survival and viability of the embryos evaluated. ZP damage did not differ according to whether embryos originated from in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles or from IVF cycles in association with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The freezing container, however, significantly influenced the occurrence of ZP damage after cryopreservation. More damage was observed when the embryos were frozen-thawed using plastic cryovials than using plastic mini-straws (16.6% versus 2.3%; P plastic mini-straws. The further cleavage of frozen-thawed embryos suitable for transfer was not different whether there was ZP damage or not; however, it was higher when there was 100% blastomere survival as compared with when some blastomeres were damaged (79.0% versus 43.7%; P plastic mini-straws. In conclusion, the aim of a cryopreservation programme should be to have as many fully intact embryos as possible after thawing. Increased ZP damage might indicate a suboptimal cryopreservation procedure.

  15. Solubilization and separation of the human erythrocyte D-glucose transporter covalently and noncovalently photoaffinity-labeled with [3H]cytochalasin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, T.; Tillotson, L.G.; Chen, C.C.; Isselbacher, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The D-glucose transporter in the human erythrocyte membranes was photoaffinity-labeled with [ 3 H]cytochalasin B and solubilized with n-octyl β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl glucoside). [ 3 H]Cytochalasin B-bound proteins were further isolated by using Sephadex G-50 chromatography. The amount of [ 3 H]cytochalasin B associated with the membrane proteins was approximately 10% of the total radioactivity in the octyl glucoside extract. The solubilized photoaffinity-labeled D-glucose transporter was isolated and found to consist of two major peaks by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. The radioactivity of peak II was considerably greater than that of peak I. The incorporation of [ 3 H]cytochalasin B into both peaks was blocked by the presence of D-glucose during photolysis. These results indicate the [ 3 H]cytochalasin B was covalently bound to the D-glucose transporter only in peak II and that peak II could be generated by the photoaffinity labeling of peak I. However, the D-glucose transport activity was associated only with peak I. These findings suggest that the anionic domain of the D-glucose transporter becomes exposed because of the conformational changes of the protein as a result of covalent binding with [ 3 H]cytochalasin B by photoaffinity labeling

  16. A study of the cytoplasmic expression of a form of human prolactin and of its solubilization and renaturation from bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonso, Regina

    2000-01-01

    Different vector elements, that can determine a high expression level of a form of human prolactin (taghPrl) in bacterial cytoplasm, were studied. Expression conditions were first optimized for a reference vector, which was used to transform different strains of E. coli: HB2151, RRI and RB791. The highest expression level (113 ±16 μg/mL.A 600 ) was obtained in HB2151, after activation with only 0.1 mM IPTG. At this point the influence of the transcription terminator (g32 from bacteriophage T4), of the translation enhancer (g10 from bacteriophage T7), of the promoter (λP L or tac) and of the antibiotic resistance gene (amp r or kan r ) were studied. The first three elements did not show any significant influence, at least in our systems. On the contrary, the analysis of the influence of amp r and kan r genes showed, unexpectedly, that the presence of the last one provides an approximately 5-fold higher expression for taghPrl in E. coli cytoplasm. Finally, an appropriate extraction, solubilization, renaturation and purification process, able to provide a monomeric form of taghPrl, was studied. A method utilizing urea and mercaptoethanol as solubilizing agents and a dialysis as a renaturation procedure, provided with some modifications, one of the highest yields ever reported in the literature: 35.4 ± 4.5% of total recovery. Moreover, the biological activity of the taghPrl obtained, when tested in the Nb2 cell proliferation assay, was of the same order of that shown by the International Standard of human prolactin of pituitary origin. These data show that the cytoplasmic expression system here described, which can provide an expression efficiency 50-100 - fold higher than the periplasmic expression, can represent a valid alternative for the production of this and of other hormones of pharmaceutical interest and grade. (author)

  17. Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental

  18. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Do age and extended culture affect the architecture of the zona pellucida of human oocytes and embryos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Suha S; Cooke, Simon; Kan, Andrew K; Chapman, Michael G

    2006-02-01

    Advanced female age and extended in vitro culture have both been implicated in zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and thickening. This study aimed to determine the influence of (i) the woman's age and (ii) prolonged in vitro culture of embryos on ZP thickness and density using non-invasive polarized light (LC-PolScope) microscopy. ZP thickness and density (measured as retardance) were determined in oocytes, embryos and blastocysts in women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in two age groups (older, > 38 years; younger, vs 23.1 +/- 3.3 microm; p = 0.01) but ZP density was equal (2.8 +/- 0.7 nm). By day 2 of culture, embryos from the two groups had similar ZP thickness (22.2 +/- 2.2 microm vs 21.7 +/- 1.6 microm; p = 0.28) and density (2.9 +/- 0.7 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm; p = 0.57). For the embryos cultured to blastocyst (older: n = 20; younger: n = 18) ZP thickness was similar in the two groups (19.2 +/- 2.7 microm vs 19.1 +/- 5.0 microm; p = 0.8) but thinner than on day 2. The older group had significantly denser ZP than the younger group (4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm, p vs 2.9 +/- 0.7 nm, p vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm, p = 0.013). It is concluded that there is little relationship between ZP thickness and its density as measured by polarized light microscopy. While ZP thickness decreases with extended embryo culturing, the density of the ZP increases. ZP density increases in both age groups with extended culture and, interestingly, more in embryos from older compared with younger women.

  20. In-vitro developmental potential of individual mouse blastomeres cultured with and without zona pellucida: future implications for human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the developmental potential of individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell mouse embryos cultured with and without zona pellucida (ZP). In the first series, one, three, five and seven blastomeres were biopsied from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos respectively, and inserted individually into empty ZP recipients, leaving the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. In the second series, the same protocol was used except that the biopsied blastomeres were cultured without ZP and compared with the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. For the first series, individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos cultured with ZP showed blastocyst development of 82.4, 68.6, 44.4 and 23.1% respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 70.6, 60.0, 25.9 and 7.7%. For the second series, individual blastomeres cultured without ZP progressed with blastocyst development of 73.3, 64.5, 35.7 and 22.7% respectively. Blastocyst multiplication was achieved most efficiently when using individual blastomeres from 4- and 6-cell embryos. This is the first report on comparative in-vitro propagation of single blastomeres derived from various cleavage stages in a mammalian species. Blastomere cloning with its multiple applications may be envisaged for human assisted reproductive technologies.

  1. Stability of solubilized benzodiazepine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1997-01-01

    According to the observations of other researchers, benzodiazepine receptors solubilized with sodium deoxycholate are unstable, but stability can be improved by exchanging deoxycholate for Triton X-100. In our experiments we conclude that the choice of detergent is not the restrictive factor for the

  2. Análise espacial dos casos humanos de esquistossomose em uma comunidade horticultora da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil Spatial analysis of schistosomiasis human cases in the horticultural community of Zona da Mata of Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2012-12-01

    higher frequency of human cases. Studies like this provide information to the local health services, may intervene and bring about change for individuals living in areas with low housing conditions to minimize their exposure to risk of contracting schistosomiasis.

  3. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... To evaluate phosphate solubilization of ... and MHB had the potential to solubilize these phosphates by decreasing the pH and confirmed that ... Minerals like N, P, K, Ca, S, Zn, Cu and Sr are ... sterile distilled water, chopped, homogenized in 10 ml sterile .... The role of carbon source is important in mineral.

  4. VIP receptors from porcine liver: High yield solubilization in a GTP-insensitive form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, T.; Couvineau, A.; Guijarro, L.; Laburthe, M.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were solubilized from porcine liver membranes using CHAPS. The binding of 125 I-VIP to solubilized receptors was reversible, saturable and specific. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of one binding site with a Kd of 6.5 ± 0.3 nM and a Bmax of 1.20 ± 0.15 pmol/mg protein. Solubilized and membrane-bound receptors displayed the same pharmacological profile since VIP and VIP-related peptides inhibited 125 I-VIP binding to both receptor preparations with the same rank order of potency e.g. VIP>helodermin>rat GRF>rat PHI>secretin>human GRF. GTP inhibited 125 I-VIP binding to membrane-bound receptors but not to solubilized receptors supporting functional uncoupling of VIP receptor and G protein during solubilization. Affinity labeling of solubilized and membrane-bound VIP receptors with 125 I-VIP revealed the presence of a single molecular component with Mr 55,000 in both cases. It is concluded that VIP receptors from porcine liver can be solubilized with a good yield, in a GTP-insensitive, G protein-free form. This represents a major advance towards the purification of VIP receptors

  5. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... phosphate solubilization is accompanied by acid production. Thus, the evidence ..... of organic acids. (Khan et al., 2010) such as acetate, lactate, oxalate, ... (2014) also observed that oxalic acid was secreted by L. fraterna to ...

  6. Cocrystal solubilization in biorelevant media and its prediction from drug solubilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipert, Maya P.; Roy, Lilly; Childs, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines cocrystal solubility in biorelevant media, (FeSSIF, fed state simulated intestinal fluid), and develops a theoretical framework that allows for the simple and quantitative prediction of cocrystal solubilization from drug solubilization. The solubilities of four hydrophobic drugs and seven cocrystals containing these drugs were measured in FeSSIF and in acetate buffer at pH 5.00. In all cases, the cocrystal solubility (Scocrystal) was higher than the drug solubility (Sdrug) in both buffer and FeSSIF; however, the solubilization ratio of drug, SRdrug = (SFeSSIF/Sbuffer)drug, was not the same as the solubilization ratio of cocrystal, SRcocrystal = (SFeSSIF/Sbuffer)cocrystal, meaning drug and cocrystal were not solubilized to the same extent in FeSSIF. This highlights the potential risk of anticipating cocrystal behavior in biorelevant media based on solubility studies in water. Predictions of SRcocrystal from simple equations based only on SRdrug were in excellent agreement with measured values. For 1:1 cocrystals, the cocrystal solubilization ratio can be obtained from the square root of the drug solubilization ratio. For 2:1 cocrystals, SRcocrystal is found from (SRdrug)2/3. The findings in FeSSIF can be generalized to describe cocrystal behavior in other systems involving preferential solubilization of a drug such as surfactants, lipids, and other drug solubilizing media. PMID:26390213

  7. Intracellular distribution and mechanisms of actions of photosensitizer Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine solubilized in Cremophor EL against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingwei; Dai, Yongchao; Zhao, Wenna; Xie, Jingjing; Xue, Jinping; Ye, Jianhui; Jia, Lee

    2013-03-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a metal photosensitizer. In the present study, we formulated the poorly-soluble ZnPc in Cremophor EL solution to enhance its solubility and determined its intracellular distribution and mechanisms of action on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. ZnPc uptake by the cells reached a plateau by 8h. ZnPc primarily located in mitochondria, lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The concentration-growth inhibition curves of ZnPc on the cell lines were pharmacodynamically enhanced by 10-50 folds by irradiation. Once irradiated, ZnPc produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, arrested cell cycle mainly at G2/M stage, and decreased membrane potential (ΔΨm) of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study first elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZnPc on HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes. Solubilization inhibition and complement factor levels in SLE patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, Ivan; Kappelgaard, E

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two of 36 serum samples from 19 SLE patients showed reduced capacity to mediate complement-dependent solubilization of immune complexes (IC). SLE patients with nephritis exerted the lowest complement-mediated solubilization capacity (CMSC) whereas sera from patients with inactive disease g...

  9. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  10. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  11. Effect of cholesterol nucleation-promoting activity on cholesterol solubilization in model bile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A. K.; Ottenhoff, R.; Jansen, P. L.; van Marle, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Human bile contains a factor with cholesterol nucleation-promoting activity that binds to concanavalin A-Sepharose. In this study we have investigated the effect of this activity on the dynamics of lipid solubilization in supersaturated model bile. A concanavalin A binding protein fraction of human

  12. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution of a novel human gap junction-forming protein, connexin-31.9. Interaction with zona occludens protein-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Peter A; Beahm, Derek L; Giepmans, Ben N G; Baruch, Amos; Hall, James E; Kumar, Nalin M

    2002-01-01

    A novel human connexin gene (GJA11) was cloned from a genomic library. The open reading frame encoded a hypothetical protein of 294 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 31,933, hence referred to as connexin-31.9 (Cx31.9) or alpha 11 connexin. A clone in GenBank containing the

  13. Molecular identification of phosphate solubilizing bacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phosphate solubilizing bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of upland rice and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The gene sequence showed 99% homology with Alcaligenes faecalis. Based on the gene sequence homology, it was identified as A. faecalis. Interaction effect of this bacterium on growth ...

  14. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  15. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  16. Solubilization of paraffinic deposits for microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Erika A.S.; Soares, Ranieri G.F.; Nascimento, Roseane E.S.; Dantas Neto, Afonso A.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil company has been intensifying its efforts to find more efficient solutions for the problems related to the paraffin in wells and transport lines. When applied in the flow lines, the solvents dissolve the paraffin and they must be used hot, since the temperature increases the solubility of the wax and, consequently, its removal rate. The microemulsions appear as an alternative capable of acting in the solubilization and in the inhibition of the formation of deposits due to its great interfacial area, low superficial tension and high capacity of solubilization. They present some advantages in relation to the methods of use of chemical products due to its flexibility of composition in which they can be used, presenting low toxicity and inflammability, without any loss of its capacity of solubilization. The use of oil-in-water microemulsion aims to solubilized paraffin in the disperse phase, where one can find the apolar part of the molecule of the surfactant and the also apolar chain of paraffin, occurring, therefore the 'encapsulation' of the crystal, prohibiting the growth of the chain due to the affinity of paraffin and oil. In this in case, it is possible to transport the inserted paraffin in direct micelles, reducing the precipitation and optimizing the transport. (author)

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    ABSTRACT. Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus. (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different abiotic stress ...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    Research Article http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v9i2.9. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS), V9(2):262-273,2017 ©CNCS, Mekelle University, ISSN:2220-184X. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) from Different Agro-ecological Zones of Tigray Soil, Ethiopia. Kibrom, F.G.

  20. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  1. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Latiffah Norddin; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  2. Solubilization and Interaction Studies of Bile Salts with Surfactants and Drugs: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    In this review, bile salt, bile salt-surfactant, and bile salt-drug interactions and their solubilization studies are mainly focused. Usefulness of bile salts in digestion, absorption, and excretion of various compounds and their rare properties in ordering the shape and size of the micelles owing to the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces are taken into consideration while compiling this review. Bile salts as potential bio-surfactants to solubilize drugs of interest are also highlighted. This review will give an insight into the selection of drugs in different applications as their properties get modified by interaction with bile salts, thus influencing their solution behavior which, in turn, modifies the phase-forming behavior, microemulsion, and clouding phenomenon, besides solubilization. Finally, their future perspectives are taken into consideration to assess their possible uses as bio-surfactants without side effects to human beings.

  3. Differential Precipitation and Solubilization of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barry J; Kinsella, Gemma K

    2017-01-01

    Differential protein precipitation is a rapid and economical step in protein purification and is based on exploiting the inherent physicochemical properties of the polypeptide. Precipitation of recombinant proteins, lysed from the host cell, is commonly used to concentrate the protein of choice before further polishing steps with more selective purification columns (e.g., His-Tag, Size Exclusion, etc.). Recombinant proteins can also precipitate naturally as inclusion bodies due to various influences during overexpression in the host cell. Although this phenomenon permits easier initial separation from native proteins, these inclusion bodies must carefully be differentially solubilized so as to reform functional, correctly folded proteins. Here, appropriate bioinformatics tools to aid in understanding a protein's propensity to aggregate and solubilize are explored as a backdrop for a typical protein extraction, precipitation, and selective resolubilization procedure, based on a recombinantly expressed protein.

  4. Zona residencial, en Leysin (Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, M. R.

    1965-05-01

    Full Text Available This holiday residential area at Leysin is very much in the new style of tourist development centres. The present project involves 20 apartments, each of which can house a family of four or five persons. Each unit has three main rooms, a bathroom and a small kitchen. This residential complex also includes a house for the porter. The auxiliary services are also installed in the same building, namely: reception office, stores, washing equipment and central heating.Por su planeamiento, la zona residencial de vacaciones de Leysin se sitúa en la nueva tendencia del turismo social. El conjunto realizado agrupa 20 apartamentos, con capacidad para alojar familias de cuatro a cinco personas durante algunas semanas. Cada unidad consta de tres habitaciones principales, cuarto de baño y una pequeña cocina. Completa este conjunto residencial una edificación que aloja la vivienda del conserje, y los servicios comunes: recepción, almacén, lavadero y central de calefacción.

  5. Maestros en zonas de conflicto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Lizarralde

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de los relatos de los mismos maestros, se establecen las características de los procesos de socialización y construcción de identidad en el contexto de la guerra, ubicando luego las formas de enunciación de esa identidad por parte de los propios maestros. El que sus interacciones cotidianas se desarrollen en un contexto caracterizado por el miedo generado por las vivencias de acciones de guerra como combates, masacres, señalamientos y amenazas, además marcadas por la impunidad, la no reparación y la percepción de indefensión, hace que la identidad del maestro, que está constituida por su propia historia personal, por la conciencia de su rol público, por la valoración social de su profesión, y por su definición política, producen diferentes formas de enunciación de sí mismos, a la vez que determinantes del tipo de actitud que se asuma como mecanismo de sobrevivencia. De esta manera se ubican la “NORMALIDAD” que lleva a la naturalización del horror y la violencia, la “INDIFERENCIA” que actúa como mecanismo de evasión, el “AISLAMIENTO” similar al anterior pero que se caracteriza por su rol de protección, los “ACTOS MIMÉTICOS” que se plantean como necesaria respuesta ante la polarización exigida por los distintos actores armados, “A LOS FIERROS” donde por definición ideológica o identificación con uno de los actores armados el maestro asume un involucramiento activo en la guerra, “EL TRASLADO” como búsqueda de escape para garantizar la vida ante la amenaza y la presión directas, y por último “A JUGÁRSELA” como respuesta desde el compromiso vital, político o religioso, y que lleva a continuar en la zona y actuando de acuerdo a sus principios a pesar del riesgo que ello implica.

  6. Fasciolosis humana y animal en el Perú: impacto en la economía de las zonas endémicas Human and animal fascioliasis in Peru: impact in the economy of endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Espinoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica es el agente etiológico de la fasciolosis en el Perú. La fasciolosis es un problema de salud pública por la alta prevalencia de la infección humana, especialmente niños y un problema veterinario de importancia por las altas tasas de infección del ganado en la mayoría de regiones del País. La fasciolosis es endémica en la sierra y la costa, y esporádica en la región amazónica. La infección humana se reporta en 18 regiones y la animal en 21 de las 24 regiones del Perú. La transmisión humana ocurre en poblaciones andinas rurales dedicadas a la agricultura, pero hay un creciente número de casos en ciudades. Diferentes situaciones epidemiológicas de la infección humana se presentan: i Regiones con casos no autóctonos, donde la infección es por consumo de vegetales contaminados traídos de zonas endémicas; ii Regiones con poblados hipo- y mesoendémicos, transmisión local y prevalencia Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in Peru; the disease is an important public health problem by the high prevalence of the human infection affecting mainly children and a major veterinary problem by the high rates of infected livestock. The human disease is endemic in the Sierra and the Coast but sporadic in the Amazonia, and reported in 18 Departments, while the animal infection in 21 of 24 Departments of Peru. Transmission occurs in Andean rural populations engaged in agriculture, but recently an increasing number of people became infected in the cities. The epidemiological situation in Peru includes i Departments with non-autochtonous cases, where infection occurs by consumption of contaminated vegetables brought from endemic areas or infection is acquired by visit to endemic areas; ii Departments with hypoendemic and mesoendemic villages, where transmission occurs by ingest of contaminated vegetables and prevalence ≤10%; and iii Departments with hyper-endemic villages with human prevalence >10 %, with

  7. Sewage sludge solubilization by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Guo, Jianbin; Ma, Weifang; Fang, Wei; Ma, Boqiang; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of sludge solubilization using high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment was examined by investigating the sludge solid reduction and organics solubilization. The sludge volatile suspended solids (VSS) decreased from 10.58 to 6.67 g/L for the sludge sample with a total solids content (TS) of 1.49% after HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles; total suspended solids (TSS) correspondingly decreased from 14.26 to 9.91 g/L. About 86.15% of the TSS reduction was attributed to the VSS reduction. The increase of homogenization pressure from 20 to 80 MPa or homogenization cycle number from 1 to 4 was favorable to the sludge organics solubilization, and the protein and polysaccharide solubilization linearly increased with the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilization. More proteins were solubilized than polysaccharides. The linear relationship between SCOD solubilization and VSS reduction had no significant change under different homogenization pressures, homogenization cycles and sludge solid contents. The SCOD of 1.65 g/L was solubilized for the VSS reduction of 1.00 g/L for the three experimental sludge samples with a TS of 1.00, 1.49 and 2.48% under all HPH operating conditions. The energy efficiency results showed that the HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 30 MPa with a single homogenization cycle for the sludge sample with a TS of 2.48% was the most energy efficient.

  8. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem. N Saha, S Biswas. Abstract. The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site.

  9. Moroccan rock phosphate solubilization during a thermo-anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the presence of thermo-tolerant rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing anaerobic microbes during the fermentation process, we used grassland as sole organic substrate to evaluate the RP solubilization process under anaerobic thermophilic conditions. The result shows a significant decrease of pH from ...

  10. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Muzakhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  11. Simulation of the shopping center 'Zona I' evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Radoje B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and the most complex tasks in human protection and human safety in objects is the projecting of the object evacuation. There are many factors that could effect on the opportune living of object such as object assignment, arrangement of rooms, arrangement of furniture, arrangement of exits, occupant speed and many other that human lives and material properties depend on. This is very important for objects with great number of humans, such as high residential objects, shopping centers, schools, hospitals etc. This paper has written to show the possible evacuation situations and calculate minimal time for evacuation in case of the shopping center 'Zona I' in Niš.

  12. Solubilization and purification of melatonin receptors from lizard brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkees, S.A.; Conron, R.W. Jr.; Reppert, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Melatonin receptors in lizard brain were identified and characterized using 125 I-labeled melatonin ([ 125 I]MEL) after solubilization with the detergent digitonin. Saturation studies of solubilized material revealed a high affinity binding site, with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 181 +/- 45 pM. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs, but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of solubilized material with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, guanosine 5'-(3-O-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S), significantly reduced receptor affinity. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized melatonin receptors revealed a high affinity, large (Mr 400,000) peak of specific binding. Pretreatment with GTP-gamma-S before solubilization resulted in elution of a lower affinity, smaller (Mr 150,000) peak of specific binding. To purify solubilized receptors, a novel affinity chromatography resin was developed by coupling 6-hydroxymelatonin with Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. Using this resin, melatonin receptors were purified approximately 10,000-fold. Purified material retained the pharmacologic specificity of melatonin receptors. These results show that melatonin receptors that bind ligand after detergent treatment can be solubilized and substantially purified by affinity chromatography

  13. Solubilization and purification of melatonin receptors from lizard brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkees, S A; Conron, R W; Reppert, S M

    1990-09-01

    Melatonin receptors in lizard brain were identified and characterized using 125I-labeled melatonin ([125I]MEL) after solubilization with the detergent digitonin. Saturation studies of solubilized material revealed a high affinity binding site, with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 181 +/- 45 pM. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs, but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of solubilized material with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, guanosine 5'-(3-O-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S), significantly reduced receptor affinity. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized melatonin receptors revealed a high affinity, large (Mr 400,000) peak of specific binding. Pretreatment with GTP-gamma-S before solubilization resulted in elution of a lower affinity, smaller (Mr 150,000) peak of specific binding. To purify solubilized receptors, a novel affinity chromatography resin was developed by coupling 6-hydroxymelatonin with Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. Using this resin, melatonin receptors were purified approximately 10,000-fold. Purified material retained the pharmacologic specificity of melatonin receptors. These results show that melatonin receptors that bind ligand after detergent treatment can be solubilized and substantially purified by affinity chromatography.

  14. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  15. Assessing in vitro solubilization potential of different zinc solubilizing bacterial (zsb isolates Avaliação in vitro do potencial de solubilização de diferentes bactérias solubilizadoras de zinco (zsb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj Saravanan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc solubilizing ability of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was assessed using zinc oxide, zinc sulphide (sphalerite and zinc carbonate in both plate and broth assays. ZSB-O-1 (Bacillus sp. showed highest dissolution in the zinc sulphide (Sphalerite ore, with 2.80 cm of dissolution zone and 14.50 cm² of area in the plate assay and 13.60 mg kg-1 of zinc in the broth assay on the 15th day after inoculation. The ZSB-S-2 (Pseudomonas sp. showed more solubilizing ability in the zinc oxide, with 3.30 cm clearing zone and 20.43 cm² area in the plate assay and 16.40 mg kg-1 of zinc in the broth assay over the same inoculation period. The isolate ZSB-S-4 (Pseudomonas sp. has highest solubilizing potential in zinc carbonate with 6.20 cm of dissolution zone and 13.40 cm² area in the plate assay and 13.40 mg kg-1 of zinc in the broth assay. Thus, the solubilization potential varies among different cultures. The solubilization might be due to production of acids by the culture, since the pH of the culture broth has been shifted form 7.0-7.3 to 4.8-6.5 after 15 days of inoculation. The zinc tolerance limit for two cultures (ZSB-O-1 and ZSB-S-2 was studied and determined to be upto 100 mg kg-1 of zinc in the in vitro broth assay.A capacidade de Bacillus sp. e Pseudomonas sp. solubilizar zinco foi avaliada usando óxido de zinco, sulfeto de zinco e carbonato de zinco, em ensaios em placas e em caldo. A cultura ZSB-O-1 (Bacillus sp. apresentou maior dissolução no sulfeto de zinco, com 2,80 cm de zona de dissolução e 14,50 cm² de área no ensaio em placa e 13,60 mg kg-1 de zinco no ensaio em caldo, no 15º dia de incubação. A cultura ZSB-S-2 (Pseudomonas sp. apresentou maior capacidade de dissolução no óxido de zinco, com 3,30 cm de zona de dissolução e 20,43 cm² de área no ensaio em placa e 16,40 mg kg-1 de zinco no ensaio em caldo no mesmo período de inoculação. A cultura ZSB-S-4 (Pseudomonas sp. apresentou maior potencial de solubiliza

  16. Characterization of cell surface polypeptides of unfertilized, fertilized, and protease-treated zona-free mouse eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldt, J.; Gunter, L.E.; Howe, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The polypeptide composition of unfertilized, fertilized, and protease-treated zona-free mouse eggs was evaluated in this study. Zona-free eggs were radioiodinated by an Iodogen-catalyzed reaction. Light microscopic autoradiography of egg sections revealed that labeling was restricted to the cell surface. Labeled eggs were solubilized, and cell surface polypeptides were identified by one-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The unfertilized egg demonstrated 8-10 peptides that incorporated 125 I, with major bands observed at approximately 145-150, 94, and 23 kilodaltons (kD). Zona-free eggs fertilized in vitro and then radiolabeled demonstrated several new bands in comparison to unfertilized eggs, with a major band appearing at approximately 36 kD. Treatment of radiolabeled unfertilized eggs with either trypsin or chymotrypsin (1 mg/ml for 5-20 min) caused enzyme-specific modifications in labeled polypeptides. Trypsin (T) treatment resulted in time-dependant modification of the three major peptides at 145-150, 94, and 23 kD. Chymotrypsin (CT) treatment, in contrast, was associated with loss or modification of the 94 kD band, with no apparent effect on either the 145-150 or 23 kD band. Taken together with previous data indicating that T or CT egg treatment interferes with sperm-egg attachment and fusion, these results suggest a possible role for the 94 kD protein in sperm-egg interaction

  17. Solubilization of silk protein by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudatis, Boonya; Pongpat, Suchada [Office of Atomic Energy of Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-03-01

    Gamma irradiated silk fibroin at doses of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 kGy were soaked in water for 1 hr. Silk fibroin solubilized percentage was investigated from lost weight of sample (dried at 105{sup 0}C), they were 0, 0, 0.7, 0, 0.11, 0.11, 0, 0.73, 0.77, 4.38, 8.32, 10.22 and 18.52 respectively. It showed that at the higher dose up to 250 kGy had direct effect to solubility, and increased with increasing dose. In addition, silk sericin dissolved 77.76, 82.22, 83.55, 84.31, 86.04, 86.67 and 87.37% after gamma irradiation at the doses of 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 1000 kGy respectively. It presents that radiation can cause silk protein, fibroin and sericin dissolve because of their degradation. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the influence of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three biofertilizers nitrobein, phosphorein, and potash, containing nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing, and potash mobilizing microorganisms, respectively were studied in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Amendment with each of these biofertilizers enhanced different growth ...

  19. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from tropical areas around the Indian peninsula. Two of the isolates showed high phosphatase activity. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus pumilus, and they showed high...

  20. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  1. Rock phosphate solubilizing and cellulolytic actinomycete isolates of earthworm casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Four microbial isolates, OP2, OP3, OP6, and OP7, of earthworm casts of Pontoscolex corethrurus were found to be acid tolerant actinomycetes and efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers that could grow fast on NH4Cl-enriched or N-free carboxymethyl cellulose or glucose as sole carbon source. CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) induced production of extracellular cellulase enzyme and the production of reducing sugar in all the isolates. RP solubilizing power was observed to be inversely related to glucose consumption. The most efficient RP solubilizer was found to consume the least glucose. Growth was faster on cellulose than on glucose media. N-free CMC induced greater glucose production than NH4Cl-enriched CMC medium. Both CMC and glucose media were acidified by all the isolates, however, RP solubilizing power decreased with acidification. Solubilization power was greatest with isolate OP7, which also produced the greatest amount of reducing sugar per gram CMC. Both RP solubilizing power and the cellulolytic efficiency varied among isolates. A minimum of 631 µg P/0.1 g RP and a maximum of 951.4 µg P/0.1 g RP was recorded.

  2. Solubilization of immune complexes in complement factor deficient sera and the influence of temperature, ionic strength and divalent cations on the solubilization reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, Ivan; Svehag, Svend-Erik

    1984-01-01

    The complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of immune complexes (IC) and the initial kinetics (IKS) of this reaction in human sera depleted of or deficient in C2, C3, C8, factors B, P and I were investigated. Sera depleted of B or P and those lacking native C3 or factor I showed virtually no CMS......M. Chelation of Ca2+ in serum by Mg2+-ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid reduced the CMS capacity by up to 50% and the IKS was markedly retarded. Varying the Zn2+ or Mn2+ ion concentrations in serum influenced neither the IKS nor the CMS capacity....

  3. Phosphate solubilization as a microbial strategy for promoting plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eleonora Beltrán Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the constant application of chemical inputs in Agroecosystem, the cost of crop production and environmental quality of soil and water have been affected. Microorganisms carry out most biogeochemical cycles; therefore, their role is essential for agro ecosystem balance. One such functional group is the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, which are recognized plant growth promoters. These microbial populations perform an important activity, since in many soils there are large reserves of insoluble phosphorus, as a result of fixing much of the phosphorus fertilizer applied, which cannot be assimilated by the plant. The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms use different solubilization mechanisms such as the production of organic acids, which solubilize theses insoluble phosphates in the rhizosphere region. Soluble phosphates are absorbed by the plant, which enhances their growth and productivity. By using these phosphate reserves in soils, application of chemical fertilizers is decreased, on the one hand, can again be fixed by ions Ca, Al or Fe making them insoluble and, by the other hand, increase the costs of crop production. Microbial populations have been widely studied in different types of ecosystems, both natural and Agroecosystem. Thanks to its effectiveness, in laboratory and field studies, the phosphate solubilizing phenotype is of great interest to microbial ecologists who have begun to establish the molecular basis of the traitr.

  4. las Zonas Ribereñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Granados-Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas especies de plantas tienen fuertes asociaciones con las zonas riparias, pues crecen a lo largo de las márgenes del agua. El microclima húmedo de la zona riparia y la humedad del suelo, creados tanto por el afloramiento de agua como por el agua del terreno cercana a la superficie, tiende a hacerlos hábitats favorables para muchos anfibios y algunos mamíferos pequeños. Comenzando en el borde del agua y avanzando progresivamente hacia el interior del bosque, frecuentemente se definen bandas sucesivas de vegetación, mediante cambios muy pequeños en la topografía. Estos ecosistemas tienen muchos atributos que realzan su diversidad biológica: límites, patrones sucesionales, disposición vertical en estratos y microhábitats especiales definidos por sus rasgos físicos. Pececillos de río, ranas y ardillas, algas, platanus, sauces, pinos y encinos, todos ellos prosperan conjuntamente a lo largo de las playas de las corrientes de agua.

  5. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  6. [Solubilization Specificities Interferon beta-1b from Inclusion Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravko, A S; Kononova, N V; Bobruskin, A I

    2015-01-01

    A new solubilization method of recombinant interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) from the inclusion bodies was developed. This method allows to extract the target protein selectively in the solutions of different alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol and isopropanol. It was shown that the more effective IFNβ-1b solubilization was achieved in the 55% propanol solution. This method allowed to extract the target protein from inclusion bodies around 85-90%, and significantly reduced Escherichia coli content in the solubilizate, in comparison with standard methods.

  7. Evaluation methods used for phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to evaluate the different selection methods and select inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria as potential plant-growth promoters. Bacterial isolates obtained from sugarcane roots and soil were tested using solid growth media containing bicalcium phosphate and Irecê Apatite ground rock phosphate as ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in nitrogen, free semi-solid medium and able to produce siderophore. PSB inoculants with their beneficial traits would be considered as potential biofertilizer for the sustainable aerobic rice cultivation system. Key words: Aerobic rice, antagonistic effect, indoleacetic acid, organic acids, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria.

  9. Performance of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for improving growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in sustainable farming for increasing plant yields. The beneficial effects of PSB on crop productivity have been widely described, but the use of PSB as biofertilizer is scarcely documented in ...

  10. Challenges Faced in Field Application of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Eida, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    The general inaccessibility of soil phosphorous (P) to plants in combination with the depletion of global P reserves provides an incentive for researchers to find sustainable solutions to sustain food security for the ever-increasing world population. Bio-fertilizers based on bacteria and fungi able to solubilize endogenous P in soils have a high potential for increasing nutrient availability in agriculture. However, the inconsistency of bio-fertilizer performance in the field poses a major challenge for farmers. This discrepancy is thought to stem from the complexity of the interactions between crop plants, microbes, and their soil environments, as well as our lack of understanding of the processes involved. For farmers, a clear beneficial effect across different soil types, crop species, environmental conditions, and microbial communities will be required to make it worth to adopt bio-fertilizer technology based on phosphate-solubilizing microbes (PSMs). Here, we attempt to review the current knowledge of the complexity of the P-solubilization mechanisms used by PSMs and how they may be affected by interactions in the field. We also identify possible explanations for the inconsistent performance of P-solubilizing bacteria in the field and ways to solve these obstacles.

  11. Challenges Faced in Field Application of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Eida, Abdul Aziz; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    The general inaccessibility of soil phosphorous (P) to plants in combination with the depletion of global P reserves provides an incentive for researchers to find sustainable solutions to sustain food security for the ever-increasing world population. Bio-fertilizers based on bacteria and fungi able to solubilize endogenous P in soils have a high potential for increasing nutrient availability in agriculture. However, the inconsistency of bio-fertilizer performance in the field poses a major challenge for farmers. This discrepancy is thought to stem from the complexity of the interactions between crop plants, microbes, and their soil environments, as well as our lack of understanding of the processes involved. For farmers, a clear beneficial effect across different soil types, crop species, environmental conditions, and microbial communities will be required to make it worth to adopt bio-fertilizer technology based on phosphate-solubilizing microbes (PSMs). Here, we attempt to review the current knowledge of the complexity of the P-solubilization mechanisms used by PSMs and how they may be affected by interactions in the field. We also identify possible explanations for the inconsistent performance of P-solubilizing bacteria in the field and ways to solve these obstacles.

  12. Optimized conditions for high-level solubilization and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we describe the cloning, over-expression, efficient solubilization, purification and evaluation of bioactivity of camel growth hormone (cGH). The total cellular RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of freshly slaughtered animals and cDNA of cGH was synthesized by a pair of sequence specific primers with a ...

  13. Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Jamil, Moazzam; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-09-01

    Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis. All the selected isolates were also positive for oxidase activity (except ZM22), HCN production (except ZM27) and utilization of citrate. More than 70% of isolates produces ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, exopolysaccharides and cellulase. More than half of isolates also showed potential for urease activity and production of lipase. The ZM31 and S10 were the only isolates which showed the chitinase activity. All these isolates were evaluated in a jar trial for their ability to promote growth of maize under axenic conditions. Results revealed that inoculation of selected zinc solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates improved the growth of maize. In comparison, isolates ZM20, ZM31, ZM63 and S10 were best compared to other tested isolates in stimulating the growth attributes of maize like shoot length, root length, plant fresh and dry biomass. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. (ZM20), Bacillus aryabhattai (ZM31 and S10) and Bacillus subtilis (ZM63) through 16S rRNA sequencing. This study indicated that inoculation of Zn solubilizing strains have potential to promote growth and can be the potential bio-inoculants for biofortification of maize to overcome the problems of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying furosemide solubilization using an in vitro model simulating gastrointestinal digestion and drug solubilization in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Mette; Sassene, Philip Jonas; Selen, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    -2months). METHODS: The utilized in vitro model was designed to mimic the digestion and drug solubilization processes occurring in the stomach, and the small intestine of the neonate and young infant population, using physiologically relevant media, volumes and digestive enzymes. Overall the experimental...

  15. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  16. APLIKASI M–COMMERCE BERBASIS ANDROID PADA ZONA KOMPUTER BANJARNEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Dwi Riyanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembangan sistem yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan metode waterfall. Dari hasil penelitian ini akan dihasilkan sebuah aplikasi mobile untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli pada toko komputer Zona Komputer Banjarnegara.Kata Kunci: e-Commerce, m-Commerce, android

  17. Reconstitution of hormone-responsive detergent-solubilized follicle stimulating hormone receptors into liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, P.; Dattatreyamurty, B.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An FSH receptor-enriched fraction that responds to exogenous FSH by activation of adenylate cyclase was prepared by ultrafiltration of sucrose density gradient-purified light membranes derived from bovine calf testes homogenates and solubilized with Triton X-100. To further confirm the functional nature of the detergent-solubilized FSH receptor, the extract was incorporated by lipid hydration into large multilamellar vesicles composed of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, 2:1 molar ratio. Receptor incorporation was determined by measurement of specific binding of [125I] human FSH ([125I] hFSH). Substitution of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine or increasing the cholesterol concentration of the vesicles reduced specific binding of [125I]hFSH. Under conditions favoring optimal incorporation of the receptor, specific binding of [125I]hFSH was time and temperature dependent and saturable when increasing concentrations of radioligand were added to a constant amount of proteoliposomes. Reconstituted proteoliposomes bound 1600 fmol FSH/mg protein with an affinity of 3.54 x 10(9) M-1. Inhibition of [125I] hFSH binding by hFSH was comparable to that seen with the membrane-bound receptor (ED50 = 10 ng). Equilibrium binding studies with [3H]Gpp(NH)p indicated that a single class of high affinity GTP binding sites with an association constant (Ka) of 3.33 x 10(7) m-1 which bound 2.19 fmol [3H]Gpp(NH)p/mg protein had also been incorporated into the proteoliposomes. Addition of FSH induced a 2-fold stimulation of [3H]Gpp(NH)p binding, supporting our earlier studies suggesting that the detergent-solubilized FSH receptor is complexed to the G protein. Of particular significance in the present study was the observation that both NaF and FSH stimulated cAMP production in the reconstituted system

  18. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  19. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenjun; Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie; Zhu Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ . Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: → The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. → Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. → Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. → Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. → Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  20. An efficient method for qualitative screening of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Nautiyal, C S

    2001-07-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for qualitative screening of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, based upon visual observation. Our results indicate that, by using our formulation containing bromophenol blue, it is possible to quickly screen on a qualitative basis the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Qualitative analysis of the phosphate solubilized by various groups correlated well with grouping based upon quantitative analysis of bacteria isolated from soil, effect of carbon, nitrogen, salts, and phosphate solubilization-defective transposon mutants. However, unlike quantitative analysis methods that involve time-consuming biochemical procedures, the time for screening phosphate-solubilizing bacteria is significantly reduced by using our simple protocol. Therefore, it is envisaged that usage of this formulation based upon qualitative analysis will be salutary for the quick screening of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Our results indicate that the formulation can also be used as a quality control test for expeditiously screening the commercial bioinoculant preparations, based on phosphate solubilizers.

  1. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of phosphate solubilizer fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fernanda Vera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region which has been describedas a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995. This plant has highproductivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphatesolubilizazing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability.In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungiprocessed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were Araza is cultivated attwo regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizingphosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most importat species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichodermaaureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus,Trichodermastrain 1 y Trichodermastrain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae,Paecilomycesstrain 3, Gongronella butleri& Fusarium oxysporum

  3. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. APLIKASI M–COMMERCE BERBASIS ANDROID PADA ZONA KOMPUTER BANJARNEGARA

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Dwi Riyanto; Khatirudin Ma’arif

    2016-01-01

    Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembang...

  5. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Michael T.; Wilcox, Kyle C.; Klein, William L.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membr...

  6. Task-specific ionic liquids for solubilizing metal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Thijs, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this PhD thesis was to design new task-specific ionic liquids with the ability to dissolve metal compounds. Despite the large quantity of papers published on ionic liquids, not much is known about the mechanisms of dissolving metals in ionic liquids or about metal-containing ionic liquids. Additionally, many of the commercially available ionic liquids exhibit a very limited solubilizing power for metal compounds, although this is for many applications like electrodeposition a...

  7. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on gas solubilization in micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bin; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2015-03-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations of anionic sodium decylsulfate and nonionic pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether micelles in water have been performed to examine the impact of hydrostatic pressure on argon solubilization as a function of pressure. The potential-of-mean force between the micelles and argon demonstrates that nonpolar gases are attracted to the interiors of both micelles. The affinity of argon for micelle interiors, however, decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the comparatively higher molar volume of argon inside assemblies. We evaluate solubility enhancement coefficients, which describe the drop in the solute chemical potential as a function of the micellized surfactant concentration, to quantify the impact of micellization on gas solubilization. While argon is similarly attracted to the hydrophobic cores of both micelles, the gas is more effectively sequestered within nonionic micelles compared with anionic micelles as a result of salting out by charged head groups and accompanying counterions. The solubility enhancement coefficients of both micelles decrease with increasing pressure, reflecting the changing forces observed in the potentials-of-mean force. An analytical liquid drop model is proposed to describe the pressure dependence of argon solubilization within micelles that captures the simulation solubility enhancement coefficients after fitting an effective micelle radius for each surfactant.

  8. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  9. Solubilization of plutonium hydrous oxide by iron-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, P.A.; Quintana, L.; Brainard, J.R.; Strietelmeler, B.A.; Tait, C.D.; Ekberg, S.A.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.; Clark, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of plutonium from soils id challenging because of its strong sorption to soils and limited solubility, Microbial reduction of metals is known to affect the speciation and solubility of sparingly soluble metals in the environment, notably iron and manganese. The similarity in reduction potential for α-FeOOH(s) and hydrous PuO 2 (s) suggests that iron-reducing bacteria may also reduce and solubilize plutonium. Bacillus strains were used to demonstrate that iron-reducing bacteria mediate the solubilization of hydrous PuO 2 (s) under anaerobic conditions. Up to ∼90% of the PuO 2 was biosolubilized in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) within 6-7 days. Biosolubilization occurred to a lesser extent (∼ 40%) in the absence of NTA. Little PuO 2 solubilization occurred in sterile culture media or in the presence of a non-iron-reducing Escherichia coli. These observations suggest a potentially attractive, environmentally benign strategy for the remediation of Pu-contaminated soils. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Preparation and characterization of protein isolate from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP processing allows selective, pH-induced water solubility of proteins with concurrent separation of lipids and removal of materials not intended for human consumption such as bone, scales, skin, etc. Recovered proteins retain functional properties and nutritional value. Four roe protein isolates (RPIs from yellowfin tuna roe were prepared under different solubilization and precipitation condition (pH 11/4.5, pH 11/5.5, pH 12/4.5 and pH 12/5.5. RPIs contained 2.3–5.0 % moisture, 79.1–87.8 % protein, 5.6–7.4 % lipid and 3.0–3.8 % ash. Protein content of RPI-1 and RPI-2 precipitated at pH 4.5 and 5.5 after alkaline solubilization at pH 11, was higher than those of RPI-3 and RPI-4 after alkaline solubilization at pH 12 (P < 0.05. Lipid content (5.6–7.4 % of RPIs was lower than that of freeze-dried concentrate (10.6 %. And leucine and lysine of RPIs were the most abundant amino acids (8.8–9.4 and 8.5–8.9 g/100 g protein, respectively. S, Na, P, K as minerals were the major elements in RPIs. SDS-PAGE of RPIs showed bands at 100, 45, 25 and 15 K. Moisture and protein contents of process water as a 2’nd byproduct were 98.9–99.0 and 1.3–1.8 %, respectively. Therefore, yellowfin tuna roe isolate could be a promising source of valuable nutrients for human food and animal feeds.

  11. Epidemiología molecular de las tuberculosis bovina y humana en una zona endémica de Querétaro, México Molecular epidemiology of cattle and human tuberculosis in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez-Guerrero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el papel de la tuberculosis bovina en la tuberculosis humana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 255 muestras de pacientes sintomáticos, sembradas en medios de Stonebrink y Löwenstein-Jensen y analizadas por PCRMPB70 anidada y luego por spoligotyping. RESULTADOS: De las 255 muestras, 74 fueron positivas a la PCR y 20 al aislamiento: de las primeras, 58 (78% mostraron espoligotipo de M. tuberculosis y 5 (6.7% de M. bovis; de las segundas, 8 (47% revelaron espoligotipo de M. tuberculosis y 8 (47% de M. bovis. De las 94 muestras positivas al aislamiento o PCR, 66 (70% correspondieron a M. tuberculosis y 13 (13.8% a M. bovis. Los patrones moleculares de cuatro muestras de M. bovis de seres humanos fueron idénticos a los de las cepas de M. bovis de ganado. CONCLUSIONES: Se demuestra que M. bovis juega un papel importante en la epidemiología de la tuberculosis humana y representa un riesgo para la salud pública.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the role of bovine TB in cases of human TB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty-five samples from symptomatic patients were included in the study. All samples were cultured in Stonebrink and Lowënstein-Jensen media and analyzed using a nested PCRMPB70. The molecular analysis was performed by spoligotyping. RESULTS: From 255 samples, 74 were PCR-positive and 20 were culture-positive. From 94 samples positive to PCR or to isolation, 66 (70% showed a spoligotype compatible with M. tuberculosis, and 13 (13.8% with M. bovis. Four fingerprints of M. bovis from humans were identical to the fingerprints of M. bovis from cattle in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that M. bovis plays an important role in the epidemiology of TB in humans and that TB in cattle represents a risk to public health.

  12. Soil physical degradation by human activities in the zone II of the basin of Burgos, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Degradacion fisica del suelo por actividades antorpicas en la zona II de la cuenca de burgos, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias Mino, F.; Espinosa Rmirez, M.; Andrade Limas, E.; Castro Meza, B.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the physical degradation of the soil for antropic activities during the years 2007 and 2008 in the II zone of the Burgos Basin in Tamaulipas, Mexico. In this region, human action manifests itself due to activities such as agriculture, livestock and industry. The conventional farming, based mainly on the cultivation of sorghum, is characterized by great mechanization and tilling the soil which has contributed in large measure to aggravate erosion processes. There is also some logging, mainly for charcoal production and, recently, has joined the exploration and exploitation of natural gas. We used the methodology for Assessment of Soil Degradation (ASSOD) to identify, located and define the types of soil degradation within physiographic units. Results showed that nearly 74% of the study area presents some kind of degradation. The main process was water erosion, followed, by compaction and wind erosion. The main factors are essentially overgrazing and inadequate farming practices. Approximately 60% of the units evaluated presented a moderate level of degradation, but the speed of this process indicates that maintenance works are needed to reverse. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. A system to analyze the complex physiological states of coal solubilizing fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Moenkemann, H.; Hoefer, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Botanisches Institut

    1997-11-01

    The mechanism by which some microorganisms solubilize brown coal is still unknown. The paper discusses the deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma atroviride as a suitable test system to analyse the complex fungal physiology relating to coal solubilization. The two fungi can occur in two different growth substrate-controlled physiological states: a coal-solubilizing one, when cells are grown on glutamate or gluconate as substrate and a non-solubilizing one, when grown on carbohydrates. When grown on carbohydrates, F.oxysporum produces the pigment bikaverein. Purified bikaverein inhibits also coal solubilization by T. atroviride. The ability to solubilize coal is constitutive in F. oxysporum, while in T. atroviride, it has to be induced. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  15. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer.We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein.A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  16. Thermal cell solubilization of excess sludge; Thermischer Zellaufschluss von Ueberschussschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duennebeil, A. [LIMUS Umwelttechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Thermal cell solubilization of excess sludge has the following impact on subsequent digestion: cut in the mass of solids to be disposed of, enhancement of gas production and dewatering efficiency, stabilization of the digestion process, reduction of the tendency for foam formation. This does not require additional energy in an amount worth mentioning. (orig.) [German] Durch thermischen Zellaufschluss von Ueberschussschlamm wird in der nachfolgenden Faulung - die zu entsorgende Feststoffmasse reduziert - die Gasproduktion und - der Entwaesserungsgrad gesteigert sowie - der Faulbetrieb stabilisiert und - die Neigung zur Schaumbildung verringert. Dafuer ist keine nennenswerte, zusaetzliche Energie erforderlich. (orig.)

  17. Distribution of phosphate solubilizer fungi on soil microhabitats in two landscapes from Guaviare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fernanda Vera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the phosphate solubilizer mycobiota in two different soil microhabitats present in Guaviare, Colombia, were studied. Twelve samples from Arazá rhizosphere (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh and from soil without roots were processed using the soil wahing method (Domsch  et al., 1980. The percentage of colonization of soil particles by fungi was 69 %, with a higher intensity of colonization coming from the rhizospheric microhabitat. The high percentage of potential solubilizer colonies may point to this type of soil as reserve pf solubilizer fungi. The rhizospheric effect has been the main factor involved in the composition of the solubilizer fungi community.

  18. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  20. Effect of organic acids production and bacterial community on the possible mechanism of phosphorus solubilization during composting with enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Mingzi; Cao, Zhenyu; Lu, Qian; Yang, Tianxue; Fan, Yuying; Wei, Zimin

    2018-01-01

    Enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) agent were acquired by domesticated cultivation, and inoculated into kitchen waste composting in different stages. The effect of different treatments on organic acids production, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization and their relationship with bacterial community were investigated during composting. Our results pointed out that inoculation affected pH, total acidity and the production of oxalic, lactic, citric, succinic, acetic and formic acids. We also found a strong advantage in the solubilization of TCP and phosphorus (P) availability for PSB inoculation especially in the cooling stage. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models demonstrated inoculation by different methods changed the correlation of the bacterial community composition with P fractions as well as organic acids, and strengthened the cooperative function related to P transformation among species during composting. Finally, we proposed a possible mechanism of P solubilization with enriched PSB inoculation, which was induced by bacterial community and organic acids production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.

    1984-01-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using 125 I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women

  2. Non-intact zona improves development of murine preimplantation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl5

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), .... Based on microscopic examination, the ZP of some ..... permeable structure of ZP that allowed penetration of.

  3. An application of micelle solubilization spectrophotometry in the determination of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Changhai; Zeng Xiaoming

    1988-01-01

    In this review article the characteristics of the analytical method of Th by means of micelle solubilization spectrophotometry are described and the mechanism of the solubilization and chemical reactions involved is discussed. Also the various color-developing reagents that have been used for this determination are described and compared

  4. Programa de manejo integral de zonas costeras de Nicaragua (MAIZCo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Vanegas Zúñiga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El Plan de Acción para el Manejo de las Zonas Costeras de Nicaragua fue formulado durante la primera fase del programa “Manejo Integral de las Zonas Costeras de Nicaragua” (MAIZCo. La agencia ejecutora de la primera fase fue la Dirección General del Ambiente (DGA del Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARENA. Las estrategias y propuestas de acciones inmediatas formuladas en el Plan de Acción están basadas en un marco conceptual y un diagnóstico de las potencialidades y problemática de la Zona Costera. Tanto el marco conceptual como el diagnostico fueron desarrollados en un intenso proceso de interacción con los actores sustantivos. Una serie de entrevistas y talleres a nivel local, regional y nacional fueron organizados. Un primer paso incluyó la definición de los siguientes dos principios guías para el Manejo Integral de las Zonas Costeras en Nicaragua. El objetivo general del plan es facilitar un uso sostenible de los recursos naturales en las zonas Costeras de Nicaragua para el beneficio de toda la sociedad. Además, como objetivos específicos se considera contribuir al crecimiento económico; mantener la integridad de los ecosistemas costeros; contribuir a una distribución equitativa de los bienes y servicios producidos por los recursos naturales; y facilitar un efectivo y eficiente manejo. El diagnóstico de las zonas costeras incluyó: Nicaragua tiene extensivos recursos naturales en el área costera, los cuales podrían –pero no- jugar un substancial rol en el desarrollo social y económico de Nicaragua. La problemática general no es la degradación de los ecosistemas costeros, pero si en general los recursos están subexplotados y los beneficios no están bien distribuidos. Un uso indiscriminado, sin embargo, podría significar en un futuro inmediato la sobreexplotación de ecosistemas específicos (ejemplo: áreas de manglares en la costa Pacífica y especies (ejemplos: la langosta en la costa Atl

  5. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  6. Isolation of plant Photosystem II complexes by fractional solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja eHaniewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PSII occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield.

  7. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines

  8. Improved solubilization of curcumin with a microemulsification formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMICĂ CREŢU

    Full Text Available Due to the large number of bioactive substances, with low and very low solubility in water, new and improved investigation methods were developed. Researches in this area have shown that lipid systems in lipophilic substances formulation increase their bioavailability and prevent or reduce the toxicological risk because most of the components involved in the formulation are of natural origin, with a structure compatible with biological membranes components. Among the lipid systems used in the leaching, transport and release of lipophilic substances there are: liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, double and single emulsions, autoemulsionante and auto-microemulsionante lipid systems. The last are the subject of the present research and meet specialists in concern for the harmonization of cost-benefit-risk in order to improve population health. Curcumin [(1E, 6E-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] is a yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma Longa with phenol groups and conjugated double bounds which is unstable at light and basic pH, degrading within 30 minutes. The aim of this study is curcumin solubilization used as alimentary dye in automicroemulsionante systems. Dye/oil/surfactant/cosurfactant mixing ratio was made, based on quaternary phase diagrams. Mesofazice structures were revealed by conductivity and viscosimetric analysis. A curcumin solubilization system in aqueous medium was obtained. On the other hand, this paper studies the colour evolution of these automicroemulsionante systems comparing with hexane dye solution. The use of the chromatic attributes L*, a* and b* and L*, C* and hab, suggested by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE (i.e., the CIELAB system, obtained from direct transmitance measurements, which made it possible to follow the evolution of colour.

  9. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.

  10. Expression of zinc transporter genes in rice as influenced by zinc-solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj eKrithika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulphate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that zinc solubilizing bacteria could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  11. New method for culture of zona-included or zona-free embryos: the Well of the Well (WOW) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Peura, T T; Holm, P; Páldi, A; Greve, T; Trounson, A O; Callesen, H

    2000-03-01

    Culture of mammalian zygotes individually and in small groups results in lower developmental rates than culture of large groups. Zona-free zygotes also have impaired developmental potential in current culture systems. This paper describes a new approach to resolve the problems, the Well of the Well (WOW) system. Small wells (WOWs) were formed in four-well dishes by melting the bottom with heated steel rods. The WOWs were then rinsed, the wells were filled with medium, and the embryos were placed into the WOWs. To test the value of the WOW system a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was performed. Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured from day 1 to day 7 (day 0: day of insemination) using three modules (single embryos, embryo groups of five, or single zona-digested embryos) and three different culture systems (400 microl medium, 200 microl drops, or WOWs). An additional control group consisted of 40 to 50 embryos cultured in 400 microl medium. The WOW system resulted in higher blastocyst/oocyte rates for all three modules (single: 59%; group of five: 61%; single zona-digested: 53%) than the culture in drops or in wells (P WOWs per well. The cell number of blastocysts cultured in the WOW system did not differ from that of the controls. Apart from its theoretical value in revealing the role of different factors influencing embryo development in vitro, the WOW system may have immediate practical consequences in certain areas of mammalian embryo production. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Valero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O, IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L-1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils.

  14. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  15. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes and their interaction with complement C3 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ivan; Baatrup, Gunnar; Jepsen, H H

    1985-01-01

    Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components of the me......Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components...... of the cellular localization, expression and structure of the C3 receptors, especially the C3b (CR1) receptor, has been considerably extended in the last few years, whereas our understanding of the physiological role of these receptors is still fragmentary. However, it is becoming increasingly evident...

  16. Microbial efficacy of phosphate solubilization in agro-saline soils of various areas of sindh region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, A.A.; Shah, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the most prominent entities for solubilization of phosphate in various soils of different areas of Sindh Province including Tando Muhammad Khan, Tando Allah Yar, Nawabshah, Rato Dero-Larkana, Shikarpur and Umer Kot. These soils, having varying concentrations of chemicals, different climatic conditions, pH and varying numbers of microorganisms for PSA (Phosphate Solubilization Activity). This presentation shows the isolation of different fungi and bacteria capable Psa including fungi (Fusarium sp. Aspergillus sp. Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.) and bacteria (Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp.). From the observations, it was revealed that fungi Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp. showed greater phosphate solubilization activity as compared to other fungi and bacteria showing 60 and 53.33% Psa (Phosphate Solubilizing Activity) respectively. (author)

  17. Ligninolytic enzymes in the coal solubilizing deuteromycetes Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkemann, H.; Scheel, T.; Hoelker, U.; Ludwig, S.; Hoefer, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    1997-12-31

    Evidence is presented for the lignite induced expression of lignin peroxidases, manganese-dependent peroxidases, laccases and glyoxal oxidases in the coal solubilizing fungi Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum under different growth conditions. (orig.)

  18. Mechanisms of coal solubilization by the deuteromycetes Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Ludwig, S.; Scheel, T.; Hoefer, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst. und Botanischer Garten

    1999-07-01

    Three different mechanisms can be envisaged that are used by fungi to solubilize coal: the production of alkaline substances, the extrusion of chelators and, of special interest in the scope of biotechnology, the action of enzymes. Whether these mechanisms are operating separately or in various combinations has not yet been finally assessed. The two deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma atroviride solubilize coal by synergistic effects of various different mechanisms depending on the cell metabolism. F. oxysporum seems to solubilize coal by increasing the pH of the mycelial surroundings and by the action of chelators induced during growth in glutamate-containing media (without involvement of enzymes). T. atroviride, on the other hand, appears to use, in addition to an alkaline pH and a high chelator activity, at least two classes of enzyme activity to attack coal: hydrolytic activity for coal solubilization and ligninolytic activity for degradation of humic acids. (orig.)

  19. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite II: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiu-xiang; Pan, Lan-ying; Shi, Kai-yi; Chen-hui; Yin, Su-dong; Luo, Zhen-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-05-15

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelular proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had solubilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelular proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Optimization of Liquid Medium for High Phosphate Solubilization by Serratia Marcescens Strain AGKT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusoff Abd. Samad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is on the optimization of the medium for solubilization of phosphate based on the Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. Optimization of the liquid medium for phosphate solubilization using Serratia marcescens strain AGKT4 was carried out by varying the concentrations of 3 ingredients; the fructose, peptone and inoculum size of bacteria. A mathematical model derived from the response surface methodology was then validated statistically for the target test variables. The highest phosphate solubilization in the medium was achieved at the optimal concentrations of fructose and peptone at 6% (w/v and 0.6% (w/v, respectively. The maximum phosphate solubilization at these concentrations was 239.12 µg/mL. Under the same conditions, the bacterial growth in the medium was 9 log10 CFU.

  1. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Damare, S.R.

    . 2005, Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the rhizosphere of crop plants of Korea. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 37, 1970–1974. 6. Collins C.H., Lyne P.M., 1980, Microbiological methods. London: Butterworth and Co..., Studies on phosphobacteriain Cochin Backwater. J. Mar. Biolog Associ. India. 29, 297–305. 21. Ramachandran K., Srinivasan V., Hamza S., Anandaraj M., 2007, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere soil and its growth promotion...

  2. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and alkaline phosphatase activity in coastal waters off Trivandrum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Gobika, A.; Janani, P.

    , Korea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 62. pp. 2476–2482. 98 Journal of Coastal Environment Illmer, P. and Schinner, F. 1995. Solubilization of inorganic calcium phosphates solubilization mechanisms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 27. pp. 57...-solubilising microorganisms associated with the rhizosphere of mangroves in a semiarid coastal lagoon. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 30. 460-468. Wurl, O. 2009. Practical guidelines for the analysis of sea water. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 143-178. Zohary, T...

  3. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  4. Phosphate-Solubilizing and -Mineralizing Abilities of Bacteria Isolated from Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Guang-Can; TIAN Shu-Jun; CAI Miao-Ying; XIE Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of solubilizing and mineralizing phosphorus (P) pools in soils are considered vital in promoting P bioavailability. The study was conducted to screen and isolate inorganic P-solubilizing bacteria (IPSB) and organic P-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) in soils taken from subtropical flooded and temperate non-flooded soils, and to compare inorganic P-solubilizing and organic P-solubilizing abilities between IPSB and OPMB. Ten OPMB strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, and five IPSB strains as B. megaterium, Burkholderia caryophylli,Pseudomonas ciehorii, and Pseudomonas syringae. P-solubilizing and -mineralizing abilities of the strains were measured using the methods taking cellular P into account. The IPSB strains exhibited inorganic P-sohibilizing abilities ranging between 25.4-41.7 μg P mL-1 and organic P-mineralizing abilities between 8.2-17.8 μg P mL-1. Each of the OPMB strains also exhibited both solubilizing and mineralizing abilities varying from 4.4 to 26.5 μg P mL-1 and from 13.8 to 62.8 μg P mL-1, respectively. For both IPSB and OPMB strains, most of the P mineralized from the organic P source was incorporated into the bacterial cells as cellular P. A significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) was found between culture pH and P solubilized from inorganic P by OPMB strains. The results suggested that P solubilization and mineralization could coexist in the same bacterial strain.

  5. Effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria isolated from semiarid soils on pitahaya seedlings (Hylocereus undatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-Cruz, Angélica; Ortiz-Hernández, Yolanda Donají; Martínez-Gallegos, Verónica; Martínez Gutiérrez, Gabino

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are a group of organisms that solubilize fixed forms of phosphorus, making it available for the plant growth. The effect of three PSB strains, called PSBMi, PSBHc and PSBVa, on growth of pitahaya seedlings (Hylocereus undatus) was studied in a growth chamber. The results indicated that plant stem diameter, plant height, plant total dry weight and root length were greatest in pitahaya seedlings inoculated with PSBMi. The increase in these plant growth vari...

  6. Access to gram scale amounts of functional globular adiponectin from E. coli inclusion bodies by alkaline-shock solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiker, John T; Klöting, Nora; Blüher, Matthias; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2010-07-16

    The adipose tissue derived protein adiponectin exerts anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Adiponectin serum concentrations are in the microgram per milliliter range in healthy humans and inversely correlate with obesity and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, raising circulating adiponectin levels by direct administration may be an intriguing strategy in the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders. However production of large amounts of recombinant adiponectin protein is a primary obstacle so far. Here, we report a novel method for large amount production of globular adiponectin from E. coli inclusion bodies utilizing an alkaline-shock solubilization method without chaotropic agents followed by precipitation of the readily renaturing protein. Precipitation of the mildly solubilized protein capitalizes on advantages of inclusion body formation. This approach of inclusion body protein recovery provides access to gram scale amounts of globular adiponectin with standard laboratory equipment avoiding vast dilution or dialysis steps to neutralize the pH and renature the protein, thus saving chemicals and time. The precipitated protein is readily renaturing in buffer, is of adequate purity without a chromatography step and shows biological activity in cultured MCF7 cells and significantly lowered blood glucose levels in mice with streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Widawati S (2011 Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB. While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from the sample registered 18.59 g-1L-1, 18.31 g-1L-1, and 5.68 g-1L-1 of calcium phosphate (Ca-P, Al-P and rock phosphate solubilization after 7-days. Phosphate solubilizing capacity was the highest in the Ca-P medium. Two strains, 13 and 14, registered highest Phosphomonoesterase activities (2.01 µgNP.g-1.h-1 and 1.85NP µg.g-1.h-1 were identified as Serattia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescense, respectively. Both strains were isolated from the crops of Amaranthus hybridus and I. aquatica, respectively, which are commonly observed in coastal ecosystems. The presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize various types of phosphate species are indicative of the important role of both species of bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  8. Dopamine transporter; solubilization and characterization of [3H] GBR-12935 binding in canine caudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallee, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter protein, as indexed by [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding, was solubilized from canine striatal membranes with the detergent digitonin. This solubilized protein retained the same pharmacological characteristics as membrane attached uptake sites. The binding of [ 3 H]GBR-12935 to solubilized preparations was specific, saturable and reversible with an equilibrium dissociation constant of approximately 3 nM and a maximum ligand binding (B max ) of 3.4 pmol/mg protein. [ 3 H]GBR-12935 also bound to solubilized sites in a sodium-independent manner with a K D of approximately 6 nM and a B max of 1.2 ± 0.2 pmol/mg protein. Dopamine uptake inhibitors and substrates of DA uptake inhibited [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding in a stereoselective and concentration dependent manner. For these compounds rank order of potency for inhibition of [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding correlated with their potency for inhibition of dopamine uptake. K D values for DA uptake inhibitors in solubilized preparations correlated with those obtained on [ 3 H]GBR-12935 binding in the native state. The dopamine transporter appears to be a transmembrane glycoprotein by virtue of its absorption and specific elution from wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-lectin column. Solubilization of the putative dopamine transporter with full retention of binding activity now allows for the purification and biochemical characterization of this important membrane protein

  9. Whole blood solubilization and discoloration before LSC of yttrium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Leonardo, Lucio

    2009-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of whole blood and animal tissues samples could be severely impaired owing to quenching by their compounds. The objective of this previous study is preparing one protocol of 90 Y measurement to apply in biodistribution and dosimetry studies of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with this isotope and other beta emitters in in vivo and ex vivo samples. The first parameters considered to choose a method were: the largest blood sample per collection (80μl-90μl), attending the collection limit of less than 7.5% of total circulating blood volume for in vivo samples. Other parameters were the use of EDTA and cyclohexydine as solubilization and lytic agents, HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 as mineralizing agents and NH 4 OH as neutralization agent. One samples batch was tested in a water bath under the lower temperature to prevent the volume lose of the ionic phase. Other samples batch was mineralized over a hot-plate at 120 deg C following the currently largest sample amounts processing procedure in our laboratory by using HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . Results show the contribution of the blood fragments as quenching in the region A ( 3 and/or NH 4 OH in the hot-plate digestion. As expected, the measurements in the three spectral regions show the proteins and colored fragments were completely removed by the hot-plate digestion. The rate between efficiency and 90 Sr- 90 Y concentration had not significant differences in the range between 120 Bq and 1200 Bq. (author)

  10. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  11. Solubilization of poorly soluble photosensitizer hypericin by polymeric micelles and polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búzová, Diana; Kasák, Peter; Miškovský, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Hypericin (Hyp) is a promising photosensitizer for photodiagnostic and photodynamic therapy of cancer. However, Hyp has a large conjugated system and in aqueous solutions forms insoluble aggregates which do not possess biological activity. This makes intravenous injection of Hyp problematic and restricts its medical applications. To overcome this problem, Hyp is incorporated into drug delivery systems which can increase its solubility and bioavailability. One of the possibilities is utilization of polymeric micelles. The most used hydrophilic block for preparation of polymeric micelles is polyethylen glycol (PEG). PEG is a polymer which for its lack of immunogenicity, antigenicity and toxicity obtained approval for use in human medicine. In this work we have studied the solubilization of Hyp aggregates in the presence of PEG-PE and PEG-cholesterol micelles. The concentration of polymeric micelles which allows total monomerization of Hyp corresponds to the critical micellar concentration of these micelles (~10(-6) M). We have also investigated the effect of the molecular weight and concentration of PEG on the transition of aggregated Hyp to its monomeric form. PEGs with low molecular weight ( 2000 g/mol efficiently transform Hyp aggregates to the monomeric state of this photosensitizer.

  12. Dual function of tributyrin emulsion: solubilization and enhancement of anticancer effect of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Nam; Hong, Soon-Seok; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lim, Soo-Jeong

    2012-05-30

    Tributyrin, a triglyceride analogue of butyrate, can act as a prodrug of an anticancer agent butyrate after being cleaved by intracellular enzymes. We recently demonstrated that the emulsion containing tributyrin as an inner oil phase possesses a potent anticancer activity. Herein we sought to develop tributyrin emulsion as a carrier of celecoxib, a poorly-water soluble drug with anticancer activity. Combined treatment of human HCT116 colon cancer cells with free celecoxib plus tributyrin emulsion inhibited the cellular proliferation more effectively than that of each drug alone, suggesting the possibility of tributyrin emulsion as a potential celecoxib carrier. The mean droplet size of emulsions tended to increase as the tributyrin content in emulsion increases and the concentration of celecoxib loaded in emulsions was affected by tributyrin content and the initial amount of celecoxib, but not by the total amount of surfactant mixture. The concentration of celecoxib required to inhibit the growth of HCT116 and B16-F10 cancer cells by 50% was 2.6- and 3.1-fold lowered by loading celecoxib in tributyrin emulsions, compared with free celecoxib. These data suggest that the anticancer activity of celecoxib was enhanced by loading in tributyrin emulsions, probably due to the solubilization capacity and anticancer activity of tributyrin emulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Levantamiento topográfico zona El Batel (Cartagena)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Lozano, David

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es el levantamiento topográfico tanto del Auditorio El Batel como de la carretera, rotonda y césped justo debajo de la muralla para así poseer de unos planos más actualizados que complementen los ya hechos en su día y que por tanto han quedado desfasados debido a la metamorfosis que ha experimentado, especialmente, la zona en la que ahora yace El Batel. El proyecto está ubicado en la ciudad de Cartagena cuyo emplazamiento es el Auditorio El Batel, Paseo...

  14. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid-Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Liang, Shengkang; Yan, Lele; Shang, Yujun; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (). Rughbin's model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL-SL micelles. The solubility of the PAHs increased linearly with the glycolipid concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in both single and mixed systems. Binary RL-SL mixtures exhibited greater solubilization than individual glycolipids. At a SL molar fraction of 0.7 to 0.8, the solubilization capacity was the greatest, and the MSR and reached their maximum values, and β values became positive. These results suggest that the two biosurfactants act synergistically to increase the solubility of the PAHs. The solubilization capacity of the RL-SL mixtures increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing salinity. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene reached a maximum value at pH of 5.5. Moreover, the mixed RL-SL systems exhibited a strong ability to solubilize PAHs, even in the presence of heavy metal ions. These mixed biosurfactant systems have the potential to improve the performance of SER technologies using biosurfactants to solubilize hydrophobic organic contaminants by decreasing the applied biosurfactant concentration, which reduces the costs of remediation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Potentiality of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in Microbial Solubilization of Phosphate Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dhakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the solubilization behavior of the tailings produced by the floatation of a complex low grade phosphate ore. The composition of the tailings was essentially dolomite (52.04% with minor amounts of phosphate, iron and aluminium oxides (10.4 and 0.5% respectively. The presence of these products created uncontrolled land pollution and severely affected groundwater. An initiative has been taken up for utilization of this waste to generate an eco-friendly product. First step towards this panorama is incorporation of suitable microorganisms for the biodegradation of this effluent. Sulphur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produces sulphuric acid which neutralizes the dolomitic tailings and convert it into plant available forms. The solubilization activity was tested in sulphur medium with 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentration of tailings. The solubilization is graded on the basis of pH, Electrical conductivity (EC, soluble calcium and magnesium and soluble phosphate. The results from ex-situ experiments showed that the treatment with 15% tailings ended with highest solubilization. The values of pH, EC, soluble calcium and magnesium and soluble phosphate for this treatment were 4.92, 31.6 dS/m, 10.8 mL EDTA and 17.24 µg/mL respectively. Also, the results proved that sulphur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans is capable of solubilizing dolomitic tailings from the Jhamarkotra mines. Finally, an important factor taken into account was solubilization of residual phosphate along with dolomite in the tailings. This combined action affects the solubilization behaviour of the residue, which was also showed successfully with the assayed laboratory studies.

  16. Mineral phosphate solubilization by wild type and radiation induced mutants of pantoea dispersa and pantoea terrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, Senthilkumar; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jung Hun

    2009-01-01

    Three mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) bacteria where isolated from rhizosphere soil samples of common bean and weed plants. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the isolate P2 and P3 are closely related to Pantoea dispersa while isolate P4 is closely related to Pantoea terrae. Islates P2 and P3 recorded 381.60 μg ml -1 of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization respectively on 3 days incubation. Isolate P4 recorded the TCP solubilization of 215.85 μg ml -1 and the pH was dropped to 4.44 on 24 h incubation. Further incubation of P4 sharply decreased the available phosphorous to 28.94 μg ml -1 and pH level was raised to 6.32. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis was carried out at LD 99 dose of the wild type strains. The total of 14 mutant clones with enhanced MPS activity and 4 clones with decreased activity were selected based on solubilization index (SI) and phosphate solubilization assay. Mutant P2-M1 recorded the highest P-solubilizing potential among any other wild or mutnat clones by releasing 504.21 μg ml -1 of phosphorous i.e. 35% higher than its wild type by the end of day 5. A comparative evaluation of TCP solubilization by wild type isolates of Pantoea and their mutants, led to select three MPS mutant clones such as P2-M1, P3-M2 and P3-M4 with a potential to release >471.67 μg ml 1 of phosphorous from TCP. These over expressing mutant clones are considered as suitable candidates for biofertilization

  17. Effect of zona pellucida on porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    μg mL–1 cytochalasin B and 10 μg mL–1 cycloheximide in PZM-3 medium for 4 h. ZP was removed by 3.3 mg mL–1 pronase. Both zona-intact (PAZI) and zona-free (PAZF) embryos were cultured individually for 6 days either in time-lapse incubator (Embryoscope D, Unisense A/S, Aarhus, Denmark) for 15-min......). The timing of morulae was recorded when they completed compaction. Good blastocysts were defined when they expanded to 1.5 times larger than oocytes and formed regular blastocoel cavity with uniform colour and distribution of cells. Timing data were analysed by Student's t-test, while development rates....... 22, 234). In the present study, we expanded this study to include also the timing of early development and the resulting quality and robustness (for vitrification) of porcine PA embryos. Parthenogenetic activation was made first by an electric pulse (1.26 kV cm–1, 80 μs) and then by incubation with 5...

  18. Effect of acid and alkaline solubilization on the properties of surimi based film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummanoon Prodpran

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acid and alkaline solubilizing processes on the properties of the protein based film from threadfin bream surimi was investigated. Surimi films prepared from both processes had the similar light transmission, tensile strength (TS and elongation at break (EAB (P<0.05. However, film with alkaline process had slightly lower water vapor permeability (WVP, compared to that prepared by acid solubilizing process. The protein concentration in the film-forming solution directly affected the properties of the film. Increase in protein concentration resulted in an increase in TS, EAB as well as WVP. The film prepared by acid solubilizing process had an increase in yellowish color as evidenced by the continuous increase in b* and E* values during the storage at r oom temperature. The acid and alkali solubilizing processes caused the degradation of muscle protein in surimi, especially with increasing exposure time. Therefore, solubilizing process had the influence on the properties of the protein film from threadfin bream surimi.

  19. Microbial Phosphorus Solubilization and Its Potential for Use in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Alori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se, arsenic (As in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants. These microorganisms improve the growth and yield of a wide variety of crops. Thus, inoculating seeds/crops/soil with Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM is a promising strategy to improve world food production without causing any environmental hazard. Despite their great significance in soil fertility improvement, phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms have yet to replace conventional chemical fertilizers in commercial agriculture. A better understanding of recent developments in PSM functional diversity, colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application should facilitate their use as reliable components of sustainable agricultural systems. In this review, we discussed various soil microorganisms that have the ability to solubilize phosphorus and hence have the potential to be used as bio fertilizers. The mechanisms of inorganic phosphate solubilization by PSM and the mechanisms of organic phosphorus mineralization are highlighted together with some factors that determine the success of this technology. Finally we provide some indications that the use of PSM will promote sustainable agriculture and conclude that this technology is ready for commercial exploitation in various regions worldwide.

  20. Protein recovery from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli using mild solubilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Upadhyay, Arun Kumar; Singh, Surinder Mohan; Panda, Amulya Kumar

    2015-03-25

    Formation of inclusion bodies in bacterial hosts poses a major challenge for large scale recovery of bioactive proteins. The process of obtaining bioactive protein from inclusion bodies is labor intensive and the yields of recombinant protein are often low. Here we review the developments in the field that are targeted at improving the yield, as well as quality of the recombinant protein by optimizing the individual steps of the process, especially solubilization of the inclusion bodies and refolding of the solubilized protein. Mild solubilization methods have been discussed which are based on the understanding of the fact that protein molecules in inclusion body aggregates have native-like structure. These methods solubilize the inclusion body aggregates while preserving the native-like protein structure. Subsequent protein refolding and purification results in high recovery of bioactive protein. Other parameters which influence the overall recovery of bioactive protein from inclusion bodies have also been discussed. A schematic model describing the utility of mild solubilization methods for high throughput recovery of bioactive protein has also been presented.

  1. Thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes for multi-functional biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2009-02-01

    In order to prepare the multi-functional biofertilizer, thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were isolated from different compost plants and biofertilizers. Except Streptomycesthermophilus J57 which lacked pectinase, all isolates possessed amylase, CMCase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, and nitrogenase activities. All isolates could solubilize calcium phosphate and Israel rock phosphate; various isolates could solubilize aluminum phosphate, iron phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. During composting, biofertilizers inoculated with the tested microbes had a significantly higher temperature, ash content, pH, total nitrogen, soluble phosphorus content, and germination rate than non-inoculated biofertilizer; total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio showed the opposite pattern. Adding these microbes can shorten the period of maturity, improve the quality, increase the soluble phosphorus content, and enhance the populations of phosphate-solubilizing and proteolytic microbes in biofertilizers. Therefore, inoculating thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes into agricultural and animal wastes represents a practical strategy for preparing multi-functional biofertilizer.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced solubilization of residual dodecane in soil columns. 2. Mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, L.M.; Dekker, T.J.; Pennell, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe surfactant-enhanced solubilization of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) in porous media. The model incorporates aqueous-phase transport equations for organic and surfactant components as well as a mass balance for the organic phase. Rate-limited solubilization and surfactant sorption are represented by a linear driving force expression and a Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The model is implemented in a one-dimensional Galerkin finite element simulator which idealizes the entrapped residual organic as a collection of spherical globules. Soil column data for the solubilization of residual dodecane by an aqueous solution of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate are used to evaluate the conceptual model. Input parameters were obtained, where possible, from independent batch experiments. Calibrated model simulations exhibit good agreement with measured effluent concentrations, supporting the utility of the conceptual modeling approach. Sensitivity analyses explore the influence of surfactant concentration and flushing strategy on NAPL recovery. 45 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. LIMITES URBANOS DE UNA ZONA TIPICA LA SERENA

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Glasinovic Duhalde

    2013-01-01

    La ciudad de la Serena vive hoy Llna compleja crisis de crecimiento. Se duplican sus habitantes cada 30 .lúas, pero es(;"Í dejando vacío el casco histótico. ¿Seguirá extendiéndose ilimitadamente o crecerá "desde dentro" ocupando grandes manzanas edificadas pero vacías de gente. Este trabajo, que no es la historia de una acción terminada sino más bien la relación de su inicio, revisa aspectos relevantes a considerar en la delimitación de la Zona Típica de la Ciudad, comenzando el análisis desd...

  4. Santiago Zona Árida: una arquitectura de la sombra

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Arce,Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    ¿El árbol urbano como mitigación? ¡Falso! Desmontando el sentido supuesto para el "impacto ambiental", tan usado por algunas corrientes actuales del urbanismo, Pérez de Arce reinvindica las zonas áridas del planeta como origen del jardín y la ciudad. A partir de la revisión de la incorporación del árbol en el espacio público santiaguino, la discusión se centra en la relación entre sequía, sombra, trazados y la capacidad del jardín y la arquitectura de generar una cualidad ambiental urbana....

  5. EVALUATION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS (PSMs FROM RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF DIFFERENT CROP PLANTS AND ITS ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samikan Krishnakumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous rhizosphere soil samples were collected during study period (October 2011 – March 2012 of different crop plant from Thiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, India for the enumeration of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs. Efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated. Maximum heterotrophic bacterial populations (19.4 X105, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (4.7 X 105 were recorded in the month of February and phosphate solubilizing fungi (3.9 X 102 were documented in the month of December in rhizosphere soil of ground nut. Minimum bacterial populations (14.3 X 105 were observed in rhizosphere soil of chilli in the month of March. Lowest phosphate solubilizing bacteria (1.2 X105 and phosphate solubilzing fungi (1.2 X 102 were observed in rhizosphere soil of paddy during the month of October. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonassp. - BS1, Bacillus sp. – BS2, Micrococcus sp. – BS3 and fungi Aspergillus sp. – FS1, Penicillium sp. – FS2.and Trichoderma sp. – FS3 were identified. Pseudomonas sp. - BS1. exhibited maximum solubilizing efficiency (SE and solubilizing index (SI of 300.0 and 4.0 respectively. In fungi Aspergillus sp. – FS1 showed a maximum solubilizing efficiency (SE and solubilizing index(SI of 283.3 and 3.8 respectively. Antagonistic activity of P-solubilizing Pseudomonassp. - BS1 was deliberated against selected fungal plant pathogens. Among pathogens studied Aspergillus sp. showed a maximum inhibition activity (16 mm and minimum activity (12 mm was observed against Fusarium sp. Moreover inhibition efficiency (IE and inhibition index (II of Pseudomonas sp. - BS1. also calculated base on the antagonistic activity. Aspergillus sp. exhibited highest inhibition efficiency and inhibition index of 166.6 and 3.6 respectively.

  6. Consortium inoculum of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing Actinomycetes for multipurpose biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandimath, Arusha P; Karad, Dilip D; Gupta, Shantikumar G; Kharat, Arun S

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline pH of the soil facilitates the conversion of phosphate present in phosphate fertilizer applied in the field to insoluble phosphate which is not available to plants. Problem of soluble phosphate deficiency arises, primarily due to needless use of phosphate fertilizer. We sought to biofertilizer with the thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes consortium that could convert insoluble phosphate to soluble phosphate at wider temperature range. In the present investigation consortium of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes was applied for preparation of inoculum to produce multipurpose bio-fertilizer. Phosphates solubilizing thermo-tolerant 32 actinomycetes strains were processed for identification with the use of PIBWIN software and were screened for phosphate solubilizing activity. Amongst these five actinomycetes were selected on the basis of their ability to produce cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, amylase and phosphate solubilizing enzymes. Ability to produce these enzymes at 28°C and 50°C were examined. Biofertilizer was prepared by using agricultural waste as a raw material. While preparation of bio-fertilizer the pH decreased from 7.5 to 4.3 and temperature increased up to 74°C maximum at the end of 4 th week and in subsequent week it started to decline gradually till it reached around 50°C, which was found to be stable up to eighth week. This thermo-tolerant actinomycetes consortium released soluble phosphate of up to 46.7 μg ml -1 . As the mesophilic organisms die out at high temperature of composting hence thormo-tolerant actinomycetes would be the better substitute for preparation of phosphate solubilizing bio-fertilizer with added potential to degrade complex macromolecules in composting.

  7. Los arquitectos conservadores de zona = The conservative architects of zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Javier Pérez Martín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la historia de la conservación de nuestro Patrimonio Construido, precisa del estudio del marco político y social de cada periodo, la integración de las corrientes internacionales, su adaptación, desarrollo normativo, estructuras organizativas, etc., para finalmente prestar atención a las personas que llevaron a cabo las intervenciones, entendiendo su propio debate intelectual y crítico. Entre las distintas respuestas estructuradas, encontramos un grupo de Arquitectos dotados de entidad propia, respaldados por un amplio marco legislativo, al que no se ha prestado una atención específica como grupo, aunque si a sus componentes, dada su notoriedad individual. Nos referimos a los denominados Arquitectos de Zona o Arquitectos Conservadores de Zona, cuya figura es fijada por la Ley de 1933, o mejor dicho por su Reglamento de 1936, aunque su existencia es anterior, permaneciendo hasta los albores de la Democracia. Abstract The knowledge of the history of the conservation of our Built Heritage, requires the study of the political and social framework of each period, the integration of international currents, their adaptation, normative development, organizational structures, etc., to finally pay attention to the people who carried out the interventions understanding their own intellectual and critical debate. Among the different structured responses, we find a group of architects endowed with their own entity, backed by a broad legislative framework, which has not been given specific attention as a group, although its components, given its individual notoriety. We refer to the so-called Zone Architects or Area Conservation Architects, whose figure is set by the Law of 1933, or rather by its Regulations of 1936, although its existence is earlier, remaining until the dawn of Democracy.

  8. Chelating agents improve enzymatic solubilization of pectinaceous co-processing streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    of different levels of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid, and phosphate was assessed in relation to enzymatic solubilization of isopropanol precipitatable oligo- and polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp, citrus peel, and two types of potato pulp. The two types of potato pulp...... solubilization yields. The effect of the chelating agents correlated to their dissociation constants (pKa values) and calcium binding constants and citric acid and EDTA exerted highest effects. Maximum polysaccharide yield was obtained for FiberBind 400 where the enzymatic treatment in presence of citric acid...

  9. Massilia phosphatilytica sp. nov., a phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from a long-term fertilized soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Bang Xiao; Bi, Qing Fang; Hao, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, 12-OD1T, with rock phosphate solubilizing ability was isolated from agricultural soil in Hailun, Heilongjiang, PR China. The isolate was affiliated to the genus Massilia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments, having the highest similari......A Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, 12-OD1T, with rock phosphate solubilizing ability was isolated from agricultural soil in Hailun, Heilongjiang, PR China. The isolate was affiliated to the genus Massilia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments, having the highest...

  10. Isolation of phosphatase-producing phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Loriya hot spring: Investigation of phosphate solubilizing in the presence of different parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Parhamfar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers are the microorganisms that can convert useless nutrient to usable compounds. Unlike fertilizer, cost of biofertilizer production is low and doesn’t produce ecosystem pollution. Phosphate fertilizers can be replaced by phosphate biofertilizer to produce improvement. So, it is necessary to screen the climate-compatible phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Materials and methods: In this project samples were picked up from Loriya hot spring, which are located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in PKV medium for 3 days. Screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria was performed on the specific media, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Phosphate solubilizing activity of this strain was considered in different carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and pH sources. Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results show that B. sp. LOR033 is closely related to Bacillus licheniformis, with 97% homology. In addition, results show that maximum enzyme production was performed after 2 days that incubation pH was decreased simultaneously when the time was increased. Carbon sources investigation show that glucose is the most appropriate in enzyme production and phosphate releasing. Furthermore, results show that the optimum initial pH for phytase production was pH5.0. Different phosphate sources show that tricalcium phosphate has the suitable effect on enzyme activity in three days of incubation. Discussion and conclusion: Phosphatase enzyme production capacity, growth in acidic pH and phosphate solubilizing potential in different salt and phosphate sources show that this strain has considerable importance as biofertilizers.

  11. The population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB from Cikaniki, Botol Mountain, and Ciptarasa Area, and the ability of PSB to solubilize insoluble P in solid pikovskaya medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIASIH

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB were collected from plant rhizosphere at Cikaniki (1100 m asl., soil at Botol Mountain (1000, 1500, and 1800 m asl., and Ciptarasa (600, 1000, and 1500 m asl., area at Gunung Halimun National Park (GHNP. The soil ware collected randomly from 3 areas and taken from 0-15 cm depth in the plants rhizosphere at Cikaniki and forest floor soil in Gunung Botol and Ciptarasa. The result showed that the difference of elevation area, soil pH, forest vegetation, and microbial habitat (rhizosphere and forest floor were not the inhabitation factors of the biodiversity of PSB and their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate, but the inhabitation factors on the growth of the PSB population. The highest population of PSB at GHNP was founded in the plant rhizosphere of Altingia exelsa Norona and Schima wallichii (Dc. Korth (107sel/g soil at Cikaniki and in the forest floor soil (108sel/g soil at Botol Mountain (1000 m asl.. Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Bacillus megaterium, and Chromobacterium sp. dominated Cikaniki, Botol Mountain and Ciptarasa area. Those isolates could solubilize insoluble phosphate on solid Pikovskaya medium with the range of diameter is 1.5-2.5 cm.

  12. Role of Automobile Exhaust on the Photoreductive Solubilization of Atmospheric Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Majestic, B. J.; Cutler, E.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric iron (Fe) plays an essential role in the carbon cycle, affecting the Earth's energy balance and human health. Fe catalyzes oxidations of organic carbon species and serves as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in about half of the world's oceans. Wind-blown dust is the major source of atmospheric insoluble Fe while urban areas are correlated with relatively high percentages of soluble Fe. The occurrence of elevated levels of soluble Fe near urban and industrial regions suggests a correlation between Fe solubilization and organic combustion products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Fossil fuel consumption for internal combustion engines produce atmospheric PAH as a major component of automobile exhaust. Under light, PAH transform into oxidized components such as ketones and carboxylic acids. For example, phthalic acid (formed from naphthalene) inhibits Fe oxidation reactions and therefore may contribute to Fe reduction and increased solubility. The wind-blown dust and PAH-containing combustion products undergo long-range atmospheric transport leading to mixing and metal-organic interactions. The current study focuses on how a saturated PAH suspension affects the production of soluble Fe. Reactions of soil-based Fe and saturated solutions of PAH are performed under controlled conditions simulating natural sunlight. Samples are analyzed by ICPMS for soluble Fe before and after solar exposure reactions; soluble Fe is separated from total Fe by filtration and total Fe by acid-assisted microwave digestion. Data indicate an increase in Fe solubility (1.2% to 4.2%) in the presence of PAH, as compared to soil in water alone, and an even greater increase in Fe solubility (4.2% to 8.4%) when exposed to solar radiation. Research is ongoing to determine the dependence of oxidized PAH on kinetic and overall Fe solubility.

  13. Quaternary structure of the lactose transport protein of Streptococcus thermophilus in the detergent-solubilized and membrane-reconstituted state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, R.H.E.; Poolman, B.; Knol, J.

    2000-01-01

    The quaternary structure of LacS, the lactose transporter of Streptococcus thermophilus, has been determined for the detergent-solubilized and the membrane-reconstituted state of the protein. The quaternary structure of the n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside-solubilized state was studied using a combination of

  14. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  15. LA FRECUENCIA DEL TUTEO EN TRES ZONAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA: INFLUENCIA DE LA ZONA URBANA/RURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Son Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan algunos resultados acerca del uso de tú en el marco de una investigación sobre la selección pronominal llevada a cabo en tres municipios del departamento colombiano de Antioquia: 1 la ciudad de Medellín, capital del departamento; 2 Carmen de Viboral, ubicada a una hora de la capital en automóvil y 3 Andes, que se sitúa a unas tres horas de la capital en coche. Los informantes comprenden edades entre 13 y 34 años. La variable social para este artículo es el lugar de residencia de los informantes: zona urbana (Medellín, medio rural (Carmen de Viboral o rural (Andes. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación se aplicó a 1490 informantes un cuestionario que mostraba distintos tipos de interacción que se dan en dichas zonas. Tres técnicas estadísticas se aplicaron a estos datos: tamaño de muestra óptimo para distribuciones multinomiales; análisis de varianza con un solo factor (ANOVA; y prueba de hipótesis para proporciones. Se encontró que, en la gran mayoría de relaciones interpersonales solidarias, el tuteo se usa más en Medellín que en Carmen de Viboral y en este último municipio más que en Andes.

  16. Detecção do DNA do papilomavírus humano após excisão da zona de transformação com alça diatérmica para tratamento de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical Human papillomavirus DNA detection after large loop excision of the transformation zone for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Garcia Figueirêdo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a presença do DNA do papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco oncológico antes e quatro meses após excisão da zona de transformação com alça diatérmica em mulheres com neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC. MÉTODOS: neste estudo clínico prospectivo foram incluídas 78 mulheres submetidas à excisão da zona de transformação tratadas no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2001. Todas foram submetidas a colposcopia, citologia oncológica e captura híbrida II (CH II antes da cirurgia e após 4±1,25 meses. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do odds ratio (OR com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%. RESULTADOS: antes da excisão, 67 (86% mulheres apresentavam CH II positiva para DNA-HPV de alto risco oncológico e destas, apenas 22 (33% mantiveram a CH II positiva quatro meses após. A detecção do DNA-HPV após o tratamento não se relacionou com a carga viral prévia, presença de doença nas margens da peça cirúrgica ou idade da mulher. Após quatro meses, a detecção do DNA-HPV associou-se significativamente com a presença de alterações citológicas (OR = 4,8; IC 95% = 1,7-13,7, porém não se relacionou com doença residual ou recidiva histológica (OR = 6,0; IC 95% = 0,8-52,3. CONCLUSÃO: após o tratamento da NIC, a detecção do DNA-HPV diminuiu significativamente porém não se observou relação com a presença de doença residual ou recidiva histológica.PURPOSE: to evaluate the detection of high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA immediately before and 4±1.25 months after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ in the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. METHODS: in this clinical prospective study, 78 patients submitted to LLETZ from February to December 2001 were enrolled. All patients were submitted to colposcopic evaluation and had Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HC II specimens collected immediately before LLETZ and four months

  17. Solubilization and purification of Escherichia coli expressed GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... expressed GST-fusion human vascular endothelial growth factors ... prognosis, monitoring of therapy and diagnosis. ... Alternative splicing of a single ..... Distamycin-A derivatives potentiate tumor–necrosis-factor activity via.

  18. Sludge disintegration techniques - assessment of their impacts on solubilization of organic carbon and methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Fatoorehchi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    In the present thesis, ozone, sodium hydroxide and ultrasound were conducted to disintegrate the excess sludge prior to anaerobic digestion with the aim of improving methane production. The impacts of different sludge disintegration methods on the molecular size distribution of DOC solubilized after disintegration were investigated using size exclusion chromatography with online organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD).

  19. Exploring the Arabidopsis Proteome: Influence of Protein Solubilization Buffers on Proteome Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Marondedze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of proteomes provides new insights into stimulus-specific responses of protein synthesis and turnover, and the role of post-translational modifications at the systems level. Due to the diverse chemical nature of proteins and shortcomings in the analytical techniques used in their study, only a partial display of the proteome is achieved in any study, and this holds particularly true for plant proteomes. Here we show that different solubilization and separation methods have profound effects on the resulting proteome. In particular, we observed that the type of detergents employed in the solubilization buffer preferentially enriches proteins in different functional categories. These include proteins with a role in signaling, transport, response to temperature stimuli and metabolism. This data may offer a functional bias on comparative analysis studies. In order to obtain a broader coverage, we propose a two-step solubilization protocol with first a detergent-free buffer and then a second step utilizing a combination of two detergents to solubilize proteins.

  20. Solubilization of advanced ceramic materials controlled by chemical analysis by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarante Junior, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper purpose is to show the techniques used in chemical analysis laboratory at Escola SENAI Mario Amato in the ceramic nucleus for opening and solubilization of Advanced Ceramic materials, where the elements in its majority are determined for atomic absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2011-01-01

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model

  2. Photosystem II solubilizes as a monomer by mild detergent treatment of unstacked thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jan P.; Germano, Marta; Roon, Henny van; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the aggregation state of Photosystem II in stacked and unstacked thylakoid membranes from spinach after a quick andmild solubilization with the non-ionic detergent n-dodecyl-α,D-maltoside, followed by analysis by diode-array-assisted gel filtration chromatography and electron microscopy.

  3. A biomaterial composed of collagen and solubilized elastin enhances angiogenesis and elastic fiber formation without calcification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Nillesen, S.T.M.; Wismans, P.G.P.; Reinhardt, D.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Elastin is the prime protein in elastic tissues that contributes to elasticity of, for example, lung, aorta, and skin. Upon injury, elastic fibers are not readily replaced, which hampers tissue regeneration. Incorporation of solubilized elastin (hydrolyzed insoluble elastin fibers or elastin

  4. Genome Sequence of Selenium-Solubilizing Bacterium Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yihua; Qin, Yanan; Kot, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6 is a Gram-negative strain that strongly solubilizes selenium (Se) mineral into Se(IV) and was isolated from a selenium mining area in Enshi, southwest China. This strain produces the phytohormone IAA and promotes plant growth. Here we present the genome of this strain...

  5. Solubilization and reconstitution of the formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine receptor coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, K.; Dickey, B.F.; Pyun, H.Y.; Navarro, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the solubilization, resolution, and reconstitution of the formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) receptor and guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G-proteins). The receptor was solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. Guanine nucleotides decreased the number of high-affinity binding sites and accelerated the rate of dissociation of the receptor-ligand complex, suggesting that the solubilized receptor remained coupled to endogenous G-proteins. The solubilized receptor was resolved from endogenous G-proteins by fractionation on a wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose 4B column. High-affinity [ 3 H]fMet-Leu-Phe binding to the WGA-purified receptor was diminished and exhibited reduced guanine nucleotide sensitivity. High-affinity [ 3 H]fMET-Leu-Phe binding and guanine nucleotide sensitivity were reconstituted upon the addition of purified brain G-proteins. Similar results were obtained when the receptor was reconstituted with brain G-proteins into phospholipid vesicles by gel filtration chromatography. In addition, they also demonstrated fMET-Leu-Phe-dependent GTP hydrolysis in the reconstituted vesicles. The results of this work indicate that coupling of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor to G-proteins converts the receptor to a high-affinity binding state and that agonist produces activation of G-proteins. The resolution and functional reconstitution of this receptor should provide an important step toward the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of the fMet-Leu-Phe transduction system in neutrophils

  6. Exploring the Arabidopsis Proteome: Influence of Protein Solubilization Buffers on Proteome Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius; Wong, Aloysius Tze; Groen, Arnoud; Serano, Natalia Lorena Gorron; Jankovic, Boris R.; Lilley, Kathryn; Gehring, Christoph A; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    The study of proteomes provides new insights into stimulus-specific responses of protein synthesis and turnover, and the role of post-translational modifications at the systems level. Due to the diverse chemical nature of proteins and shortcomings in the analytical techniques used in their study, only a partial display of the proteome is achieved in any study, and this holds particularly true for plant proteomes. Here we show that different solubilization and separation methods have profound effects on the resulting proteome. In particular, we observed that the type of detergents employed in the solubilization buffer preferentially enriches proteins in different functional categories. These include proteins with a role in signaling, transport, response to temperature stimuli and metabolism. This data may offer a functional bias on comparative analysis studies. In order to obtain a broader coverage, we propose a two-step solubilization protocol with first a detergent-free buffer and then a second step utilizing a combination of two detergents to solubilize proteins.

  7. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  8. The ability of rhizobacteria to solubilize phosphate and synthesize of indoleacetic acid in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslany Silva Rocha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado comprises a vast ecoregion in central Brazil where plants show both growth and nitrogen fixation deficiencies due to low soil fertility. Farmers may overcome such problem using species of microorganisms capable of improving soil fertility such as the Rhizobia bacteria. This work aimed to assess the ability of phosphate solubilization and synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA of Rhizobium isolates obtained from Cerrado soils in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, evaluating their symbiotic efficiency in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. plants. We used a total of 32 isolates (or strains of Rhizobium and a reference species of Bradyrhizobium. The capacity of phosphate solubilization and synthesis of IAA was evaluated in vitro, while the symbiotic function of rhizobia isolates and the effect on cowpea biomass was assessed in a greenhouse. Only eight strains were able to solubilize calcium phosphate, while all isolates produced IAA. The rhizobia inoculation caused a significant increase in biomass and nodulation of cowpea. The isolates UFT R122 and UFT R124 stood out with the highest values for the studied parameters, showing rises above 33% of relative efficiency in comparison to the treatment with nitrogen fertilization. By associating the results of phosphate solubilization capacity, IAA synthesis, symbiotic ability, and nodulation, we conclude that the isolates that showed good performance are potential inoculants for cowpea in Cerrado soils.

  9. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering

  10. Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

    2011-08-01

    Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs.

  11. Exploring the Arabidopsis Proteome: Influence of Protein Solubilization Buffers on Proteome Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2014-12-31

    The study of proteomes provides new insights into stimulus-specific responses of protein synthesis and turnover, and the role of post-translational modifications at the systems level. Due to the diverse chemical nature of proteins and shortcomings in the analytical techniques used in their study, only a partial display of the proteome is achieved in any study, and this holds particularly true for plant proteomes. Here we show that different solubilization and separation methods have profound effects on the resulting proteome. In particular, we observed that the type of detergents employed in the solubilization buffer preferentially enriches proteins in different functional categories. These include proteins with a role in signaling, transport, response to temperature stimuli and metabolism. This data may offer a functional bias on comparative analysis studies. In order to obtain a broader coverage, we propose a two-step solubilization protocol with first a detergent-free buffer and then a second step utilizing a combination of two detergents to solubilize proteins.

  12. A class-A GPCR solubilized under high hydrostatic pressure retains its ligand binding ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the solubilization of a class-A G protein-coupled receptor, the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR), was investigated. PBANR was expressed in expresSF+ insect cells as a C-terminal fusion protein with EGFP. The mem...

  13. Isolation of Indigenous Bacteria of Phosphate Solubilizing from Green Bean Rhizospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arfarita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB as a biological fertilizer of Agricultural land is one solution to overcome problem of phosphate availability for plants. However, often application of a biological fertilizer is ineffective for certain places. The purpose of this study was to obtain indigenous phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates that can be effective in the area of Malang. Samples were collected from rhizosphereof green bean plants at three locations in Malang, East Java. The study was conducted to determine the total bacterial population of soil samples, to select the best three bacterial isolates in phosphate solubilizing ability, which is not antagonistic and nonpathogenic for plants,along with observing its potential as a bacterial consortium. The highest total population was found in FHR samples of 1.5x1011 CFU / mL. We have selected three bacterial isolates namely SPP1, SPP2 and SPP3. They were not antagonistic to each other and nonpathogenic on mungbean sprouts. They had possibility of producing growth hormone which characterized by an increasing in length of plant and total root length, be compared to controls. Strain SPP2 has shown the highest activity of phosphate solubilization then was selected for 16S rRNA identification. Similarity test of genome sequence of strain SPP2 had 99% similarity with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PR19

  14. El Alabama en la Zona Algodonera de Armero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Llanos Vicente

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available El gusano cortador de la hoja del algodonero, comúnmente llamado Alabama por todos los plantadores de algodón de la región de Armero, ha merecido y seguirá mereciendo una especial atención, ya que constituye la plaga más importante de cuantas diezman los cultivos de algodón. Si bien es cierto que otros insectos como el gusano rosado colombiano de las cápsulas del algodonero (SacadodespyralisDyar (7; nuevo género y nueva especie, según W m. Schaus, y el pulgón (AphisgossypiiGlov. causan daños de consideración, ninguno de ellos ha mostrado, en esta zona, la enorme voracidad y por lo tanto la fuerza destructora del insecto que tratamos. El Alabama fue la causa de casi todos los fracasos que tuvieron los primeros cultivadores en algunas regiones del interior del país. En ese entonces no había facilidad para su control, como la hay ahora, y era muy común ver un cultivo devastado en pocos días por la plaga en mención, sin que hubiera manera de destruirla. El hecho indiscutible de haberse iniciado el cultivo del algodón en la región de Armero sobre bases técnicas, de haber recibido el apoyo irrestricto y entusiasta de los,gobiernos departamental y nacional, de crear entidades y centros de investigación al servicio de la economía del país, y de poseer vías accesibles a,los mercados de importancia, son las razones inmediatas del éxito rotundo y progresivo de la industria algodonera en esta zona. A pesar de todo esto, el Alabama se presentó desde el primer momento y ha continuado haciendo sus daños de cosecha en cosecha, obligando a,los cultivadores a equiparse con máquinas espolvoreadoras de diversos tipos y a usar los insecticidas aconsejados por la técnica que les dieron resultados positivos; yel insecto, que antes constituía un problema para el cultivo, pasó a ser solo objeto de una inversión en el presupuesto del cultivador.

  15. Development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos after removal of zona pellucida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2013-01-01

    at all developmental stages, but the difference was only significant at the five-cell stage. When compared with development of zona-intact embryos, ZP removal decreased the overall blastocyst percentage (83.9 ± 2.0 vs. 72.5 ± 2.9, respectively) and especially the percentage of good morphology (grades 1......, the developmental percentages, the frequency of apoptosis, and robustness after removal of the ZP by pronase. Three experiments were made between zona-free PA embryos and zona-intact embryos: (1) determination of the timing of developmental stages using time-lapse observations for 6 days; (2) determination...

  16. INVENTARISASI JENIS ARTHROPODA DAN ECHINODERMATA DI ZONA PASANG SURUT TIPE SUBSTRAT BERBATU PANTAI GATRA KABUPATEN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindra Trisna Widiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Pantai Gatra merupakan salah satu ekowisata pantai di Kabupaten Malang yang memiliki zona pasang surut dengan substrat dominan batu. Substrat berbatu merupakan daerah yang paling padat makroorganismenya. Arthropoda dan Echinodermata mempunyai peranan penting dari segi sumber makanan maupun ekologi. Mengingat belum adanya pelaporan jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata di zona pasang surut Pantai Gatra, maka dilakukan penelitian inventarisasi di daerah ini. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah invetarisasi jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata. Hasil penelitian tentang inventarisasi jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata di zona pasang surut pantai Gatra Kabupaten Malang, secara keseluruhan ditemukan 14 jenis, 13 genus, dan 11 famili dari filum Arthropoda dan Echinodermata.

  17. Physicochemical investigation of mixed surfactant microemulsions: water solubilization, thermodynamic properties, microstructure, and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2013-12-01

    In this contribution, we report on a systematic investigation of phase behavior and solubilization of water in water-in-heptane or decane aggregates stabilized by mixtures of polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (Brij-58) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants with varying compositions in conjugation with 1-pentanol (Pn) at fixed surfactant(s)/Pn ratio and temperature. Synergism in water solubilization was evidenced by the addition of CTAB to Brij-58 stabilized system in close proximity of equimolar composition in both oils. An attempt has been made to correlate composition dependent water solubilization and volume induced conductivity studies to provide insight into the solubilization mechanism of these mixed systems. Conductivity studies reveal the ascending curve in water solubilization capacity-(Brij-58:CTAB, w/w) profile as the interdroplet interaction branch indicating percolation of conductance and the descending curve is a curvature branch due to the rigidity of the interface in these systems. The microstructure of these systems as a function of surfactant composition has been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR study reveals increase and decrease in relative population of bound and bulk-like water, respectively, with increase in Brij-58:CTAB (w/w). DLS measurements showed that the droplet hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) decreases significantly with the increase in Brij-58:CTAB (w/w). Further, the interfacial composition and energetic parameters for the transfer of Pn from bulk oil to the interface were evaluated by the dilution method. Formation of temperature-insensitive microemulsions and temperature invariant droplet sizes are evidenced in the vicinity of the equimolar composition. The results are interpreted in terms of a proposed mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sodium deoxycholate mediated enhanced solubilization and stability of hydrophobic drug Clozapine in pluronic micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Pankaj; Singh, Onkar; Chabba, Shruti; Aswal, V. K.; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the solubilization behaviour of a hydrophobic drug Clozapine (CLZ) in micellar suspensions of pluronics having different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) ratios viz. P84, F127 and F108 in the absence and presence of bile salt sodium deoxycholate (SDC) has been studied. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been exploited to determine the solubilization capacity of the investigated micellar systems in terms of drug loading efficiency, average number of drug molecules solubilized per micelle (ns), partition coefficient (P) and standard free energy of solubilization (Δ G°). The morphological and structural changes taking place in pluronics in different concentration regimes of SDC and with the addition of drug CLZ has been explored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The SANS results revealed that aggregation behaviour of pluronic-SDC mixed micelles gets improved in the presence of drug. The micropolarity measurements have been performed to shed light on the locus of solubilization of the drug in pure and mixed micellar systems. The compatibility between CLZ and drug carriers (pluronics and SDC) was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Among the investigated systems, P84-SDC mixed system was found to be highly efficient for CLZ loading. The long term stability data indicated that CLZ loaded P84-SDC mixed micellar formulation remained stable for 3 months at room temperature. Further, it was revealed that the CLZ loaded P84-SDC mixed micelles are converted into CLZ loaded pure P84 micelles at 30-fold dilutions which remain stable up to 48-fold dilutions. The results from the present studies suggest that P84-SDC mixed micelles can serve as suitable delivery vehicles for hydrophobic drug CLZ.

  19. Solubilization and characterization of a novel tyrosine kinase from rat adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagaloff, K.A.; Czech, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the efficient solubilization and characterization of a Triton X-100 insoluble tyrosine kinase from rat adipocytes. Plasma membranes were prepared from rat epididymal fat pads and were solubilized in 1% Triton X-100. Following centrifugation, the pellet was solubilized for 15 min at 4 0 C using both ionic and non-ionic detergents. Tyrosine kinase activity was measured in the soluble and particulate fractions using the exogenous substrate poly(glu-tyr) in a TCA precipitation assay. Reactions were performed in 50mM Hepes, 10mM MgCl 2 and 100μM gamma[ 32 P]-ATP (10Ci/mmol) at 4 0 C with or without 1mg/ml of the polyaminoacid. Incorporation rates of 100 to 1000 pmol/min/mg were obtained, while endogenous [ 32 P] incorporation was typically less than 10% of that in the presence of poly(glu-tyr). More than 75% of the tyrosine kinase activity was recovered in the soluble supernatant using this assay methodology. The solubilized tyrosine kinase was found to require Mg 2+ or Mn 2+ but preferred Mg 2+ and was inhibited by high levels of Mn 2+ . Kinase activity was strongly inhibited by Ca 2+ (>50% at 1mM), NaCl (>50% at 250mM) and NH 4 SO 4 (>50% at 50mM) but was activated by 10μM heparin and 5mM dithiothreitol. These properties distinguish the solubilized tyrosine kinase from other cellular tyrosine kinases

  20. Microanatomical diversification of the zona pellucida in aplochelioid killifishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A W; Furness, A I; Stone, C; Rade, C M; Ortí, G

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates zona pellucida (ZP) ultrastructure in fertilized eggs of annual killifishes (suborder Aplocheiloidei), a group of highly specialized fishes that are able to survive desiccation for several weeks to months before they hatch. Little is known about ZP or chorionic ultrastructure sustaining these life-history modes, so scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe this trait in a large number of aplocheiloids with a focus on the family Rivulidae and the genus Hypsolebias. New images of ZP ultrastructure for 52 aplocheiloid species are provided, more than doubling the number characterized thus far. The evolution of chorionic structure within this group is studied using these new data. Characters were coded into a morphological matrix and optimized onto a consensus phylogeny to assess phylogenetic signal and reconstruct ancestral character states. Although ZP characters seem highly homoplastic and exhibit a large amount of structural convergence among lineages, aplocheiloid killifishes have evolved a number of unique structures associated with the chorion. Some annual species seem to have lost long filaments because eggs are deposited in the soil instead of being adhered to aquatic plants. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  2. Characterization of oocyte retrieval cycles with empty zona pellucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Hara, Tomomi; Ohta, Hiroko; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    To identify the factors that characterize cycles with empty zona pellucida (EZP). Thirty-six oocyte retrieval cycles from which EZP were collected and another 36 cycles from which no EZP was collected were compared. The patients were divided into three groups: those with no EZP collected during any cycle, those with EZP collected during all cycles, and those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP. The mean number of oocytes collected per cycle was higher in the cycles with EZP than without EZP. The fertilization rate of the collected oocytes and the rate of good embryo formation were significantly lower in the cycles with EZP. No significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of age, number of oocytes collected, or hormone levels before and after the oocyte retrieval. The fertilization and pregnancy rates were highest in the patients with no EZP being collected during any cycle, followed by those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP, and then by those with EZP collected during all cycles. The observation of lower fertilization, poor embryo formation, and a low pregnancy rate in the patients with EZP suggests the poor quality of oocytes that were collected with EZP in the same cycle.

  3. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  4. Optimized conditions for high-level solubilization and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NH Computers

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-50 column. The purified protein was refolded by .... blocking with BSA, the nitrocellulose membrane was processed using rabbit monoclonal antibody raised ..... recombinant human growth hormone using radial flow chromatography. Protein Exp. Purif., 68: 54-59.

  5. BACTERIAS NATIVAS SOLUBILIZADORES DE FOSFATOS PARA INCREMENTAR LOS CULTIVOS EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE CÓRDOBA-COLOMBIA BACTÉRIA NATIVO SOLUBILIZER DE FOSFATOS AO AUMENTO DAS COLHEITAS NO DEPARTAMENTO DE CORDOVA-COLÔMBIA NATIVE PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA TO INCREASE THE CROPS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORDOVA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA LARA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El oobjetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar y evaluar microorganismos nativos fosfato solubilizadores a partir de muestras de suelo en zona rural del departamento de Córdoba. Se realizó un aislamiento primario en medio SMRS1 en el cual se observó la aparición de halos de solubilización; al mismo tiempo se realizó una caracterización macroscópica y microscópica de las colonias. Se observó, como población predominante bacilos Gram negativos con un porcentaje del 93%. Se realizó el análisis cualitativo de la cepas instaladas en el medio NBRIP, en esta fase fueron seleccionadas las cepas que presentaran IS mayores de 3 mm. Las cepas seleccionadas por su capacidad fosfato solubilizadora fueron analizadas mediante el sistema API 20 E y API 20 NE. Las bacterias aisladas correspondieron a: Burkoldelia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea sp, Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter nakasaki. Burkoldelia cepacia fue el microorganismo con mayor capacidad fosfato solubilizadora y fue utilizado para realizar un pequeño ensayo en semillas de rábano (Rhapanus sativus. Se encontró que a una concentración de 10(8 UFC/mL los resultados fueron favorables en el crecimiento y en el peso fresco de la planta.0 objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar e avaliar nativa microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfato a partir de amostras do solo na área rural de Córdoba. Isolamento primário foi realizado no SMRS1 meio em que se observou o aparecimento de halos de solubilização, ao mesmo tempo, houve uma caracterização macroscópica e microscópica das colônias. Observou-se, como gram-negativos população bacilar predominante, a uma taxa de 93%. Foi realizada uma análise qualitativa das cepas isoladas NBRIP completados, nesta etapa foram selecionados para as estirpes que apresentaram maior do que 3 mm é cepas selecionadas por sua capacidade de solubilização foram analisados utilizando a API 20 E e API 20 NE. As bactérias isoladas foram

  6. Meningite a Herpes zoster num adolescente – uma complicação rara da zona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina S. Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A zona resulta da reativação do vírus varicela-zoster, latente na raíz dorsal dos gânglios sensitivos e nos gânglios dos nervos cranianos, após a resolução da varicela. Existem poucos estudos sobre as complicações da zona na população pediátrica. Enquanto que nos adultos está preconizada terapêutica antivírica específica contra o herpes zoster, nas crianças imunocompetentes o tratamento antivírico é questionável.Os adolescentes encontram-se entre estes dois grupos. O aciclovir é o único antivírico aprovado pela FDA para o tratamento da zona em crianças com menos de dois anos de idade. O valaciclovir, que apresenta uma maior biodisponibilidade, encontra-se aprovado como terapêutica contra a zona nos doentes entre os dois e os 17 anos. Descreve-se o caso de um adolescente, com zona, sem antecedentes patológicos de relevo, que sob terapêutica com aciclovir desenvolveu meningite a herpes-zoster. Questiona-se a abordagem clinica mais correta nos adolescentes imunocompetentes com zona.

  7. Response surface methodology for the optimization of sludge solubilization by ultrasonic pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingyue; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lu, Peng; Cao, Qiguang; Yuan, Yuan; Yue, Mingxing; Fu, Yiwei; Wu, Libin

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines the optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment conditions with response surface experimental design in terms of sludge disintegration efficiency (solubilisation of organic components). Ultrasonic pre-treatment for the maximum solubilization with residual sludge enhanced the SCOD release. Optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment was conducted through a Box-Behnken design (three variables, a total of 17 experiments) to determine the effects of three independent variables (power, residence time and TS) on COD solubilization of sludge. The optimal COD was obtained at 17349.4mg/L, when the power was 534.67W, the time was 10.77, and TS was 2%, while the SE of this condition was 28792J/kg TS.

  8. Expression of a mineral phosphate solubilizing gene from Erwinia herbicola in two rhizobacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Gonzalez, T; Selman, G

    2001-11-30

    A genetic construction was carried out using the broad host range vector pKT230 and plasmid pMCG898, which encodes the Erwinia herbicola pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) synthase, a gene involved in mineral phosphate solubilization (mps). The final construction was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli MC1061, and the recombinant plasmids were transferred to Burkholderia cepacia IS-16 and Pseudomonas sp. PSS recipient cells by conjugation. Clones containing recombinant plasmids produced higher clearing halos in plates with insoluble phosphate as the unique (P) source, in comparison with those of strains without plasmids, demonstrating the heterologous expression of the E. herbicola gene in the recipient strains. This genetic manipulation allowed the increase in mps ability of both strains, enhancing their potentialities as growth promoters of agricultural crops. These results represent the first report on the application of the recombinant DNA methodology for the obtaining of improved phosphate solubilizing ability from rhizobacterial strains for biofertilization purposes.

  9. Thermodynamic study on competitive solubilization of cholesterol and beta-sitosterol in bile salt micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Keisuke; Hirosawa, Takashi; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Shibata, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    Differences in the preferential solubilization of cholesterol and competitive solubilizates (beta-sitosterol and aromatic compounds) in bile salt micelles was systematically studied by changing the molar ratio of cholesterol to competitive solubilizates. The cholesterol solubility in a mixed binary system (cholesterol and beta-sitosterol) was almost half that of the cholesterol alone system, regardless of the excess beta-sitosterol quantity added. On the other hand, the mutual solubilities of cholesterol and pyrene were not inhibited by their presence in binary mixed crystals. Finally, the cholesterol solubility was measured by changing the alkyl chain length of n-alkylbenzenes. When tetradecylbenzene was added to the bile solution, the cholesterol solubility decreased slightly and was below the original cholesterol solubility. Based on Gibbs energy change (DeltaG degrees ) for solubilization, chemicals that inhibit cholesterol solubility in their combined crystal systems showed a larger negative DeltaG degrees value than cholesterol alone.

  10. β-Cyclodextrin-dextran polymers for the solubilization of poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Nielsen, Thorbjørn Terndrup; Lambertsen Larsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the potential of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dextran polymers for drug delivery, in terms of molecular mass, the complexation reaction mechanism using a model drug, and solubilization efficiency for examples of poorly soluble model drugs. For this purpose size analysis...... of different β-CD-dextrans was carried out by both size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and flow field-flow fractionation (FFF). All investigated polymers were of appropriate sizes for potential parenteral administration. Mass/mass percentage ratio between β-CD units and dextran backbones where measured by both...... of solubilization efficiencies, phase-solubility diagrams where made employing two poorly soluble model drugs, one dissociating (ibuprofen, IBP) and one pH independent (hydrocortisone, HC). Thermodynamic results demonstrated that the presence of the dextran-back bone structure improves complexation efficiency...

  11. Influence of biochar application on potassium-solubilizing Bacillus mucilaginosus as potential biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sainan; Tang, Wenzhu; Yang, Fan; Meng, Jun; Chen, Wenfu; Li, Xianzhen

    2017-01-02

    Biochar can enhance soil fertility to increase agricultural productivity, whereas its improvement in soil microbial activity is still unclear. In this article, the influence of biochar on the cell growth and the potassium-solubilizing activity of Bacillus mucilaginosus AS1153 was examined. The impact on cell growth is related to the biochar-derived feedstocks and the particle size of biochar. Both intrinsic features and inner component fraction can promote the cell growth of B. mucilaginosus AS1153. The potassium-solubilizing activity was increased by 80% when B. mucilaginosus was incubated in conjunction with the biochar derived from corn stover. The survival time of B. mucilaginosus also was prolonged by adsorption in biochar. The experimental results suggested that the biochar containing B. mucilaginosus could be used as a potential biofertilizer to sustain crop production.

  12. Synthesis of Some New Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Evaluation of their Surface properties and Solubilization Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, D.A.; Mohamed, A.S.; Mohamed, M.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Four cationic surfactants were prepared by condensing fatty acid methyl diethanolamine derivatives (C 6 , C I0 , C I2 , C I8 ) with stoichiometric amounts of trimethyl chlorosilane. The surface properties and parameters were investigated to find the relationship between the structure of the hydrophobic portion of such compounds and their efficiency toward solubilization. The properties studied included surface excess concentration (Γ m ax), critical micelle concentration (cmc). free energy of micellization (ΔG ο m ic) and adsorption (ΔG ο a ds) in addition to the surface tension (γ c mc) at cmc and effectiveness (Π c mc). The values of Γ m ax, ΔG ο mic and ΔG ο a ds were found to increase with increasing number of chain length. while cmc and minimum surface area occupied by one molecule (A m in) were decreased. Solubilization effect of these surfactants on paraffin oil as a non polar solubilizate and biodegradability were studied

  13. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    that of the microbial phytases. No increases in soluble cadmium, lead or arsenic were observed with microbial phytase-catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation. CONCLUSION Microbial phytase treatment abated phytate chelation hence enhanced the release of iron and zinc from the phytate-rich cereals at the simulated gastric......BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri- to hexakisphosphate (InsP3-6) degradation and iron and zinc release...... cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...

  14. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Rana, Rohini; Gotfryd, Kamil; Chandra, Richa; Goren, Michael A.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Nurva, Shailika; Loland, Claus J.; Pierre, Yves; Drew, David; Popot, Jean-Luc; Picot, Daniel; Fox, Brian G.; Guan, Lan

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces displayed by native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each of which is built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from...

  15. Sucrose dependent mineral phosphate solubilization in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 by heterologous overexpression of periplasmic invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chanchal; Wagh, Jitendra; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2016-12-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 solubilizes mineral phosphates in the presence of glucose by the secretion of gluconic acid generated by the action of a periplasmic pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase. In order to achieve mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype in the presence of sucrose, plasmids pCNK4 and pCNK5 containing genes encoding the invertase enzyme of Zymomonas mobilis (invB) and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (suc2) under constitutive promoters were constructed with malE signal sequence (in case of invB alone as the suc2 is secreted natively). When introduced into E. asburiae PSI3, E. a. (pCNK4) and E. a. (pCNK5) transformants secreted 21.65 ± 0.94 and 22 ± 1.3 mM gluconic acid, respectively, in the presence of 75 mM sucrose and they also solubilized 180 ± 4.3 and 438 ± 7.3 µM P from the rock phosphate. In the presence of a mixture of 50 mM sucrose and 25 mM glucose, E. a. (pCNK5) secreted 34 ± 2.3 mM gluconic acid and released 479 ± 8.1 µM P. Moreover, in the presence of a mixture of eight sugars (10 mM each) in the medium, E. a. (pCNK5) released 414 ± 5.3 µM P in the buffered medium. Thus, this study demonstrates incorporation of periplasmic invertase imparted P solubilization ability to E. asburiae PSI3 in the presence of sucrose and mixture of sugars.

  16. Nanolipoprotein particles and related methods and systems for protein capture, solubilization, and/or purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chromy, Brett A.; Henderson, Paul; Hoeprich, Jr, Paul D.

    2016-10-04

    Provided herein are methods and systems for assembling, solubilizing and/or purifying a membrane associated protein in a nanolipoprotein particle, which comprise a temperature transition cycle performed in presence of a detergent, wherein during the temperature transition cycle the nanolipoprotein components are brought to a temperature above and below the gel to liquid crystalling transition temperature of the membrane forming lipid of the nanolipoprotein particle.

  17. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  18. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SUGARCANE-ASSOCIATED DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA CAPABLE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Cadete, Luana; Barbosa de Farias, Andreza Raquel; de Souza Ramos, Andresa Priscila; da Costa, Diogo Paes; Freire, Fernando Jose; Kuklinsky-Sobral, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane is a culture of great importance for the Brazilian agriculture. Every year this culture consumes great amounts of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. However, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria can reduce the use of the chemical fertilizers, contributing to the economy and the environment conservation. So, the goal of this study was to select sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to evaluate the genetic diversity of these b...

  19. β-Cyclodextrin-dextran polymers for the solubilization of poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Massimiliano; Terndrup Nielsen, Thorbjørn; Lambertsen Larsen, Kim; Kuntsche, Judith; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of novel β-cyclodextrin (βCD)-dextran polymers for drug delivery. The size distribution of βCD-dextrans (for eventual parenteral administration), the influence of the dextran backbones on the stability of the βCD/drug complex, the solubilization efficiency of poorly soluble drugs and drug release properties were investigated. Size analysis of different βCD-dextrans was measured by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Stability of drug/βCD-dextrans was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molar enthalpies of complexation and equilibrium constants compared to some commercially available βCD derivatives. For evaluation of the solubilization efficiency, phase-solubility diagrams were made employing hydrocortisone (HC) as a model of poorly soluble drugs, whereas reverse dialysis was used to detect potential drug supersaturation (increased molecularly dissolved drug concentration) as well as controlled release effects. Results indicate that all investigated βCD-polymers are of appropriate sizes for parenteral administration. Thermodynamic results demonstrate that the presence of the dextran backbone structure does not affect the stability of the βCD/drug complex, compared to native βCD and commercially available derivatives. Solubility studies evidence higher solubilizing abilities of these new polymers in comparison to commercially available βCDs, but no supersaturation states were induced. Moreover, drug release studies evidenced that diffusion of HC was influenced by the solubilization induced by the βCD-derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Test of Lignin and Cellulose Decomposition and Phosphate Solubilization by Soil Fungi of Gunung Halimun

    OpenAIRE

    Suciatmih, Suciatmih

    2001-01-01

    In order to know the capability of lignin and cellulose degradation and phosphate solubilization by soil fungi of Gunung Halimun National Park, a study was carried out to qualitatively analyse its physiological properties. Out of 35 soil fungi tested, 1 species that belonged to Basidiomycetes degraded lignin, 32 species degraded cellulose, and 31 species dissolved inorganic phosphate.The presence of soil fungi that degraded cellulose and dissolved phosphate could be used as a candidate for bi...

  1. Measuring chlorophyll a and 14C-labeled photosynthate in aquatic angiosperms by the use of a tissue solubilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, S.; Stewart, A.J.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    A compound that quantitatively correlated with chlorophyll a could be measured fluorometrically in the extracts of leaves of three aquatic angiosperms (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx., Potamogeton crispus L., Elodea canadensis Michx.) treated with the tissue solubilizer BTS-450. Fluorescent characteristics of the solubilized plant tissues were stable for several weeks in the dark at temperatures up to 60 0 C but rapidly degraded in sunlight or when acidified. 14 C-Labeled photosynthate, which had been fixed by leaf discs during 1- to 10-hour exposure to H 14 CO 3 , was also readily extracted by the tissue solubilizer. Solubilizer extraction can, therefore, be use to determine both chlorophyll a content and 14 C incorporation rates in the same leaf sample. The method is practical, because no grinding is required, the fluorescent characteristics of the extracts are stable, and analyses can be performed with very little plant material

  2. Different strategies of fungi to solubilize coal: a comparison of the deutermycetes Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Ludwig, S.; Moenkemann, H.; Scheel, T.; Hoefer, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    1997-12-31

    Four different mechanisms can be envisaged which are used by microorganisms to solubilize coal: the production of alkaline substances, the extrusion of chelators, the action of biotensides, and of special interest in terms of biotechnology, the action of enzymes. Whether these mechanisms are operating seperately or in varying combinations has not yet been settled. The two deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma altroviride solubilize coal by synergistic effects of different mechanisms depending on the cell metabolism. F. oxysporum seems to solubilize coal by increasing the pH of the mycelial surroundings and by the action of chelators induced during growth in glutamate containing media (without involvement of enzymes). T. atroviride, on the other hand, appears to use, in addition to an alkaline pH and a high chelator activity, at least two classes of enzymes to attack coal: hydrolytic activity for coal solubilization and ligninolytic activity for degradation of humic acids. (orig.)

  3. Identification of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in a Andisol of Colombian coffee region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adolfo Cisneros Rojas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for coffee growing, however, in Colombia most of the soils have low concentrations of this element. A strategy to supply the demand is the use of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM, in that order, 26 rhizospheric bacteria of Typic melanudans soil of Cajibío (Cauca, Colombia were isolated, in three agroecosystems: coffee at full sun exposure, coffee with shade and relic secondary forest, evaluating the phosphate solubilizing efficiency (PSE for Ca-P, Al-P, Fe-P in the solid and liquid Pikovskaya media. It showed the following solubilization sequence: Ca-P> Al-P> Fe-P. Two isolated bacteria were identified by DNA extraction and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene as Kocuria sp, and Bacillus subtilis. Later, using HPLC were identified organic acids present in the three phosphorus sources as: citric, gluconic, D- and L-malic, D- and L-lactic acid with higher presence in Ca-P-Kocuria sp. Strong acidification was observed for Fe-P and Al-P in all conditions.

  4. Comparison of solubilized and purified plasma membrane and nuclear insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.Y.; Hawley, D.; Vigneri, R.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    Prior studies have detected biochemical and immunological differences between insulin receptors in plasma membranes and isolated nuclei. To further investigate these receptors, they were solubilized in Triton X-100 partially purified by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose chromatography. In these preparations, the nuclear and plasma membrane receptors had very similar pH optima (pH 8.0) and reactivities to a group of polyclonal antireceptor antibodies. Further, both membrane preparations had identical binding activities when labeled insulin was competed for by unlabeled insulin (50% inhibition at 800 pM). Next, nuclear and plasma membranes were solubilized and purified to homogeneity by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose and insulin-agarose chromatography. In both receptors, labeled insulin was covalently cross-linked to a protein of 130 kilodaltons representing the insulin receptor α subunit. When preparations of both receptors were incubated with insulin and then adenosine 5'-[γ- 32 P]triphosphate, a protein of 95 kilodaltons representing the insulin receptor β subunit was phosphorylated in a dose-dependent manner. These studies indicate, therefore, that solubilized plasma membrane and nuclear insulin receptors have similar structures and biochemical properties, and they suggest that they are the same (or very similar) proteins

  5. Water solubilization capacity of pharmaceutical microemulsions based on Peceol®, lecithin and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Abdelkader; Diat, Olivier; Lerner, Dan Alain; El Ghzaoui, Abdeslam; Ajovalasit, Alessia; Dorandeu, Christophe; Maurel, Jean-Claude; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Legrand, Philippe

    2014-11-20

    Biocompatible microemulsions composed of Peceol(®), lecithin, ethanol and water developed for encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs were investigated. The binary mixture Peceol(®)/ethanol was studied first. It was shown that the addition of ethanol to pure Peceol(®) has a significant fluidifying and disordering effect on the Peceol(®) supramolecular structure with an enhancement in water solubilization. The water solubilization capacity was improved by adding lecithin as a third component. It was then demonstrated that the ethanol/lecithin weight ratio played an important role in determining the optimal composition in term of water solubilization efficiency, a necessary property for a nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application. The optimal ethanol/lecithin weight ratio in the Peceol(®) rich region was found to be 40/60. Combination different techniques such as SAXS, fluorimetry, rheology and conductivity, we analyzed the water uptake within the microemulsion taking into account the partitioning of ethanol between polar and apolar domains. This ethanol distribution quantified along a water dilution line has a major effect on microemulsion properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep Eutectic Solvent Aqueous Solutions as Efficient Media for the Solubilization of Hardwood Xylans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Eduarda S; Mendonça, Patrícia V; Coelho, Jorge F J; Freire, Mara G; Freire, Carmen S R; Coutinho, João A P; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2018-02-22

    This work contributes to the development of integrated lignocellulosic-based biorefineries by the pioneering exploitation of hardwood xylans by solubilization and extraction in deep eutectic solvents (DES). DES formed by choline chloride and urea or acetic acid were initially evaluated as solvents for commercial xylan as a model compound. The effects of temperature, molar ratio, and concentration of the DES aqueous solutions were evaluated and optimized by using a response surface methodology. The results obtained demonstrated the potential of these solvents, with 328.23 g L -1 of xylan solubilization using 66.7 wt % DES in water at 80 °C. Furthermore, xylans could be recovered by precipitation from the DES aqueous media in yields above 90 %. The detailed characterization of the xylans recovered after solubilization in aqueous DES demonstrated that 4-O-methyl groups were eliminated from the 4-O-methylglucuronic acids moieties and uronic acids (15 %) were cleaved from the xylan backbone during this process. The similar M w values of both pristine and recovered xylans confirmed the success of the reported procedure. DES recovery in four additional extraction cycles was also demonstrated. Finally, the successful extraction of xylans from Eucalyptus globulus wood by using aqueous solutions of DES was demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Deng

    Full Text Available Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.. The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase ( 45% water along the dilution line.

  8. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  9. Solubilization of trace organics in block copolymer micelles for environmental separation using membrane extraction principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The solubilization of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in block copolymer micelles has been studied as a function of polymer composition, architecture, and temperature. Micelle formation is favored at high temperatures, leading to significant enhancements in solubilization capacity. At low temperatures, however, micelles do not form and the solubilization capacity of the block copolymer solution for the organics is low; this provides a convenient method for the regeneration of micellar solutions used as solvents'' in the treatment of contaminated feed streams using membrane extraction principles. It has also been shown (in collaboration with K.P. Johnston of University of Texas, Austin) that supercritical CO[sub 2] can be used effectively for micelle regeneration. Theoretical calculations of the structure of block copolymer micelles in the presence and absence of solutes using self-consistent mean-field lattice theories have successfully captured the trends observed with changing polymer composition and architecture, often quantitatively. The temperature and composition dependence of the micellar properties were determined by allowing the individual polymer segments to assume both polar and non-polar conformations.

  10. Salud Sexual y Reproductiva, en Zonas Marginadas de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rueda González

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PROFAMILIA siempre preocupada por los problemas sociales del país y con apoyo de la Agencia Internacional para el Desarrollo de los Estados Unidos realizó una investigación del más alto nivel que se enfocó primordialmente a la población de desplazados.

    Por ello consideramos de gran importancia divulgar a través de esta respetable revista las conclusiones de este interesante trabajo denominado “Salud sexual y reproductiva en zonas marginadas. Situación de las mujeres desplazadas” en Colombia.

    Situación de las mujeres desplazadas

    Características de la población

    En los hogares entrevistados, la mayor proporción (73% de los jefes de hogar son hombres, el 27% tiene jefatura femenina. Los menores de 15 años representan el 46% de la población de los hogares entrevistados; los adolescentes de 13 a 19 años comprenden el 14% y las mujeres en edad fértil (15-49 años, el 24.2 de la población de los hogares entrevistados. El número promedio de personas por hogar es 4.9.

    El 21% de los habitantes mayores de 6 años no ha tenido acceso a la educación formal, el 57% ha aprobado algún curso de primaria, el 21% alguno de secundaria y menos del 1% aprobó algún año de universidad. Es mayor la proporción de hombres sin educación que la de mujeres.

    El 56% de la población en los hogares entrevistados está afiliada al sistema general de seguridad en salud, en su mayor proporción (28% a Administradoras del Régimen Subsidiado y en segundo orden como vinculadas (20% al mismo régimen subsidiado; sólo un 8% de las personas pertenece al régimen contributivo...

  11. [Filamentous and phosphate solubilizing fungi relationships with some edaphic parameters and coffee plantations management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Raúl Hernando; Sánchez de Prager, Marina; Sieverding, Ewald; Aguilar Dorantes, Karla; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Soil properties and the environment have multiple outcomes on fungal communities. Although, the interaction effects between management intensity, pH, available phosphorus, organic carbon, soil texture and different fractions of water stable macro-aggregates on the communities of microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF), iron phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-Fe), and iron and calcium phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-(Fe+Ca)), have been previously evaluated in field conditions, this has never been performed in terms of their combined effects, neither with phosphate solubilizing fungi. To assess this, we collected 40 composite soil samples from eight Mexican and Colombian coffee plantations, with different management intensities and physico-chemical edaphic parameters, during 2008-2009. We isolated different communities of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca), by wet sieving and soil particles culture in Potato-Dextrose-Agar from soil samples, and we classified isolates in terms of their phosphate solubilizing ability. Following the principal component analysis results, we decided to analyze fungal communities and abiotic factors interactions for each country separately. Structural Equation Models revealed that organic carbon was positively associated to MFF richness and number of isolates (lambda>0.58), but its relationship with PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were variable; while the available phosphorus, pH and water stable macro-aggregate fractions did not show a clear pattern. Management intensity was negatively related to PSF-Fe (lambda coffee plantations. We found that the relationships of clay and organic carbon content, and available phosphorus and soil pH, with the species richness and number of isolates of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were highly variable; this made impossible to generalize the responses between saprotrophic fungal groups and geographic zones. The management intensity was not related to species richness and number of isolates of MFF in any coffee areas, while

  12. LA FRECUENCIA DEL USO DEL USTED EN TRES ZONAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Son Jang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan algunos resultados de una investigación sobre la selección pronominal acerca del uso del usted, llevada a cabo en tres municipios del departamento colombiano de Antioquia: la ciudad de Medellín (zona urbana; Carmen de Viboral (zona semirrural, y Andes (zona rural. La población estudiada está constituida por los informantes de edades entre 13 y 34 años. La variable social para este artículo es el lugar de la vivienda de los informantes (zona urbana, semirrural o rural. Para llevar a cabo la investigación, se aplicó un cuestionario, en el cual aparecen distintos tipos interaccionales, a los informantes en las zonas mencionadas; se obtuvieron 1940 informantes. La estadística muestra que, en la gran mayoría de relaciones interpersonales, en Andes se usa más el usted que en Carmen de Viboral y, en este último municipio, más que en Medellín.

  13. Biomolecule screening for efficient attachment of biofunctionalized microparticles to the zona pellucida of mammalian oocytes and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Sergio; Ibáñez, Elena; Barrios, Leonardo; Castell, Onofre; Nogués, Carme

    2013-10-01

    Individual tagging of oocytes and embryos through the attachment of micrometer-sized polysilicon barcodes to their zona pellucida (ZP) is a promising approach to ensure their correct identification and traceability in human assisted reproduction and in animal production programs. To provide barcodes with the capacity of binding to the ZP, they must be first biofunctionalized with a biomolecule capable of binding to the ZP of both oocytes and embryos. The aim of this work was to select, among an anti-ZP2 antibody and the two lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and phytohemagglutinin-L, the most optimal biomolecule for the eventual biofunctionalization of barcodes, using mouse oocytes and embryos and commercially available microspheres as a model. Despite the anti-ZP2 antibody showed the highest number of binding sites onto the ZP surface, as determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, the binding of anti-ZP2-biofunctionalized microspheres to the ZP of cultured oocytes and embryos was less robust and less stable than the binding of lectin-biofunctionalized ones. WGA proved to be, among the three candidates tested, the most appropriate biomolecule to biofunctionalize microparticles with the aim to attach them to the ZP of both oocytes and embryos and to maintain them attached through oocyte activation (zona reaction) and in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. As saccharides recognized by WGA are highly abundant in the ZP of most mammalian species, WGA-biofuncionalized microparticles would be able to attach to the ZP of oocytes/embryos of species other than the mouse, such as humans and farm animals.

  14. Desarrollo social como estrategia para el impulso de las organizaciones humanas en las zonas portuarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Urdaneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es sintetizar los aspectos fundamentales de las cuatro grandes teorías del desarrollo de las organizaciones en zonas portuarias, las cuales son: modernización, dependencia, sistemas mundiales y globalización. Éstas son las principales explicaciones teóricas que permiten interpretar esfuerzos para el desarrollo social realizado por grupos sociales, especialmente por aquellos que se encuentran en la búsqueda de estrategias que permitan impulsar la activad portuaria. Desde estas perspectivas teóricas que admiten no sólo aclarar conceptos y ponerlos en disposición, sino también identificar recomendaciones relacionadas con políticas portuarias, las cuales, según el término, se entiende él como una condición social dentro de un país, en la cual las necesidades auténticas de su población se satisfacen con el uso racional y sostenible de recursos y sistemas naturales. La utilización de los recursos está basada en la tecnología que respeta los aspectos culturales y los derechos humanos. Esta definición general de desarrollo incluye la especificación de las organizaciones que tienen la finalidad de integrar los servicios básicos dentro del marco social, cultural y económico en particular de un estado-nación. En términos económicos, la aclaración mencionada anteriormente indica que para la población de un país existen oportunidades de empleo, satisfacción de por lo menos las necesidades básicas, y una tasa positiva de distribución y redistribución de la riqueza nacional. En el sentido político, esta definición enfatiza que los sistemas de gobierno tienen legitimidad legal para proporcionar bienestar y equidad en términos de beneficios sociales para la mayoría de aquellas poblaciones cercanas a los puertos.Palabras Clave: Desarrollo social; estrategias; organizaciones humanas y zonas portuarias. Social development strategy for the pull ups of human organization in harbor zone

  15. Karakter Geoarkeologis dan Proses Budaya Prasejarah Zona Poros Ponjong – Rongkop di Blok Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwo Susetyo Edy Yuwono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di Zona Poros Ponjong - Rongkop, yaitu bagian dari Blok Tengah Gunungsewu di Pegunungan Selatan Jawa, yang posisinya diapit oleh dua depresi bekas danau purba, yaitu Ledok Wonosari dan Ledok Baturetno. Morfologinya berupa punggungan perbukitan karst berarah utara-selatan antara daerah Ponjong dan Rong-kop, membentuk semacam poros hampir tegak lurus terhadap bentangan umum Gunungsewu. Bagian paling utara ber-batasan dengan pegunungan non-karst dan memiliki topografi tertinggi di Blok Tengah Gunungsewu, sehingga menjadi wilayah hulu bagi sungai-sungai bawahtanah di Gunungkidul. Melalui beberapa survei ditemukan sejumlah 56 gua yang memiliki potensi arkeologis, tujuh di antaranya sudah diekskavasi dan terbukti menyimpan jejak-jejak hunian prase-jarah dari Kala Pleistosen Akhir - Holosen Awal. Pendekatan geoarkeologis sebagai studi gabungan antara arkeologi dan geomorfologi, dilakukan untuk membangun model-model integral mengenai hubungan sistematik antara manusia dengan bentanglahan karst Gunungsewu di area penelitian. Dua hal yang menjadi tujuan utama penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, menjelaskan karakter geoarkeologis Zona Poros Ponjong - Rongkop sebagai perpaduan antara aspek-aspek geomorfologis (morfologi, morfogenesis, morfokronologi, dan morfoaransemen dan aspek-aspek arkeologis (distri-busi gua dan potensi arkeologisnya. Tujuan ini dicapai melalui penilaian dan pemetaan distribusi potensi gua sebagai situs arkeologis, kemudian menganalisis hubungannya dengan aspek-aspek geomorfologis setempat. Kedua, menjelas-kan proses budaya prasejarah, yaitu bentuk dinamis dari budaya penghunian gua beserta faktor-faktor yang mempen-garuhinya. Metode untuk mencapai tujuan ini adalah dengan menganalisis konteks data arkeologis dan stratigrafi lantai gua yang pernah diekskavasi. Sintesis kajian atas kedua capaian tujuan ini memberikan penjelasan integral atas karakter geoarkeologis dan proses budaya prasejarah di area

  16. Micro-emulsification/encapsulation of krill oil by complex coacervation with krill protein isolated using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liu; Beamer, Sarah K; Yang, Hong; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2018-04-01

    This study determined feasibility of krill protein isolated with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) as wall material to microencapsulate krill oil by freeze-drying. Effects of krill oil/krill protein ratio on properties of microcapsules were investigated. With increased ratio, crude protein of microcapsules decreased, while total lipid increased. Although microcapsule oil loading capacity increased, loading and encapsulation efficiencies decreased. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) confirmed abundance of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic; and thus, resulted in stable emulsion (emulsion stability index). Microcapsules contained ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at 43-60, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at 28-41 and 9-11 g/100g of total FAs, respectively. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed proteolysis of ISP krill protein, probably causing reduced loading and encapsulation efficiencies. SEM showed that krill oil/krill protein ratio affected surface microstructure. ISP krill protein showed potential as a wall material to microencapsulate krill oil; and thus, expand application of krill oil/protein for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Airfuge centrifugation procedure for the measurement of ligand binding to membrane-associated and detergent-solubilized plasma membrane receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, E L.F.; Perdue, J F [Lady Davis Institute, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    1980-10-01

    A method is described in which high-speed centrifugation of membranes through an oil phase is used to separate membrane-bound and detergent-solubilized polypeptide receptor-iodinated ligand complexes from unbound ligands. Three centrifuges, the Brinkmann Eppendorf (5412), the Beckman Microfuge B and the Beckman Airfuge were evaluated for this capability. Under the conditions described, the Beckman Airfuge surpassed the others in recovering previously /sup 125/I- and /sup 32/P-labelled cell membranes. The Airfuge method was compared with the more classically employed membrane filtration method to measure specific (/sup 125/I)insulin and (/sup 125/I)thrombin binding to human placental membranes and an enriched plasma membrane fraction from mouse embryo fibroblasts, respectively, and found to be 4 to 5 times more sensitive. For example, specific binding of ligand to its receptor was demonstrated with 5 ..mu..g of protein. With slight modifications, the polyethyleneglycol 6000 method of precipitating /sup 125/I-labelled ligand-soluble receptor complexes can be adapted to the Airfuge sedimentation through oil procedure.

  18. The geohistorical formation of zona da mata, Minas Gerais State – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mergarejo Netto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais spreads throughout an area equivalent to 6,09% of the State, with a population of 2,029,168 inhabitants, distributed through 142 municipalities, of which 70,23% have less than 10.000 inhabitants and low levels of urbanization. Nowadays, the economy is equivalent to 8,37% of the State’s GDP and approximately 11% of the population. Zona da Mata displays low per capita income, and an economic performance that falls short to its great potentials. Besides, the ongoing economic stagnation together with the lowering of quality of life indexes have exacerbated intra-regional discrepancies. This work explores the geohitory of Zona da Mata Region of Minas Gerais, seeking for historical determinants of current socioeconomic conditions.

  19. A new method for culture of zona-included or zona-free embryos: the Well of the Well (WOW) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gabor; Peura, T T; Holm, Peter

    2000-01-01

    (WOW) system. Small wells (WOWs) were formed in four-well dishes by melting the bottom with heated steel rods. The WOWs were then rinsed, the wells were filled with medium, and the embryos were placed into the WOWs. To test the value of the WOW system a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was performed. Bovine......Culture of mammalian zygotes individually and in small groups results in lower developmental rates than culture of large groups. Zona-free zygotes also have impaired developmental potential in current culture systems. This paper describes a new approach to resolve the problems, the Well of the Well...... embryos cultured in 400 microl medium. The WOW system resulted in higher blastocyst/oocyte rates for all three modules (single: 59 group of five: 61 single zona-digested: 53 than the culture in drops or in wells (P well...

  20. Zona costeira açoreana tem 7 milhões de anos.

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, João

    2005-01-01

    O director do Departamento de Biologia da Universidade dos Açores, em entrevista ao "Correio dos Açores", refere que as ilhas açorianas tem na zona costeira uma verdadeira fronteira entre o mundo terrestre e o mundo marinho, representando um dos ecossistemas mais ricos do arquipélago. Mas esta zona, com cinco a sete milhões de anos, está mal descrita e incompletamente conhecida, sendo o meio mais transformado por numerosos factores inerentes à presença do Homem. Segundo adianta, o...

  1. Hidrología de la zona vadosa en la terraza de Llanogrande (Rionegro – Antioquia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tobón, Jorge Iván

    2003-01-01

    La zona de Llanogrande es una región fundamental en el desarrollo de Antioquia y es la de más rápido crecimiento poblacional, comercial e industrial del Departamento. Esto hace que se demande grandes cantidades de agua, siendo la subterránea una de las principales fuentes actuales y hacia el futuro. Con este trabajo se pretende aportar al conocimiento de la dinámica del agua en la zona vadosa de la Terraza de Llanogrande (Rionegro – Antioquia), a partir de las propiedades físicas e hidrául...

  2. Trastornos Asociados a la Deficiencia de Yodo. Vigilancia permanente es deficitaria en zonas vulnerables

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Vargas-Uricoechea; Carlos Hernán Sierra-Torres; Claudia Milena Holguín Betancourt; Laura Cristancho Torres

    2012-01-01

    Los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (DDY) son uno de los mayores problemas en salud pública en el mundo actual, en especial en niños y embarazadas. Estos trastornos truncan el desarrollo socioeconómico en aquellas zonas que los padecen; las poblaciones que viven en zonas yodo-deficientes siempre van a estar expuestas a sufrir las consecuencias originadas por esta deficiencia, en especial el aumento en la mortalidad perinatal, retardo mental, alteraciones en la síntesis de hormonas tiroide...

  3. Levantamiento topográfico zona calle Pedro Martín Zermeño

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcaíno Cortés, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de dicho proyecto es la realización de un levantamiento topográfico de dicha zona de la ciudad de Cartagena y el correspondiente plano topográfico, parte de la necesidad de actualizar un plano realizado por la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia ya que el actual se encuentra obsoleto. Mediante este proyecto fin de carrera se pretende llevar a cabo la realización de un plano a escala 1/500 de la zona. Haremos una modernización de la cartografía además de incluir los cambios realizados por...

  4. Effects of acrolein on aldosterone release from zona glomerulosa cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Lee; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lai, Wei-Ho; Idova, Galina; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    A positive correlation between smoking and hypertension has been well established. Acrolein is a major toxic volatile compound found in cigarette smoke. Human exposure to low levels of acrolein is unavoidable due to its production in daily activities, such as smoke from industrial, hot oil cooking vapors, and exhaust fumes from vehicles. The toxicity and the action mechanism of acrolein to induce apoptosis have been extensively studied, but the effects of acrolein on hypertension are still unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acrolein on aldosterone release both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were divided into three groups, and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, or acrolein (2mg/kg) for 1 (group A-1) or 3 (group A-3) days, respectively. After sacrificing, rat blood samples were obtained to measure plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were prepared from rat adrenal cortex, and were incubated with or without stimulants. We found that the serum aldosterone was increased by 1.2-fold (pacrolein enhanced the stimulatory effects of Ang II and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells prepared in both A-1 and A-3 groups. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of P450scc, the rate-limiting step of aldosterone synthesis, was elevated after acrolein injection. Plasma level of Ang II was increased in both A-1 and A-3 groups. These results suggested that acrolein exposure increased aldosterone production, at least in part, through elevating the level of plasma Ang II and stimulating steroidogenesis pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Liu, X.; Cheng, B.S.; Ma, X.L.; Lyu, X.; Zhao, X.; Ju, Y.; Min, Z.; Fang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA), and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai) and JY22 (B. aryabhattai) were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  6. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Liu, X.; Cheng, B.S.; Ma, X.L.; Lyu, X.; Zhao, X.; Ju, Y.; Min, Z.; Fang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA), and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai) and JY22 (B. aryabhattai) were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  7. Phosphorus Solubilizing and Releasing Bacteria Screening from the Rhizosphere in a Natural Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic phosphorus (P-solubilizing bacteria (IPSB and organic P-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB were isolated from bacteria that were first extracted from the rhizosphere soil of a natural wetland and then grown on either tricalcium phosphate or lecithin medium. The solubilizing of inorganic P was the major contribution to P availability, since the isolated bacteria released much more available P from inorganic tricalcium phosphate than lecithin. IPSB No. 5 had the highest P release rate, that is, 0.53 mg·L−1·h−1 in 96 h, and R10′s release rate was 0.52 mg·L−1·h−1 in 10 days. The bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas knackmussii, respectively. R10 released as much as 125.88 mg·L−1 dissolved P from tricalcium phosphate medium, while R4 released the most dissolved P from organic P medium among the isolates, with a concentration of 1.88 mg·L−1 and a releasing rate of 0.0078 mg·L−1·h−1 in ten days. P releasing increased with a pH decrease only when it was from inorganic P, not organic lecithin, and there was no significant correlation between the culture pH and P solubilizing. High-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the dominant phylum in the studied wetland rhizosphere consisted of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi, accounting for 34.9%, 34.2%, 8.8% and 4.8%, respectively.

  8. Isolation, Characterization, and Molecular Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Several Tropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrizal Hazra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: (i to isolate and characterize of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and (ii to identify PSB based on molecular amplification of 16S rRNA gene. Soil samples were collected from rhizosphere in Bogor, West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara. Several stages in this research were: (i isolation PSB in Pikovskaya agar, (ii morphological and biochemical characterization of PSB, (iii measurement of phosphatase enzymes, and (iv measurement of secreting indole acetic acid phytohormone. As many as 29 isolates of PSB have been collected and three isolates of them, namely: P 3.5 (East Nusa Tenggara, P 6.2 (West Nusa Tenggara, and P 10.1 (Citeureup, West Java were chosen for further study. There were many characteristics of isolate P 10.1: (i it had capable to solubilize P with the value of highest solubilization index (1.80, (ii it had the highest phosphatase enzyme (120.40 mg kg-1, and (iii it had the highest pH decrease at each observation for six days. Isolates P 3.5 and P 10.1 were the Gram-negative bacteria with coccus shapes and isolate P 6.2 was a Gram-negative bacteria with bacillus shape. Deoxiribonucleat Acid (DNA amplification of these bacteria employing 16S rRNA primers generated the 1,300bp-PCR product. The results of the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolates P 3.5 and P 10.1 has 98% similarity with Gluconacetobacter sp. strains Rg1-MS-CO and isolate P 6.2 has 97% similarity with Enterobacter sp. pp9c strains.

  9. Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

  10. Characterization and bioremediation potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from tunisian phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifi, Houda

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is often limited in agricultural soils. In this work, two bacteria were isolated from Tunisian phosphogypsum (PG). These ones have the capacity to dissolve inorganic phosphate (CaHPO 4 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ). This capacity is determined by the clear halo formation around colonies in NBRIP agar medium. To confirm the solubilization phenotype, the concentration of solubilized phosphate by isolates cultivated in NBRIP broth containing PG was measured. These two bacteria noted BRM17 and BRM18 are identified as Pantoea sp. and Pseudomonas sp, respectively. The results show that BRM17 solubilizes about 2 times more phosphate in broth NBRIP medium after 48 hours of incubation than BRM18. Tunisian phosphogypsum contains 1100 ppm of strontium (Sr). Sr toxicity on bacteria was determined by concentration that gives half-maximal inhibition of bacteria (IC 50 ). Compared with Cupriavidus metallidurans (bacteria tolerant to most of heavy metals), BRM17 and BRM18 cultivated in broth medium containing increasing concentrations of Sr were found tolerant to Sr. The potential of bioremediation is tested by the rate evaluation of Sr adsorption by these bacteria. The results show the high ability of BRM18 to adsorb Sr. The resistance of isolates to ionizing radiation is also determined by the exposure of bacterial cultures to various doses of gamma radiation. BRM17 is considered radioresistant while BRM18 is radiosensitive. The effect on seed germination of wheat and pea inoculated with bacteria was tested. No positive effect was detected. This study is considered with the use of BRM17 and BRM18 in a bioremediation process and the improvement of phosphate uptake by plants cultivated in polluted environments.

  11. A standardized method for quantitating the complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Peterson, I; Svehag, S E

    1983-01-01

    was investigated in order to optimize the assay. The CVt of the standardized assay was 0.10-0.17 depending upon the CMSC level measured. Treatment which inactivates C factors (heating), interferes with C activation (EDTA) or activates and consumes C components (zymosan) markedly reduces the CMSC. Preliminary...

  12. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100°C within 1min of reaction. The optima for the two selected......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study...

  13. Comparison of Yeast Cell Protein Solubilization Procedures for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, A; Wildgruber, R; Nawrocki, A

    1999-01-01

    Three different procedures for the solubilization of yeast (S. cerevisiae) cell proteins were compared on the basis of the obtained two-dimensional (2-D) polypeptide patterns. Major emphasis was laid on minimizing handling steps, protein modification or degradation, and quantitative loss of high...... with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, consisting of 1% SDS and 100 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-HCl, pH 7.0, followed by dilution with "standard" lysis buffer, and (iii) boiling the sample with SDS during cell lysis, followed by dilution with thiourea/urea lysis buffer (2 M thiourea/ 7 M urea...

  14. Degradation/solubilization of Chinese lignite by Penicillium sp. P6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.L.; Yang, J.S.; Wang, F.Q.; Chen, W.X. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource and Application, Ministry of Agrio, College of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Penicillium sp. P6, isolated from coal mine soil at the Qiantong colliery Liaoning Province, Northeast China, can degrade Chinese lignite in 36 h on a plate colony and in 48 h using a 4-day cultured cell-free filtrate. Results of elemental analysis and IR spectrometry indicated that solubilized products exhibited some alterations in comparison to the original lignite. The amount of fulvic acid extracted from the biodegraded lignite was high, and the molecular distribution of the humic acids from biodegraded lignite changed distinctively in comparison to which extracted from the control lignite, possibly due to the depolymerization associated with fungal biodegradation.

  15. STUDI CAMPURAN SURFACTANT UNTUK MENENTUKAN FUNGSI SOLUBILIZER DAN FIXATIVE PADA INDUSTRI PARFUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Adli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas parfum  ditentukan oleh kejernihan dan longlasting parfum. Campuran surfaktan dapat meningkatkan kualitas parfum dengan biaya produksi yang murah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji rasio campuran surfaktan untuk menentukan fungsi solubilizer dan fixative. Bibit parfum yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah eugenol, surfaktan dengan fungsi solubilizer adalah portasol 40 dan tween 80 sedangkan surfaktan dengan fungsi fixative adalah glucam P20 dan patchouli alkohol. Rasio yang digunakan pada penelitian ini antara lain rasio glucam p20 : portasol (r G/P, rasio portasol 40 : tween 80 (r P/T dan rasio glucam P20 : patchouli alkohol (r G/PA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan campuran surfaktan dapat meningkatkan kejernihan dan longlasting parfum lebih baik daripada surfaktan tunggal. Optimasi menggunakan RSM didapatkan rasio campuran yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kejernihan adalah r P/T sedangkan rasio yang paling berpengaruh terhadap longlasting parfum adalah r G/PA. Hasil optimum dengan respon turbiditas r G/P = 3,59; r P/T = 0,48; r G/PA = 0,41 dan respon longlasting  r G/P = 4,51; r P/T = 0,40; r G/PA = 0,42 menghasilkan turbiditas 0,0489 NTU serta longlasting 3,68 jam.Perfume quality is determined by the clarity and longlasting perfume. Surfactant mixture can improve the quality of perfumes at low production costs. This study objectives are to examines the blending ratio surfactant and to determine the function of solubilizer and fixative. Perfume seeds used in this study is eugenol, surfactants with solubilizer function is Portasol 40 and Tween 80 while surfactant with fixative function are glucam P20 and patchouli alcohol. The ratio used in this study include glucam ratio P20: portasol (r G/P, the ratio portasol 40: tween 80 (rP/T and the ratio of glucam P20: patchouli alcohol (r G/PA. The results showed a mixture of surfactants may improve the clarity and longlasting perfume is better than a single surfactant. RSM

  16. Impact of sediments resuspension on metal solubilization and water quality during recurrent reservoir sluicing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frémion, Franck; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Bordas, François, E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lenain, Jean-François [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Jugé, Philippe [CETU – ELMIS Ingénieries, Université François Rabelais, , 60 Rue du Plat d' Étain, 37000 Tours (France); Kestens, Tim [EDF – DPIH, Unité de Production Centre, 19 bis avenue de la Révolution, BP 406, 87012 Limoges Cedex (France); Mourier, Brice [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    In dam contexts, sluicing operations can be performed to reestablish sediments continuity, as proposed by the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as to preserve the reservoirs' water storage capacity. Such management permits the rapid release of high quantities of reservoir sediments through the opening of dam bottom valves. This work aims to study the impact of such operation on the evolution of environmental physicochemical conditions notably changes in dissolved metallic elements concentrations (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) through field and laboratory investigations. Results were interpreted in terms of concentrations and fluxes, and compared with data collected on an annual basis regarding both suspended matter and metallic elements. The release of high quantities of sediments (4,500 tons dry weight in 24 h), with concentrations representing up to 300 times the inter-annual mean suspended sediments discharge, significantly modified water parameters, notably solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, pH and redox conditions. Despite the fact that they are mainly trapped in stable phases, a clear increase of the solubilized metals content was measured, representing up to 60 times the maximum values of current exploitation. This solubilization is related to desorption phenomena from sediments through changes in chemical equilibriums as highlighted by laboratory characterizations and experiments. These chemical modifications are mainly attributed to S/L ratio variations. Indeed, the low S/L ratios (≤ 1.3 g·L{sup −1}) measured in situ are typically the ones for which metals solubilization is the highest, as shown by laboratory experiments. Additional thermodynamic modeling highlighted that the decrease in pH measured during the operation favors the release of the free forms of metallic elements (Al and Cu), and decreases the OM complexation influence. These changes, either in term of physical conditions or speciation, increasing metals long term

  17. Mild-temperature thermochemical pretreatment of green macroalgal biomass: Effects on solubilization, methanation, and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of mild-temperature thermochemical pretreatments with HCl or NaOH on the solubilization and biomethanation of Ulva biomass were assessed. Within the explored region (0-0.2M HCl/NaOH, 60-90°C), both methods were effective for solubilization (about 2-fold increase in the proportion of soluble organics), particularly under high-temperature and high-chemical-dose conditions. However, increased solubilization was not translated into enhanced biogas production for both methods. Response surface analysis statistically revealed that HCl or NaOH addition enhances the solubilization degree while adversely affects the methanation. The thermal-only treatment at the upper-limit temperature (90°C) was estimated to maximize the biogas production for both methods, suggesting limited potential of HCl/NaOH treatment for enhanced Ulva biomethanation. Compared to HCl, NaOH had much stronger positive and negative effects on the solubilization and methanation, respectively. Methanosaeta was likely the dominant methanogen group in all trials. Bacterial community structure varied among the trials according primarily to HCl/NaOH addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment–seawater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiao; Gong, Yanyan; O’Reilly, S.E.; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances solubilization of PAHs more effectively than surfactants. • Dispersant and dispersed oil enhance sediment sorption of PAHs and induce hysteresis. • Partitioning to sediment-sorbed dispersant is the mechanism for enhanced PAH uptake. • Dual-mode models well simulate dispersant-facilitated sorption of PAHs on sediment. • Deepwater conditions reduce solubilization of PAHs and lessen dispersant effects. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a prototype oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of three model PAHs in sediment–seawater systems. Increasing dispersant dosage linearly enhanced solubility for all PAHs. Conversely, the dispersant enhanced the sediment uptake of the PAHs, and induced significant desorption hysteresis. Such contrasting effects (adsolubilization vs. solubilization) of dispersant were found dependent of the dispersant concentration and PAH hydrophobicity. The dual-mode models adequately simulated the sorption kinetics and isotherms, and quantified dispersant-enhanced PAH uptake. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene by sediment positively correlated with uptake of the dispersant, while sorption of pyrene dropped sharply when the dispersant exceeded its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The deepwater conditions diminished the dispersant effects on solubilization, but enhanced uptake of the PAHs, albeit sorption of the dispersant was lowered. The information may aid in understanding roles of dispersants on distribution, fate and transport of petroleum PAHs in marine systems

  19. Zonas y métodos de entrenamiento de la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria

    OpenAIRE

    García Pallarés, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Propuesta metodológica para el desarrollo de los ritmos y zonas de entrenamiento de la resistencia en función de la posición de los hitos fisiológicos de la vía aeróbica y sus factores limitantes.

  20. Cloned cattle derived from a novel zona-free embryo reconstruction system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oback, B; Wiersema, AT; Gaynor, P; Laible, G; Tucker, FC; Oliver, JE; Miller, AL; Troskie, HE; Wilson, KL; Forsyth, JT; Berg, MC; Cockrem, K; Mcmillan, [No Value; Tervit, HR; Wells, DN

    2003-01-01

    As the demand for cloned embryos and offspring increases, the need arises for the development of nuclear transfer procedures that are improved in both efficiency and ease of operation. Here, we describe a novel zona-free cloning method that doubles the throughput in cloned bovine embryo production

  1. Solubilization of docetaxel in poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(butylene/styrene oxide) micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Perron, Marie-Eve; Bertrand, Nicolas; Yu, Ga-Er; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-07-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene oxide) (PEO-b-PSO) and PEO-b-poly(butylene oxide) (PEO-b-PBO) of different chain lengths were synthesized and characterized for their self-assembling properties in water by dynamic/static light scattering, spectrofluorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting polymeric micelles were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and protect the anticancer drug docetaxel (DCTX) from degradation. The drug release kinetics as well as the cytotoxicity of the loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. All polymers formed micelles with a highly viscous core at low critical association concentrations (hydrolysis under accelerated stability testing conditions. Only PEO-b-PBO bearing 24 BO units afforded significant protection against degradation. In vitro, DCTX was released slower from the latter micelles, but all formulations possessed a similar cytotoxic effect against PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that PEO-b-P(SO/BO) micelles could be used as alternatives to conventional surfactants for the solubilization of taxanes.

  2. Modified denatured lysozyme effectively solubilizes fullerene c60 nanoparticles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepi, Marialuisa; Politi, Jane; Dardano, Principia; Amoresano, Angela; De Stefano, Luca; Monti, Daria Maria; Notomista, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Fullerenes, allotropic forms of carbon, have very interesting pharmacological effects and engineering applications. However, a very low solubility both in organic solvents and water hinders their use. Fullerene C60, the most studied among fullerenes, can be dissolved in water only in the form of nanoparticles of variable dimensions and limited stability. Here the effect on the production of C60 nanoparticles by a native and denatured hen egg white lysozyme, a highly basic protein, has been systematically studied. In order to obtain a denatured, yet soluble, lysozyme derivative, the four disulfides of the native protein were reduced and exposed cysteines were alkylated by 3-bromopropylamine, thus introducing eight additional positive charges. The C60 solubilizing properties of the modified denatured lysozyme proved to be superior to those of the native protein, allowing the preparation of biocompatible highly homogeneous and stable C60 nanoparticles using lower amounts of protein, as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. This lysozyme derivative could represent an effective tool for the solubilization of other carbon allotropes.

  3. Rapid directed evolution of stabilized proteins with cellular high-throughput encapsulation solubilization and screening (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, K J; Scott, D J

    2015-03-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful method for engineering proteins towards user-defined goals and has been used to generate novel proteins for industrial processes, biological research and drug discovery. Typical directed evolution techniques include cellular display, phage display, ribosome display and water-in-oil compartmentalization, all of which physically link individual members of diverse gene libraries to their translated proteins. This allows the screening or selection for a desired protein function and subsequent isolation of the encoding gene from diverse populations. For biotechnological and industrial applications there is a need to engineer proteins that are functional under conditions that are not compatible with these techniques, such as high temperatures and harsh detergents. Cellular High-throughput Encapsulation Solubilization and Screening (CHESS), is a directed evolution method originally developed to engineer detergent-stable G proteins-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for structural biology. With CHESS, library-transformed bacterial cells are encapsulated in detergent-resistant polymers to form capsules, which serve to contain mutant genes and their encoded proteins upon detergent mediated solubilization of cell membranes. Populations of capsules can be screened like single cells to enable rapid isolation of genes encoding detergent-stable protein mutants. To demonstrate the general applicability of CHESS to other proteins, we have characterized the stability and permeability of CHESS microcapsules and employed CHESS to generate thermostable, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutants, the first soluble proteins to be engineered using CHESS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Artificial Citrate Operon Confers Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Ability to Diverse Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B.; Macwan, Silviya R.; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200–1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  5. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  6. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer in an oil palm field.

  7. Utilization of selected biorenewable resources: solubilization of lignocellulosics and conjugation of soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshel, Reed E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, concern has risen over the use of fossil fuels due to their contribution to global warming, and to our dependence on imports of petroleum from nations that could pose a threat to national security. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop technologies to replace fossil fuel based products with biorenewable alternatives. In this thesis nearly quantitative solubilization of lignocellulosic materials using phosphite esters has been realized, and is presented as a potential pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars for use in manufacturing commodity chemicals, specifically ethanol. Water solubilization of lignocellulosics using phosphite esters will enhance digestibility by disrupting the lignocellulose structure, changing cellulose morphology, and cleaving some glycosidic bonds. In a second project, soybean oil, which contains un-conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, is isomerized into oil containing conjugated polyunsaturates. The process is carried out under photochemical conditions using iodine as a catalyst in a hexanes solution to achieve 99% conjugation. The resulting conjugated soybean oil is demonstrated to have enhanced drying properties for use in alkyd resins.

  8. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  9. Effect of microwaves on solubilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahriari, H.; Warith, M.; Kennedy, K.J. [Ottawa Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Landfilling is the most common method for disposing of municipal solid waste (MSW) in North America. MSW consists of nonbiodegradable fractions as well as biodegradable fractions known as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Because of its high moisture content, OFMSW produces large amounts of leachate in landfills. If not treated properly, leachates can pollute groundwater and negatively affect health and the environment. This paper reported on a study that was conducted to determine the effects of microwave (MW) irradiation on the solubilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at different temperatures, MW ramp times, and supplemental water addition (SWA). The objective was to enhance solubilization before anaerobic digestion (AD). MW pretreatment resulted in higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), proteins and sugars in the supernatant phase. The highest increase in sCOD was achieved at 175 degrees C. For the same condition, the free liquid volume from bound water released from OFMSW into the supernatant was about 1.39 times higher than the control. The increase in potentially bio-available sCOD increased significantly to more than 200 per cent after microwaving at high temperature. It was concluded that microwaving of OFMSW at high temperature with SWA provides the best conditions for waste solubilisation in preparation for anaerobic digestion. The actual effect of MW pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestion process has yet to be determined. 49 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods

  11. Mechanistic Analysis of Cocrystal Dissolution as a Function of pH and Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodriguez-Hornedo, Nair; Amidon, Gregory E

    2016-03-07

    The purpose of this work is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the dissolution behavior of cocrystals under the influence of ionization and micellar solubilization. Mass transport models were developed by applying Fick's law of diffusion to dissolution with simultaneous chemical reactions in the hydrodynamic boundary layer adjacent to the dissolving cocrystal surface to predict the pH at the dissolving solid-liquid interface (i.e., interfacial pH) and the flux of cocrystals. To evaluate the predictive power of these models, dissolution studies of carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) cocrystals were performed at varied pH and surfactant concentrations above the critical stabilization concentration (CSC), where the cocrystals were thermodynamically stable. The findings in this work demonstrate that the pH dependent dissolution behavior of cocrystals with ionizable components is dependent on interfacial pH. This mass transport analysis demonstrates the importance of pH, cocrystal solubility, diffusivity, and micellar solubilization on the dissolution rates of cocrystals.

  12. Immunoaffinity purification and reconstitution of the human bilirubin/phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppen, J.; Jansen, P. L.; Oude Elferink, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    When membrane proteins are solubilized and subjected to purification procedures, the loss of lipids surrounding the protein often results in irreversible inactivation. We describe a procedure for the immunoaffinity purification of the membrane protein UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from human liver.

  13. IMMUNOAFFINITY PURIFICATION AND RECONSTITUTION OF THE HUMAN BILIRUBIN PHENOL UDP-GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE FAMILY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEPPEN, J; JANSEN, PLM; ELFERINK, RPJO

    When membrane proteins are solubilized and subjected to purification procedures, the loss of lipids surrounding the protein often results in irreversible inactivation. We describe a procedure for the immunoaffinity purification of the membrane protein UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from human liver.

  14. Impact of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation methods on phosphorus transformation and long-term utilization in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Fan, Yuying; Lu, Qian; Li, Mingxiao; Wei, Qingbin; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Zhenyu; Wei, Zimin

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) application and inoculation methods on rock phosphate (RP) solubilization and bacterial community during composting. The results showed that PSB inoculation in different stages of composting, especially both in the beginning and cooling stages, not only improved the diversity and abundance of PSB and bacterial community, but also distinctly increased the content of potential available phosphorus. Redundancy analysis indicated that the combined inoculation of PSB in the initial stage with higher inoculation amount and in the cooling stage with lower inoculation amount was the best way to improve the inoculation effect and increase the solubilization and utilization of RP during composting. Besides, we suggested three methods to improve phosphorus transformation and long-term utilization efficiency in composts based on biological fixation of phosphates by humic substance and phosphate-accumulating organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction Effects of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Mycorrhiza on the Growth and Phosphorus uptakeof Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein ziaeyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most abundant of agricultural soils in Iran, are calcareous. In calcareous soils, phosphorus fertilizers use efficiency is low. The usage of soil microorganisms is one of the effective ways to increment the uptake of phosphorus in calcareous soils. This microorganisms using various mechanisms, including the production of plant hormones or the production of organic and inorganic acids to dissolve the insoluble phosphorous compounds. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is also one of the most recognized and important symbiosis relationship found in the world. In a mycorrhizal symbiosis,plants can be able to absorb more nutrients and water from soil and fungus plays a protective role as a growth enhancer and make the plants more tolerable to biotic (pathogens and abiotic (drought, cold and salinity stresses .This research conducted to study phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhiza roles on sorghum growth and phosphorus availability to this plant. Materials and methods: To achieve the desired goals, a pot experiment was conducted as a factorial in completely randomized design with sixteen treatments in three replications. The treatments were combination of four P levels of zero, 25, 50, and 75 mg kg-1 P2O5 from triple super phosphate source, the two treatments of inoculation and without inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and the two treatments of inoculation and no inoculation of mycorrizal fungus. Required fertilizers based on initial soil test results were supplied. Accordingly, the same amount of nitrogen, 80 mg kg-1 (30 mg kg-1 before planting and 50 mg kg-1 after planting twice as urea source, 10 mg Zn kg-1 and 5 mg kg-1 Cu per kg soil as the forms of Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4.7H2O and copper sulphate (CuSO4.H2O were added to each soil sample. Required Phosphorus also was calculated based on treatments and added to potting soil. Each pot size was 5 kg. every sample was thoroughly mixed and then were placed in pots. At the same

  16. Influence of solubilizer PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil on carbopol gels’ structural-mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Gladukh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties affect all stages of the drug development – from development to production, the characteristics of the final products and stability. A lot of substances have complex rheological properties; their viscosity and elasticity can vary depending on conditions acting from the outside, such as stress, deformation, time factor and temperature. Concentration, stability and composition also significantly affect the rheological properties of drugs. One of the current trends in modern pharmacy is the development of drugs in the form of gels. The rheological properties of gels are significantly influenced by surface-active substances, stabilizers, solubilizers, stabilizing their structure. A special group of stabilizers are hydrogenated vegetable oils and their compounds with polymers, which have the ability to structure formation in interphase layers and in the volume of phases. For this purpose, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil is widely used. The aim of this work is to study the effect of hydrogenated castor oil, used as an emulsifier, solubilizer, viscosity modifier and solvent in the technology of semisolid dosage forms, on the structural and mechanical properties of carbopol gels. Materials and methods. 1% gel carbopol with additives PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil in the concentration range from 1 to 5 % was investigated as experimental samples of the gel base. A 10 % propylene glycol additive was used as humectant and plasticizer. Structural and mechanical studies were carried out using a rotational viscometer «RheolabQC», Anton Paar (Austria with coaxial cylinders CCC27/SS. The graphs of the gels were automatically plotted using the computer program. Results. Analysis of the rheological parameters of the carbopol with PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil gel base shows that the solubilizer has an active influence on the structural and mechanical properties of the base. Addition of PEG-40 GMM to the carbopol gel increases the yield

  17. Isolation and characterization of a phosphate solubilizing heavy metal tolerant bacterium from River Ganga, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphates solubilizing bacterial (PSB strains were isolated from the jute mill effluent discharge area of the Ganga river water at Bansberia, West Bengal, India. Experimental studies found that the strain KUPSB16 was effective in solubilization of phosphate with phosphate solubilization index (SI = 3.14 in Pikovskaya’s agar plates along with maximum solubilized phosphate production of 208.18 g mL-1 in broth culture. Highest drop in pH value was associated with maximum amount of phosphate solubilization by the PSB strain KUPSB16 where pH decreased to 3.53 from initial value of 7.0±0.2. The isolated PSB strains were tested for tolerance against four heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn at concentrations 1-15 mM. The results showed that most of the PSB isolates grew well at low concentrations of heavy metals and their number gradually decreased as the concentration increased. Isolated PSB strain KUPSB16 was tested for its multiple metal resistances. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for Cd2+, Cr6+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in tris-minimal broth medium were 4.2, 5.5, 3.6 and 9.5 mM respectively. The MIC values for the metals studied on agar medium was higher than in broth medium and ranged from 4.8-11.0 mM. The isolated bacterial strain KUPSB16 was subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and identified as the species of the genus Bacillus. The phosphate solubilizing bacterium possessing the properties of multiple heavy metal tolerance in heavy metal contaminated areas might be exploited for bioremediation studies in future.

  18. Solubilization of Na,K-ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla using only C12E8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Santos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available SDS, C12E8, CHAPS or CHAPSO or a combination of two of these detergents is generally used for the solubilization of Na,K-ATPase and other ATPases. Our method using only C12E8 has the advantage of considerable reduction of the time for enzyme purification, with rapid solubilization and purification in a single chromatographic step. Na,K-ATPase-rich membrane fragments of rabbit kidney outer medulla were obtained without adding SDS. Optimum conditions for solubilization were obtained at 4ºC after rapid mixing of 1 mg of membrane Na,K-ATPase with 1 mg of C12E8/ml, yielding 98% recovery of the activity. The solubilized enzyme was purified by gel filtration on a Sepharose 6B column at 4ºC. Non-denaturing PAGE revealed a single protein band with phosphomonohydrolase activity. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by gel filtration chromatography was 320 kDa. The optimum apparent pH obtained for the purified enzyme was 7.5 for both PNPP and ATP. The dependence of ATPase activity on ATP concentration showed high (K0.5 = 4.0 µM and low (K0.5 = 1.4 mM affinity sites for ATP, with negative cooperativity. Ouabain (5 mM, oligomycin (1 µg/ml and sodium vanadate (3 µM inhibited the ATPase activity of C12E8-solubilized and purified Na,K-ATPase by 99, 81 and 98.5%, respectively. We have shown that Na,K-ATPase solubilized only with C12E8 can be purified and retains its activity. The activity is consistent with the form of (alphaß2 association.

  19. A Study on Solubilization of Poorly Soluble Drugs by Cyclodextrins and Micelles: Complexation and Binding Characteristics of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Göktürk

    2012-01-01

    > α-CD. With taking into consideration of solubilization capacity of SDS micelles, it has been found that the solubility enhancement of TMP is much higher than that of SMX in the presence of SDS micelles. The binding constants of SMX and TMP obtained from the Benesi-Hildebrand equation are also confirmed by the estimated surface properties of SDS, employing the surface tension measurements. In order to elucidate the solubilization characteristics the surface tension measurements were also performed for nonionic surfactant Triton X-100. Polarity of the microenvironment and probable location of SMX and TMP were also discussed in the presence of various organic solvents.

  20. Solubilization of industrial grade plant protein by enzymatic hydrolysis monitored by vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Pratico, Giulia; Plesner, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates are of great interest in the food industry due to their nutritional and functional properties, but their use often implies solubilization in water and therefore hamper the use of plant proteins with inherent low water solubility. Protein solubility in water can be modified...... (1H NMR and IR) coupled with chemometrics analysis in monitoring the hydrolysis of five different industrial grade plant proteins by the enzyme Alcalase. Logarithmic modeling of the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) scores confirmed that they can represent a measurement of the solubilized protein...

  1. Water solubilization and the dielectric permeability of isomolar solutions of oleic acid and triethanolamine soap of oleic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demchenko, P.A.; Novitskaya, L.D.

    The investigation of the dependence of water solubilization on the dielectric permeability of isomolar solutions of oleic acid and triethanolamine soap of oleic acid in benzene has shown that at certain acid additions, the solubilization effect can increase almost 6 times, as compared to the soap solution without acid additions. In some cases, electron donor-acceptor complexes are formed, which are more polar than the original components. This leads to a change in the molecular-disperse and micellar part of solution and affects significantly the structure and properties of micellar hydrocarbon solutions of surfactants.

  2. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  3. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizer Azospirillum, Bacillus and Enterobacter strains by 16SrRNA sequence analysis and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahir, M.; Mirza, M.S.; Zaheer, A.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Smidt, H.; Hameed, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and investigate their potential for plant growth promotion. Three phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated by serial dilution method from the rhizosphere of wheat grown under wheat-cotton

  4. Urgensi Zona Bebas Pekerja Anak di Kabupaten Kutai Kertanegara

    OpenAIRE

    Sina, La

    2014-01-01

    Child protection is an effort to provide protection to children that their rights are not discriminated against and in order to grow, thrive and excel, optimally in accordance with human dignity. Child labor free zones is a program that was first performed by Kertanegara Kutai district to raise the dignity of the child. Urgency of child labor free zones is to provide protection of children as the mandate of Law No. 23 of 2002 on the Protection of Children. The first step should be able to als...

  5. Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Claudia G; Vagnini, Laura D; Mauri, Ana L; Massaro, Fabiana C; Silva, Liliane F I; Cavagna, Mario; Baruffi, Ricardo L R; Oliveira, Joao B A; Franco, José G

    2011-04-23

    This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF) intensity and the nuclear (NM) and cytoplasmic (CM) in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence) or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence). CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs) throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9%) reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081). Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6%) showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2%) presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3%) with incomplete CM, 18 (50%) presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11). The current study demonstrated an absence of

  6. Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Liliane FI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF intensity and the nuclear (NM and cytoplasmic (CM in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. Results The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence. CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9% reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081. Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6% showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2% presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3% with incomplete CM, 18 (50% presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11. Conclusions The current

  7. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Chandra, Richa; Goren, Michael A; Kruse, Andrew C; Nurva, Shailika; Loland, Claus J; Pierre, Yves; Drew, David; Popot, Jean-Luc; Picot, Daniel; Fox, Brian G; Guan, Lan; Gether, Ulrik; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces of native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family show favorable behavior relative to conventional detergents, as manifested in multiple membrane protein systems, leading to enhanced structural stability and successful crystallization. MNG amphiphiles are promising tools for membrane protein science because of the ease with which they may be prepared and the facility with which their structures may be varied.

  8. Improved glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein solubilization and stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Das, Manabendra; Gellman, Samuel H; Chae, Pil Seok

    2014-02-01

    Membrane proteins are inherently amphipathic and undergo dynamic conformational changes for proper function within native membranes. Maintaining the functional structures of these biomacromolecules in aqueous media is necessary for structural studies but difficult to achieve with currently available tools, thus necessitating the development of novel agents with favorable properties. This study introduces several new glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles and reveals some agents that display favorable behaviors for the solubilization and stabilization of a large, multi-subunit membrane protein assembly. Furthermore, a detergent structure-property relationship that could serve as a useful guideline for the design of novel amphiphiles is discussed. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Solubilization of rat kidney plasma membrane proteins associated with 3H-aldosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozegovic, B.; Dobrovic-Jenik, D.; Milkovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of rat kidney plasma membranes with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) did not essentially affect the ability of the membranes for 3 H-aldosterone binding as compared with the intact plasma membranes (Ozegovic et al., 1977). A gel filtration of 3 H-aldosterone - kidney plasma membranes complex on Sepharose 6B yielded 2 protein and 2 3 H-aldosterone peaks. The proteins which were eluted in the first peak were associated with the first 3 H-aldosterone peak while the second 3 H-aldosterone peak was eluted with Ve corresponding to Ve of free 3 H-aldosterone. Spironolactone, a competitive antagonist of aldosterone, prevented the binding of 3 H-aldosterone to the membrane proteins. The results demonstrated a high affinity of the kidney plasma membranes solubilized with SDS and a specificity of aldosterone binding to the plasma membrane proteins of higher molecular mass. (author)

  10. Inclusion complexes of azadirachtin with native and methylated cyclodextrins: solubilization and binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Guo-Song; Chen, Yong; Lin, Jun

    2005-06-02

    The inclusion complexation behavior of azadirachtin with several cyclodextrins and their methylated derivatives has been investigated in both solution and the solid state by means of XRD, TG-DTA, DSC, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the water solubility of azadirachtin was obviously increased after resulting inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. Typically, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD), permethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbetaCD), and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) are found to be able to solubilize azadirachtin to high levels up to 2.7, 1.3, 3.5, and 1.6 mg/mL (calculated as azadirachtin), respectively. This satisfactory water solubility and high thermal stability of the cyclodextrin-azadirachtin complexes, will be potentially useful for their application as herbal medicine or healthcare products.

  11. Changes in brown coal structure caused by coal-solubilizing microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiers, H.; Koepsel, R.; Weber, A.; Winkelhoefer, M.; Grosse, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen

    1997-12-31

    The phenomenon of coal solubilization caused by microorganisms has been explained by various mechanisms: extraction of non-covalently bonded polar components of the coal substance by biogenic agents (chelating agents, alkaline substances) and enzyme-catalyzed cleavage of covalent bonds by extracellular enzyme systems. For this it is assumed that bond cleavage occurs on the aliphatic carbon (methylene groups, aliphatic bridges or on ester groups). As the coal has usually been treated with oxidizing agents such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or HNO{sub 3} before bioconversion, there is a possibility that the result of bioconversion is overlaid with the effect of the chemical treatment. We therefore studied the structural changes in the organic coal substance during pre-oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treatment with MnP and conversion using the fungal strains of Trichoderma and Fusarium oxysporum. (orig.)

  12. Spores of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae host yeasts that solubilize phosphate and accumulate polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal Alonso, Loreli; Kleiner, Diethelm; Ortega, Eduardo

    2008-04-01

    The present paper reports the presence of bacteria and yeasts tightly associated with spores of an isolate of Glomus mosseae. Healthy spores were surface disinfected by combining chloramine-T 5%, Tween-40, and cephalexin 2.5 g L(-1) (CTCf). Macerates of these spores were incubated on agar media, microorganisms were isolated, and two yeasts were characterized (EndoGm1, EndoGm11). Both yeasts were able to solubilize low-soluble P sources (Ca and Fe phosphates) and accumulate polyphosphates (polyPs). Sequence analysis of 18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid showed that the yeasts belong to the genera Rhodotorula or Rhodosporidium (EndoGm1) and Cryptococcus (EndoGm11). Results from inoculation experiments showed an effect of the spore-associated yeasts on the root growth of rice, suggesting potential tripartite interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and plants.

  13. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  14. Phosphate solubilization and chromium (VI) remediation potential of Klebsiella sp. strain CPSB4 isolated from the chromium contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin; Usmani, Zeba; Rani, Rupa; Chandra, Avantika

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an effort was made to identify an efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain from chromium contaminated agricultural soils. Based on the formation of a solubilized halo around the colonies on Pikovskaya's agar amended with chromium (VI), 10 strains were initially screened out. Out of 10, strain CPSB4, which showed significantly high solubilization zone at different chromium concentrations, was selected for further study. The strain CPSB4 showed significant plant growth promotion traits with chromium (VI) stress under in-vitro conditions in broth. The plant growth promotion activities of the strain decreased regularly, but were not completely lost with the increase in concentration of chromium up to 200 mg L -1 . On subjected to FT-IR analysis, the presence of the functional group, indicating the organic acid aiding in phosphate solubilization was identified. At an optimal temperature of 30  ° C and pH 7.0, the strain showed around 93% chromium (VI) reduction under in-vitro conditions in broth study. In soil condition, the maximum chromium (VI) reduction obtained was 95% under in-vitro conditions. The strain CPSB4 was identified as Klebsiella sp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study shows that the diverse role of the bacterial strain CPSB4 would be useful in the chromium contaminated soil as a good bioremediation and plant growth promoting agent as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barja, P R; Coelho, C C; Paiva, R F [Research and Development Institute, UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M A; Matos, L C; Matos, C C B [Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, L V F, E-mail: barja@univap.b [Rehabilitation Sciences Master' s Program, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called 'secretor' and 'non secretor' phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t{sub 0} (typical interaction time) and {Delta}t (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  16. Solubilization of myofibrillar proteins in water or low ionic strength media: Classical techniques, basic principles, and novel functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Tume, Ron K; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-10-13

    The qualitative characteristics of meat products are closely related to the functionality of muscle proteins. Myofibrillar proteins (MPs), comprising approximately 50% of total muscle proteins, are generally considered to be insoluble in solutions of low ionic strength ( 0.3 M) for solubilization. These soluble proteins are the ones which determine many functional properties of meat products, including emulsification and thermal gelation. In order to increase the utilization of meat and meat products, many studies have investigated the solubilization of MPs in water or low ionic strength media and determining their functionality. However, there still remains a lack of systematic information on the functional properties of MPs solubilized in this manner. Hence, this review will explore some typical techniques that have been used. The main procedures used for their solubilization, the fundamental principles and their functionalities in water (low ionic strength medium) are comprehensively discussed. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of each technique are summarized. Finally, future considerations are presented to facilitate progress in this new area and to enable water soluble muscle MPs to be utilized as novel meat ingredients in the food industry.

  17. Solubilization and molecular size of atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) receptors from rabbit aorta, renal cortex and adrenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzik, G.P.; Bush, E.N.; Holleman, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    ANH(1-28) is presumed to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance via membrane receptors coupled to particulate guanylate cyclase. ANH receptors were solubilized from rabbit aorta, renal cortex and adrenal, primary ANH targets. Plasma membranes extracted with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate(CHAPS) yield solubilized receptors with high affinity binding of 125 I-Tyr 28 -ANH. Degradation of hormone was minimized with a broad spectrum of protease inhibitors. 125 I-ANH binding reached maximum by 1 hr at 0 0 C and was stable for at least an additional 2 hrs. Bound was separated from free ligand by HPLC gel filtration on TSK-3000SW in PBS/CHAPS. Bound hormone eluted at a MW of ∼ 200KD in each tissue preparation and was displaced by unlabelled ANH. The concentration of solubilized binding sites was proportional to densities in intact plasma membranes, i.e., adrenal > renal > aorta. Following separation of free hormone, 125 I-ANH-receptors complexes were coupled using bifunctional crosslinking reagents. SDS-PAGE analysis and autoradiography indicated a major labelled band at ∼ 150KD in each tissue preparation. The mobility of this labelled band was not sensitive to reduction before SDS-PAGE. Although these results suggest that solubilized ANH receptors from primary target tissues are very similar, microheterogeneity affecting binding affinity or signal transduction cannot as yet be excluded

  18. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5T (=DSM 16299T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterium for bacterial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Jung, Byung Kwon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-10

    Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5(T) (=DSM 16299(T)), isolated from the rhizospheric soil of grass growing in Spain, has been reported as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas harboring insoluble phosphorus solubilizing activity. To understanding the multifunctional biofertilizer better, we report the complete genome sequence of P. rhizosphaerae IH5(T). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Status and phosphorus solubilization potential of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from various locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, F.; Sharif, M.; Khan, M.

    2016-01-01

    The soils of Pakistan are alkaline calcareous in nature and its high pH makes phosphorus (P) unavailable for plants uptake. Chemical sources of P fertilizers are a costly and detrimental practice. Therefore, investigations were conducted to determine the native status of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in three different zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. In order to select the efficient PSB strains for solubility enhancement of P from rock phosphate (RP), rhizosphere soil samples were collected from irrigated and rainfed fields of maize, sorghum, pastures and vegetables. Population density of PSB ranged from 1.7*107 to 2.7*108 CFU g-1 rhizosphere soil. The bacterial strains Coccus, Streptoccocus and Bacillus sp. were identified on the basis of their microscopic, phenotypic and morphological characters. Most of the AM fungal spores identified were belonging to Glomus mosseae and Glomus intradices. A range of 02-35 spores per 20 g air dried soil were recorded. The PSB strains such as Coccus DIM7, Streptococcus PIM6 and Bacillus sp. PIS7 solubilized more P from RP than any other strain in both of the liquid and solid medium. Results show that areas under investigations are rich in P solubilizing micro flora providing a rich source for inoculum production. Moreover, the PSB strains have the capability to solubilize P from RP that can be used as biofertilizers for optimum crop production. (author)

  20. Biotoxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelle phase and cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Liu, Chunyan; Zeng, Xinying; Xin, Qiao; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Yangwu; Dong, Wei

    2017-06-01

    A recent work has shown that hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in the micelle phase of some nonionic surfactants present substrate toxicity to microorganisms with increasing bioavailability. However, in cloud point systems, biotoxicity is prevented, because the compounds are solubilized into a coacervate phase, thereby leaving a fraction of compounds with cells in a dilute phase. This study extends the understanding of the relationship between substrate toxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelle phase and cloud point system. Biotoxicity experiments were conducted with naphthalene and phenanthrene in the presence of mixed nonionic surfactants Brij30 and TMN-3, which formed a micelle phase or cloud point system at different concentrations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unable to degrade these compounds, was used for the biotoxicity experiments. Glucose in the cloud point system was consumed faster than in the nonionic surfactant micelle phase, indicating that the solubilized compounds had increased toxicity to cells in the nonionic surfactant micelle phase. The results were verified by subsequent biodegradation experiments. The compounds were degraded faster by PAH-degrading bacterium in the cloud point system than in the micelle phase. All these results showed that biotoxicity of the hydrophobic organic compounds increases with bioavailability in the surfactant micelle phase but remains at a low level in the cloud point system. These results provide a guideline for the application of cloud point systems as novel media for microbial transformation or biodegradation.

  1. Siloxane-Terminated Solubilizing Side Chains: Bringing Conjugated Polymer Backbones Closer and Boosting Hole Mobilities in Thin-Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo; Kim, Do Hwan; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Toney, Michael F.; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel siloxane-terminated solubilizing group and demonstrate its effectiveness as a side chain in an isoindigo-based conjugated polymer. An average hole mobility of 2.00 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (with a maximum mobility of 2.48 cm 2 V -1 s -1

  2. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasti, M B; Pometto, A L; Nuti, M P; Crawford, D L

    1990-01-01

    The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of [14C]lignin- and [14C]cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to 14CO2 and 14C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). The actinomycetes were all Streptomyces strains and could be placed into three groups, including a group of five strains that appear superior to S. viridosporus T7A in lignocellulose-degrading ability, three strains of approximately equal ability, and three strains of lesser ability. Strain A2 was clearly the superior and most effective lignocellulose decomposer of those tested. Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on 14CO2 evolution from [14C-lignin]lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2167628

  3. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, M.B.; Crawford, D.L.; Pometto, A.L. III; Nuti, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of [ 14 C]lignin- and [ 14 C]cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to 14 CO 2 and 14 C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on 14 CO 2 evolution from [ 14 C-lignin]lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures. On the basis of an increase of specific peroxidase activity in the presence of lignocellulose in the medium, the actinomycetes could be placed into the same three groups

  4. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the phosphorus availability and yield of cotton (gossypium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Iqbal, A.; Qureshi, M.A.; Khan, K.H

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and plants have symbiotic relationship, as bacteria provide soluble phosphate for the plants and plants supply root borne carbon compounds which can be metabolized for bacterial growth. PSB solubilize the applied and fixed soil phosphorus resulting in higher crop yield. Intensive cropping has resulted in wide spread deficiency of Phosphorus in our soils and situation is becoming more serious because of a drastic increase in the cost of phosphatic fertilizers. Keeping in view the capabilities of microbes (Bacillus sp.), a field experiment was conducted on cotton at farmer field district Faisalabad in 2008. Effect of PSM (Bacillus spp.) was studied at three phosphorus levels i.e.20, 40 and 60 kg ha-l while N was applied at recommended dose (120 kg ha/sup -1/). Bacillus spp. was applied as seed coating to the cotton crop (Var. BT 121). Recommended plant protection measures were adopted. Results revealed that Bacillus spp. significantly increased the seed cotton yield; number of boll plant-I, boll weight, plant height, GOT (%), staple length, plant P and available P in the soil. Maximum seed cotton yield 4250 kg ha/sup -l/ was obtained with Bacillus inoculation along with 60 kg of P followed by 4162 kg ha/sup -1/ with Bacillus inoculation and 40 kg of P compared with their respective controls i.e.4093 and 3962 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. Soil P was improved from 8.1 to 9.5 ppm by Bacillus inoculation. Phosphorus in plant matter was also higher (0.39%) as compare with control (0.36%). Rhizosphere soil pH was found slightly decreased (8.12 to 8.0) by Bacillus inoculation compare with control. It is concluded that PSB inoculation not only exerts beneficial effect on crop growth but also enhances the phosphorus concentration in the plant and soil. (author)

  5. Quantification of solubilized hemicellulose from pretreated lignocellulose by acid hydrolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Ploeger, A.; Simonsen, T.; Woidemann, A.; Schmidt, A.S.

    1996-11-01

    An investigation of the acid hydrolysis and HPLC analysis have been carried out in order to optimise the quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose fraction from wheat straw lignocellulose after pretreatment. Different acid hydrolyses have been performed to identify which conditions (concentrations of acid and hydrolysis time) gave the maximal quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose (measured as monosaccharides). Four different sugars were identified: xylose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Some hydrolyses were carried out on aqueous samples and some using freeze-dried samples. The best overall hydrolysis was obtained by treatment of an aqueous sample with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. These conditions were not optimal for the determination of glucose, which was estimated by using a correction factor. A purification step was needed following the acid hydrolysis, and included a sulfate precipitation by barium hydroxide and elimination of remaining ions by mixed-bed ion exchange. The level of barium hydroxide addition significantly reduced the recovery of the sugars. Thus, lower than equivalent amounts of barium hydroxide were added in the purification step. For monosaccharide analysis two different HPLC columns, i.e. Aminex HPX-87P and HPX-87H with different resin ionic forms, lead (Pb{sup 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}), respectively. The lead column (HPX-87P) separated all four sugars in the acid hydrolyzates, but sample purification required the removal of all interfering impurities, which resulted in poor reproducibility and a sugar recovery below 50%. The hydrogen column (HPX-87H) separated only glucose, xylose and arabinose, whereas galactose was not separated from xylose; however, the column was less sensitive towards impurities and gave improved recovery and reproducibility. Therefore, the hydrogen column (HPX-87H) was chosen for routine quantification of the hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. (au) 11 tabs., 8 ills., 19 refs.

  6. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  7. A strategy for solubilizing delipidated apolipoprotein with lysophosphatidylcholine and reconstitution with phosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawooya, J.K.; Wells, M.A.; Law, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The apolipoproteins of insect lipophorin were dissociated in guanidinium chloride and isolated by gel permeation chromatography. Over 98% of the total lipid in lipophorin was associated with apolipophorin I (apoLp-I), thus suggesting this apolipoprotein to be the lipid binding component of the particle. ApoLp-I was delipidated with ethanol/ether and solubilized in buffer that contained radioactive lysophosphatidylcholine ([ 3 H]LPC) above the critical micellar concentration. Sonic irradiation of radioactive phosphatidylcholine ([ 14 C]PC) with [ 3 H]LPC-solubilized apoLp-I at a molar ratio of 318 resulted in reconstituted lipophorin I (RLp-I). [ 3 H]LPC was bound to fatty acid free bovine serum albumin and was separated from RLp-I by density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel permeation chromatography. Negatively stained RLp-I particles were quasispherical with an average radius of 55 angstrom, and their overall morphology and secondary structure were similar to those of native hemolymph lipophorin. The RLp-I particle had a ρ = 1.137 g/mL, a M r ∼ 5.2 x 10 5 , and a [ 14 C]PC:apoLp-I molar ratio of 308. From the compositional analysis, molecular size, trypsinization, and lipolysis with phospholipase A 2 , the authors concluded that each RLp-I particle contained one molecule of apoLp-I and a monomolecular layer of [ 14 C]PC. When injected into the hemolymph of adult moths in vivo, RLp-I was loaded with lipid, as judged by a decrease in its density both in the presence and in the absence of adipokinetic hormone. The similarities in morphology and immunology of RLp-I and native lipophorin, together with the ability of RLp-I to load lipid, suggest that reconstituted lipophorins may serve as models to probe lipophorin structure and function

  8. Identification of efficient chelating acids responsible for Cesium, Strontium and Barium complexes solubilization in mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borai, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is focused to characterize the available multi dentate ligand species and their metal ion complexes of cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) formed with the parent chelators, complexing agents and its fragment products in mixed waste filtrate. The developed separation programs of different ligands by different mobile phases were based on the decrease of the effective charge of the anionic species in a differentiated way hence, the retention times on the stationary phases (AS-4A and AS-12A) are changed. Ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of the metal complexes showed that the carboxylic acids that are responsible for solubilizing Cs, Sr and Ba in the waste filtrate are NTA, Citrate and PDCA, respectively. Therefore, the predominant metal complexes in the filtrate at high ph are Cs (I)-NTA, Sr (IT)-Citrate and Ba (IT)-PDCA. Identification of the metal ion complexes responsible for solubilizing Cs, Sr and Ba was applied on the fresh and aged waste filtrates, to monitor their chemical behavior, which leads to increased control of the waste treatment process. Although, concentration measurements of both fresh and aged filtrates confirmed that the degradation process has occurred mainly due to a harsh chemical environment, the concentration of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Ba(II) increased slightly in the aged filterate compared with the fresh filtrate. This is due to the decomposition and/or degradation of their metal complexes and hence leads to free metal ion species in the filtrate. These observations indicate that the organic content of mixed waste filtrate is dynamic and need continuous analytical monitoring

  9. Un indice de peligrosidad para zonas laterales de carreteras de dos carriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas laterales de carreteras son elementos destinados a reducir la severidad de accidentes por salida de calzada. La peligrosidad es un indicador de cumplimiento de este objetivo. Existen pocos métodos para medir peligrosidad, que usualmente dependen de la disponibilidad de datos de accidentes. Este trabajo estudia los factores que explican la peligrosidad con base en modelos existentes y el análisis de datos de campo. Se determinó que el despeje lateral junto a las barreras de protección, especialmente en curvas con taludes inclinados, es significativo para explicar la peligrosidad. Se determinó que en rectas y curvas sin barreras de protección es relevante el tipo de objeto y su posición en la zona lateral.

  10. Experiencias para la capacitación de recursos humanos en salud para la atención integral de víctimas de violencia en una zona urbano marginal de Lima, Perú Experiences in the training of health human resources for the integral care of the victims of violence in a suburban area of Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Garmendia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2003, en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, se creó el Programa Permanente de Capacitación para la Atención Integral de las Víctimas de la Violencia, y viene realizando programas de capacitación de recursos humanos para la atención integral de las víctimas de violencia. En ese sentido, se consideró necesario desarrollar una metodología para profesionales de la salud, identificando sus necesidades de capacitación y sus condiciones de trabajo en lo relacionado a este tipo de atenciones. Es en ese contexto, que el año 2004, se delineó un estudio de línea de base en la Microrred de Salud Huaycán, al este de la ciudad de Lima; el cual comprendió diversas etapas con un enfoque multisectorial con el objetivo de identificar las necesidades de capacitación de los profesionales de salud, así como la evaluación del soporte logístico y administrativo para el desarrollo de actividades de capacitación a diversos niveles. En el presente artículo se expone, de modo sucinto, los procedimientos y principales resultados encontrados. Se evidenció que la población de Huaycán se encontraba afectada por las secuelas de la violencia política; no obstante, los servicios de salud tienen recursos limitados para realizar una adecuada atención de estas personas, emerge la necesidad de capacitación en varias esferas; existen condiciones administrativas y logísticas para efectuar estas actividades. Consideramos que esta metodología facilitará construir productos e instrumentos para una adecuada y específica capacitación para la atención integral en salud a las víctimas de la violencia.In the year 2003, in the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the Permanent Program of Training for the Integral Attention of the Victims of Violence was created, has been training human resources for the comprehensive health care to victims of violence. In this sense, we was

  11. Zona Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah Terhadap Staphylococcus Aureus Dan Candida Albicans Diisolasi Dari Denture Stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika, lara

    2017-01-01

    Zona Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Candida albicans diisolasi dari denture stomatitis xi + 43 halaman Ekstrak daun sirih merah merupakan salah satu obat tradisional yang saat ini banyak digunakan masyarakat Indonesia. Ekstrak daun sirih merah ini dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri dan jamur disebabkan karena adanya senyawa alkaloid, flavonoid, polifenol, tanin dan minyak atsiri. Salah satu bakteri dan jamur yang dapat dihambat oleh ekstrak daun sir...

  12. Medición de la inflación en la zona euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Ruíz, Julián.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este documento consiste en analizar si los movimientos en la “inflación medida” recogen adecuadamente el fenómeno inflacionario para algunos países de la zona euro. Para ello se utiliza la metodología propuesta por Quah y Valhey basada en sistemas de Vectores Autorregresivos Estructurales. La aproximación es consistente con la interpretación de la curva de Phillips a largo plazo.

  13. Glycosidases in porcine follicular fluid and their effect on zona pellucida-AWN 1 spermadhesin interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráb, T.; Ren, Štěpán; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Liberda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, SEP 15 2017 (2017), s. 80-87 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05547S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Glycosidases * Oocyte development * Zona pellucida * Follicle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  14. Glycosidases in porcine follicular fluid and their effect on zona pellucida-AWN 1 spermadhesin interaction.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráb, T.; Ren, Štěpán; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Liberda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, Sep 15 2017 (2017), s. 80-87 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05547S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : glycosidases * follicle * oocyte development * zona pellucida * AWN 1 spermadhesin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  15. HUBUNGAN KECEPATAN RELATIF PERGERAKAN LEMPENG DENGAN TINGKAT SEISMISITAS DI ZONA SUBDUKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzli Muzli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Perbedaan tingkat aktifitas gempabumi tektonik di zona subduksi dapat disebabkan oleh banyak faktor. Salah satu faktornya diduga akibat adanya pengaruh dari kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng. Studi terhadap hubungan antara kecepatan gerak lempeng dengan seismisitas dilakukan dengan menggunakan data gempabumi dan kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng pada beberapa zona subduksi di dunia. Jumlah data gempabumi diplot sebagai fungsi dari kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat seismisitas gempabumi di zona subduksi dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng. Kedua parameter menunjukkan hubungan linear yang sangat baik dengan koefisien korelasi 0,98. Secara fisis hal ini menegaskan bahwa hukum kekekalan energi berlaku pada proses pergerakan lempeng di zona subduksi, dimana energi gerak lempeng berubah ke dalam bentuk pelepasan energi berupa gempabumi. Hasil studi ini juga menunjukkan bahwa jumlah gempabumi dengan magnitudo lebih besar dari 4 dan kedalaman lebih kecil dari 60 km dapat dihitung secara teoritis dengan menggunakan rumusan empiris.   Subduction zones are seismically the most active areas around the world. However, the seismicity rate among subduction zones is different. This can be caused by many reasons. One of them expected to be influenced by the relative plate velocity. Analysis of correlation between relative plate velocities and seismicity rate around subduction zones in the world has been done in this study. The correlation was analysed by plotting number of earthquake events as function of relative plate velocities. The results show that the seismicity rate is linearly influenced by relative plate velocities with the correlation coefficient of 0,98. Physically it is asserted that the law of conservation of energy applies to the movement of the plates in subduction zones, where plate motion changed to energy in the form of energy release of earthquakes. The results of this

  16. La crisis de deuda soberana de los PIGS de la zona euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdy V. James Heredia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal, Irlanda, Grecia y España, nombrados por sus iniciales los PIGS de la zona euro, desde el 2010 hasta la actualidad han reflejado desequilibrios fiscales considerables y niveles de endeudamiento que se han hecho inmanejables. A la vez que padecen profundas crisis en sus sistemas bancarios, pobres tasas de crecimiento económico y altos niveles de de desempleo. Ante esta situación la investigación analiza las diferentes políticas económicas (monetaria, fiscal, así como el tipo de cambio en la zona euro y se llega a la conclusión que la salida de la actual situación de crisis de los PIGS depende del logro de un crecimiento económico sostenido. Sobre esta base, la solución al problema económico de los PIGS parecer ser política y, a corto plazo incluye: la necesidad de una cooperación mayor dentro de la eurozona así como cambios en la política económica seguida hasta el momento y en la principal institución monetaria de la zona, entre otros elementos.

  17. Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Kim, Juhyun; Kim, Dong Won; Zhang, Yi Stephanie; Bao, Hechen; Denaxa, Myrto; Lim, Szu-Aun; Kim, Eileen; Liu, Chang; Wickersham, Ian R.; Pachnis, Vassilis; Hattar, Samer; Song, Juan; Brown, Solange P.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple populations of wake-promoting neurons have been characterized in mammals, but few sleep-promoting neurons have been identified1. Wake-promoting cell types include hypocretin and GABA (γ-aminobutyric-acid)-releasing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, which promote the transition to wakefulness from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep2,3. Here we show that a subset of GABAergic neurons in the mouse ventral zona incerta, which express the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx6 and are activated by sleep pressure, both directly inhibit wake-active hypocretin and GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus and receive inputs from multiple sleep–wake-regulating neurons. Conditional deletion of Lhx6 from the developing diencephalon leads to decreases in both NREM and REM sleep. Furthermore, selective activation and inhibition of Lhx6-positive neurons in the ventral zona incerta bidirectionally regulate sleep time in adult mice, in part through hypocretin-dependent mechanisms. These studies identify a GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the ventral zona incerta that promote sleep. PMID:28847002

  18. El plátano verde en la matriz productiva de la zona 8 de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D. Paz Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador con la Constitución de 2008 sentó las bases para la matriz productiva como nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el Ecuador, y con ello se creó todo un andamiaje de instituciones, reglamentos y créditos de largo plazo que apunten a desarrollar armónicamente las empresas ya existentes y a crear nuevos emprendimientos con el fin de aprovechar la materia prima existente en el país. La creación de las zonas de desarrollo por la SENPLADES fue fundamental para organizar por número de habitantes cada una de ellas. La zona 8 conformada por Guayaquil, Durán y Samborondón, es una de las de mayor dinamismo comercial. El Proyecto IC-ULVR 13-19 presenta una investigación exploratoria sobre los derivados del plátano verde en la matriz productiva, para cuyo fin se aplicó una observación guiada a autoservicios de la zona y una encuesta online para conocer los gustos y preferencias de los consumidores.

  19. Sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ordóñez, Jorge Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Turismo integral, interculturalidad y desarrollo sostenible [ES] El presente trabajo de investigación propone un sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala.

  20. Analisis Zona Permeabel Fluida Sistem Panas Bumi Gunungapi Slamet Berdasarkan Analisis Kerapatan Kelurusan Citra SRTM Dan Struktur Geologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachrul Iswahyudi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan manifestasi panasbumi di sekitar Gunungapi Slamet tidak dapat dipisahkan dari zona-zona permeabilitas yang berkembang. Lokasi-lokasi lulus air tersebut (zona permeabel yang memungkinkan terbentuknya sirkulasi fluida tempat air masuk untuk mengisi reservoir panas bumi dan air keluar ke permukaan bumi sebagai manifesatasi mata air panasbumi di sekitar Gunungapi Slamet. Publikasi yang berupa hasil penelitian ini mencoba mengidentifikasi zona-zona permeabel tersebut berdasarkan anaslisis kerapatan kelurusan yang terekam dalam citra SRTM. Identifikasi kelurusan-kelurusan pada citra berdasarkan komponen-komponen interpretasi citra, yaitu tona, tekstur, pola, bentuk dan relief. Hasil analisis tersebut dikompilasi dengan data struktur geologi regional yang sebelumnya telah diidentifikasi dan data lapangan berupa manifestasi mata air panas. Lokasi-lokasi dengan kerapatan kelurusan yang tinggi pada citra SRTM umumnya bersesuaian dengan zona struktur geologi regional keberadaan manifestasi mata air panas. Daerah tersebut memanjang relatif utara-selatan di bagian barat dan timur-barat di bagian selatan peta. Daerah-daerah inilah yang merupakan daerah lulus air tempat fluida bersirkulasi membentuk sistem panasbumi Gunungapi Slamet.

  1. FAKTOR PENENTU STUNTING ANAK BALITA PADA BERBAGAI ZONA EKOSISTEM DI KABUPATEN KUPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmanu Cahyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze difference and compare the determinants of stunting among under five years children considering different ecosystem in Kupang. It is an observational study using case control of under five children with and without stunting. There were 132 subjects chosen from lowland, middleland region, and mountainous ecosystem zones. Data was analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. The analysis resumes that determinants of stunting in lowland area is energy intake (p=0.002; OR=0.059; 95%CI:0.010-0.359, energy intake is a protective factor, in the middleland region is love and cares (p=0.002; OR=9.247; 95%CI:2.213-38.644 and sanitation (p=0.046; OR=2.832; 95%CI:1.020-7.860. Furthermore, the environmental sanitation as the factor in mountainous area (p=0.034; OR=3.978; 95%CI:1.112-14.230. The impact of stunting if left untreated will cause problems for generation in the future, for example impairment of mental development and physical growth, and it will end in poverty and the threat of life survival, so it need a proper intervention to handle it.Keywords: determinants, ecosystem zone, stuntingABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis gambaran dan membandingkan pengaruh variabel faktor penentu stunting anak balita pada berbagai zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang. Jenis penelitian menggunakan desain observational dengan rancangan case control antara kelompok balita stunting dan normal. Jumlah subjek penelitian ini sebanyak 132 subjek yang terbagi pada tiga zona ekosistem dataran rendah, dataran sedang, dan pegunungan pada bulan Maret 2015. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik Berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor penentu stunting pada zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang adalah sanitasi lingkungan (p=0,002; OR=2,307; 95%CI:0,120-0,721, dan kejadian sakit (p=0,007; OR=0,294; 95%CI:0,120-0,721; di zona ekosistem dataran rendah adalah asupan energi (p=0,002; OR=0

  2. Granitoides asociados a zonas de desgarre: modelos analógicos y aplicación al macizo de Lizio (zona de cizalla surarmoricana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun, J. P.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Granite intrusion in the upper crust along a crustal-scale shear zone has been modeled by injecting a Newtonian fluid (low-viscosity silicone putty into a sandpack containing a ductile layer of silicone putty which acted as a potential décollement level along which the injected material could spread. The strike-slip regime was obtained using a mobile rigid basal plate sliding horizontally. Boundary conditions were chosen in order to analyze the influence of different rheologic profiles of the upper crust on the pattern of the intrusion. Experiments showed that: 1 intrusions are elongate and their long axis tends to track the principal stretching direction associated with the strike-slip regime, 2 intrusions are asymmetric shaped in horizontal view, with the development of a sheared tail trailing behind the intrusion, 3 the strike slip environment allowed local rising of the injected fluid along faults formed in the overburden, 4 when the crustal rheologic profile is similar in both sides of the shear zone, intrusions are asymmetric drop shaped, 5 when the viscosity of materials above the feeding pipe is higher that viscosity of materials of the other side of the shear zone, the asymmetric drop shape not appears. Lizio leucogranite of the South Armorican Shear Zone (South Brittany, France emphasize that our experiments can explain the geometry of many syntectonic' granites emplaced along strike-slip zones. They further shed some light on mechanisms of pluton intrusion in the upper crust.El emplazamiento de granitoides en zonas de desgarre de la corteza superior se ha modelizado inyectando un fluido newtoniano en un paquete de arena en el cual se intercala una capa dúctil de silicona que actúa como un nivel de despegue potencial en el cual el material inyectado puede expandirse. El régimen de desgarre se obtiene utilizando una placa basal rígida y móvil que desliza horizontalmente. Se ha analizado la influencia de diferentes perfiles reol

  3. Phosphate solubilization and acid phosphatase activity of Serratia sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Mahanadi river delta, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Behera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is an essential element for all life forms. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria are capable of converting phosphate into a bioavailable form through solubilization and mineralization processes. Hence in the present study a phosphate solubilizing bacterium, PSB-37, was isolated from mangrove soil of the Mahanadi river delta using NBRIP-agar and NBRIP-BPB broth containing tricalcium phosphate as the phosphate source. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization, the strain was identified as Serratia sp. The maximum phosphate solubilizing activity of the strain was determined to be 44.84 μg/ml, accompanied by a decrease in pH of the growth medium from 7.0 to 3.15. During phosphate solubilization, various organic acids, such as malic acid (237 mg/l, lactic acid (599.5 mg/l and acetic acid (5.0 mg/l were also detected in the broth culture through HPLC analysis. Acid phosphatase activity was determined by performing p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay (pNPP of the bacterial broth culture. Optimum acid phosphatase activity was observed at 48 h of incubation (76.808 U/ml, temperature of 45 °C (77.87 U/ml, an agitation rate of 100 rpm (80.40 U/ml, pH 5.0 (80.66 U/ml and with glucose as a original carbon source (80.6 U/ml and ammonium sulphate as a original nitrogen source (80.92 U/ml. Characterization of the partially purified acid phosphatase showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 (85.6 U/ml, temperature of 45 °C (97.87 U/ml and substrate concentration of 2.5 mg/ml (92.7 U/ml. Hence the present phosphate solubilizing and acid phosphatase production activity of the bacterium may have probable use for future industrial, agricultural and biotechnological application.

  4. Assessment of two carrier materials for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Salma; Shahid, Izzah; Mehnaz, Samina; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-12-01

    Biofertilizers are usually carrier-based inoculants containing beneficial microorganisms. Incorporation of microorganisms in carrier material enables easy-handling, long-term storage and high effectiveness of biofertilizers. Objective of the present study was to assess enriched biogas sludge and soil as biofertilizer carriers on growth and yield of wheat. Six phosphate solubilizing strains were used in this study. Three phosphate solubilizing strains, 77-NS2 (Bacillus endophyticus), 77-CS-S1 (Bacillus sphaericus) and 77-NS5 (Enterobacter aerogenes) were isolated from the rhizosphere of sugarcane, two strains, PSB5 (Bacillus safensis) and PSB12 (Bacillus megaterium) from the rhizosphere of wheat and one halophilic phosphate solubilizing strain AT2RP3 (Virgibacillus sp.) from the rhizosphere of Atriplex amnicola, were used as bioinoculants. Phosphate solubilization ability of these strains was checked in vitro in Pikovskaya medium, containing rock phosphate (RP) as insoluble P source, individually supplemented with three different carbon sources, i.e., glucose, sucrose and maltose. Maximum phosphate solubilization; 305.6μg/ml, 217.2μg/ml and 148.1μg/ml was observed in Bacillus strain PSB12 in Pikovskaya medium containing sucrose, maltose and glucose respectively. A field experiment and pot experiments in climate control room were conducted to study the effects of biogas sludge and enriched soil based phosphorous biofertilizers on growth of wheat. Bacillus strain PSB12 significantly increased root and shoot dry weights and lengths using biogas sludge as carrier material in climate control room experiments. While in field conditions, significant increase in root and shoot dry weights, lengths and seed weights was seen by PSB12 and PSB5 (Bacillus) and Enterobacter strain 77-NS5 using biogas sludge as carrier. PSB12 also significantly increased both root and shoot dry weights and lengths in field conditions when used as enriched soil based inoculum. These results

  5. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the development of coffee seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adolfo Cisneros-Rojas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solubilizing phosphate bacterias (BSF, Kocuria sp. and Bacillus subtilis, on the development of coffee seedlings Castillo variety. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse condition, in Palmira, Colombia during 2013-2014 years. The experimental design was completely random, with nine treatments and ten repetitions. The treatments were established under three types of substrates for the seedlings: natural soil (Typic Melanudand + decomposed coffee pulp (1:1 lacking or presenting BSF (treatments 1-4, natural soil + decomposed coffee pulp (1:1 + phosphate rock (RF with or without microorganisms (treatments 5-8, and natural soil without BSF subjected to fertilization with diammonium phosphate (DAP (treatment 9. The application of decomposed coffee pulp with and without RF and BSF favored the availability of phosphorus that helped to the development of coffee seedlings, the above was re ected in the chemical analysis of the substrate and the response of variables, root and total dry aerial weight. Length and volume root, foliar P and recovery phosphorus ef ciency (ERF, did not present signi cant differences.

  6. Fluorescence quenching of uric acid solubilized in bicontinuous microemulsion by nitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Iwunze

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Uric Acid is known to be practically insoluble in aqueous and alcoholic media. However, it exhibits a reasonable solubility in a Bicontinuous Microemulsion system – a 15-fold or more increase in solubility in this system compared to its solubility in water. The bicontinuous microemulsion is made up of three components –Dodecane-Surfactant-water. Uric acid solubilized in this system is quenched by nitrobenzene. The obtained fluorescence data do not obey the Stern-Volmer equation when plotted accordingly. Therefore, the modified Stern-Volmer equation was used to analyze the data. It was observed that only one third (1/3 of uric acid is accessible to quenching in this medium and the reaction is diffusion-limited. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV, was calculated to be 130 M-1 and the fluorescence lifetime, 0, the quantum yield,, and the bimolecular quenching rate constant, kq, were calculated as 10.6 nanoseconds, 0.06 and 1.231010 M-1s-1, respectively.

  7. SOLUBILIZATION OF POTASSIUM FROM ALTERNATIVE ROCKS BY HUMIC AND CITRIC ACIDS AND COFFEE HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Souza Pessoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil imports most of the potassium that it consumes in agriculture, however, such huge external dependence can be minimized with the use of alternative local K bearing rocks. This experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the solubility of nepheline syenite and glauconite as a function of three organic matrices, humic acid, citric acid and coffee husk. Incubation of low grade K rocks and organic matrices were done in laboratory conditions, in a completely randomized design. Each rock was mixed with five different doses of each organic matrix and the potassium solubilized was measured periodically, during 180 days. Regardless of the organic matrix and its dose investigated, nepheline syenite samples released more K than the modified glauconite. Soluble K increased as the incubation time increased and its release was greater as the organic matrix dose increased. There was more soluble K when the coffee husk was mixed with the potassic rocks, in relation to the humic and citric acids.

  8. HPMA-based polymeric micelles for curcumin solubilization and inhibition of cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Shi, Yang; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Hennink, Wim E; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-08-01

    Curcumin (CM) has been reported as a potential anticancer agent. However, its pharmaceutical applications as therapeutic agent are hampered because of its poor aqueous solubility. The present study explores the advantages of polymeric micelles composed of block copolymers of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) modified with monolactate, dilactate and benzoyl side groups to enhance CM solubility and inhibitory activity against cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers, ω-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-(N-(2-benzoyloxypropyl) methacrylamide) (PEG-HPMA-Bz) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and GPC. One polymer with a molecular weight of 28,000Da was used to formulate CM and compared with other aromatic substituted polymers. CM was loaded by a fast heating method (PEG-HPMA-DL and PEG-HPMA-Bz-L) and a nanoprecipitation method (PEG-HPMA-Bz). Physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity/cytocompatibility of the CM loaded polymeric micelles were evaluated. It was found that HPMA-based polymeric micelles significantly enhanced the solubility of CM. The PEG-HPMA-Bz micelles showed the best solubilization properties. CM loaded polymeric micelles showed sustained release of the loading CM for more than 20days. All of CM loaded polymeric micelles formulations showed a significantly potent cytotoxic effect against three cancer cell lines. HPMA-based polymeric micelles are therefore promising nanodelivery systems of CM for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, native microorganisms, and rock dust on Jatropha curcas L. growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, E B; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T

    2016-10-05

    Microorganisms with the ability to release nutrients to the soil from insoluble sources may be useful for plant cultivation. We evaluated the growth-promoting effect on Jatropha curcas L. of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and the native microbiota in soil with or without rock dust. J. curcas L. is important for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a greenhouse under a random-statistical design with 14 replicates. The soil received increasing dosages of rock dust. The presence of resident microorganisms and PSB inoculum was correlated with plant height, biomass production, and phosphorus content in plants for 120 days. Native soil microorganisms were detected and identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis. Several bacterial populations belonged to the genus Bacillus. Populations associated with the phyla Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were detected among the fungi. The best results for the variable plant height were correlated with the presence of resident microbiota and rock dust until the end of the experiment. The largest biomass production and the highest content of phosphorus occurred in the presence of soil-resident microbiota only up to 120 days. No significant effects were observed for biomass production with the use of PSB combined with rock dust. J. curcas L. under the influence of only resident microbiota showed the best plant growth results. Future research will focus on the specificity of resident microbiota activity in plant growth promotion and the isolation of these microorganisms to produce a new inoculum to be tested in various plants.

  10. Use of osmolytes during solubilization and reconstitution of phosphate: sugar phosphate antiport from bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambudkar, S.V.; Sonna, L.A.; Maloney, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphate:2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate (Pi:2DG6P) antiport was extracted from Streptococcus lactis or Staphylococcus aureus with 1.1% octylglucoside in the presence of 0.37% E. coli lipid and reconstituted by detergent dilution. Because previous work suggested inactivation at an early stage, the authors introduced protein stabilants during solubilization. When 20% glycerol was used, proteoliposomes showed a 20-fold increase in 32 Pi transport. This enhanced recovery required phospholipid plus glycerol, and was found only when both were added together with the detergent. Glycerol protection yielded proteoliposomes in which antiporters retained their normal kinetic properties, and Pi exchange by the streptococcal example gave a maximal rate (200-400 nmol/min per mg protein) and a turnover number (30-50/s) which suggested that inactivation had been avoided. Further study showed that 20% glycerol could be replaced by equally high concentrations of compounds classified as osmolytes polyols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol), sugars (glucose, trehalose) and certain amino acids (glycine, proline, but not valine). The authors suggest that osmolytes may be used to fully stabilize chemiosmotic transporters during reconstitution

  11. Polymalic Acid Tritryptophan Copolymer Interacts with Lipid Membrane Resulting in Membrane Solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anionic polymers with membrane permeation functionalities are highly desirable for secure cytoplasmic drug delivery. We have developed tritryptophan containing copolymer (P/WWW of polymalic acid (PMLA that permeates membranes by a mechanism different from previously described PMLA copolymers of trileucine (P/LLL and leucine ethyl ester (P/LOEt that use the “barrel stave” and “carpet” mechanism, respectively. The novel mechanism leads to solubilization of membranes by forming copolymer “belts” around planar membrane “packages.” The formation of such packages is supported by results obtained from studies including size-exclusion chromatography, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence energy transfer. According to this “belt” mechanism, it is hypothesized that P/WWW first attaches to the membrane surface. Subsequently the hydrophobic tryptophan side chains translocate into the periphery and insert into the lipid bilayer thereby cutting the membrane into packages. The reaction is driven by the high affinity between the tryptophan residues and lipid side chains resulting in a stable configuration. The formation of the membrane packages requires physical agitation suggesting that the success of the translocation depends on the fluidity of the membrane. It is emphasized that the “belt” mechanism could specifically function in the recognition of abnormal cells with high membrane fluidity and in response to hyperthermia.

  12. Solubilization of 241AmO2 in alveolar macrophage cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.; Schneider, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Cultured rabbit alveolar macrophages were used to study the effect of phagocytosis on the solubilization of 241 AmO 2 . A comparison was made of the solubility of phagocytized AmO 2 and AmO 2 in cell-free media, in the presence and absence of 0.1 mM DTPA. A time-dependent increase of 26% in the soluble (0.1-μm filtrate) intracellular americium fraction was seen in macrophages cultured for 3 days. The addition of 0.1mM DTPA to culture medium resulted in an increase of 36% over the same time period. In contrast, cell-free media without DTPA resulted in less than a 2% increase in solubility after 4 days of incubation, while addition of 0.1mM DTPA resulted in a 5% increase over the same time period. These results indicate cell-mediated solbuilization of phagocytized AmO 2 by macrophages

  13. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  14. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the growth of Agave angustifolia Haw (Maguey Espadin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.B.; Gutierrez, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth of maguey espadin (Agave angustifolia Haw.). A total of nine strains of PSB, previously isolated in the maguey rhizosphere and identified as PSBVa, PSBVb, PSBVf, PSBHa, PSBHc, PSBHd, PSBMg, PSBMh and PSBMi were tested on maguey plants grown in phosphorus-deficient sterilized and unsterilized soils of three sites where maguey is grown (valley, hill and mountain) under greenhouse conditions. Aerial dry weight and the total weight of maguey plants inoculated with PSBMh in unsterile mountain soil increased by 12.14% and 10.99% respectively, compared with the uninoculated control. Total root dry weight increased by 17.85% with PSBMh in sterile mountain soils and by 11.64% with PSBMg in unsterile mountain soils, with respect to the uninoculated sterile and unsterile control respectively. Plant stem diameter increased by 13.61% with PSBVb in unsterile valley soil, compared to the uninoculated control. Root length was 56.84% higher with PSBMi in unsterile mountain soils than the uninoculated control. Plant leaf number increased by 35% with PSBHd in unsterile hill soil, with respect to the uninoculated control. In all treatments, the available phosphorus at harvest was higher than pre-planting levels. This study suggests that isolated PSBMh, PSBMg and PSBMi are the most efficient biofertilizers for maguey espadin cultivation. (author)

  15. Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Frank C

    2010-06-01

    Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p<.05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Value added phytoremediation of metal stressed soils using phosphate solubilizing microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the soil is a matter of growing concern due to their toxic and non-biodegradable nature. Lack of effectiveness of various conventional methods due to economic and technical constraints resulted in the search for an eco-friendly and cost-effective biological techniques for heavy metal removal from the environment. Until now, phytoremediation has emerged as an innovative technique to address the problem. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation process is hindered under the high metal concentration conditions. Hence, phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) assisted phytoremediation technique is gaining more insight as it can reduce the contamination load even under elevated metal stressed conditions. These microbes convert heavy metals into soluble and bioavailable forms, which consequently facilitate phytoremediation. Several studies have reported that the use of microbial consortium for remediation is considered more effective as compared to single strain pure culture. Therefore, this review paper focuses on the current trends in research related to PSM mediated uptake of heavy metal by plants. The efficiency of PSM consortia in enhancing the phytoremediation process has also been reviewed. Moreover, the role of phosphatase enzymes in the mineralization of organic forms of phosphate in soil is further discussed. Biosurfactant mediated bioremediation of metal polluted soils is a matter of extensive research nowadays. Hence, the recent advancement of using biosurfactants in enhanced phytoremediation of metal stressed soils is also described.

  17. Enhanced Solubilization of Fluoranthene by Hydroxypropyl β-Cyclodextrin Oligomer for Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hui Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoranthene (FT is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, consisting of naphthalene and benzene rings connected by a five-member ring. It is widespread in the environment. The hydrophobicity of FT limits its availability for biological uptake and degradation. In this study, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin oligomers (HP-β-CD-ol were synthesized with epichlorohydrin (EP, while the solubility enhancement of FT by HP-β-CD-ol was investigated in water. The synthesized HP-β-CD-ol was characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The solubility of FT increased 178-fold due to the complex formation with HP-β-CD oligomers. The inclusion complexes of FT/HP-β-CD-ol were analyzed using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance (NOESY NMR spectroscopy. On the basis of these results, HP-β-CD-ol is recommended as a potential solubilizer for the development of PAH removal systems.

  18. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Conghu; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen. - Highlights: • Acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation. • Acylated collagen had stronger thermostability than native collagen. • Amide I was the most sensitive band to the temperature for acylated collagen. • Amide II was the most sensitive band to the temperature for native collagen. • Auto-peak at 1680 cm −1 for acylated collagen disappeared at higher temperature

  20. Human Intestinal Fluid Layer Separation: The Effect On Colloidal Structures & Solubility Of Lipophilic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny, Riethorst; Amitava, Mitra; Filippos, Kesisoglou; Wei, Xu; Jan, Tack; Joachim, Brouwers; Patrick, Augustijns

    2018-05-23

    In addition to individual intestinal fluid components, colloidal structures are responsible for enhancing the solubility of lipophilic compounds. The present study investigated the link between as well as the variability in the ultrastructure of fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) and their solubilizing capacity for lipophilic compounds. For this purpose, FeHIF samples from 10 healthy volunteers with known composition and ultrastructure were used to determine the solubility of four lipophilic compounds. In light of the focus on solubility and ultrastructure, the study carefully considered the methodology of solubility determination in relation to colloid composition and solubilizing capacity of FeHIF. To determine the solubilizing capacity of human and simulated intestinal fluids, the samples were saturated with the compound of interest, shaken for 24 h, and centrifuged. When using FeHIF, solubilities were determined in the micellar layer of FeHIF, i.e. after removing the upper (lipid) layer (standard procedure), as well as in 'full' FeHIF (without removal of the upper layer). Compound concentrations were determined using HPLC-UV/fluorescence. To link the solubilizing capacity with the ultrastructure, all human and simulated fluids were imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and after centrifugation and top layer (lipid) removal. Comparing the ultrastructure and solubilizing capacity of individual FeHIF samples demonstrated a high intersubject variability in postprandial intestinal conditions. Imaging of FeHIF after removal of the upper layer clearly showed that only micellar structures remain in the lower layer. This observation suggests that larger colloids such as vesicles and lipid droplets are contained in the upper, lipid layer. The solubilizing capacity of most FeHIF samples substantially increased with inclusion of this lipid layer. The relative increase in solubilizing capacity upon inclusion of the lipid layer was most pronounced

  1. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-07

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology.

  2. Self-diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, microstructure transitions, and solubilization capacity of phytosterols and cholesterol in Winsor IV food-grade microemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spernath, Aviram; Yaghmur, Anan; Aserin, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    Microemulsions are of growing interest to the food industry as vehicles for delivering and enhancing solubilization of natural food supplements with nutritional and health benefits. The incorporation of molecular phytosterols, cholesterol-lowering agents, in food products is of great interest...... to the food industry. In this work is demonstrated the use of water dilutable food-grade microemulsions consisting of ethoxylated sorbitan ester (Tween 60), water, R-(+)-limonene, ethanol, and propylene glycol as vehicles for enhancing the phytosterols solubilization. Phytosterols were solubilized up to 12...... times more than the dissolution capacity of the oil [R-(+)-limonene] for the same compounds. The solubilization capacity of phytosterols and cholesterol along a dilution line in a pseudo-ternary phase diagram [on this dilution line the weight ratio of R-(+)-limonene/ethanol/Tween 60 is constant at 1...

  3. Costo energético de muros y techos utilizados en la zona sur de Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Alicia Rosas Lusett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra los procedimientos y resultados obtenidos del análisis de la energía trasmitida en techos y muros de las viviendas seleccionadas de la zona sur del estado de Tamaulipas, una de las cinco áreas establecidas dentro del proyecto “Desarrollo y validación de una metodología para estimar los impactos en el ahorro de energía por el uso de sistemas pasivo-constructivos en la edificación para diferentes climas de México”. Este proyecto fue financiado por la Convocatoria S0019-2009-01 del Fondo Sectorial de Sustentabilidad Energética SENER-CONACYT con registro Nº 118665, cuyo objetivo en su tercera etapa de ejecución, consistió en hacer uso de la herramienta Ener-Habitat, la cual fue desarrollada durante la segunda fase del proyecto. Con dicho programa de cálculo se determinaron los gastos de energía, comparativa de cuatro sistemas constructivos para muros y tres sistemas constructivos para losas utilizadas en la zona sur de Tamaulipas. Con la información obtenida y mediante el uso de la metodología desarrollada para estimar los impactos en el ahorro de energía, se evaluó el costo energético de cada uno de los sistemas constructivos. Con los resultados obtenidos se pudo determinar cuál era el muro y techo de menor gasto de energía para la zona de estudio. Adicionalmente se realizó un estudio de la influencia de la absortancia solar de la superficie exterior de los muros, cuyos resultados darán la pauta para diseñar una vivienda que pretende sea adecuada y cómoda al clima cálido húmedo que prevalece en el área.

  4. Estructura espacial de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Paramo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área – CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en  la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre  Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos maduros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceanografía local esta modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribuyeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones y el Río Buritaca, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de  E. argenteus en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano, siendo la temperatura y la profundidad las variables que predijeron mejor la distribución espacial de la especie.

  5. El Cultivo del Caucho y su Establecimiento en la Zona de Porce II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Betancur Orlando

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio detallado de los suelos y clima de la región que comprende el proyecto hidroeléctrico Porce II de las Empresas Públicas de Medellín, comparativo con las condiciones que tienen las zonas caucheras del país y del mundo, con el fin de determinar las áreas aptas para el establecimiento de una explotación comercial. Se encontró que los requerimientos de clima y suelo del caucho están dentro de los parámetros que tiene la zona y de acuerdo con otras restricciones de pendiente y pedregosidad, se seleccionaron 1990 hectáreas para su establecimiento, distribuidas a lo largo y ancho de la cuenca hidrográfica. También se presenta en este artículo una descripción de las prácticas agronómicas del cultivo del caucho y las condiciones de manejo, propias para la zona estudiada. Se dan recomendaciones para las diferentes etapas relacionadas con la propagación y la producción de material vegetal (semillero, jardín clonal y vivero, la siembra y la explotación durante el período productivo de la plantación establecida. Finalmente se contemplan algunos aspectos sobre costos por actividades, la producción promedio de caucho seco y los ingresos en valores por hectárea año que genera el cultivo.

  6. EMERGÊNCIA DOS "CONDOMÍNIOS-CLUBE" NA ZONA SUL DE NATAL/RN, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fernandes de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento tiene como objetivo discutir el surgimiento de una nueva tipología residencial que se ha extendido en el sur de Natal / RN, los condominios llamado Club. Su principal característica es la apelación a los artículos de ocio más diversos, que son utilizados por los empresarios urbanos como una forma de crear un nuevo estilo de vida y un nuevo producto que se vende. La base teórica de este trabajo se basa en el enfoque heterodoxo de la coordinación espacial realizada por Pedro Abramo. Esta perspectiva considera el espacio urbano como un conjunto de inventario de viviendas que son ofrecidas por los empresarios urbanos. En general, el orden urbano y el ambiente residencial es incierto, porque sufren cambios derivados de la aparición de las innovaciones de espacio causadas por empresarios urbanos en busca de beneficios extraordinarios. En el caso de la zona sur de Natal, la construcción de carreteras principales que conectan esta zona de la ciudad al vecino municipio de Parnamirim, que ha sido el blanco de la abundancia del mercado inmobiliario de Natal. El ciclo de vida de los inventarios residenciales de la Zona Sur de Natal ha cambiado con el tiempo, desde el principio de la vivienda en grandes alojamientos para la producción de proyectos verticais. En la actualidad, un fenómeno nuevo que se plantea es la propagación de una nueva clasificación, los condominios club. Al ser un caso reciente en que los proyectos se encuentran todavía en fase de lanzamiento o de la construcción, el estudio se llevará a cabo mediante el análisis de marketing utilizadas por los empresarios urbanos para atraer a los consumidores a través de panfletos y folletos.

  7. Low-Resolution Structure of Detergent-Solubilized Membrane Proteins from Small-Angle Scattering Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsioubas, Alexandros

    2017-12-05

    Despite the ever-increasing usage of small-angle scattering as a valuable complementary method in the field of structural biology, applications concerning membrane proteins remain elusive mainly due to experimental challenges and the relative lack of theoretical tools for the treatment of scattering data. This fact adds up to general difficulties encountered also by other established methods (crystallography, NMR) for the study of membrane proteins. Following the general paradigm of ab initio methods for low-resolution restoration of soluble protein structure from small-angle scattering data, we construct a general multiphase model with a set of physical constraints, which, together with an appropriate minimization procedure, gives direct structural information concerning the different components (protein, detergent molecules) of detergent-solubilized membrane protein complexes. Assessment of the method's precision and robustness is evaluated by performing shape restorations from simulated data of a tetrameric α-helical membrane channel (Aquaporin-0) solubilized by n-Dodecyl β-D-Maltoside and from previously published small-angle neutron scattering experimental data of the filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin β-barrel protein transporter solubilized by n-Octyl β-D-glucopyranoside. It is shown that the acquisition of small-angle neutron scattering data at two different solvent contrasts, together with an estimation of detergent aggregation number around the protein, permits the reliable reconstruction of the shape of membrane proteins without the need for any prior structural information. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers: influence of glycoluril oligomer length on their function as solubilizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Laura; Zhang, Ben; Zavalij, Peter Y; Sindelar, Vladimir; Isaacs, Lyle

    2015-04-07

    We present the synthesis of a series of six new glycoluril derived molecular clips and acyclic CB[n]-type molecular containers (1–3) that all feature SO3(−) solubilizing groups but differ in the number of glycoluril rings between the two terminal dialkoxyaromatic sidewalls. We report the X-ray crystal structure of 3b which shows that its dialkoxynaphthalene sidewalls actively define a hydrophobic cavity with high potential to engage in π–π interactions with insoluble aromatic guests. Compounds 1–3 possess very good solubility characteristics (≥38 mM) and undergo only very weak self-association (Ks containers 3a and 3b which feature three glycoluril rings between the terminal dialkoxy-o-xylylene and dialkoxynaphthalene sidewalls are less efficient solubilizing agents than 4a and 4b because of their smaller hydrophobic cavities. Containers 1 and 2 behave as molecular clip type receptors and therefore possess the ability to bind to and thereby solubilize aromatic drugs like camptothecin, ziprasidone, and PBS-1086.

  9. Hydrotropic Solubilization of Lipophilic Drugs for Oral Delivery: The Effects of Urea and Nicotinamide on Carbamazepine Solubility–Permeability Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Avital; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M.; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2016-01-01

    Hydrotropy refers to increasing the water solubility of otherwise poorly soluble compound by the presence of small organic molecules. While it can certainly increase the apparent solubility of a lipophilic drug, the effect of hydrotropy on the drugs’ permeation through the intestinal membrane has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solubility–permeability interplay when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. The concentration-dependent effects of the commonly used hydrotropes urea and nicotinamide, on the solubility and the permeability of the lipophilic antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were studied. Then, the solubility–permeability interplay was mathematically modeled, and was compared to the experimental data. Both hydrotropes allowed significant concentration-dependent carbamazepine solubility increase (up to ∼30-fold). A concomitant permeability decrease was evident both in vitro and in vivo (∼17-fold for nicotinamide and ∼9-fold for urea), revealing a solubility–permeability tradeoff when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. A relatively simplified simulation approach based on proportional opposite correlation between the solubility increase and the permeability decrease at a given hydrotrope concentration allowed excellent prediction of the overall solubility–permeability tradeoff. In conclusion, when using hydrotropic drug solubilization it is prudent to not focus solely on solubility, but to account for the permeability as well; achieving optimal solubility–permeability balance may promote the overall goal of the formulation to maximize oral drug exposure. PMID:27826241

  10. Changes of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Population on Paddy Field with Intensive Farming became Sustainable Organic Farming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermiyati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the change of population of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms according to the application time of bokashi which were applied continously on organic paddy rice fields since years of 2000 up to 2006. The research was conducted in a Randomized Completely Block Design in four replicates. The treatments were without bokashi (control; with intensively application of NPK fertilizers, bokashi application for 3 planting seasons (12 t ha-1, bokashi application for 4 planting seasons (16 t ha-1, bokashi application for 7 planting seasons (28 t ha-1, and bokashi application for 9 planting seasons (36 t ha-1. The results showed that the population of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms were not affected by continously applied of bokashi and did not have correlations to organic carbon, total nitrogen, ratio C/N, soil pH, and soil water content. However, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms had played a role in the availability of the soil available-P which were shown by increasing of paddy yields year by year, although the contribution of soil phosphorus from bokashi is a relatively low. Yet, the bokashi application on the organic paddy fields did not increase the soil availble-P because most of the P which was absorbed by the plants coming from residual P fertilizers either from bokashi or SP-36 which were intensevely given before.

  11. Hydrotropic solubilization of lipophilic drugs for oral delivery: The effects of urea and nicotinamide on carbamazepine solubility-permeability interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Beig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotropy refers to increasing the water solubility of otherwise poorly soluble compound by the presence of small organic molecules. While it can certainly increase the apparent solubility of a lipophilic drug, the effect of hydrotropy on the drugs' permeation through the intestinal membrane has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solubility-permeability interplay when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. The concentration-dependent effects of the commonly used hydrotropes urea and nicotinamide, on the solubility and the permeability of the lipophilic antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were studied. Then, the solubility-permeability interplay was mathematically modeled, and was compared to the experimental data. Both hydrotropes allowed significant concentration-dependent carbamazepine solubility increase (up to ~30-fold. A concomitant permeability decrease was evident both in-vitro and in-vivo (~17-fold for nicotinamide and ~9-fold for urea, revealing a solubility-permeability tradeoff when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. A relatively simplified simulation approach based on proportional opposite correlation between the solubility increase and the permeability decrease at a given hydrotrope concentration allowed excellent prediction of the overall solubility-permeability tradeoff. In conclusion, when using hydrotropic drug solubilization it is prudent to not focus solely on solubility, but to account for the permeability as well; achieving optimal solubility-permeability balance may promote the overall goal of the formulation to maximize oral drug exposure.

  12. Effects of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria and Nitrogen on the Qualitative and Quantitative Properties of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran, tuberose is ranked the forth after gladiolus, rose and carnation. These flowers are known as high quality products among which maximum exportation belongs to tuberose and gladiolus. In plant cultivation and development, adequate provision of nutrients is of crucial importance. Tuberose needs plenty of nutrients to obtain the desirable quality and flowering. Hence, tuberose balanced nutrition can play an important role in increasing the yield and quality of its flowers. Nitrogen is a deciding factor for the plant growth and physiology. This nutritional element contributes to the formation of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and other cellular components that are required for the construction of new cells. Bio fertilizers containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria (bacillus and pseudomonas have microorganisms which are beneficial to the soil; these bacteria are conducive to the production of biological materials and as a consequence to plant development. According to a report by Rawia Eid et al., (2009 the application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria increased the growth rate of matthiola cut flower and improved its quality. In another study on soybean, it was observed that the application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria led to a rise in the plant dry matter content. Considering the contributory role of nitrogen and phosphorous in increasing the yield and quality of ornamental plants, the aim of this research was to examine the impact of different nitrogen levels and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the yield and qualitative properties of tuberose cut flower. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in a greenhouse in the city of Zanjan in Iran in 2011 through a factorial-form experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments performed on tuberose double cultivar. The treatments included bio fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria at

  13. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. [ 14 C]Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of [ 14 C]methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA + led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S 14 CN - . These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the ∼69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels

  14. Dieta de Phyllodactyllus reissi (Sauria:Gekkonidae) en la Zona Reservada de Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the diet of Phyllodactylus reissi, a nocturnal common gecko distributed from southern Ecuador to central Perú. A total of 15 individuals were captured inside buildings at Quebrada Faical, El Caucho and Bocana Murciélago in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes. Coleoptera and Blattoptera were the dominant preys from a total of six prey types found in stomachs. The number of prey per stomach were between 1 to 9, with 3 preys in average; the prey length average w...

  15. Estrategias para establecer pastos de temporal en zonas semiáridas de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Guzmán, Filogonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Para incrementar la probabilidad de establecimiento de pastos, en siembras de temporal en zonas semiáridas, se caracterizaron física y fisiológicamente semillas de Banderita, Navajita; Buffel y Rhodes y, en base a dimensiones y utilizando tamiz, se clasificaron por tamaño de cariópside (TC) en chicos (Cch), medianos (CM) y grandes (CG). En Banderita y Buffel, los diámetros de tamiz para CG, CM y Cch fueron de 0.70, 0.59 y 0.50 mm y para Navajita y Rhodes, 0.59, 0.50 y 0.42 mm, respectivamente...

  16. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de la temperatura del aire en la zona cafetera colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Paola Pérez Rendón; Víctor Hugo Ramírez Builes; Andrés Javier Peña Quiñones

    2016-01-01

    La zona cafetera colombiana está ubicada en- teramente en el hemisferio norte, entre los 1 y 11° grados de latitud, sobre la cordillera de los Andes. Esta condición (ecuatorial andina) ha hecho que se dé por sentado que la variación temporal de la temperatura es mínima y que por ello, en su mayor parte la variabilidad de este elemento es es- pacial, atribuible casi exclusivamente a los cambios en altura sobre el nivel del mar. En este estudio se exploran factores de variación al...

  17. Características del fruto de cuatro pasifloras de la zona andina venezolana

    OpenAIRE

    Aular, Jesús; Rodríguez, Yesenia; Roa, Sara; Iade, Patricia; Antolínez, María

    2004-01-01

    En la zona andina de Venezuela existen especies del género Passiflora con elevado potencial agronómico. Con el objetivo de contribuir a su conocimiento, se estudiaron las características del fruto de P. ligularis Juss, P. mollisima HBK Bailey, P. mixta L. y P. quadrangularis L. colectadas en los estados Táchira, las tres primeras especies, y Mérida, la cuarta. Se empleó un diseño estadístico completamente al azar y se determinaron características físicas y químicas de la parte comestible del ...

  18. Invernaderos sostenibles para la producción de hortalizas en zonas alto andinas del Cusco

    OpenAIRE

    Zanabria Pacheco, Pedro Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    La investigación tiene como objetivo determinar la importancia en el uso de los invernaderos sostenibles para la producción de hortalizas en las zonas alto andinas del Curso. Para ello, se han diseñado y construido dos prototipos de invernaderos a 3330 msnm, variando la orientación y forma del techo, permitiendo la producción de hortalizas en la estación fría. A la vez está investigación servirá como base para aplicar el proyecto sobre la tecnología de producción sostenible de hortalizas bajo...

  19. Límites urbanos de una zona típica: La Serena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Glasinovic Duhalde

    2013-05-01

    Este trabajo, que no es la historia de una acción terminada sino más bien la relación de su inicio, revisa aspectos relevantes a considerar en la delimitación de la Zona Típica de la Ciudad, comenzando el análisis desde los aspectos del diseño de la ciudad, trascendentes y fundamentales, que son iniciadores de una identidad urbana que es depositaria de una particular arquitectura que es también sensible a esta estructura subyacente que habita en la memoria colectiva.

  20. Vulnerabilidades sociais e juvenil nos mananciais da zona sul da cidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli,Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802012000100006 Este artigo é um produto parcial da pesquisa “Reflexos da Vulnerabilidade Socioambiental nas Manifestações Musicais dos Jovens Paulistanos da Periferia”, identificando como recorte geográfico a periferia da Zona Sul da cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma região que começou a se formar devido à ocupação populacional desordenada em áreas de manancial, onde a vulnerabilidade social é agravada por situações de risco e degradação ambiental, da...

  1. Aspectos geopolíticos en el desarrollo de la zona franca industrial de Ilo

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto; Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto

    1994-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis enfatiza el aspecto geopolítico en el desarrollo de la Zona franca Industrial de Ilo (ZOFRI-IL0). La razón de tal énfasis es simple: por este aspecto específicamente es que se creó la ZOFRI-ILO. En consecuencia, el tratamiento del tema tiene que ver con la influencia geopolítica en las sucesivas etapas de su desarrollo, considerando sus posibilidades de desarrollo a futuro en el marco de las tendencias internacionales de la globalización de la economía mundial. ...

  2. Màquina omplidora semiautomàtica per zona ATEX

    OpenAIRE

    Tiñena Guiamet, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    En aquest projecte es realitza una màquina omplidora semiautomàtica per a zones ATEX (Appareils destinés à êtreutilisés en ATmosphères EXplosives). Aquesta màquina té la capacitat d’omplir tot tipus de recipients amb capacitats des de 20 fins a 1500 litres. Perquè aquest procés sigui possible, un sistema de transportadors desplaça el palet buit fins la zona de dosificació, lloc on l’operari posiciona manualment el dosificador per posteriorment iniciar el cicle d’emplenat automàtic. L’opera...

  3. Geología de la extremidad oriental de la zona sudportuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Simancas Cabrera, José Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Se ha efectuado un estudio de geología regional en la extremidad oriental de la zona Sudportuguesa estableciéndose nuevas unidades litoestratigráficas en los materiales del devonico superior y carbonífero inferior y en la cuenca del Viar. Se han estudiado los caracteres mineralógicos y geoquímicos del vulcanismo pretectónico del plutonismo sin-postectónico y del vulcanismo tardiherciano y se han establecido las deformaciones de plegamiento y la existencia de una notable cizalla frágil tardía ...

  4. Geolog??a de la extremidad oriental de la zona sudportuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Simancas Cabrera, Jos?? Fernando

    1983-01-01

    Se ha efectuado un estudio de geolog??a regional en la extremidad oriental de la zona Sudportuguesa estableci??ndose nuevas unidades litoestratigr??ficas en los materiales del devonico superior y carbon??fero inferior y en la cuenca del Viar. Se han estudiado los caracteres mineral??gicos y geoqu??micos del vulcanismo pretect??nico del plutonismo sin-postect??nico y del vulcanismo tardiherciano y se han establecido las deformaciones de plegamiento y la existencia de una notable cizalla fr??gi...

  5. Effects of solubilization on the inhibition of the p-type ATPase from maize roots by N-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, D K; Gurriel, M; Tu, S I

    1992-12-01

    The biochemical events utilized by transport proteins to convert the chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP into an electro-chemical gradient are poorly understood. The inhibition of the plasma membrane ATPase from corn (Zea mays L.) roots by N-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) was compared to that of ATPase solubilized with N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane-sulfonate (3-14) to provide insight into the minimal functional unit. The chromatographic behavior of the 3-14-solubilized ATPase activity during size exclusion chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation indicated that the solubilized enzyme was in a monomeric form. Both plasma membrane-bound and solubilized ATPase were inhibited by EEDQ in a time- and concentration-dependent manner consistent with a first-order reaction. When the log of the reciprocal of the half-time for inhibition was plotted as a function of the log of the EEDQ concentration, straight lines were obtained with slopes of approximately 0.5 and 1.0 for membrane-bound and 3-14-solubilized ATPase, respectively, indicating a change in the number of polypeptides per functional ATPase complex induced by solubilization with 3-14.

  6. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

  7. Winter rye as a bioenergy feedstock: impact of crop maturity on composition, biological solubilization and potential revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiongjun; DiMarco, Kay; Richard, Tom L; Lynd, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Winter annual crops such as winter rye (Secale cereale L) can produce biomass feedstock on seasonally fallow land that continues to provide high-value food and feed from summer annuals such as corn and soybeans. As energy double crops, winter grasses are likely to be harvested while still immature and thus structurally different from the fully senesced plant material typically used for biofuels. This study investigates the dynamic trends in biomass yield, composition, and biological solubilization over the course of a spring harvest season. The water soluble fraction decreased with increasing maturity while total carbohydrate content stayed roughly constant at about 65%. The protein mass fraction decreased with increasing maturity, but was counterbalanced by increasing harvest yield resulting in similar total protein across harvest dates. Winter rye was ground and autoclaved then fermented at 15 g/L total solids by either (1) Clostridium thermocellum or (2) simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) using commercial cellulases (CTec2 and HTec2) and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Solubilization of total carbohydrate dropped significantly as winter rye matured for both C. thermocellum (from approximately 80% to approximately 50%) and SSCF (from approximately 60% to approximately 30%). C. thermocellum achieved total solubilization 33% higher than that of SSCF for the earliest harvest date and 50% higher for the latest harvest date. Potential revenue from protein and bioethanol was stable over a range of different harvest dates, with most of the revenue due to ethanol. In a crop rotation with soybean, recovery of the soluble protein from winter rye could increase per hectare protein production by 20 to 35%. Double-cropping winter rye can produce significant biomass for biofuel production and feed protein as coproduct without competing with the main summer crop. During a 24-day harvest window, the total carbohydrate content remained

  8. Sexualidades marginalizadas: un acercamiento a la zona de tolerancia en Cali, 1960-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Gutiérrez Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesa al presente artículo la zona de tolerancia como receptáculo de sexualidades marginalizadas en el que pululan prácticas, sujetos e imaginarios anormales, inmorales y transgresores a la norma sexual en la ciudad de Cali, entre 1960 y 1970. A partir de lo anterior se posibilitará un acercamiento al Estado como ejecutor de poder y a la zona como un lugar donde habita, vive y existe la diferencia. Teniendo presentes las dinámicas típicas de este espacio, se prestará atención a la forma como este lugar se convirtió en el sitio idóneo de venta y circulación del mercado pornográfico de la época. Esto con el fin de comprender el surgimiento y popularización de la narrativa pornográfica del escritor caleño Hernán Hoyos. En ese momento se realizará una lectura sobre los imaginarios y lugares comunes que se configuran en la obra de este autor. Por último, se intentará comprender al libro pornográfico, y las realidades que allí se tejen, como elemento configurador de la cultura popular.

  9. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Silva, Alberto Antonio da

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  10. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de la temperatura del aire en la zona cafetera colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Paola Pérez Rendón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La zona cafetera colombiana está ubicada enteramente en el hemisferio norte, entre los 1 y 11° grados de latitud, sobre la cordillera de los Andes. Esta condición (ecuatorial andina ha hecho que se dé por sentado que la variación temporal de la temperatura es mínima y que por ello, en su mayor parte la variabilidad de este elemento es espacial, atribuible casi exclusivamente a los cambios en altura sobre el nivel del mar. En este estudio se exploran factores de variación alternas, que muestran cómo, además de la altitud, otros factores, como la latitud, la zona de convergencia intertropical, El Niño Oscilación del Sur y el Cambio Climático, inciden sobre esta variable climática, que a su vez ejerce un papel fundamental sobre las plantaciones de cafeto.

  11. Diet of Phyllodactyllus reissi (Sauria:Gekkonidae in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the diet of Phyllodactylus reissi, a nocturnal common gecko distributed from southern Ecuador to central Perú. A total of 15 individuals were captured inside buildings at Quebrada Faical, El Caucho and Bocana Murciélago in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes. Coleoptera and Blattoptera were the dominant preys from a total of six prey types found in stomachs. The number of prey per stomach were between 1 to 9, with 3 preys in average; the prey length average was 8,98 mm with a range of 1 to 25mm; the prey volume average was 61,97 mm3 with a range of 0,13 to 670,8 mm3 . The snout-vent length and snout length were not significantly related with average prey lengths and volumes. Phyllodactylus reissi has generalist habits with respect to diet and shows a tendency to consume medium-sized preys in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes.

  12. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  13. Structural changes of the zona pellucida during fertilization and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Sathananthan, Henry

    2008-05-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a unique extracellular coat surrounding the maturing oocyte, during ovulation, fertilization, and early embryo development. It is formed by three/four glycoproteins. Ultrastructural data obtained with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were compared with molecular data on the glycoproteins network from ovulation to blastocyst formation. Molecular models are quite different to the morphology obtained with TEM, which shows a microfibrillar architecture, or with SEM, which shows a spongy or smooth surface. The saponin-ruthenium red-osmium tetroxide-thiocarbohydrazide technique allows to show the ZP real microfilamentous structure and the related functional changes. These results support an ultrastructural supramolecular model, more similar and comparable to molecular models related with the glycoprotein network. A detailed mapping of single mammalian ZP proteins and their relationship within the supramolecular architecture of the zona matrix would clearly supply insights into the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition. Differences in ZP glycoproteins among mammals do not affect structural morphology; further studies are needed to clarify the relationships between ultrastructural and molecular organizations.

  14. Solubilization and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas putida in the presence of surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doong Rueyan; Lei Wengang

    2003-01-01

    The solubilization and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a soil system amended with different surfactants was examined. Mineralization experiments were conducted with the addition of [ 14 C]pyrene. An inoculum of the PAH-degrading microorganism, Pseudomonas putida, was investigated for its sensitivity towards four non-ionic and one anionic surfactants with different polyoxyethylene (POE) chain lengths. The addition of surfactant was found to enhance the bioavailability of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene with efficiencies ranging from 21.1 to 60.6%, 33.3 to 62.8% and 26.8 to 70.9%, respectively. The enhanced efficiency followed the order of Brij 30, Triton X-100, Tween 80, and Brij 35, which is correlated with the polyoxyethylene chain of the surfactants. Brij 35 and Tween 80 inhibited the growth of P. putida. However, microorganisms can utilize Triton X-100 and Brij 30 as the sole carbon and energy sources at concentrations above CMC values. In the aqueous system without the addition of surfactants, microorganisms could mineralize [ 14 C]pyrene to 14 CO 2 which corresponds to 28% of mineralization. The addition of surfactants decreased the mineralization rate of pyrene. Also, the fraction of the micellar-phase pyrene that can be directly biodegraded decreased as the concentration of micelle increases. However, the mineralization rate can be enhanced by the amendment of Brij 30 when soil was applied to the cultures. This suggests that biodegradable surfactants can be applicable for increasing the bioavailability and mineralization of PAHs in soil systems

  15. Mechanistic studies with solubilized rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase: Elucidation of the kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.A.; Brandt, M.; Greway, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    A solubilized preparation of steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat liver has been used in studies focused toward an understanding of the kinetic mechanism associated with enzyme catalysis. From the results of analyses with product and dead-end inhibitors, a preferentially ordered binding of substrates and release of products from the surface of the enzyme is proposed. The observations from these experiments were identical with those using the steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity associated with rat liver microsomes. The primary isotope effects on steady-state kinetic parameters when [4S-2H]NADPH was used also were consistent with an ordered kinetic mechanism. Normal isotope effects were observed for all three kinetic parameters (Vm/Km for both testosterone and NADPH and Vm) at all substrate concentrations used experimentally. Upon extrapolation to infinite concentration of testosterone, the isotope effect on Vm/Km for NADPH approached unity, indicating that the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate is the first substrate binding to and the second product released from the enzyme. The isotope effects on Vm/Km for testosterone at infinite concentration of cofactor and on Vm were 3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4, respectively. Data from the pH profiles of these three steady-state parameters and the inhibition constants (1/Ki) of competitive inhibitors versus both substrates indicate that the binding of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate involves coordination of its anionic 2'-phosphate to a protonated enzyme-associated base with an apparent pK near 8.0. From these results, relative limits have been placed on several of the internal rate constants used to describe the ordered mechanism of the rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase

  16. Importance of Heat and Pressure for Solubilization of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin A; Harris, Thomas I; Oliveira, Paula F; Bell, Brianne E; Alhabib, Abdulrahman; Lewis, Randolph V

    2016-11-23

    The production of recombinant spider silk proteins continues to be a key area of interest for a number of research groups. Several key obstacles exist in their production as well as in their formulation into useable products. The original reported method to solubilize recombinant spider silk proteins (rSSp) in an aqueous solution involved using microwaves to quickly generate heat and pressure inside of a sealed vial containing rSSp and water. Fibers produced from this system are remarkable in their mechanical ability and demonstrate the ability to be stretched and recover 100 times. The microwave method dissolves the rSSPs with dissolution time increasing with higher molecular weight constructs, increasing concentration of rSSPs, protein type, and salt concentration. It has proven successful in solvating a number of different rSSPs including native-like sequences (MaSp1, MaSp2, piriform, and aggregate) as well as chimeric sequences (FlAS) in varied concentrations that have been spun into fibers and formed into films, foams, sponges, gels, coatings, macro and micro spheres and adhesives. The system is effective but inherently unpredictable and difficult to control. Provided that the materials that can be generated from this method of dissolution are impressive, an alternative means of applying heat and pressure that is controllable and predictable has been developed. Results indicate that there are combinations of heat and pressure (135 °C and 140 psi) that result in maximal dissolution without degrading the recombinant MaSp2 protein tested, and that heat and pressure are the key elements to the method of dissolution.

  17. Characterization of detergent-solubilized sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.P.; Vilsen, B.; Nielsen, H.; Moller, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase solubilized by the nonionic detergent octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether was studied by molecular sieve high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analytical ultracentrifugation. Significant irreversible aggregation of soluble Ca 2+ -ATPase occurred within a few hours in the presence of ≤ 50 μM Ca 2+ . The aggregates were inactive and were primarily held together by hydrophobic forces. In the absence of reducing agent, secondary formation of disulfide bonds occurred. The stability of the inactive dimer upon dilution permitted unambiguous assignment of its elution position and sedimentation coefficient. At high 45 Ca 2+ concentration (500 μM), monomeric Ca 2+ -ATPase was stable for several house. Reversible self-association induced by variation in protein, detergent, and lipid concentrations was studied by large-zone HPLC. The association constant for dimerization of active Ca 2+ -ATPase was found to be 10 5 -10 6 M -1 depending on the detergent concentration. More detergent was bound to monomeric than to dimeric Ca 2+ -ATPase, even above the critical micellar concentration of the detergent. Binding of Ca 2+ and 48 V vanadate as well as ATP-dependent phosphorylation was studied in monomeric and in reversibly associated dimeric preparations. In both forms, two high-affinity Ca 2+ binding sites per phosphorylation site existed. The delipidated monomer purified by HPLC was able to form ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme and to bind ATP and vanadate simultaneously. The results suggest that formation of Ca 2+ -ATPase oligomers in the membrane is governed by nonspecific forces (low affinity) and that each polypeptide chain constitutes a functional unit

  18. Investigating substrate use efficiency across different microbial physiologies in soil-extracted, solubilized organic matter (SESOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle, K. T.; Martinez, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental work has elevated the importance of microbial processing for the stabilization of fresh carbon inputs within the soil mineral matrix. Enhancing our understanding of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics therefore requires a better understanding of how efficiently microbial metabolism can process low molecular weight carbon substrates (carbon use efficiency, CUE) under environmentally relevant conditions. One approach to better understanding microbial uptake rates and CUE is the ecophysiological study of soil isolates in liquid media culture consisting of soil-extracted solubilized organic matter (SESOM). We are using SESOM from an Oa horizon under hemlock hardwood vegetation in upstate New York as liquid media for the growth of 12 isolates from the Oa and B horizon of the same site. Here we seek to test the uptake rates as well as CUE of 5 different low molecular weight substrates spanning compound class and nominal oxidation state (glucose, acetate, formate, glycine, valine) by isolates differing in phylogeny and physiology. The use of a spike of each of the 13C-labeled substrates into SESOM, along with a 0.2 μm filtration step, allows accurate partitioning of labeled carbon between biomass, gaseous CO2 as well as the exometabolome. Coupled UHPLC-MS measurements are being used to identify and determine uptake rates of over 80 potential C substrates present in the extract as well as our labeled substrate of interest along the course of the isolate growth curve. This work seeks to utilize a gradient in substrate class as well as microbial physiologies to inform our understanding of C and N cycling under relevant soil solution conditions. Future experiments may also use labeled biomass from stationary phase to investigate the stabilization potential of anabolic products formed from each substrate with a clay fraction isolated from the same site.

  19. For the categories `east` and `west` in the stories `White Fortress` by Ohran Pamuk and Zona Zamfirova by Stevan Sremac

    OpenAIRE

    Karanikolova-Cocorovska, Lusi

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the issues east - west in two novels: "White Fortress" by OrhanPamuk and "ZonaZamfirova" by StevanSremac. The focus is on the treatment of these two entities as separate categories, according to their significance in the novels, and also according to their importance to the culture of the East and West. It is determined the analysis of the categories "east" and "west" in the novels "White Fortress" by OrhanPamuk and ZonaZamfirova by StevanSremacod simply because t...

  20. Análisis estructural a escala regional de la zona de fallas La Trocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Blanco-Moreno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis estructural a escala regional de la zona de fallas La Trocha, a partir de la interpretación de un gran volumen de información geólogo–geofísica, la cual fue clasificada como: morfométrica, gravimétrica, geológica de superficie y del subsuelo. Se obtuvo el modelo digital del terreno (MDT, a partir de la digitalización de 24 cartas del Mapa Topográfico de la República de Cuba 1:50000, editado por el Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografía en 1977. El procesamiento del MDT permitió obtener los principales morfoalineamientos de la región. Se procesó la información obtenida del levantamiento gravimétrico de la Cuenca Central a escala 1:100000, elaborándose los mapas de anomalías de Bouguer, continuaciones analíticas ascendentes y de gradientes. La información geológica de superficie se tomó del Mapa Geológico de la República de Cuba 1:100000, editado por el Instituto de Geología y Paleontología en el año 2001; la información geológica del subsuelo proviene de pozos perforados en la Cuenca Central. La información geólogo–geofísica se procesó digitalmente en su totalidad. La interpretación combinada de esta información permitió un acercamiento a las características geométricas de la zona de fallas La Trocha. Se establecieron las direcciones predominantes en la zona de desplazamiento principal y la posible evolución de los esfuerzos tectónicos. Se propone un modelo de evolución para la región, considerando la existencia de una estructura en flor negativa, la cual ajusta las características existentes y explica el desarrollo simultáneo de una cuenca tensional, la Cuenca Central.

  1. Na,K-ATPase biostimulation by low-energy laser irradiation: comparative effects in membrane, solubilized and proteoliposomes enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigos, C.F.; Tedesco, A.C.; Ciancaglini, P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica; Santos, H.L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: The mechanism of laser irradiation action on living cells is not yet understood. The role of membrane ATPases as possible targets has been analyzed. In our group we have been working with Na,K-ATPase. This enzyme is a member of the P-type family of active cation transport proteins. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of low-energy laser irradiation (685 nm, 35 mW) on the ATPase activity of different forms of the Na,K-ATPase. Membrane-bound and solubilized (ab)2 form of Na,K-ATPase was obtained from the rabbit kidney and DPPC:DPPE-proteoliposomes were prepared by the co-solubilization method. Irradiations were carried out at 685 nm. The ATPase activity of the membrane fraction was not altered with exposition to irradiation doses between 4 and 24 J/c m2. With irradiation doses ranging from 32 to 40 J/c m2, a 28% increase on the ATPase activity was observed while when using up to 50 J/c m2 no additional enhancement was observed. When bio stimulation was done using the purified or the reconstituted enzyme, an increase of about 36-40% on the ATPase activity was observed using only 4-8 J/c m2. With irradiation above these values (24 J/c m2) no additional increase in the activity appeared. These studies revealed that the bio stimulation of ATPase activity from different forms of the Na,K -ATPase is dose dependent in different ranges of irradiation exposure. The stimulation promoted by visible laser doses was modulated and the process was reverted after 2 h for the enzyme present in the membrane and after about 5 h for the solubilized or the reconstituted in DPPC:DPPE-liposomes.

  2. Na,K-ATPase biostimulation by low-energy laser irradiation: comparative effects in membrane, solubilized and proteoliposomes enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigos, C.F.; Tedesco, A.C.; Ciancaglini, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The mechanism of laser irradiation action on living cells is not yet understood. The role of membrane ATPases as possible targets has been analyzed. In our group we have been working with Na,K-ATPase. This enzyme is a member of the P-type family of active cation transport proteins. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of low-energy laser irradiation (685 nm, 35 mW) on the ATPase activity of different forms of the Na,K-ATPase. Membrane-bound and solubilized (ab)2 form of Na,K-ATPase was obtained from the rabbit kidney and DPPC:DPPE-proteoliposomes were prepared by the co-solubilization method. Irradiations were carried out at 685 nm. The ATPase activity of the membrane fraction was not altered with exposition to irradiation doses between 4 and 24 J/c m2. With irradiation doses ranging from 32 to 40 J/c m2, a 28% increase on the ATPase activity was observed while when using up to 50 J/c m2 no additional enhancement was observed. When bio stimulation was done using the purified or the reconstituted enzyme, an increase of about 36-40% on the ATPase activity was observed using only 4-8 J/c m2. With irradiation above these values (24 J/c m2) no additional increase in the activity appeared. These studies revealed that the bio stimulation of ATPase activity from different forms of the Na,K -ATPase is dose dependent in different ranges of irradiation exposure. The stimulation promoted by visible laser doses was modulated and the process was reverted after 2 h for the enzyme present in the membrane and after about 5 h for the solubilized or the reconstituted in DPPC:DPPE-liposomes

  3. Heterologous expression of pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) gene cluster confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Jitendra; Shah, Sonal; Bhandari, Praveena; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-06-01

    Gluconic acid secretion mediated by the direct oxidation of glucose by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is responsible for mineral phosphate solubilization in Gram-negative bacteria. Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 (ATCC 35892) genome encodes GDH apoprotein but lacks genes for the biosynthesis of its cofactor PQQ. In this study, pqqE of Erwinia herbicola (in plasmid pJNK1) and pqq gene clusters of Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 (pOK53) and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (pSS2) were over-expressed in H. seropedicae Z67. Transformants Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) secreted micromolar levels of PQQ and attained high GDH activity leading to secretion of 33.46 mM gluconic acid when grown on 50 mM glucose while Hs (pJNK1) was ineffective. Hs (pJNK1) failed to solubilize rock phosphate, while Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) liberated 125.47 μM and 168.07 μM P, respectively, in minimal medium containing 50 mM glucose under aerobic conditions. Moreover, under N-free minimal medium, Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) not only released significant P but also showed enhanced growth, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) secretion. However, indole acetic acid (IAA) production was suppressed. Thus, the addition of the pqq gene cluster, but not pqqE alone, is sufficient for engineering phosphate solubilization in H. seropedicae Z67 without compromising growth under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

  4. Caracterização de acessos de mangueira Ubá na Zona da Mata Mineira Characterization of access Uba mango of Zona da Mata, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girlaine Pereira Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização física e química de acessos de manga Ubá na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, visando a identificar materiais de interesse industrial. Frutos fisiologicamente maduros foram colhidos e transportados para o Laboratório de Análise de Frutas da UFV, onde foram lavados, tratados com fungicida Prochloraz (Sportak 450 CE, Hoeschst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd., Inglaterra, na dose de 49,5g100L-1 de água, por 10 minutos e secos ao ar. Em seguida, foram tratados com Ethephon, ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico, (Ethrel 240g de ethephon.L-1, RHône-Poulenc Agro Brasil LTDA na concentração de 1g i.a.L-1 juntamente com espalhante adesivo Adesil (760g i L-1, Nufarm Indústria Química e Farmacêutica S.A. na concentração de 20mL 100L-1 durante 5 minutos e secos ao ar. Em seguida, foram armazenados a 20±1°C e umidade relativa de 90% e avaliados após o completo amadurecimento. Os frutos que apresentaram melhores características para o processamento industrial foram os provenientes dos acessos 7, 11, 16, 17, 21, 26, 28, 47, 48, 53, 54 e 56. A massa de fruto, firmeza, teor de sólidos solúveis e teor de ácido ascórbico são as características que apresentaram maior variabilidade dos acessos de mangueira Ubá. A variabilidade genética existente nas mangueiras Ubá, em Visconde do Rio Branco propicia disponibilizar materiais para futuros trabalhos de melhoramento genético e implantação de banco de germoplasma.The objective of this paper was to carry out the physical and chemical characterization of mango Uba access in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, to identify materials of industrial interest. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested and transported to the Laboratory of Analysis of Fruit of the UFV, where they were washed, treated with fungicide Prochloraz (Sportak 450 EC, Hoechst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd., England at a dose of 49.5g 100L-1 water, for 10 minutes and air dried. After that, they were

  5. Effect of Combined Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Phosphrous Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikmehr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is considered to be one of the most essential macro elements required for growth and development of plants, but, due to low solubility and fixation in soils, only a small fraction of phosphorus in soil (1 ppm or 0.1% is readily available to plants. chemical fertilizers are widely used in meeting the phosphorous need of crops. However, as the fertilizer production is dependent upon fossil energy sources, continuous use of chemical fertilizers has become a matter of great concern, not only because of the diminishing availability of costly inputs but environmental concerns also. Under this background, it has obviously brought the subject of mineral phosphate solubilization in the forefront. A group of soil microorganisms is recognized to be involved in microbial phosphate solubilization mechanisms through which insoluble forms of inorganic and organic phosphates convert into soluble forms (HPO4-2 or H2PO4-. Acidification of the medium, chelating, exchange reactions and production of various acids has been discussed as the key processes attributed to the conversion. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB are a group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that convert unavailable forms of phosphorus to available forms and it helps to the growth and yield of plant. The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is considered one of the most important factors increasing sesame yields. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of PGPR and phosphorus fertilizer on some growth parameters and components of yield and also phosphorus and Zinc uptake in sesame. Materials and Methods: In order to investigation of the effect of combined application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of Sesame, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications including five levels of

  6. Proyectos de desarrollo rural en zonas marginadas de Mexico usando ingenieria concurrente

    OpenAIRE

    González Almaguer, Carlos Alberto; Montejano, Gerardo; Vázquez Feijoo, Horacio; Nieto Barrera, Jorge; Lloveras Macià, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    La Ingeniería concurrente (CE) ha atraído más atención en los últimos años debido a que su aplicación reduce el tiempo de diseño de productos desde su concepción hasta su manufactura masiva, mejorando la calidad y el desempeño de los equipos de trabajo en la organización rompiendo las barreras de la ingeniería secuencial. El presente documento muestra una metodología para la realización de proyectos rurales con nuevos productos agroindustriales o su innovación en zonas marginad...

  7. Diferenciación socioespacial en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez Campuzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios urbanos la diferenciación socioespacial es uno de los temas recurrentes, sin embargo, existen pocos estudios en América Latina. En esta investigación se describe la segregación socioespacial en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México (ZMCM y se utilizan variables demográficas y de vivienda del II Conteo General de Población y Vivienda, 2005, para establecer la diferenciación interna. Los resultados indican la existencia de segregación al interior de la ciudad, identificándose una herradura que va del sur al poniente y un sector al norponiente que presenta los mayores niveles de consolidación, un anillo intermedio con una mezcla social y una periferia con los mayores rezagos.

  8. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Application of the Zona-Free Manipulation Technique to Porcine Somatic Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian J; Holm, Peter

    2001-01-01

    cytoplast was agglutinated to a single granulosa cell (primary cultures grown in 0.5% serum for 2-5 days prior to use) in phytohaemagglutinin-P. Subsequently, each half cytoplast-granulosa cell couplet was simultaneously electrofused together and to another half cytoplast. Reconstructed embryos were...... activated in calcium ionophore A23187 followed by DMAP and were then individually cultured in microwells in NCSU-23 medium. On day 7 after activation, blastocyst yield and total cell numbers were counted. Of 279 attempted reconstructed NT embryos, 85.0 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 5 replicates) successfully...... fused and survived activation. The blastocyst rate (per successfully fused and surviving embryo) was 4.8 +/- 2.3% (11/236; range, 0-12.8. Total blastocyst cell count was 36.0 +/- 4.5 (range, 18-58 cells). The blastocyst rate and total cell numbers of parthenogenetically activated and zona-free control...

  10. Um experimento simples usado na produção de placas de zonas de Fresnel

    OpenAIRE

    Muller,Márcia; Silva,Jean Carlos Cardozo da; Fabris,José Luís

    2005-01-01

    Neste trabalho propomos um experimento simples que tem por finalidade auxiliar no aprendizado dos fenômenos de interferência e difração da luz. Após uma análise pertinente da teoria de Fresnel da difração, os conhecimentos são aplicados na compreensão do funcionamento das placas de zonas de Fresnel. Apresentamos uma descrição detalhada dos processos usados para a fabricação e caracterização destas placas zonais, o que possibilita a produção de lentes difrativas com a distância focal desejada ...

  11. Zonas de clandestinidad y “nuda vida:” Mujeres, cuerpo y aborto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sutton

    2017-05-01

    producción de cuerpos ocultos (particularmente de mujeres que son expuestos al peligro y que pueden ser “matados” con impunidad? ¿Es el control violento de estos cuerpos invisibles/excluidos un requisito para mantener intacta la ilusión de la unidad del cuerpo del Estado soberano? Prestar atención a las zonas de clandestinidad que persisten en los Estados democráticos puede ayudar a arrojar luz no sólo sobre las precarias formas de ciudadanía de las personas que integran el cuerpo político de manera marginal, sino también sobre las intervenciones violentas, pero ocultas, por las cuales el Estado soberano mantiene su poder y las jerarquías de género en que se asienta.

  12. EFFECT OF IMMUNIZATION OF RABBIT WITH ZONA PELLUCIDA ANTIGEN ON CONCEPTION RATE AND LITTER SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fayemi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty mature female rabbits were divided into two equal groups. The first group was immunized with zona pellucida (ZP antigen and the second group was injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS at the corresponding time of immunization (control group. When bred by male rabbits, the conception rate in the immunized group (30% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than 100% recorded for the unimmunized (control group. The litter size was 1.67 ± 0.50 for the immunized group and was significantly lower than 7.3 ± 0.82 for the control group (P< 0.001. It is concluded that ZP antigens may become better candidates for contraception than steroids.

  13. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty; Tratado Sobre La Zona Desnuclearizada Del Pacifico Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-15

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [Spanish] El 6 de agosto de 1985 el Foro del Pacifico Sur, organo compuesto por los paises independientes y autonomos del Pacifico Sur (Australia, Fiji, Islas Cook, Islas Salomon, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Nueva Zelandia, Papua Nueva Guinea, Samoa Occidental, Tonga, Tuvalu, y Vanuatu), aprobo el texto del Tratado sobre la Zona Desnuclearizada del Pacifico-Sur y lo abrio a la firma.

  14. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. ALTERNATIVA DE CORREDOR ECOLÓGICO EN LA ZONA NORORIENTAL DEL MUNICIPIO DE MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILLA GRAJALES ANA MARÍA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de establecer una alternativa de corredor ecológico de conexión estructural en las comunas 1, 2, 3 y 4 de la zona nor-oriental del municipio de Medellín, orientada a la  protección del suelo verde existente y a la toma de decisiones en cuanto a la generación de nuevo suelo, utilizando las métricas del paisaje y herramientas geoinformaticas. Se utilizó un área de 400 m² como Unidad Mínima Cartografiable (UMC, encontrándose 296 ha (19,4% de áreas verdes respecto a las 1.527 ha de área de estudio, predominando la cobertura de pasto con 95,4 ha, mientras que la zona arbolada, con un área de 26,1 ha, mostró el mayor aislamiento (99,1 m, y el rastrojo alto con 48,7 ha presentó la mayor agregación (16,4 m. Se priorizaron ocho (8 fragmentos para la conservación, seleccionados a través del Índice de Calidad del Fragmento (ICF, sumando en total 26 ha. El corredor se estableció con un ancho de 80 m, arrojando un área total de 73,2 ha, asociada, en su mayoría, a retiros de quebradas.

  16. Trastornos Asociados a la Deficiencia de Yodo. Vigilancia permanente es deficitaria en zonas vulnerables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Vargas-Uricoechea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (DDY son uno de los mayores problemas en salud pública en el mundo actual, en especial en niños y embarazadas. Estos trastornos truncan el desarrollo socioeconómico en aquellas zonas que los padecen; las poblaciones que viven en zonas yodo-deficientes siempre van a estar expuestas a sufrir las consecuencias originadas por esta deficiencia, en especial el aumento en la mortalidad perinatal, retardo mental, alteraciones en la síntesis de hormonas tiroideas, hipotiroidismo, hipertiroidismo y bocio. La mejor forma de evaluar los DDY es por medio de la yoduria y la mejor estrategia para reducir la prevalencia de estos desórdenes en la población es a través de la yodación universal de la sal. Para actualizar el conocimiento de esta problemática –tanto en el mundo como en Colombia- se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura médica expuesta en las bases de datos de MEDLINE y de LILACS. En total, la búsqueda arrojó la presencia de 723 artículos, la revisión de sus resúmenes permitió escoger inicialmente 114 artículos, de los cuales se decidió incluir en la revisión a 60 de ellos. Se encontró que en Colombia el diagnóstico de DDI es subvalorado, desconociéndose la problemática actual y el estado del yodo poblacional, por lo que es necesario realizar estos estudios, ya que es evidente el abandono político de este problema prevenible, predecible y tratable.

  17. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  18. Zona Incerta: o ARG como meio de construção colaborativa de conteúdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa Correia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discorrerá sobre um estudo de caso realizado sobre o Alternate Reality Game (ARG Zona Incerta, realizado por membros da equipe da revista Superinteressante, publicação da Editora Abril, como estratégia de marketing alternativa para o produto Guaraná Antarctica, da empresa de bebidas AMBEV.

  19. Desnutrición y desarrollo cognitivo en infantes de zonas rurales marginadas de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Carrasco Quintero

    2016-07-01

    Conclusión: Aunque la desnutrición aguda (identificada por el peso ya no es un problema en las zonas rurales de México, la desnutrición crónica (expresada como baja estatura sigue siendo frecuente y se relaciona con alteraciones en el desarrollo mental de la población infantil.

  20. Los archivos notariales como fuente histórica:una visión desde la zona bananera del Magdalena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mercedes Corso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una exploración metodológica e historiográfica de los registrosnotariales y surge de nuestro estudio en curso de la zona bananera delMagdalena desde 1890 hasta 1930. Nuestro propósito es alertar a los estudiantesde historia sobre algunas

  1. “Tomar” e “Zona Monumental de Ajuda Belem”. Dois projectos de salvaguardia, dois casos de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Augusto de Sousa Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosseguindo os propósitos deste Il Seminário internacional “Conservazione del Património Arquitectónico e Urbano”, onde irão ser confrontadas as experiências realizadas em Itália e Portugal no âmbito da conservação do património arquitectónico e urbano, são apresentados dois casos de estudo, objectivando a salvaguarda dos centros históricos, realizados em duas cidades portuguesas - Tomar (Centro Histórico e Lisboa (Zona Monumental Ajuda-Belém. Os dois Planos então realizados – Tomar, em 1996, e zona monumental Ajuda-Belém, em 2004 – ambos recorrendo a suporte informático, evidenciam na “decalage” de 8 anos, a importância dos avanços tecnológicos e informáticos, patente no projecto mais recente (Zona Monumental Ajuda - Belém, quer na aquisição e processamento de dados, quer ainda na consulta dos mesmos, processos que se têm revelado valiosíssimos para a conservação e salvaguarda do património arquitectónico, urbano e ambiental desta zona da cidade de Lisboa.

  2. Phosphorus in agroforestry systems: a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the

  3. Role of the CipA Scaffoldin Protein in Cellulose Solubilization, as Determined by Targeted Gene Deletion and Complementation in Clostridium thermocellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel G.; Giannone, Richard J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The CipA scaffoldin protein plays a key role in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. Previous studies have revealed that mutants deficient in binding or solubilizing cellulose also exhibit reduced expression of CipA. To confirm that CipA is, in fact, necessary for rapid solubilization of crystalline cellulose, the gene was deleted from the chromosome using targeted gene deletion technologies. The CipA deletion mutant exhibited a 100-fold reduction in cellulose solubilization rate, although it was eventually able to solubilize 80% of the 5 g/liter cellulose initially present. The deletion mutant was complemented by a copy of cipA expressed from a replicating plasmid. In this strain, Avicelase activity was restored, although the rate was 2-fold lower than that in the wild type and the duration of the lag phase was increased. The cipA coding sequence is located at the beginning of a gene cluster containing several other genes thought to be responsible for the structural organization of the cellulosome, including olpB, orf2p, and olpA. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed a 10-fold reduction in the expression of olpB, which may explain the lower growth rate. This deletion experiment adds further evidence that CipA plays a key role in cellulose solubilization by C. thermocellum, and it raises interesting questions about the differential roles of the anchor scaffoldin proteins OlpB, Orf2p, and SdbA. PMID:23204466

  4. Occurrence of symbiotic fungi and rhizospheric phosphate solubilization in weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecido dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the ecology of the organisms involved in the production process are necessary for the development of sustainable agriculture, and sustainability is currently closely linked to the profitability of production. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in weeds infesting Brazilian crops and to evaluate the inorganic phosphate solubilization potential of the associated microbiota. A total of 36 weed species were evaluated for the occurrence of mycorrhizae; of these, 11 were selected to evaluate their potential for total and relative phosphate solubilization. All of the species demonstrated mycorrhizal colonization, including a member of the Brassicaceae family, which is usually assumed to be non-mycorrhizal. In most of the species, morphological types of arbuscular and coiled hyphae were observed, with the coiled hyphae being the most common in the grasses. Dark septate endophytic fungi were observed in most of the plants. The weeds presented different potentials for P solubilization in the rhizosphere; Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa and Leonotis nepetaefolia showed high values of relative phosphate solubilization. This is the first report on the mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilization activity in weeds in Brazil.

  5. Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and the detrimental action of zinc ion (Zn2+) and zinc chelates on root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Kalaiarasan, P; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-03-01

    To examine the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential and nematicidal properties of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Differential Pulse Polarography and Gas Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry were used to estimate the total Zn and Zn(2+) ions and identify the organic acids present in the culture supernatants. The effect of culture filtrate of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus PAl5 on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato was examined under gnotobiotic conditions. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl5 effectively solubilized the Zn compounds tested and 5-ketogluconic acid was identified as the major organic acid aiding the solubilization of zinc oxide. The presence of Zn compounds in the culture filtrates of G. diazotrophicus enhanced the mortality and reduced the root penetration of M. incognita under in vitro conditions. 5-ketogluconic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus mediated the solubilization process and the available Zn(2+) ions enhanced the nematicidal activity of G. diazotrophicus against M. incognita. Zn solubilization and enhanced nematicidal activity of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus provides the possibility of exploiting it as a plant growth promoting bacteria.

  6. HemX is required for production of 2-ketogluconate, the predominant organic anion required for inorganic phosphate solubilization by Burkholderia sp. Ha185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Chun Lisa; Condron, Leo; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Hurst, Mark R H

    2015-12-01

    The bacterium Burkholderia sp. Ha185 readily solubilizes inorganic phosphate by releasing the low molecular weight organic anion, 2-ketogluconate. Using random transposon mutagenesis and in silico analysis, a mutation that caused almost complete abolition of phosphate solubilization was located within hemX, which is part of the hem operon. Burkholderia sp. Ha185 HemX is a multidomain protein, predicted to encode a bifunctional uroporphyrinogen-III synthetase/uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase, which has not previously been implicated in phosphate solubilization. Complementation of hemX restored the ability of the mutant to solubilize phosphate in both plate and liquid cultures. Based on a combination of organic-anion profiling, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in silico analyses, hemX was confirmed to be solely responsible for hydroxyapatite solubilization in Burkholderia sp. Ha185. It is proposed that the biosynthesis of a yet to be determined redox cofactor by HemX is the main pathway for generating 2-ketogluconate via a haem-dependent gluconate 2-dehydrogenase in Burkholderia sp. Ha185. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Organic acids production by rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from a Typic Melanudands and its effects on the inorganic phosphates solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Serna Posso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that organic acid secretion by rhizosphere microorganisms is one of the mechanisms to solubilize the phosphorus (P attached to insoluble mineral compounds in soil. This action is an important biotechnological alternative, especially in those soils where high fixation of this nutrient occurs, a very common situation in the tropics. This research evaluated the ability performed by five bacterial and five fungal isolates from Typic Melanudands soil to produce organic acids and generate available phosphorus from insoluble P sources. Given these concerns, the selected microorganisms were replicated for 7 days in liquid medium Pikovskaya (PVK modified sources tricalcium phosphate (P-Ca, aluminum phosphate (P-Al and iron phosphate (P-Fe. The results indicated that phosphorus availability in the media, correlates positively with the organic acids production in each of the sources used (P-Ca (0.63, P-Al (0.67 and P-Fe (0.63. In turn, the chemical processes linked to the phosphates solubilization (e.g., Ca availability affected the development of the microorganisms tested. Both, fungi and bacteria varied in their ability production and type of metabolized organic acids, the most frequent were as follows: citric and gluconic acid.

  8. Structure and characteristics of acid and pepsin-solubilized collagens from the skin of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaokui; Yin, Juanjuan; Yang, Shuqi; Zhang, Chaohua; Yang, Ping; Wu, Wenlong

    2012-12-01

    Acid-solubilized collagen (ASC) and pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) were extracted from the skin of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The yields of ASC and PSC were 35.5% and 12.3%, respectively. Based on the protein patterns and carboxymethyl-cellulose chromatography, ASC and PSC were composed of α1α2α3 heterotrimers and were characterised as type I collagen with no disulfide bond. Their amounts of imino acids were 203 and 191 residues per 1000 residues, respectively. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated the high sequences similarities of ASC and PSC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed that the amide I, II and III peaks of PSC were obtained at a lower wave number compared with ASC. The thermal denaturation temperatures of ASC and PSC, as measured by viscometry, were 34.62 and 33.97°C, respectively. The transition temperatures (T(max)) were 38.17 and 36.03°C, respectively, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both collagens were soluble at acidic pH and below 2% (w/v) NaCl concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective solubilization of membrane proteins differentially labeled by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid in the presence of sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'Batchi, B.; Pichelin, D.; Delrot, S.

    1987-01-01

    Broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs have been incubated with the slowly permeant thiol reagent [ 203 Hg]-para-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) in the presence or in the absence of sucrose, and the release of PCMBS-labeled proteins has been monitored in media containing various concentrations of urea, ethylene glycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), sodium cholate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, octylglucoside or (3-[3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate)(CHAPS). The proteins differentially labeled by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose which, on the basis of previous results, are assumed to included the sucrose carrier, were preferentially solubilized by 1% CHAPS, 1% octylglucoside, or 1% Triton X-100. Other PCMBS-labeled proteins (background proteins) could be partially removed by EGTA, urea, or 0.1% cholate. Sequential treatment by 10 mM EGTA and 1% CHAPS was found to give a fraction highly enriched in the differentially labeled proteins. Analysis of the specific activity of microsomal pellets suggests that the results obtained with leaf discs give a good account of what is occurring at the plasma membrane level. These data, which suggest that the proteins differentially labeled, by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose are intrinsic membrane proteins, can be used to solubilize these proteins from microsomal fractions

  10. Potassium solubilizing bacteria-assisted phytoextraction of radiocesium on pechay plants grown in cesium contaminated Fukushima Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, R.V.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of metal uptake by plants is important to achieve successful phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. The presence of potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) increases the solubilization of K-containing minerals thereby enhancing the availability of potassium (K+) and other cations including radicesium (137Cs+) for plant uptake. In this study, five KSB isolates were obtained from soybean rhizosphere in Fukushima radiocesium contaminated soils. Based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacteria were identified as Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, P. frederiksbergensis, Burkholderia sabiae, and P. mandelii. The KSB isolates were evaluated for plant growth promotion, potassium (K) uptake and radiocesium phytoextraction of pechay in three different cesium-contaminated Fukushima soils. Inoculation with KSB showed beneficial effects on plant growth and increased the phytoextraction of radiocesium, with much greater magnitude in roots than in shoots. The results indicated that KSB inoculation may be essential in managing radiocesium-contaminated soils and manipulating the transfer from soils to plants.(author)

  11. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  12. Sistemas de Producción Campesina en la Zona de Colonización del Departamento del Guaviare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez Vargas León Darío

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con los objetivos de este Panel sobre las formas de producción agrícola en Colombia, la primera parte de esta ponencia describirá y evaluará los sistemas de producción campesinos en unos de los frentes de colonización más activos en la Amazonía colombiana, el Departamento del Guaviare. Luego de ubicar geográfica, histórica, biofísica y socio-económicamente la zona de estudio y también respecto a los usos del suelo, la ponencia centrará sus análisis en los sistemas de producción que se presentan en las zonas de influencia de los ríos Guaviare y Guayabera (Terrazas y Vegas. El estudio de los sistemas de producción en la zona referida, se inicia con la descripción analítica de la apropiación del medio natural por parte del colono. A continuación se describen y analizan los principales usos del suelo particularizando el uso agrícola, en donde se estudian los cultivos, los arreglos productivos y sus principales limitantes. Después de estudiar los sistemas de producción a nivel de zona, se estudian a nivel de unidad de producción, analizando la racionalidad y estrategias que adopta el colono para su manejo. En la segunda parte la ponencia, se discute el rol de los profesionales agrarios y de los centros de educación superior en estos sistemas de producci6n y en las zonas de colonización y se concluye que los primeros no están capacitados para afrontar, de manera adecuada, las necesidades y posibilidades de estos sistemas y de estas zonas, ya que los centros donde se han formado, no suministran los elementos necesarios para ello, a pesar de que históricamente la frontera agrícola de Colombia ha crecido gracias al proceso permanente de colonización.

  13. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  14. Manejo de Sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella Fijiensis var. Difformis Morelet en plátano cv. “Curraré” en San Carlos, Zona Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Ruiz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los diferentes productos químicos, utilizados en el control de Sigatoka negra en banano, en el cultivo de plátano, en la zona de Santa Clara de San Carlos. Uno de los principales objetivos fue generar un programa de manejo químico de la enfermedad para la zona de San Carlos, posible de ser transferido a otras zonas plataneras del país; el otro objetivo fue establecer las bases para automatizar las actividades culturales de manejo de plantaciones de musáceas, mediante la creación de un Software para computadora y asequible por internet.

  15. Solubilization and cleavage of human neutrophil (N) affinity-labeled receptors for leukotriene B4 (LTB4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotti, T.; Young, R.N.; Gifford, L.A.; Goldman, D.W.; Goetzl, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    LTB 4 chemotactic receptors in purified N plasma membranes (PMs) have been affinity-labeled with [ 3 H]-C-1 aminopropylamide-LTB 4 ([ 3 H]APA-LTB 4 ) by disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) cross-linking. Intact Ns were pretreated with diisopropylfluorophosphate, suspended at 10 7 /ml in Hanks' solution-10 mM HEPES (pH 7.4), incubated for 30 min at 4 0 C with 30 nM [ 3 H]APA-LTB 4 and 25 min with 1 mM bis[2-(succinimidooxycarbonyloxy)-ethyl] sulfone, an impermeant analog of DSS, and sonified for 30 sec at 4 0 C. The 10,000 g supernatant of the sonicate was centrifuged at 40,000 g for 30 min at 4 0 C on a discontinuous gradient of 10-50 g % sucrose, from which a mean of 78% of the radiolabel was recovered with PM markers. The extent and specificity of labeling of intact N receptors were similar to those of receptors in PMs. The radioactively-labeled receptors appeared as a single band of 35-40 kd in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 10 g % polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of radiolabeled receptors with 1 mg/ml of cyanogen bromide in 70% formic acid for 18 hr at room temperature or with 30 mM HCl under N 2 for 4 hr at 105 0 C converted a mean of 18-32% of the radioactivity to a band of 14 kd in SDS-15 g % PAGE. N receptors for LTB 4 , thus, are localized in the PM and can be isolated for structural studies

  16. Polypropyleneimine and polyamidoamine dendrimer mediated enhanced solubilization of bortezomib: Comparison and evaluation of mechanistic aspects by thermodynamics and molecular simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Gothwal, Avinash; Khan, Iliyas; Srivastava, Shubham; Malik, Ruchi; Gupta, Umesh, E-mail: umeshgupta175@gmail.com

    2017-03-01

    Bortezomib (BTZ) is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US-FDA is majorly used for the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma including mantle cell lymphoma. BTZ is hydrophobic in nature and is a major cause for its minimal presence as marketed formulations. The present study reports the design, development and characterization of dendrimer based formulation for the improved solubility and effectivity of bortezomib. The study also equally focuses on the mechanistic elucidation of solubilization by two types of dendrimers i.e. fourth generation of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers (G4-PAMAM-NH{sub 2}) and fifth generation of poly (propylene) imine dendrimers (G5-PPI-NH{sub 2}). It was observed that aqueous solubility of BTZ was concentration and pH dependent. At 2 mM G5-PPI-NH{sub 2} concentration, the fold increase in bortezomib solubility was 1152.63 times in water, while approximately 3426.69 folds increase in solubility was observed at pH 10.0, respectively (p < 0.05). The solubility of the drug was increased to a greater extent with G5-PPI-NH{sub 2} dendrimers because it has more hydrophobic interior than G4-PAMAM-NH{sub 2} dendrimers. The release of BTZ from G5-PPI-NH{sub 2} complex was comparatively slower than G4-PAMAM-NH{sub 2}. The thermodynamic treatment of data proved that dendrimer drug complexes were stable at all pH with values of ΔG always negative. The experimental findings were also proven by molecular simulation studies and by calculating RMSD and intermolecular hydrogen bonding through Schrodinger software. It was concluded that PPI dendrimers were able to solubilize the drug more effectively than PAMAM dendrimers through electrostatic interactions. - Highlights: • The present study reports the application of PAMAM and PPI dendrimers in solubilizing bortezomib with possible mechanism. • Improved solubility of bortezomib through dendrimers could significantly contribute its successful anticancer potential.

  17. Polypropyleneimine and polyamidoamine dendrimer mediated enhanced solubilization of bortezomib: Comparison and evaluation of mechanistic aspects by thermodynamics and molecular simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Gothwal, Avinash; Khan, Iliyas; Srivastava, Shubham; Malik, Ruchi; Gupta, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Bortezomib (BTZ) is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US-FDA is majorly used for the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma including mantle cell lymphoma. BTZ is hydrophobic in nature and is a major cause for its minimal presence as marketed formulations. The present study reports the design, development and characterization of dendrimer based formulation for the improved solubility and effectivity of bortezomib. The study also equally focuses on the mechanistic elucidation of solubilization by two types of dendrimers i.e. fourth generation of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers (G4-PAMAM-NH 2 ) and fifth generation of poly (propylene) imine dendrimers (G5-PPI-NH 2 ). It was observed that aqueous solubility of BTZ was concentration and pH dependent. At 2 mM G5-PPI-NH 2 concentration, the fold increase in bortezomib solubility was 1152.63 times in water, while approximately 3426.69 folds increase in solubility was observed at pH 10.0, respectively (p < 0.05). The solubility of the drug was increased to a greater extent with G5-PPI-NH 2 dendrimers because it has more hydrophobic interior than G4-PAMAM-NH 2 dendrimers. The release of BTZ from G5-PPI-NH 2 complex was comparatively slower than G4-PAMAM-NH 2 . The thermodynamic treatment of data proved that dendrimer drug complexes were stable at all pH with values of ΔG always negative. The experimental findings were also proven by molecular simulation studies and by calculating RMSD and intermolecular hydrogen bonding through Schrodinger software. It was concluded that PPI dendrimers were able to solubilize the drug more effectively than PAMAM dendrimers through electrostatic interactions. - Highlights: • The present study reports the application of PAMAM and PPI dendrimers in solubilizing bortezomib with possible mechanism. • Improved solubility of bortezomib through dendrimers could significantly contribute its successful anticancer potential. • Molecular simulation and thermodynamic

  18. Contribution of native phosphorous-solubilizing bacteria of acid soils on phosphorous acquisition in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Madhusmita; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Pradhan, Chinmay; Tuteja, Narendra; Mohanty, Santanu

    2017-11-01

    The present investigation analyzes the in vitro P solubilization [Ca-P, Al-P, Fe(II)-P, and Fe(III)-P] efficiency of native PSB strains from acid soils of Odisha and exploitation of the same through biofertilization in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) growth and P acquisition. One hundred six numbers of soil samples with pH ≤ 5.50 were collected from five districts of Odisha viz., Balasore, Cuttack, Khordha, Keonjhar, and Mayurbhanj. One bacterial isolate from each district were selected and analyzed for their P solubilization efficiency in National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate broths with Ca, Al, and Fe-complexed phosphates. CTC12 and KHD08 transformed more amount of soluble P from Ca-P (CTC12 393.30 mg/L; KHD08 465.25 mg/L), Al-P (CTC12 40.00 mg/L; KHD08 34.50 mg/L), Fe(III)-P (CTC12 175.50 mg/L; KHD08 168.75 mg/L), and Fe(II)-P (CTC12 47.40 mg/L; KHD08 42.00 mg/L) after 8 days of incubation. The bioconversion of P by all the five strains in the broth medium followed the order Ca-P > Fe(III)-P > Fe(II)-P > Al-P. The identified five strains were Bacillus cereus BLS18 (KT582541), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CTC12 (KT633845), Burkholderia cepacia KHD08 (KT717633), B. cepacia KJR03 (KT717634), and B. cepacia K1 (KM030037) and further studied for biofertilization effects on peanut. CTC12 and KHD08 enhanced the soil available P around 65 and 58% and reduced the amount of each Al 3+ about 79 and 81%, respectively, over the uninoculated control pots in the peanut rhizosphere. Moreover, all tested PSB strains could be able to successfully mobilize P from inorganic P fractions (non-occluded Al-P and Fe-P). The strains CTC12 and KHD08 increased the pod yield (114 and 113%), shoot P (92 and 94%), and kernel P (100 and 101%), respectively, over the control. However, B. amyloliquefaciens CTC12 and B. cepacia KHD08 proved to be the potent P solubilizers in promoting peanut growth and yield.

  19. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, P.O.; Okujeni, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed

  20. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2018-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.

  1. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunleye, P O [Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okujeni, C D [Department Of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    1994-12-31

    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed.

  2. Acoso escolar en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México: prevalencia y factores asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Vega López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivos determinar la prevalencia de víctimas de acoso escolar en alumnos de escuelas secundarias públicas de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México, e identificar factores asociados al hecho de ser víctima en el pe- ríodo 2009-2011. Se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal analítico. Se diseñó una mues- tra probabilística polietápica de escuelas secundarias públicas y se estudiaron 1.706 alumnos entre 11 y 16 años. Se aplicó un instrumento con cuatro apartados que permitió identificar a las víctimas de acoso y se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística para me- dir la asociación entre los factores analizados y el ser víctima de acoso. La prevalencia de acoso escolar fue del 17,6% (IC95% 15,8; 19,5. Factores de carácter personal, como sentir que no es aceptado por el grupo o no pasar mucho tiempo con amigos, fueron los que tuvieron una asociación más fuerte y estadísticamente significativa con el hecho de ser víctima de acoso en la escuela.

  3. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  4. Simplification of Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer by Application of a Zona-Free Manipulation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian; Reipurth, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods. The techni......Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods....... The technique comprises the bisection of zona-free oocytes and the reconstruction of embryos comprising two half cytoplasts and a somatic cell by adherence using phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA) followed by an electropulse and subsequent culture in microwells (termed WOWs--well of the well). The development......-intact zygotes were not different in either blastocyst yield (44.6 +/- 2.4% versus 51.8 +/- 13.5% [mean +/- SEM]) or quality (126.3 +/- 48.4 versus 119.9 +/- 32.6 total cells), and exposure of zygotes to PHA-P did not reduce blastocyst yields compared to vehicle control (40.8 +/- 11.6% versus 47.1 +/- 20...

  5. Evapotranspiration of caupi beans culture in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, Ana Lucia; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Dall'Olio, Attilio; Carneiro, Clemente Jose Gusmao

    1996-01-01

    A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)

  6. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Hernández-Pichardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP binding. Results Experiment 1, 4–20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN. Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively but statistically differents (P  0.05. Conclusions Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU + ZP increased AR/A and AR/D rates in comparison with SU in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. According to this, in terms of fertilization rates, chemical activation after ICSI increased oocyte PN formation compared to mechanical activation. Also, fresh sperm treated with SU and SU + ZP were significantly different than frozen-thawed sperm, but between sperm treatments no significant differences were obtained.

  7. Coopeprocesadora de infusiones naturales de la zona del caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Jiménez Quesada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Coopeprocesadora de infusiones naturales de la zona del Caribe de Costa Rica es un proyecto académico ideado para la dinamización y desarrollo de la comunidad de Siquirres. El proyecto busca rescatar el valor del medio natural como recurso clave para la creación de empleos a través de nuevas actividades industriales en la región. La arquitectura de la Coopeprocesadora consta de una piel inspirada en el origami y el rescate de elementos clave para el manejo bioclimático de los espacios. The Natural Infusion Processing Cooperative of the caribbean zone of Costa Rica is an academic project designed for the dynamization and development of the community of Siquirres. The project seeks to rescue the value of the natural environment as a key resource for job creation through new industrial activities in the region. The architecture of the processing cooperative consists of a skin inspired by origami and the rescue of key elements for the bioclimatic management of spaces.

  8. Phosphorylation of zona occludens-2 by protein kinase C epsilon regulates its nuclear exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, David; Alarcón, Lourdes; Ponce, Arturo; Tapia, Rocio; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Robles-Flores, Martha; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Segovia, José; Bandala, Yamir; Juaristi, Eusebio; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-09-01

    Here, we have analyzed the subcellular destiny of newly synthesized tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2. After transfection in sparse cells, 74% of cells exhibit ZO-2 at the nucleus, and after 18 h the value decreases to 17%. The mutation S369A located within the nuclear exportation signal 1 of ZO-2 impairs the nuclear export of the protein. Because Ser369 represents a putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, we tested the effect of PKC inhibition and stimulation on the nuclear export of ZO-2. Our results strongly suggest that the departure of ZO-2 from the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser369 by novel PKCepsilon. To test the route taken by ZO-2 from synthesis to the plasma membrane, we devised a novel nuclear microinjection assay in which the nucleus served as a reservoir for anti-ZO-2 antibody. Through this assay, we demonstrate that a significant amount of newly synthesized ZO-2 goes into the nucleus and is later relocated to the plasma membrane. These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2.

  9. Seroprevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en Ushuaia, Argentina, una zona sin triatominos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallimaci María Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la seroprevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en Ushuaia, la ciudad más austral del mundo. Métodos. Se analizaron muestras de suero de 2 991 personas, obtenidas entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 1996. Las muestras fueron procesadas por hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI e inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA o inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. Resultados. La seroprevalencia general de la infección por T. cruzi fue de 6,8%. La prevalencia según el país de origen fue de 41,1% en los bolivianos, 5,0% en los argentinos y 0,9% en los chilenos; en embarazadas fue de 5,9%, en exámenes obligatorios de 6,3% y en consultas dirigidas de 30,8%. Conclusiones. Se destaca la magnitud de la infección por T. cruzi en una zona donde no existe el insecto vector. Debido al riesgo de la transmisión congénita y transfusional, es necesario mantener el control de la sangre a transfundir y reforzar el seguimiento de los hijos de mujeres infectadas para un diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno de la infección.

  10. Zonas de vacancia comunicacional en los estudios sobre fútbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodo, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Pese a su tardía colocación como objeto legitimado al interior de las ciencias sociales, especialmente en América latina, los estudios sobre fútbol son abundantes. Contando con producciones de numerosos países, la masa textual generada al respecto crece y prolifera. No es nuestra intención en este artículo reponerla en la exhaustividad del detalle. Más bien se trata, primero, de cartografiar las procedencias disciplinares de esos textos. Y luego, de situar zonas de vacancia para investigaciones provenientes desde una mirada comunicacional. [en] In spite of its late placement as legitimized object to the interior of the social sciences, specially in Latin America, the studies on football are abundant. Relying on productions of numerous countries, the textual mass generated in the matter grows and proliferates. It is not our intention in this article to recover it with the thoroughness of the detail. Rather than that, the objective is to map the disciplinarian origins of these texts. And then, of placing zones of vacancy for researches that come from a communication perspective

  11. Immunogold study on lectin binding in the porcine zona pellucida and granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Parillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural localization of lectin receptors on the zona pellucida (ZP of porcine antral oocytes and on the granulosa cells was performed using a panel of horseradish peroxidase- labelled lectins in conjunction with antiperoxidase antibody and protein A-gold. In some cases, lectin incubation was preceded by sialidase digestion. WGA-, Con-A-, UEA-I-, RCA-I-, PNA- and SBA-reactive sites were distributed differently in the porcine ZP. Sialidase digestion increased the positivity obtained with RCA-I and it was necessary to promote PNA and SBA reactivity. These results indicated that the ZP contained N-acetylglucosamine, a-mannose, a- fucose, b-Gal-(1-4GlcNAc, b-Gal- (1-3GalNAc, b-GalNAc and sialic acid residues. We also observed the presence of vesicles in both the ooplasm and granulosa cells, showing a similar lectin binding pattern to that of the ZP, thus suggesting that the oocyte and granulosa cells are the site of synthesis of ZP glucidic determinants.

  12. Determinantes del ingreso en los hogares en zonas rurales de Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Godínez Montoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación consistió en identificar los factores que determinan el ingreso corrien - te mensual de los hogares en la zona rural de Chiapas, aparte de las propias actividades agrícolas. Se planteó un modelo econométrico, en el cual el logaritmo del ingreso fue la variable dependiente y las explicativas fueron el sexo del jefe del hogar, la edad, la edad al cuadrado, jefe del hogar con primaria completa, jefe del hogar con secundaria com - pleta, jefe del hogar con preparatoria completa, los integrantes del hogar, perceptores de ingresos ocupados y los años de estudio del jefe del hogar. Los resultados indican que tanto el modelo como todos los coeficientes estimados fueron significativos y con los signos esperados; existiendo una relación directa entre la variable dependiente con el sexo, la edad; la primaria, secundaria y preparatoria completas, perceptores de ingre - sos ocupados y los años de estudio, y una relación inversa con la edad al cuadrado y los integrantes del hogar.

  13. ANALISA ANOMALI GAYABERAT TERHADAP KONDISI TATANAN TEKTONIK ZONA SUBDUKSI SUNDA MEGATHRUST DI SEBELAH BARAT PULAU SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Thea Saraswati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aktivitas tektonik yang terjadi di bumi merupakan hal yang masih terus diteliti sampai sekarang. Sumatera yang terletak pada area Sunda Megathrust, yang merupakan zona subduksi Lempeng Indo-Australia dan Lempeng Eurasia, mengakibatkan daerah ini rentan dengan aktivitas seismogenic. Salah satu akibat dari adanya pergerakan kedua lempeng ini adalah terbentuknya tatanan tektonik di wilayah Sumatera. GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer menawarkan metode yang cepat dengan cakupan global untuk mendapatkan data gayaberat bumi. Dengan memanfaatkan hitungan dari spherical harmonic coeffisien (SHC serta dilengkapi dengan data Digital Elevation Model (DEM, dapat diketahui nilai anomali gayaberat pada suatu wilayah. Distribusi anomali gayaberat mampu mencerminkan kondisi tektonik di suatu area. Variasi spasial dari anomali gayaberat menunjukkan bahwa pada palung yang terbentuk akibat subduksi kedua lempeng memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat negatif dengan nilai rata-rata sebesar -42.8729 mgal. Forearc ridge yang terbentuk akibat konvergensi lempeng memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat positif, sedangkan forearc basin yang merupakan cekungan diantara backarc dan forearc ridge, memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat negatif yang lebih kuat daripada yang terdapat pada Sunda Megathrust. Variasi temporal yang teramati menunjukkan bahwa distribusi anomali gayaberat positif yang terdapat pada prisma akresi di kedua tepian palung bergerak semakin mendekati Sunda Megathrust pada tiap seri pengamatannya, sedangkan distribusi anomali gayaberat negatif pada palung laut dan forearc basin membentuk suatu  pola distribusi yang semakin menyempit sehingga menyebabkan semakin curamnya gradient anomali gayaberat pada area di sekitarnya.

  14. Capital social de los padres de escolares de una zona vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Susana; Herrera, Ariel; Hilas, Elena; Gigena, Y Pablo

    2018-01-01

    El capital social supone importantes inversiones materiales, simbólicas y de esfuerzos. Conocer el capital social de una comunidad puede facilitar la comprensión del beneficio de las relaciones comunitarias para la promoción de salud. Con el objetivo de reconocer los componentes del capital social de padres de escolares atendiendo una escuela en una zona vulnerable de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, indagamos a través de grupos focales acerca de elementos esenciales del capital social. La asintonía socio-cultural entre los pobladores originarios y los reubicados, la estigmatización policial y el clientelismo político han generado desconfianza del uno hacia el otro en diferentes aspectos convivenciales, siendo la familia la única red de apoyo. La escuela se reconoce como espacio adonde la gente espontáneamente se organiza para invertir en redes sociales, presentándose así con potencialidad para la promoción de conductas saludables, por el lugar simbólico que ocupa para los padres.

  15. A Flexure-Guided Piezo Drill for Penetrating the Zona Pellucida of Mammalian Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.

  16. POLOS, EIXOS E ZONAS: CIDADES E ORDENAMENTO TERRITORIAL NA AMAZÔNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Clair Cordeiro da Trindade Júnior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma fase de rápida ocupação do território foi inaugurada a partir da década de 1960 na Amazônia. A presença de empresários, especuladores e migrantes, mediados por ações intencionais do Estado, definiu uma nova forma de ocupação territorial para a região. As estratégias de ação se basearam em pelo menos três tipos principais de ordenamento do território. Não obstante a continuidade existente entre eles, expressam-se em diferentes geometrias do desenvolvimento: os pontos (polos de crescimento, as linhas (eixos de integração e as zonas (zoneamento ecológico-ecomico. Considerando esses diferentes arranjos territoriais, o artigo busca considerar o papel assumido pelas cidades em cada uma dessas estratégias de desenvolvimento regional, de forma a mostrar mudanças e continuidades que se fazem presentes na história regional recentente da Amazônia

  17. PABLO PALACIO: LA VIOLENCIA CORPORAL SOBRE LAS IDENTIDADES IMPOSIBLES EN LA ZONA DE LOS ANDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Falconí Travez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Palacio, escritor ecuatoriano de la segunda década del siglo pasado, se encargó de construir en sus relatos un catálogo de cuerpos raros con sexualidades ambiguas e inquietantes que se alejan del canon andino al que él pertenece. No obstante, una de las cuestiones que más llama la atención es que varios de esos cuerpos son disciplinados por ciertos discursos de poder de un modo violento. Este trabajo explora desde la teoría literaria dichas vejaciones tomando en consideración la violencia sobre las identidades de mujeres y homosexuales en dos de sus relatos, e indaga sobre cuestiones como la economía de la representación, la  violencia, su relación con el texto literario y la vulnerabilidad, como requisito sine qua non de las vejaciones, en ciertos cuerpos en la zona de los Andes.

  18. Método Expedito para a Análise de Qualidade Ambiental em Zonas Ripárias Urbanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Siloto da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde o estabelecimento das primeiras cidades, as áreas marginais aos rios são amplamente incorporadas na produção do espaço urbano. Visando contribuir para a reversão dos impactos da urbanização sobre estas áreas,  o trabalho apresenta  um método expedito para análise da qualidade ambiental nas zonas ripárias urbanas. Foi definido um conjunto de variáveis interdisciplinares e critérios de análise, e foram coletados dados em córregos localizados em cidades distintas. Como resultados parciais, o estudo identificou dificuldades quanto ao procedimento de coleta de dados  o que conduziu a alteração dos critérios de análise para o sistema canal fluvial-zona ripária.

  19. Formas de hierro y aluminio en suelos con diferentes usos en la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez Polo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron las diferentes formas de hierro (Fe y aluminio (Al presentes en suelos cultivados y en áreas de bosque de la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia. Se seleccionaron seis zonas de muestreo localizadas entre 0 y 1000 m.s.n.m. Se utilizaron tres técnicas selectivas de extracción de Fe y Al con los agentes extractantes: pirofosfato de sodio, oxalato ácido de amonio, y ditionito citrato bicarbonato. Los contenidos totales de Fe y Al fueron determinados mediante un ataque ácido y cuantificación por absorción atómica. El análisis de varianza multivariado mostró diferencias significativas (P 3% del Al total, lo que sugiere que un alto contenido de Al forma parte de estructuras cristalinas.

  20. Dimensión de competitividad urbana en la zona sur de Tamaulipas: el papel del gerente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chávez Meléndez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID desarrolló una metodología basada en una serie de indicadores denominada ICES (iniciativa de ciudades emergentes sustentables, que como primera etapa propone el diagnóstico de una ciudad o zona conurbada para poder planear las acciones futuras de mejora (BID, 2014. Este proyecto de investigación se sustentó en este modelo y en el modelo del IMCO. Para lo cual, se desarrolló una  investigación descriptiva, con enfoque cuantitativo basada en el desarrollo de la dimensión de competitividad urbana en la zona sur de Tamaulipas. Los resultados obtenidos se presentan y permiten generar un espacio de acciones de planeación, reflexión y de formulación de políticas públicas.

  1. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  2. Pectinolytic bacteria and their secreted pectate lyases: agents for the maceration and solubilization of phytomass for fuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, J.F. III; Rice, J.D.; Chow, M.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research have been to identify the pectinolytic enzymes secreted by bacteria and apply these towards the enhanced maceration and solubilization of plant material, focusing on the pectate lyases secreted by the phytopathogenic strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi, the ruminant resident Lachnospira multiparus, and the wood digestor isolate, Clostridium populeti. An HPLC approach has been developed that permits the kinetic analysis of each enzyme with respect to the formation of individual products during the pectate depolymerization process. This approach has demonstrated that each of these organisms secretes a nonrandom trimer-generating pectate lyase with a combination of endolytic and exolytic depolymerizing mechanisms. Two different strains of E. chrysanthemi secrete a battery of pectate lyases that include random endolytic as well as nonrandom dimer - and nonrandom trimer-generating endolytic/exolytic mechanisms. (author)

  3. Isolation and Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing and Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria from Soil in Wamena Biological Garden, Jayawijaya, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB from soil samples of Wamena Biological Garden (WbiG. Eleven soil samples were collected randomly to estimate microbial population which used plate count method. The result showed that the microbial population ranged from 5.0x103-7.5x106 cells of bacteria/gram of soil and 5.0x103-1.5x107 cells of bacteria/gram of soil for PSB and NFB respectively. There were 17 isolates which have been identified till genus and species. The isolated microorganism were identified as PSB i.e. Bacillus sp., B. pantothenticus, B. megatherium, Flavobacterium sp., F. breve, Klebsiella sp., K. aerogenes, Chromobacterium lividum, Enterobacter alvei, E. agglomerans, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp. and as NFB i.e. Azotobacter sp., A. chroococcum, A. paspalii, Rhizobium sp., and Azospirillum sp.

  4. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Siloxane-Terminated Solubilizing Side Chains: Bringing Conjugated Polymer Backbones Closer and Boosting Hole Mobilities in Thin-Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2011-12-21

    We introduce a novel siloxane-terminated solubilizing group and demonstrate its effectiveness as a side chain in an isoindigo-based conjugated polymer. An average hole mobility of 2.00 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (with a maximum mobility of 2.48 cm 2 V -1 s -1), was obtained from solution-processed thin-film transistors, one of the highest mobilities reported to date. In contrast, the reference polymer with a branched alkyl side chain gave an average hole mobility of 0.30 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a maximum mobility of 0.57 cm 2 V -1 s -1. This is largely explained by the polymer packing: our new polymer exhibited a π-π stacking distance of 3.58 Å, while the reference polymer showed a distance of 3.76 Å. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Changes in labile phosphorus forms during maturation of vermicompost enriched with phosphorus-solubilizing and diazotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Jader G; Lima, Lívia S; Aguiar, Natália O; Canellas, Luciano P; Olivares, Fábio L

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of N(2)-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria during maturation of vermicompost on phosphorus availability. A bacterial suspension containing Burkholderia silvatlantica, Burkholderia spp. and Herbaspirillum seropedicae was applied at the initial stage of vermicomposting. At the end of the incubation time (120days), the nitrogen content had increased by18% compared to uninoculated vermicompost. Water-soluble P was 106% higher in inoculated vermicompost while resin-extractable P increased during the initial vermicomposting stage and was 21% higher at 60days, but was the same in inoculated and uninoculated mature compost. The activity of acid phosphatase was 43% higher in inoculated than uninoculated vermicompost. These data suggest that the introduction of the mixed culture had beneficial effects on vermicompost maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the solubilization of ribonuclease and of its hydrophobic derivatives on water-in-oil microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Fabienne

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structural disruption of a water-in-oil microemulsion during the solubilization of an enzyme. More precisely, the microemulsion is the water/isooctane system, stabilised by the commonly named AOT anionic surfactant, and the disrupting agent is an enzymatic protein, ribonuclease A. The author addresses the following topics: interactions in microemulsion, percolation in microemulsion, use of microemulsions as micro-reactor, chemical modification of enzymes, and reactivity of enzymes. After a recall of the main results concerning AOT inverse micelles, the author addresses the influence of ribonuclease solubilisation on the micellar system. The micellar environment is then used as a micro-reactor in order to fix hydrophobic molecules in a covalent way onto the ribonuclease A, and then to promote the percolation process. The author then studies the structure of the microemulsion in presence of modified enzymes [fr

  8. Modelo agroecológico en la zona de amortiguamiento del Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Enrique Tovar-Puentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La zona de amortiguamiento del Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque viene siendo afectada por los residentes aledaños, que expanden la frontera agrícola y ejercen presión hacia el área protegida en busca de mejorar sus condiciones socio-económicas y la variedad de alimentos para la familia; situación que genera un conflicto socio-ambiental. Partiendo de la importancia que en la actualidad se le ha dado al tema ecológico y medioambiental, se ha considerado fundamental buscar alternativas concretas de manejo que muestren un impacto positivo desde los puntos de vista ambiental, social, económico y agroecológico, derivándose del aprovechamiento racional de los recursos ecológicos. Dentro de las múltiples alternativas planteadas por el Estado y los gobiernos sectoriales, se habla del desarrollo sostenible, un modelo innovador que permite desplegar políticas productivas desarrolladas incluso en ambientes protegidos por el Estado, caso en concreto, el predio “Buena Vista”, en la zona de amortiguamiento del Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque, en el municipio de Arcabuco; en este predio se realizó una planificación para zonificar y dividir las aéreas, determinando los tipos de producción agroecológica que se adapten a las características de la zona, identificando las labores que facilitan la ubicación de los diferentes sistemas productivos, y así establecer una cadena productiva familiar diferente al monocultivo de papa, que faciliten la mano de obra y repercutan en la actividad social de la comunidad y ambiental en la zona amortiguadora.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CBMB205, a Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizoplane of Rice in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min; Lee, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis CBMB205 (= KACC 13105T = NCCB 100236T) was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. O-dae). According to previous studies, this bacterium has several genes that can promote plant growth, such as the phosphorus-solubilizing protein-coding gene. Here, we present the first complete genome of B.?velezensis CBMB205.

  10. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION OF A WINSOR TYPE I SURFACTANT/ALCOHOL MIXTURE FOR IN SITU SOLUBILIZATION OF A COMPLEX LNAPL AS A SINGLE-PHASE MICROEMULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Winsor Type I surfactant/alcohol mixture was used as an in situ flushing agent to solubilize a muticomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) as a single-phase microemulsion (SPME) in a hydraulically isolated test cell at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. The surfactant (polyoxye...

  11. Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) on poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyong; Yoon, Young-Man; Han, Seong Kuk; Kim, Daegi; Kim, Ho

    2017-06-01

    This study is an assessment of the hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) of poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion. This assessment was carried out to ascertain the optimal HTP temperature. The solubilization and physical properties efficacy was investigated by capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF), and particle size. In addition, the anaerobic digestion was investigated through biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and subsequent statistical analysis using the modified Gompertz model. HTP was found to have improved the solubilization of the PSW sludge with increasing HTP temperature. In addition, the results of the CST, TTF, and particle size decreased with increasing HTP temperature. These results of the assessment that was conducted in this study confirm that the HTP process indeed modifies the physical properties of PSWs to enhance the solubilization of organic solids. Nevertheless, the results of the BMP tests and the modified Gompertz model analysis show that the optimal HTP temperature of PSWs for anaerobic digestion is 190°C. These findings show that to achieve high conversion efficiency, an accurately designed pre-treatment step must be included in the overall anaerobic digestion process for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria in Sediments from a Shallow Eutrophic Lake and a Wetland: Isolation, Molecular Identification and Phosphorus Release Ability Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of phosphorus (P is a major factor of lake eutrophication, and phosphate releasing bacteria play an important role in the release process. Experiments were conducted to investigate P content and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacterial composition at the molecular level in a shallow eutrophic lake and a wetland. Results showed that P concentrations were relatively high and derived from agricultural runoff and domestic or industrial pollution. Enumeration and molecular identification of these strains indicated that these bacterial groups were abundant in the ecosystem and various kinds of bacteria participated in the phosphorus release process. Twelve phosphate solubilizing bacteria, including eight organic P-solubilizing bacteria (OPBs and four inorganic P-solubilizing bacteria (IPBs, which belonged to three different families, were isolated and identified. Cupriavidus basilensis was found for the first time to have the ability to mineralize organic P (OP. Laboratory tests on P release ability revealed that IPBs were more effective at releasing P than OPBs. The most efficient IPB strain could accumulate over 170 mg·L-1 orthophosphate, while the equivalent OPB strain only liberated less than 4 mg·L-1 orthophosphate in liquid culture. The results obtained from this investigation should help clarify the roles of microorganisms in aquatic systems and the mechanisms of eutrophication.

  13. Use of acidifier and solubilizer in tadalafil solid dispersion to enhance the in vitro dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Jang, Woo Suk; Byeon, Jong Chan; Jeong, Hyeong Mo; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to improve the solubility, in vitro dissolution, and oral bioavailability in rats of tadalafil (TDF) by using SD technique with a weak acid and a copolymer. TDF-SD was prepared via solvent evaporation, coupled with the incorporation of an acidifier and solubilizer. Tartaric acid enhanced the solubility of TDF over 5-fold in DW, and Soluplus ® enhanced the solubility of TDF over 8.7-fold and 19.2-fold compared to that of TDF (pure) in DW and pH 1.2 for 1h, respectively. The optimal formulation of TDF-SD3 was composed of TDF vs Tartaric acid vs Soluplus ® vs Aerosil=1:1:3:3. The in vitro dissolution rate of TDF-SD3 in DW, pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 buffer (51.5%, 53.3%, and 33.2%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of the commercial product (Cialis ® ) powder (16.5%, 15.2%, and 14.8%, respectively). TDF was completely transformed to an amorphous form as shown in SEM, DSC and PXRD data. The stability of TDF-SD3 included drug contents and in vitro dissolution for 1 month were similar to those of Cialis ® , and the amorphous form of TDF-SD3 was well maintained for 6 months. The TDF-SD3 formulation improved the relative bioavailability (BA) and peak plasma concentration (C max ) compared to that of Cialis ® powder after oral administration in rats as 117.3% and 135.7%, respectively. From the results, we found that the acidifier increased the wettability of TDF, and the solubilizer improved solubility through hydrogen bonding with TDF, thereby increasing the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of TDF in TDF-SD3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, S M R; Aghaalikhani, M; Khavazi, K; Chaichi, M R

    2007-10-15

    The effect of seed inoculation by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L. SC. 704) was studied in a field experiment. Positive effect on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculum of Glomus intraradices (AM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf). Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and P, soil available P, root colonization percentage and crop WUE under water deficit stress. In some of investigated characteristics under well-watered conditions, chemical fertilizer treatment was higher than double inoculated treatments, but this difference was not significant. Seed inoculation only with AM positively affected the measured parameters as amount as co-inoculated treatments. According to the results showed in contrast to the inoculated treatments with AM+Pf and AM, the application of alone Pf caused a comparatively poor response. Therefore, this microorganism needs to a complement for its activity in soil. All of measured parameters in inoculated treatments were higher than uninoculated treatments under water deficit stress conditions. Furthermore, the investigated characteristics of co-inoculated plants under severe water deficit stress conditions were significantly lower than co-inoculated plants under well-watered and moderate-stressed conditions. Therefore it could be stated, these microorganisms need more time to fix and establishing themselves in soil. The present finding showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms can interact positively in promoting plant growth as well as P uptake of maize plants, leading to plant tolerance improving under water deficit stress conditions.

  15. Polypropyleneimine and polyamidoamine dendrimer mediated enhanced solubilization of bortezomib: Comparison and evaluation of mechanistic aspects by thermodynamics and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Gothwal, Avinash; Khan, Iliyas; Srivastava, Shubham; Malik, Ruchi; Gupta, Umesh

    2017-03-01

    Bortezomib (BTZ) is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the US-FDA is majorly used for the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma including mantle cell lymphoma. BTZ is hydrophobic in nature and is a major cause for its minimal presence as marketed formulations. The present study reports the design, development and characterization of dendrimer based formulation for the improved solubility and effectivity of bortezomib. The study also equally focuses on the mechanistic elucidation of solubilization by two types of dendrimers i.e. fourth generation of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers (G4-PAMAM-NH 2 ) and fifth generation of poly (propylene) imine dendrimers (G5-PPI-NH 2 ). It was observed that aqueous solubility of BTZ was concentration and pH dependent. At 2mM G5-PPI-NH 2 concentration, the fold increase in bortezomib solubility was 1152.63 times in water, while approximately 3426.69 folds increase in solubility was observed at pH10.0, respectively (pdendrimers because it has more hydrophobic interior than G4-PAMAM-NH 2 dendrimers. The release of BTZ from G5-PPI-NH 2 complex was comparatively slower than G4-PAMAM-NH 2 . The thermodynamic treatment of data proved that dendrimer drug complexes were stable at all pH with values of ΔG always negative. The experimental findings were also proven by molecular simulation studies and by calculating RMSD and intermolecular hydrogen bonding through Schrodinger software. It was concluded that PPI dendrimers were able to solubilize the drug more effectively than PAMAM dendrimers through electrostatic interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on phosphorus dynamics and the bacterial community during composting of sugarcane industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Bonilla, German A; Lopes, Cintia M; Durrer, Ademir; Alves, Paulo R L; Passaglia, Nicolle; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2017-07-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large quantity of residues, such as filter cake and ashes, which are sometimes composted prior to their amendment in soil. However, important issues still have to be addressed on this subject, such as the description of bacterial succession that occurs throughout the composting process and the possibilities of using phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) during the process to improve phosphorus (P) availability in the compost end product. Consequently, this study evaluated the bacterial diversity and P dynamics during the composting process when inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSBR12 and Bacillus sp. BACBR01. To characterize the bacterial community structure during composting, and to compare PSB-inoculated compost with non-inoculated compost, partial sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and sequential P fractionation were used. The data indicated that members of the order Lactobacillales prevailed in the early stages of composting for up to 30 days, mostly due to initial changes in pH and the C/N ratio. This dominant bacterial group was then slowly replaced by Bacillales during a composting process of up to 60 days. In addition, inoculation of PSB reduced the levels of Ca-bound P by 21% and increased the labile organic P fraction. In PSB-inoculated compost, Ca-P compound solubilization occurred concomitantly with an increase of the genus Bacillus. The bacterial succession and the final community is described in compost from sugarcane residues and the possible use of these inoculants to improve P availability in the final compost is validated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The solubility-permeability interplay in using cyclodextrins as pharmaceutical solubilizers: mechanistic modeling and application to progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M; Hoffman, Amnon; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-06-01

    A quasi-equilibrium mass transport analysis has been developed to quantitatively explain the solubility-permeability interplay that exists when using cyclodextrins as pharmaceutical solubilizers. The model considers the effects of cyclodextrins on the membrane permeability (P(m)) as well as the unstirred water layer (UWL) permeability (P(aq)), to predict the overall effective permeability (P(eff)) dependence on cyclodextrin concentration (C(CD)). The analysis reveals that: (1) UWL permeability markedly increases with increasing C(CD) since the effective UWL thickness quickly decreases with increasing C(CD); (2) membrane permeability decreases with increasing C(CD), as a result of the decrease in the free fraction of drug; and (3) since P(aq) increases and P(m) decreases with increasing C(CD), the UWL is effectively eliminated and the overall P(eff) tends toward membrane control, that is, P(eff) approximately P(m) above a critical C(CD). Application of this transport model enabled excellent quantitative prediction of progesterone P(eff) as a function of HP beta CD concentrations in PAMPA assay, Caco-2 transepithelial studies, and in situ rat jejunal-perfusion model. This work demonstrates that when using cyclodextrins as pharmaceutical solubilizers, a trade-off exists between solubility increase and permeability decrease that must not be overlooked; the transport model presented here can aid in striking the appropriate solubility-permeability balance in order to achieve optimal overall absorption. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  18. Un método para la evaluación de riesgos para la salud en zonas mineras

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    Mejía Jesús

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. En este trabajo se propone un esquema de tres fases para evaluar el riesgo en salud en las zonas mineras. La validación del esquema se efectuó en una zona de San Luis Potosí, México. Material y métodos. El monitoreo incluyó análisis de metales en suelo superficial, polvo residencial y agua de pozos. La biodisponibilidad se midió como el nivel de arsénico urinario en niños de las áreas contaminadas. La evaluación toxicológica consistió en análisis de la hepatotoxicidad (niveles de aspartato transaminasa y neurotoxicidad (niveles de dopamina y de sus metabolitos en ratas tratadas con residuos mineros. Resultados. Se encontró contaminación por arsénico y plomo en suelo y polvo. La biodisponibilidad fue positiva: 71% de los niños analizados tuvieron niveles urinarios de arsénico por arriba del valor normal. Los estudios de toxicidad mostraron daño hepático y alteraciones neuroquímicas en las ratas tratadas con el residuo. Conclusiones. El método fue útil para demostrar el riesgo en salud y para que las autoridades decidieran instrumentar un programa de restauración en la zona.

  19. Las abejas de Porce familia colletidae (hymenoptera: apoidea notas y claves para los géneros presentes en la zona de influencia del embalse Porce ii.

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    Smith Pardo Allan H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan claves taxonómicas a nivel de género para la identificación de las abejas colletidas de la zona de Influencia del Embalse Porce II (Porce, Antioquía, Colombia S.A. Adicionalmente se presentan algunas notas para los géneros de colletidos capturados durante el inventario de las abejas silvestres de la zona.

  20. Inhibition of liver fibrosis by solubilized coenzyme Q10: Role of Nrf2 activation in inhibiting transforming growth factor-β1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Lim, Sung Chul; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Ryu, Chang Seon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kwak, Mi Kyong; Kang, Keon Wook

    2009-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an endogenous antioxidant, is important in oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. It has anti-diabetic and anti-cardiovascular disease effects, but its ability to protect against liver fibrosis has not been studied. Here, we assessed the ability of solubilized CoQ10 to improve dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrogenesis in mice. DMN treatments for 3 weeks produced a marked liver fibrosis as assessed by histopathological examination and tissue 4-hydroxyproline content. Solubilized CoQ10 (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited both the increases in fibrosis score and 4-hydroxyproline content induced by DMN. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed that solubilized CoQ10 inhibited increases in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein by DMN. Interestingly, hepatic glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) and glutathione S-transferase A2 (GSTA2) were up-regulated in mice treated with CoQ10. Solubilized CoQ10 also up-regulated antioxidant enzymes such as catalytic subunits of GCL and GSTA2 via activating NF-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) in H4IIE hepatoma cells. Moreover, CoQ10's inhibition of α-SMA and TGF-β1 expressions disappeared in Nrf2-null MEF cells. In contrast, Nrf2 overexpression significantly decreased the basal expression levels of α-SMA and TGF-β1 in Nrf2-null MEF cells. These results demonstrated that solubilized CoQ10 inhibited DMN-induced liver fibrosis through suppression of TGF-β1 expression via Nrf2/ARE activation.

  1. P contribution derived from phosphate solubilizing microorganism activity, rock phosphate and SP-36 determination by isotope "3"2P technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anggi Nico Flatian; Iswandi Anas; Atang Sutandi; Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The "3"2P isotope technique has been used to trace P nutrients in the soil and soil-plant systems. The use of the isotope "3"2P has made it possible to differentiate the P contribution derived from phosphate solubilizing microorganism activity and the fertilizer P in the soil. The aims of the study were to obtain the quantitative data of P contribution derived from phosphate-solubilizing microorganism activity (Aspergillus niger and Burkholderia cepacia), rock phosphate and SP-36 through P uptake by the plants using isotope "3"2P technique and also to study the effects on growth and production of corn plants. The results were showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganism, rock phosphate and SP-36 was produced specific activity ("3"2P) lower than control. The results were indicated that all treatments could contribute P for the plants. The lower specific activity was caused by supply P from rock phosphate and SP-36, and also was caused by solubilized of unavailable "3"1P from PSM activity, which decreased specific activity on labeled soil. The combination of phosphate-solubilizing microorganism and SP-36 treatments produced the highest P contribution, significantly higher than control and SP-36 only. Phosphate derived from combination of microorganism and SP-36 treatments ranging from 56.06% - 68.54% after 50 days planting, after 35 days planting, 51.96% - 59.65% on stover, 46.33% - 47.70% on grain and 53.02% - 59.87% on corn cob. In addition, the treatments could significantly support the plant growth and yield. It is expressed by increased number of leave at 35 days after planting, dry weight of leave at 35 days after planting and dry weight of grain. (author)

  2. Zonas de manejo em função de propriedades de solo, relevo e produtividade da lavoura cafeeira

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    Bruno Manoel Rezende de Melo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi determinar zonas de manejo correlacionando produtividade, altitude, parâmetros de textura e fertilidade de solo em propriedades cafeeiras do sul de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi realizado em Inconfidentes (MG, em uma lavoura de café da cultivar Rubi com 0,849 ha-1, no espaçamento 2,2 m x 1,3m, em dezembro de 2011, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico. O local está situado a 957 metros de altitude com parte da lavoura situada no topo de morro e a outra parte em meia encosta, apresentando declividade máxima entre os pontos de maior e menor altitude de 37 %. O local para a coleta de solo está situado em cada ponto georreferenciado com um receptor GPS, para a zona 23k no sistema de referências SIRGAS 2000. Posteriormente foram analisados os parâmetros químicos, físicos, altitude e declividade da área. Para verificar a dependência espacial dos fatores em estudo, utilizou-se da geoestatística. Na presença de dependência espacial foram confeccionados os mapas de gradiente. Os resultados demonstram que não foi possível encontrar dependência espacial para o fósforo. Para as variáveis matéria orgânica, potássio, saturação de bases, pH e declividade, foi possível identificar zonas de manejo em função da correlação significativa com a altitude. A produtividade nos dois anos apresentou variabilidade espacial e temporal. Conclui-se, desta forma, que zonas de manejo podem ser identificadas correlacionando altitude com parâmetros de fertilidade. Para a produtividade e textura nos dois anos de estudos, não foram observadas zonas de manejo.

  3. Seismic monitoring at the geothermal zone of Acoculco, Pue., Mexico; Monitoreo sismico en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lermo, Javier; Antayhua, Yanet; Bernal, Isabel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Instituto de Ingenieria Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Venegas, Saul; Arredondo, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jles@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2009-01-15

    Results are presented of a research project to study seismic activity in the Acoculco geothermal zone, Puebla, Mexico. Geological and geophysical information was collected for the zone and a seismic network composed of seven digital seismographs was installed over four months (August-November 2004). Of the 30 regional earthquakes located by the National Seismological Service, 14 were at the subduction zone, 7 in the intra-plate zone, 6 of cortical type were in the Mexican Volcanic Belt, and 3 had deep origins in the Veracruz and Chiapas regions. Although there were no local earthquakes, probably due to the short monitoring span or lack of currently active zones, velocity models were defined near the springs of Los Azufres and Alcaparrosa, with lineal arrangements of wide-band seismic stations (SPAC) and strata identified in the exploratory well EAC-1, drilled by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. By using the registers of regional earthquakes, the site-effects were estimated on the six temporary seismic stations, whose empirical transfer functions were used to validate a velocities model proposed for the endhoreic basin. The proposed velocity models, both for the endhoreic basin and outside it, enhance the previous interpretations. They confirm the geo-electrical model proposed for the zone is adequate and they provide dynamic conditions for the model, such as propagation velocities of the P and S waves and densities and attenuation. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de un proyecto de investigacion para estudiar la actividad sismica de la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Puebla, Mexico. Con este fin se recopilo informacion geologica y geofisica de la zona y se instalo durante cuatro meses (de agosto a noviembre de 2004) una red sismica conformada por siete sismografos digitales. Se registraron 30 sismos regionales que fueron localizados por el Servicio Sismologico Nacional en la zona de subduccion (14), en la zona de intraplaca (7), de tipo cortical del Eje

  4. POSSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING GUATEMALAN POTATO TUBER MOTH TECIA SOLANIVORA (POVOLNY AND POTATO TUBERWORM PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA (ZELLER BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

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    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.

  5. Relaciones sexuales en estudiantes de secundaria de las zonas rurales del Distrito de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Augusto Ceballos Ospino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Los estudios sobre relaciones sexuales en adolescentes vienen siendo estudiados desde las últimas décadas debido a la proliferación de embarazos no planeados y a las infecciones de transmisión sexual, en especial el VIH-SIDA, el cual se presenta cada día en mayor proporción en los adolescentes. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores relacionados (ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas, consumo de sustancias ilegales y de cigarrillo alguna vez en la vida, grado de escolaridad, edad y pertenecer a una etnia con haber tenido relaciones sexuales en estudiantes de bachillerato de colegios públicos de zonas rurales. Método: Se aplicó una encuesta anónima sobre comportamiento sexual a estudiantes de secundaria de colegios públicos de las zonas rurales del Distrito de Santa Marta, con una edad promedio de 15.1 años (DE 1.9, seleccionados por el sistema de muestreo probabilística por conglomerados. No obstante el limitado tamaño de la muestra se realizó un modelo multivariado para haber tenido relaciones sexuales alguna vez en la vida. Resultados: Un total de 102 estudiantes del área rural, todos de colegios públicos, diligenciaron la encuesta, de las cuales seis (6 fueron eliminadas por presentar inconsistencias, por lo cual se trabajó con 96 sujetos. De este grupo 22 estudiantes eran amerindios (22.9%. La edad del grupo osciló entre 11 y 20 años, con un promedio de 15.1 años (DE = 1.9, 59 (61.5% de los sujetos eran varones. 33 estudiantes (34.4% respondieron afirmativamente para haber tenido relaciones sexuales. Se observó que ser de sexo masculino (OR = 2.67, IC95% 1.04-6.81, tener más años cumplidos (16.4 años promedio, DE = 1.5 frente a 14.4, DE = 1.7; F = 1.720, p = 0.193; t = 5.58, gl = 94, cursar un grado superior (9.8 años promedio, DE = 1.1 frente a 8.8, DE = 1.5; F = 7.907, p = 0.006; t = 3.79, gl = 82.6, ser amerindio (OR = 3.90, IC95% 1.45-10.53 y haber fumado alguna vez en la vida (OR = 2.65, IC

  6. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. CONTAMINACIÓN DEL SUELO EN LA ZONA MINERA DE RASGATÁ BAJO (TAUSA. MODELO CONCEPTUAL

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    María Eugenia Guerrero Useda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un modelo conceptual del riesgo de contaminación físico química del suelo en la vereda Rasgatá Bajo. Esta vereda del municipio de Tausa, en Cundinamarca, está en la zona limítrofe del declarado por la Corporación Autónoma Regional de Cundinamarca en 2009, Distrito Regional de Manejo Integrado de los Recursos Naturales Renovables Páramo Guargua y Laguna Verde. La vocación productiva local por tradición ha sido el cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L y la extracción y transformación de arcilla y carbón, actividades con graves impactos sobre el suelo, por lo que el objetivo del proyecto fue identificar y evaluar la condición de este recurso en territorios donde confluyen actividades de extracción y transformación de arcilla y carbón. Se siguió un enfoque metodológico mixto que combinó investigación documental, observaciones in situ y medición de características físico químicas para determinar las fuentes y tipos de contaminantes con riesgo de afectar el suelo aledaño a las faenas mineras y con impactos toxicológicos para las personas, la fauna y la flora. Los datos obtenidos aportarán al rediseño y evaluación de los planes de manejo ambiental local.

  8. Iconografía egiptizante en la zona de Campania = Egyptianizing iconography in the Campania

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    María Amparo Arroyo de la Fuente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo del culto isiaco en la zona de Campania ha permitido el estudio de sus rituales y formas litúrgicas, pero ha revelado también el anhelo de los nuevos fieles por la recreación de exóticos entornos egiptizantes. La iconografía propia de las divinidades protagonistas del mito osiriaco se había helenizado ya desde época alejandrina, no obstante, en el ámbito latino, se valoraron especialmente aquellos objetos caracterizados por una estética cercana al arte egipcio. Entre estos objetos destacan ciertas obras importadas de Egipto, pero también piezas realizadas en territorio latino con fuertes influencias alejandrinas, probablemente, elaboradas en talleres especializados en este tipo de iconografía. La existencia de estos talleres puede deducirse de diferentes hallazgos que presentan múltiples similitudes en lo que respecta no sólo a la técnica sino también al repertorio iconográfico y epigráfico.The development of the isiac cult in the Campania has allowed the study of their rituals and liturgical forms, but has also revealed the desire of the new faithful to recreate egyptianizing exotic environments. The typical iconography of divinities protagonist of the Osiris myth, were already hellenized since Alexandrian period, however, in the Latin sphere, were specially appreciated those objects characterized by an aesthetic close to the Egyptian art. These objects included certain works imported from Egypt, but also pieces made in Latin territory with strong Alexandrian influences, probably made in this type of iconography especialized workshops. The existence of these workshops can be deduced from different findings that display many similarities in terms of not only the technique but also iconographic and epigraphic repertoire.

  9. Saber popular de especies forrajeras en la zona central de Nicaragua: un estudio en grupos focales

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    Fabio Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se hace una descripción de la tecnología local de manejo de pasturas y se analizan las percepciones locales sobre el consumo de plantas por el ganado. Se estudia la clasificación local y valoración que los lugareños otorgan a las especies herbáceas y leñosas forrajeras presentes en los potreros. El estudio se realizó en la zona piloto del proyecto Pasturas Degradadas en Centroamérica (PD en Muy Muy, Nicaragua. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante diferentes técnicas de investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se aplicaron técnicas cualitativas para recabar información en profundidad del acervo de conocimiento local respecto al uso de vegetación arbórea, arbustiva y herbácea en las fincas ganaderas. Se registró un total de 25 especies herbáceas forrajeras, siendo las variedades más reportadas la grama natural (Paspalum sp, pasto estrella (Cynodon plectostachyus K. Schum. Pilg. y jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa. De la misma manera, fueron identificadas las especies leñosas más frecuentes en las fincas ganaderas el guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, madero negro (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. y roble (Tabebuia rosea. Se concluye que el conocimiento de los productores es empírico y funcional. Esto significa que es derivado de la experiencia práctica y generalmente en función de las actividades realizadas por su propia voluntad o inducida por agentes externos.

  10. Algunas Enfermedades De Las Plantas En La Zona Frutera de Bogotá.

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    Obregón Botero Rafael

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available Las observaciones fueron hechas durante el cumplimiento de una comisión encomendada al fruticultor Manuel J. Rivero y completadas por las muestras traídas al laboratorio, comprendió los municipios de Duitama, Sogamoso, Tibasosa, Santa Rosa, Belén, Cerinza, Guateque, Leiva, Sáchica, Sutamarchán, Ráquira y Chiquinquirá. Algunas de las conclusiones fueron: •La actual industria frutera de la tierra fría y templada empieza apenas a aplicar unaorientación técnica y la mayoría de las plantaciones existentes no obedece a ningún plan definido. •Un gran porcentaje de los árboles ésta tan abandonado, que su producción no llena satisfactoriamente la esperada para un árbol normal. •Los viveros y la comisión departamental de sanidad vegetal presentan una efectiva cooperación al fruticultor y creo conveniente el apoyo decidido a tales instituciones. •He podido constatar que en las regiones fruteras de Boyacá es mas necesario entablar un estudio definitivo sobre los insectos, esto es, un estudio entomológico de estas regiones, para luego establecer campañas efectivas al respecto pues los daños de importancia económica mayor se deben a los insectos. •El Departamento de Boyacá contemplado dos problemas grandes como lo son la erosión y la densa población rural en muchas zonas donde la lucha por el hombre del campo es realmente desesperante.

  11. Abordagem do paciente ferido por arma branca na zona de Ziedler

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    Decio Luis Portella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Ferimentos cardíacos penetrantes já foram considerados letais e intratáveis. Homero fez a primeira descrição da morte de Sarpedon em A Ilíada, em 3000 a.C. Em 1883, Billroth afirmou em um Congresso Europeu de Cirurgia que "o cirurgião que tentar suturar um ferimento cardíaco deverá perder o respeito de seus colegas". Em 1897, Rehn apresentou o primeiro caso bem sucedido de cardiorrafia de ventrículo direito Cerca de 87% das lesões cardiovasculares são, em particular, oriundas de trauma penetrante. E, as lesões ventriculares são mais frequentes que as atriais Objetivo: Descrever a abordagem realizada no serviço para pacientes com ferimento por arma branca (FAB na zona de Ziedler, através da experiência de sete casos relatados em 7 anos Discutir a relevância da utilização do FAST (Focused Assesment with Sonography for Trauma na avaliação primária do protocolo ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support e a sequência de reavaliação, e analisar qual o melhor procedimento diagnóstico e terapêutico para cada apresentação clínica do paciente. Método: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e analítico de sete pacientes atendidos no pronto atendimento do Politrauma do Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba. O conteúdo deste trabalho foi obtido através da revisão de prontuário e descrição cirúrgica, registro fotográficos, além de revisão da literatura. Resultados: A experiência do serviço mostra que a abordagem inicial descrita pelo ATLS é fundamental para guiar o atendimento ao ferido. Quando da realização do FAST na avaliação primária indicando ausência de líquido na janela pericárdica deve-se manter o paciente com FAB em zona de Ziedler na sala de urgência sendo assistido por profissionais capacitados. A necessidade de Tomografia Computadorizada com contraste demonstra-se relevante para os casos em que há FAST inconclusivo, ainda que com paciente estável. A amostra exibe um caso de

  12. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  13. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus strain MWT 14) improve the performance of bread wheat with low fertilizer input under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Khalid, Umaira; Ijaz, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Shahid, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid; Ahmad, Naveed; Kareem, Fazal

    2018-04-24

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100NPkgha -1 ) and half dose (75-50NPkgha -1 ) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. AISLAMIENTO E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS, HABITANTES DE LA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DA FOSFATO, HABITANTES DA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA INHABITING THE RIZHOSPHERE OF PEACH PALM (B. gassipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS PATIÑO TORRES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El chontaduro o pejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth esuna especie nativa de las selvas húmedas del pacífico colombiano, adaptada a condiciones de alta acidez y deficiencia de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P, características dominantes en los suelos de esta zona tropical. Los microorganismos rizosféricos solubilizadores de P, entre ellos las bacterias (BSP, contribuyen a mejorar la disponibilidad de este nutriente, por ello, la necesidad de aislarlos, reconocerlos e identificarlos en la rizosfera, como uno de los mecanismos de adaptación de esta especie. Una vez aisladas y purificadas en medio libre de fuentes de fósforo orgánico e inorgánico solubles, las poblaciones bacterianas se identificaron mediante la utilizacióndel análisis de las secuencias DNAr 16S y la técnica BOX-PCR, estableciendo que en el sitio de estudio, las poblaciones dominantes fueron Burkholderia ambifaria y Burkholderia sp. 383, seguidas por Pseudomonas putida, especies reconocidas globalmente por su actividad solubilizadora, y como rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (PGPR.Do chontaduro oupejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é uma espécie nativa da florestas úmidas do pacífico colombiano, adaptados às condições de alta acidez e deficiência de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P, características dominantes no solo de esta zona tropical. Microrganismos do solo comcapacidade de solubilizar fosfatos naturais, incluindo as bactérias, contribuir para melhorar a disponibilidade de nutrientes presente, por conseguinte, não existe necessidade de isolar as, reconhecer e identificar-los na rizosfera, como um dos mecanismos de adaptação do presente espécies. Uma vez que tenham sido isoladas e purificadas emmeiolivre de fontes de P orgânicos e inorgânicos solúveis, populações bacterianas foram identificadas pela utilização da análise das sequências do extrachromosome DNAr 16S e a técnica BOX-PCR, que estabelece que a área de estudo, a

  16. Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

    2012-08-20

    The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly

  17. Cocrystal solubility-pH and drug solubilization capacity of sodium dodecyl sulfate – mass action model for data analysis and simulation to improve design of experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the disposition of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; i.e., sodium lauryl sulfate, to solubilize sparingly-soluble drugs above the surfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC, as quantitated by the solubilization capacity (k. A compilation of 101 published SDS k values of mostly poorly-soluble drug molecules was used to develop a prediction model as a function of the drug’s intrinsic solubility, S0, and its calculated H-bond acceptor/donor potential. In almost all cases, the surfactant was found to solubilize the neutral form of the drug. Using the mass action model, the k values were converted to drug-micelle stoichiometric binding constants, Kn, corresponding to drug-micelle equilibria in drug-saturated solutions. An in-depth case study (data from published sources considered the micellization reactions as a function of pH of a weak base, B, (pKa 3.58, S0 52 μg/mL, where at pH 1 the BH.SDS salt was predicted to precipitate both below and above the CMC. At low SDS concentrations, two drug salts were predicted to co-precipitate: BH.Cl and BH.SDS. Solubility products of both were determined from the analysis of the reported solubility-surfactant data. Above the CMC, in a rare example, the charged form of the drug (BH+ appeared to be strongly solubilized by the surfactant. The constant for that reaction was also determined. At pH 7, the reactions were simpler, as only the neutral form of the drug was solubilized, to a significantly lesser extent than at pH 1. Case studies also featured examples of solubilization of solids in the form of cocrystals. For many cocrystal systems studied in aqueous solution, the anticipated supersaturated state is not long-lasting, as the drug component precipitates to a thermodynamically stable form, thus lowering the amount of the active ingredient available for intestinal absorption. Use of surfactant can prevent this. A recently-described method for predicting the

  18. Characterization of receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha from human placental membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyer, R.A.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    High affinity receptors for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) were identified on membranes prepared from full term human placenta. Highly purified rhTNF-alpha iodinated by the iodogen method was found to bind placental membranes in a displaceable manner with an approximate dissociation constant (KD) of 1.9 nM. The membrane bound TNF-alpha receptor could be solubilized by several detergents with optimum extraction being obtained with 1% Triton X-100. The binding of 125I-rhTNF-alpha to the solubilized receptor was found to be time and temperature dependent, yielding maximum binding within 1 h, 24 h and 48 h at 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 4 degrees C, respectively. However, the maximum binding obtainable at 4 degrees C was only 40% of that at 37 degrees C. The binding 125I-rhTNF-alpha to solubilized placental membrane extracts was displaceable by unlabeled rhTNF-alpha, but not by a related protein recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-beta (rhTNF-beta; previously called lymphotoxin). This is similar to the behavior of TNF-alpha receptors derived from detergent-solubilized cell extracts, although on intact cells, both rhTNF-alpha and rhTNF-beta bind with equal affinity to TNF receptors. The Scatchard analysis of the binding data of the solubilized receptor revealed high affinity binding sites with a KD of approximately 0.5 nM and a receptor concentration of about 1 pmole/mg protein. Gel filtration of the solubilized receptor-ligand complexes on Sephacryl S-300 revealed two different peaks of radioactivity at approximate molecular masses of 50,000 Da and 400,000 Da. The 400,000 dalton peak corresponded to the receptor-ligand complex. Overall, our results suggest that high affinity receptors for TNF-alpha are present on human placental membranes and provide evidence that these receptors may be different from that of rhTNF-beta

  19. El transecto Catahuasi-Tupe: zonas de producción, sistemas agropecuarios y control comunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    les communautés celles-ci seraient, en fait, les premières à exécuter les alternatives de solution qui seraient proposées par les propres comuneros. El transecto altoandino Catahuasi-Tupe, ubicado en la Cuenca del río Cañete, abarca nueve zonas de producción (ZP. En la parte baja, donde se ubica la comunidad de Catahuasi (1075 a 1400 m.s.n.m., la zona de producción (ZP I tiene una agricultura de menor riesgo y está pasando por una evolución del cultivo de frutales hacia el de la yuca, producto bien aceptado en los mercados de la Costa. La parte media del transecto (ZP III a VII, donde se ubican las comunidades de Aiza y Tupe (2350 a 3750 m.s.n.m., presenta una evolución menos dinámica en sus zonas de producción sus sistemas de cultivos, sometidos a mayores riesgos, muestran signos de regresión y crisis en su agricultura. La parte alta (ZP II, VIII y IX, ubicada entre los 3750 y 4800 m.s.n.m., se dedica mayormente a la ganadería de vacunos especializados en carne, caprinos y principalmente ovinos, pero su manejo técnico inadecuado está ocasionando problemas de erosión en el suelo. El control comunal, a lo largo del transecto, está restringido a la ración de agua (mita a cada regante y a la conservación de su infraestructura de riego, aunque en la parte alta (ZP IX, la comunidad designa su parcela al ganadero (punero y el monto de alquiler del paradero por año. Por otro lado, el recorte en el dominio vertical de los pisos ecológicos por parte de las comunidades, ha traído como consecuencia que se establezca entre las familias un intercambio a nivel agropecuario, comercial y de trabajo, en términos monetarios y de trueque (no monetario. Por último, los cuellos de botella detectados en sus Sistemas de Producción Agropecuarios, como una primera aproximación de un diagnóstico, nos indican que el trabajo a realizar, a corto y largo plazo, debe intervenir en forma interrelacionada con las entidades estatales, universidades y proyectos de

  20. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naise López Larquin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce años y la muestra por 67 escolares. La fluorosis dental se clasificó en: leve, moderada y grave. Las concentraciones de flúor natural en el agua de consumo, la exposición a altas concentraciones del elemento y el tiempo de exposición al mismo, fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la fluorosis dental estudiados. Al concluir el estudio, se observó un predominio de la fluorosis dental leve (52,9 %, seguido de la moderada (38,2 %. Las concentraciones de flúor natural encontradas en las aguas de consumo fueron óptimas (0,7 y 1,2 ppm en el 44,8 % de los casos y altas (1,7 y 2,0 ppm en el 55,2 %. El 81,8 % de los casos sin fluorosis han estado expuestos a la acción del flúor solamente de uno a tres años, mientras que todos los niños con fluorosis dental lo han recibido por más de cuatro años, aumentando la severidad en la medida en que se incrementa el tiempo de exposición. El 36,4 % de los niños que ingirieron flúor antes de los seis años no presentaron fluorosis dental

  1. Condiciones para la transmision del hantavirus en zona andina de Río negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Talmon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.

  2. La Energía como una Herramienta de Desarrollo en Zonas Rurales no Iterconectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yony Fernando Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, como en otros países en desarrollo, las comunidades pertenecientes a zonas rurales no interconectadas son vulnerables; el escaso nivel educativo, el poco acceso a servicios públicos y la deficiente explotación de los recursos naturales ha impedido el correcto desarrollo social y tecnológico de las mismas, haciendo cada vez mayor el éxodo de personas a centros urbanos, en búsqueda de oportunidades no garantizadas. Diferentes esfuerzos se han realizado para superar esta situación, con el compromiso de entidades gubernamentales y de las mismas comunidades para involucradas, buscando un desarrollo social y humano. Sin embargo, los resultados de dichos esfuerzos son diversos y no siempre los mejores, dado el nivel de apropiación y mantenimiento de las tecnologías mismas, además de la conflictividad que aqueja dichas poblaciones rurales. En conjunto, tales situaciones impiden un manejo sostenible de las diversas tecnologías energéticas. Para analizar este problema desde un enfoque holístico, el pensamiento sistémico y más específicamente la dinámica de sistemas [7], reúne todas las características necesarias para realizar un análisis exhaustivo, que permita involucrar las posibles relaciones entre los entes que conforman el problema de la evolución de las tecnologías energéticas en una comunidad rural, los impactos de la misma en tal región y la forma en la cual las políticas públicas ayudan a una correcta utilización de la tecnología. Tal análisis, permite la identificación de los problemas más significativos, la evaluación de políticas y la simulación del comportamiento de las mismas a través del tiempo. Dada la implementación del problema y el proceso de solución, se observará de manera clara la forma en la cual se deben enfocar los esfuerzos institucionales, la construcción de capital social y humano, además de la manera en la cual se debe llevar a cabo el proceso de aprendizaje tecnológico.

  3. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group, whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A. In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B. No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  4. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  5. Estudio de caso de un enlace de red inalambrico en una zona rural. propuesta de conexion para entidades agropecuarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiel Roche Lima

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza el estudio de una red inalámbrica de área local WLAN que utiliza el estándar IEEE 802.11 con topología de Enlace LAN, para dar servicios de Internet a la red del Instituto de Ciencia Animal, de Cuba, que es una entidad agropecuaria ubicado en una zona rural. A través de este enlace se resuelve uno de los principales problemas que presenta el sector agropecuario, que es la falta de comunicación entre los productores, investigadores y profesores pues, de forma general, sus entidades se encuentran ubicadas en zonas carentes de infraestructura de telecomunicaciones. Para elestudio del enlace se utilizaron varios software y variables a través del protocolo SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol, así como del software de configuración del equipo, y se definieron diferentes condiciones ambientales y de tráfico de datos. Como resultado se obtuvo que las condiciones ambientales influyen en el Indicador de ruido por subcanales de frecuencia, pero que de forma general no afecta el funcionamiento de la red, por lo que resulta viable la utilización de esta tecnología para el enlace de entidades agropecuarias en zonas rurales. Al mismo tiempo se hace referencia al uso potencial de la tecnología de comunicación por líneas eléctricas (PLC como alternativa a utilizar para la conexión de estas entidades de forma independiente o conjuntamente con las WLAN.

  6. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez José Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m2 cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  7. CONTENIDO DE POLIAMINAS LIBRES EN PALMAS AFECTADAS POR PUDRICION DEL COGOLLO EN LAS ZONAS CENTRAL Y OCCIDENTAL DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mauricio Romero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La pudrición del cogollo (PC es la principal enfermedad de la palma en Colombia. En las zonas palmeras Central (ZC y Oriental (ZE, las palmas enfermas pueden recuperarse naturalmente. En la Zona Occidental (ZW el proceso de recuperación no es evidente. La recuperación de palmas está ligada a gran actividad meristemática que podría involucrar la acción inductora de metabolitos como las poliaminas (PA. Este trabajo muestra la relación entre poliaminas del meristemo y la capacidad de recuperación de palmas con PC, en dos zonas agroclimáticas diferentes. Poliaminas extraídas del meristemo de palmas sembradas en ZC y ZW, fueron analizadas por HPLC. En ZC, donde existe recuperación espontánea, los niveles más altos de PA se presentan en palmas sanas y en recuperación y a medida que avanza la enfermedad la concentración desciende hasta un mínimo en el estado de PC inicial (PCI. Luego la concentración de PA aumenta hasta el estado de Buena Recuperación (BR donde los valores de poliaminas son más altos que los de palmas sanas. En la ZW, con la enfermedad el contenido de PA aumenta llegando al máximo en plantas sin recuperación y el mínimo se presenta en plantas sanas. Las diferencias entre zonas pueden explicarse por diferentes roles de las poliaminas en plantas. En la ZC la cantidad elevada de PA en palmas sanas o en recuperación funcionaría en la inducción de actividad meristemática, para la recuperación espontánea. En la ZW el aumento en el contenido de PA con la enfermedad induciría la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno para defensa secundaria de la planta ante la imposibilidad de, a través de incrementos en la actividad meristemática producir rápidamente estructuras sanas que no sean reinfectadas.

  8. Violencia basada en género en zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales de Lima y Callao, 2007 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mascaro-Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar y comparar las características de la violencia en pobladores de zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales. Diseño: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo. Institución: Escuela de Obstetricia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Mujeres de Lima y Callao. Intervenciones: Entre los años 2007 y 2010, se aplicó una entrevista estructurada a 3 971 mujeres de zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales de Lima y Callao. Se incluyó mujeres residentes de la zona, excluyéndose aquellas con problemas psicológicos evidentes y problemas del habla. Los datos fueron analizados con estadísticas descriptivas y con el estadístico chi cuadrado, significativo a un nivel p<0,05. Principales medidas de resultados: Violencia física. Resultados: De las entrevistadas, 39% tenía entre 20 y 24 años de edad. El 47% identificó violencia física, siendo similar en zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales. Los empujones y bofetadas fueron la forma más frecuente de violencia en ambas áreas. Con respecto al estudio de la violencia psicológica, fueron más frecuentes la utilización de gritos y celos por posesividad, también en ambas áreas. El gasto de la pareja sin la consulta fue ligeramente mayor para el área urbano marginal (49% que para el área urbana (42%. El intento de tener relaciones sexuales contra su voluntad fue el tipo de violencia más frecuente (37%, más en el área urbana (41% que en el área urbano marginal (34%. Conclusiones: Se evidenció episodios de violencia física, psicológica, económica y sexual similares para el área urbana y el área urbano-marginal, siendo la violencia sexual más frecuente en el área urbana.

  9. "How will I explain why we live behind a wall?" La Zona (2007 as suburban gothic narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice M Murphy

    2012-11-01

    This paper argues that Rodrigo Pla’s film La Zona (2007, set ina privileged, self-governing gated community in Mexico City,replicates many of the North American variety of the SuburbanGothic’s most characteristic preoccupations, albeit in a LatinAmerican setting, and with reference to specifically regionaleconomic and political anxieties. The paper also discusses theways in which the Suburban Gothic so often serves as a meansof expressing specifically middle-class anxieties about therelationship between the privileged and the disenfranchised, inthis instance, specifically Mexican anxieties about the libertiesafforded to the wealthy and the ramifications of police corruptionand political cronyism.

  10. Potabilización de Agua de Río en Zonas Rurales y Semi-Urbanas de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Maffet Herrera, Macarena

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio esta enmarcado dentro de El Plan Director de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas en Zonas Rurales en el sur de la Libertad, realizado conjuntamente, desde el 2001, por la Asociación Catalana de Ingeniería Sin Fronteras, Asociación Comunitaria Unida por el Agua y la Agricultura ACUA y otras instituciones salvadoreñas. A raíz del estudio realizado por Plan Director se detecta la necesidad de dar una nueva alternativa de abastecimiento a un conjunto de comuni...

  11. Plan de gestión integral del riego en la zona de influencia de la acequia de Tabacundo

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Mármol, Alexis Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    El presente producto consistió en la elaboración de plan integral de riego de la acequia Tabacundo el cual consta de un diagnóstico situacional en la zona de influencia, identificación de problemas, análisis del medio interno y externo, identificación de actores, planteamiento de la misión, visión, objetivos y estrategias para mejorar la gestión del agua de riego en la acequia Tabacundo dentro de los ámbitos socio-organizativo, técnico, económico productivo y ambiental. Este producto se ...

  12. Propuesta del trazado de rutas para ciclovías en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Aucapiña, Manuel Jesús; González Reino, Andrés Felipe

    2017-01-01

    El presente proyecto trata sobre la propuesta de un trazado de ciclo vías para la zona urbana de Cuenca; dicha propuesta está basada en muestreos, realizados a la población ciclo activa real y potencial de la ciudad de Cuenca, lo cual ayudó a determinar sus comportamientos de movilidad para determinar un trazado óptimo e incluyente para la ciudad. This project deals with the proposed route of cycle routes for the urban area of Cuenca; this idea is based on a sampling, which was carried out...

  13. Introducción a los cambios del nivel del mar y sus consecuencias sobre la zona costera

    OpenAIRE

    Vernette, Georges; Correa, Iván D.; Bernal, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: entre los problemas ambientales más importantes de la actualidad se incluyen los drásticos cambios físicos y ecológicos que están modificando sustancialmente la naturaleza misma de las zonas costeras. Definidas como las áreas del planeta donde interactúan al tiempo los procesos climáticos, oceanográficos y geológicos, las costas han sido objeto de innumerables intervenciones humanas que han modificado su evolución natural y generado deterioros mayores en prácticamente todos sus ecosi...

  14. Desempeño térmico de cubiertas vegetadas en ciudades de zonas áridas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Emiliano Flores Asin; Claudia Fernanda Martinez; Maria Alicia Cantón; Erica Norma Correa

    2016-01-01

    Las cubiertas vegetadas constituyen una estrategia de enverdecimiento urbano que contribuyen a reducir los efectos del calentamiento global, disminuyendo las temperaturas urbanas y los consumos de energía en espacios interiores derivados del acondicionamiento térmico para alcanzar condiciones de confort en verano. Sin embargo, su implementación en zonas áridas está supeditada a la restricción del recurso hídrico. Este trabajo evalúa el desempeño térmico de cubiertas vegetadas con dos especies...

  15. Effect of low temperature thermal pre-treatment on the solubilization of organic matter, pathogen inactivation and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Espinoza, Juan E; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Martínez-Delgadillo, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of poultry industry effluents produces wastewater sludge with high levels of organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, the thermal pre-treatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge (PSS) was evaluated for low temperatures in combination with different exposure times as a pre-hydrolysis strategy to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Organic compounds solubilization and inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were evaluated after treatment at 70, 80 or 90°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. The results showed that 90°C and 90 min were the most efficient conditions for solubilization of the organic compounds (10%). In addition, the bacteria populations and the more resistant structures, such as helminth eggs (HE), were completely inactivated. Finally, the thermal pre-treatment applied to the sludge increased methane yield by 52% and reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) by 52%.

  16. Solubilization of low-rank coal by Trichoderma atroviride: Evidence for the involvement of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes by using C-14-labelled lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Winkelhofer, M.; Polsakiewicz, M.; Ludwig, S.; Dohse, J.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Inst. of Botany

    2002-04-01

    The deuteromycete Trichoderma atroviride is able to solubilize lignite in dependence on a given carbon source for growth. When cultivated on media containing glutamate, this mold excreted a set of different enzymes with hydrolytic activity. Addition of lignite to the growth media induced the synthesis of extracellular lignite-specific esterase activity but no evidence has been provided for its direct involvement in the process of lignite solubilization. Hence, the basic capability of T. atroviride enzymes to degrade a variety of ester and ether bonds at the surface or within the bulky lignite structure was tested using coal following its direct labelling with C-14-alkyl iodide. The participation of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in lignite degradation was assessed by measuring the release of C-14 radioactivity from selectively alkylated carboxylic and phenolic OH groups. T. atroviride cleaved both carboxylic esters using esterases and the phenolic ether bonds by using oxidative enzymes, most likely laccases.

  17. Solubilization and purification of the glucosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of teichuronic acid by fragments of Micrococcus luteus cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, K.M.; Anderson, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of teichuronic acid have been demonstrated in cytoplasmic membrane fragments recovered from lysozyme treated Micrococcus luteus cells. Solubilization of the glucosyltransferase activity was effected with aqueous solutions of Triton X-100, Nonidet P-40, Tween 20, or Thesit. Thesit proved most amenable for recovery of glucosyltransferase activity as well as spectrophotometric protein determinations. Recovery of the glucosyltranferase activity was aided during purification by inclusion of 15% glycerol, 0.75% Thesit, 20 mM magnesium ion and 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol in all buffers. Glucosyltransferase activity was monitored by the transfer of [ 14 C]glucose from UDP-[ 14 C]glucose to an artificial acceptor. Although the natural acceptor is presumed to be an undecaprenyl diphosphate-activated oligosaccharide, alternate acceptors such as isolated cell wall fractions containing teichuronic acid served equally well. Highly purified teichuronic acid devoid of peptidoglycan was the most effective alternate acceptor. The glucosyltransferase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose yielding an overall 200-fold increase in specific activity

  18. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03.

  19. Solubilization and folding of a fully active recombinant Gaussia luciferase with native disulfide bonds by using a SEP-Tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayaka, Tharangani; Tawa, Minako; Nakamura, Takashi; Sohya, Shihori; Kuwajima, Kunihiro; Yohda, Masafumi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) is the smallest known bioluminescent protein and is attracting much attention as a potential reporter protein. However, its 10 disulfide bond forming cysteines have hampered the efficient production of recombinant GLuc and thus limited its use in bio-imaging application. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of a short solubility enhancement peptide tag (SEP-Tag) to the C-terminus of GLuc (GLuc-C9D) significantly increased the fraction of soluble protein at a standard expression temperature. The expression time was much shorter, and the final yield of GLuc-C9D was significantly higher than with our previous pCold expression system. Reversed phase HPLC indicated that the GLuc-C9D variant folded with a single disulfide bond pattern after proper oxidization. Further, the thermal denaturation of GLuc-C9D was completely reversible, and its secondary structure content remained unchanged until 40°C as assessed by CD spectroscopy. The (1)H-NMR spectrum of GLuc indicated sharp well dispersed peaks typical for natively folded proteins. GLuc-C9D bioluminescence activity was strong and fully retained even after incubation at high temperatures. These results suggest that solubilization using SEP-Tags can be useful for producing large quantities of proteins containing multiple disulfide bonds. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Conversion of spent mushroom substrate to biofertilizer using a stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing Pichia farinose FL7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Sun, Li-Fan; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2012-05-01

    To develop high-efficient biofertilizer, an environmental stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microorganism (PSM) was isolated from agricultural wastes compost, and then applied to spent mushroom substrate (SMS). The isolate FL7 was identified as Pichia farinose with resistance against multiple environmental stresses, including 5-45°C temperature, 3-10 pH range, 0-23% (w/v) NaCl and 0-6M ammonium ion. Under the optimized cultivation condition, 852.8 mg/l total organic acids can be produced and pH can be reduced to 3.8 after 60 h, meanwhile, the soluble phosphate content reached 816.16 mg/l. The P. farinose was used to convert SMS to a phosphate biofertilizer through a semi-solid fermentation (SSF) process. After fermentation of 10 days, cell density can be increased to 5.6 × 10(8)CFU/g in biomass and pH in this medium can be decreased to 4.0. SMS biofertilizer produced by P. farinose significantly improved the growth of soybean in pot experiments, demonstrating a tremendous potential in agricultural application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal; Li, Jianguo; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2011-01-01

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP's indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine's preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine's interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Phosphorus and Compost Management Influence Maize (Zea mays) Productivity Under Semiarid Condition with and without Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam). The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1) inoculated seed with PSB (+) and (2) seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control)] and three compost application times (30, 15, and 0 days before sowing) combination (six treatments) were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P ha-1) used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha-1) had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+) had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (-) under semiarid condition. PMID:26697038

  3. Escherichia coli fusion carrier proteins act as solubilizing agents for recombinant uncoupling protein 1 through interactions with GroEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Gerkens, Pascal; Galleni, Moreno; Levy, Daniel; Sluse, Francis E.

    2005-01-01

    Fusing recombinant proteins to highly soluble partners is frequently used to prevent aggregation of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Moreover, co-overexpression of prokaryotic chaperones can increase the amount of properly folded recombinant proteins. To understand the solubility enhancement of fusion proteins, we designed two recombinant proteins composed of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial membrane protein, in fusion with MBP or NusA. We were able to express soluble forms of MBP-UCP1 and NusA-UCP1 despite the high hydrophobicity of UCP1. Furthermore, the yield of soluble fusion proteins depended on co-overexpression of GroEL that catalyzes folding of polypeptides. MBP-UCP1 was expressed in the form of a non-covalent complex with GroEL. MBP-UCP1/GroEL was purified and characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, and electron microscopy. Our findings suggest that MBP and NusA act as solubilizing agents by forcing the recombinant protein to pass through the bacterial chaperone pathway in the context of fusion protein

  4. Adaptation of six shallots varieties to phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the flower formation, seeds fromation, and yields on the lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triharyanto, E.; Sudadi; Rawandari, S.

    2018-03-01

    Using seeds as planting materials is a solution to improve the quality and quantity of shallot. This study aims to determine the interaction between shallot varieties and Phosphate- Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) on the flowering and shallot yield on the lowlands. The research was conducted in Mijil Village, Jaten, Karanganyar, 98 m altitude with Vertisol-type soil order in June to December 2016, using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors. Shallot varieties used as factors are Bima, Manjung, Ilokos, Bima (bulb seeds), Mentes and Rubaru. PSB factors are control and with PSB inoculation. Observed variables included plant height, number of leaves, flowering percentage, seed formation and shallot bulb yield. Results showed that there was no interaction between varieties and PSB inoculation on all observed variables. However, PSB inoculation were able to increase the number of flowering plants and seed weight per plot. Bima variety have the highest average yield compared to other varieties in terms of number of leaves, number of bulbs per plant and bulb weight per plot (fresh harvest weight 317.74 g equivalent to 17.65 ton per hectare and dry weight 288.16 g consumption equivalent to 16 ton per hectare).

  5. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  6. Phosphorus and compost management influence maize (Zea mays productivity under semiarid condition with and without phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanullah eAmanullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam. The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1 inoculated seed with PSB (+ and (2 seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control] and three compost application times [(30, 15 and 0 days before sowing (DBS] combination (six treatments were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75 and 100 kg P ha-1 used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha-1 had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+ had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (- under semiarid condition.

  7. Expression, purification, and DNA-binding activity of the solubilized NtrC protein of Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerdochlib, Adriana L; Chubatsu, Leda S; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Steffens, M Berenice R; Yates, M Geoffrey; Rigo, Liu U

    2003-07-01

    NtrC is a bacterial enhancer-binding protein (EBP) that activates transcription by the sigma54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme. NtrC has a three domain structure typical of EBP family. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, an endophytic diazotroph, NtrC regulates several operons involved in nitrogen assimilation, including glnAntrBC. In order to over-express and purify the NtrC protein, DNA fragments containing the complete structural gene for the whole protein, and for the N-terminal+Central and Central+C-terminal domains were cloned into expression vectors. The NtrC and NtrC(N-terminal+Central) proteins were over-expressed as His-tag fusion proteins upon IPTG addition, solubilized using N-lauryl-sarcosyl and purified by metal affinity chromatography. The over-expressed His-tag-NtrC(Central+C-terminal) fusion protein was partially soluble and was also purified by affinity chromatography. DNA band-shift assays showed that the NtrC protein and the Central+C-terminal domains bound specifically to the H. seropedicae glnA promoter region. The C-terminal domain is presumably necessary for DNA-protein interaction and DNA-binding does not require a phosphorylated protein.

  8. Effect of Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Inoculants on Symbiotic Traits, Nodule Leghemoglobin, and Yield of Chickpea Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Tagore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2004-05 to find out the effect of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB inoculants on symbiotic traits, nodule leghemoglobin, and yield of five elite genotypes of chickpea. Among the chickpea genotypes, IG-593 performed better in respect of symbiotic parameters including nodule number, nodule fresh weight, nodule dry weight, shoot dry weight, yield attributes and yield. Leghemoglobin content (2.55 mg g−1 of fresh nodule was also higher under IG-593. Among microbial inoculants, the Rhizobium + PSB was found most effective in terms of nodule number (27.66 nodules plant−1, nodule fresh weight (144.90 mg plant−1, nodule dry weight (74.30 mg plant−1, shoot dry weight (11.76 g plant−1, and leghemoglobin content (2.29 mg g−1 of fresh nodule and also showed its positive effect in enhancing all the yield attributing parameters, grain and straw yields.

  9. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C.

  10. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed. in marginal soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIASIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.. An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D, inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J, inoculants contain three isolates of potential PSB (K, L, M, N, inoculants contain four isolate of potential PSB (O, chemistry fertilizer (P = control 1, organic fertilizer (Q = control 2, and without fertilizer (R = control 3. The treatments were arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 replications. The result showed that the inoculants of potential PSB increased the fresh plant production of green mustard. The mix of four isolates of potential PSB (inoculants O was the best to increase the fresh plant production of green mustard until 32.87% than other PSB inoculants, 207.84% than control 1,217.23% than control 2, and 930.60% than control 3.

  11. effect of two rock phosphates and inoculation with VA mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the chickpea-rhizobium symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; El-Ghandour, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted tracing the effect of two types of phosphorus applied at different rates on the release of nitrogen from fertilizer and its impact on biological nitrogen fixation . chickpea (Cicer Arietinum c v. Cicer 36-ICARDA) was inoculated with peat-based inoculum of phosphorin (Bacillus Megatherium phosphate solubilizing bacteria), Mycorrhizae (VAM) and a mixture of phosphorin and VAM. three types of P fertilizer, i.e.superphosphate, rock P 1 (Safaga) and rock P2 (Abou-Trtour) were applied at rate of 25 and 50 mg Pkg -1 soil in the presence or absence of inoculum. labelled ammonium sulfate with 15 N 10% atom excess was applied at rates of 15 and 30 mg N kg -1 soil for chickpea and barley (reference crop) respectively . Addition of phosphorus fertilizers, especially at the high rates, positively affected the growth and dry weight as compared to the unfertilized control. infections with VAM mixed with phosphorin under low level of rock P (Abou-tarour) gave the highest values of dry weight and N and P uptake when compared with both superphosphate-P source and control. biological N 2 fixed was higher in dual inoculation treatments (i.e.phosphorin +VAM) than those receiving a single inoculum. the percentages of N 2 -fixed ranged from 24 to 53 according to inoculation treatments, P sources and levels

  12. Tannase production by Penicillium atramentosum KM under SSF and its applications in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit K Selwal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica, ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana, jamun (Syzygium cumini, Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate and keekar (Acacia nilotica leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3 as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35ºC.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CBMB205, a Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizoplane of Rice in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min; Lee, Yi

    2016-07-14

    Bacillus velezensis CBMB205 (= KACC 13105(T) = NCCB 100236(T)) was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. O-dae). According to previous studies, this bacterium has several genes that can promote plant growth, such as the phosphorus-solubilizing protein-coding gene. Here, we present the first complete genome of B. velezensis CBMB205. Copyright © 2016 Hwangbo et al.

  14. The time-course of agonist-induced solubilization of trimeric Gqα/G11α proteins resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durchánková, Dana; Novotný, Jiří; Svoboda, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2008), s. 195-203 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : G proteins * solubilization * two-dimensional electrophoresis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  15. Tricalcium phosphate solubilization and nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus CKMV1 from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and its growth promotional effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Chauhan

    Full Text Available Abstract Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 was isolated from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and possessed multiple plant growth promoting traits like production of phosphate solubilization (260 mg/L, nitrogen fixation (202.91 nmol ethylene mL-1 h-1, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (8.1 µg/mL, siderophores (61.60%, HCN (hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity. We investigated the ability of isolate CKMV1 to solubilize insoluble P via mechanism of organic acid production. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC study showed that isolate CKMV1 produced mainly gluconic (1.34% and oxalic acids. However, genetic evidences for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization by organic acid production have been reported first time for A. aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1. A unique combination of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh gene and pyrroloquinoline quinone synthase (pqq gene, a cofactor of gdh involved in phosphate solubilization has been elucidated. Nitrogenase (nif H gene for nitrogen fixation was reported from A. aneurinilyticus. It was notable that isolate CKMV1 exhibited highest antifungal against Sclerotium rolfsii (93.58% followed by Fusarium oxysporum (64.3%, Dematophora necatrix (52.71%, Rhizoctonia solani (91.58%, Alternaria sp. (71.08% and Phytophthora sp. (71.37%. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (27.07%, shoot length (42.33%, root length (52.6%, shoot dry weight (62.01% and root dry weight (45.7% along with NPK (0.74, 0.36, 1.82% content of tomato under net house condition. Isolate CKMV1 possessed traits related to plant growth promotion, therefore, could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertiliser or biocontrol agent and this is the first study to include the Aneurinibacillus as PGPR.

  16. Rapid solubilization of insoluble phosphate by a novel environmental stress-tolerant Burkholderia vietnamiensis M6 isolated from ginseng rhizospheric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hyun; Lee, O-Mi; Jung, Ho-Il; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jeon, Young-Dong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Chung-Yeol; Son, Hong-Joo

    2010-04-01

    We isolated and characterized novel insoluble phosphate (P)-solubilizing bacteria tolerant to environmental factors like high salt, low and high pHs, and low temperature. A bacterium M6 was isolated from a ginseng rhizospheric soil and confirmed to belong to Burkholderia vietnamiensis by BIOLOG system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The optimal cultural conditions for the solubilization of P were 2.5% (w/v) glucose, 0.015% (w/v) urea, and 0.4% (w/v) MgCl(2).6H(2)O along with initial pH 7.0 at 35 degrees C. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that B. vietnamiensis M6 produced gluconic and 2-ketogluconic acids. During the culture, the pH was reduced with increase in gluconic acid concentration and was inversely correlated with P solubilization. Insoluble P solubilization in the optimal medium was about 902 mg l(-1), which was approximately 1.6-fold higher than the yield in NBRIP medium (580 mg l(-1)). B. vietnamiensis M6 showed resistance against different environmental stresses like 10-45 degrees C, 1-5% (w/v) salt, and 2-11 pH range. The maximal concentration of soluble P produced by B. vietnamiensis M6 from Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), CaHPO(4), and hydroxyapatite was 1,039, 2,132, and 1,754 mg l(-1), respectively. However, the strain M6 produced soluble P with 20 mg l(-1) from FePO(4) after 2 days and 100 mg l(-1) from AlPO(4) after 6 days, respectively. Our results indicate that B. vietnamiensis M6 could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertilizer applicable to environmentally stressed soil.

  17. Tricalcium phosphate solubilization and nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus CKMV1 from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and its growth promotional effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Anjali; Guleria, Shiwani; Balgir, Praveen P; Walia, Abhishek; Mahajan, Rishi; Mehta, Preeti; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1 was isolated from rhizosphere of Valeriana jatamansi and possessed multiple plant growth promoting traits like production of phosphate solubilization (260mg/L), nitrogen fixation (202.91nmolethylenemL -1 h -1 ), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (8.1μg/mL), siderophores (61.60%), HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production and antifungal activity. We investigated the ability of isolate CKMV1 to solubilize insoluble P via mechanism of organic acid production. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study showed that isolate CKMV1 produced mainly gluconic (1.34%) and oxalic acids. However, genetic evidences for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization by organic acid production have been reported first time for A. aneurinilyticus strain CKMV1. A unique combination of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and pyrroloquinoline quinone synthase (pqq) gene, a cofactor of gdh involved in phosphate solubilization has been elucidated. Nitrogenase (nif H) gene for nitrogen fixation was reported from A. aneurinilyticus. It was notable that isolate CKMV1 exhibited highest antifungal against Sclerotium rolfsii (93.58%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (64.3%), Dematophora necatrix (52.71%), Rhizoctonia solani (91.58%), Alternaria sp. (71.08%) and Phytophthora sp. (71.37%). Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (27.07%), shoot length (42.33%), root length (52.6%), shoot dry weight (62.01%) and root dry weight (45.7%) along with NPK (0.74, 0.36, 1.82%) content of tomato under net house condition. Isolate CKMV1 possessed traits related to plant growth promotion, therefore, could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertiliser or biocontrol agent and this is the first study to include the Aneurinibacillus as PGPR. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions: Phase 1 -- Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing and Phase 2 -- Solubilization test and partitioning and interwell tracer tests. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km{sup 2} in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation.

  20. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions. Phase 1: Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing. Phase 2: Solubilization test and partitioning interwell tracer tests. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km 2 in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation