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Sample records for solium homologous antigen

  1. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

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    Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Jiménez, Lucía; Landa, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:22253530

  2. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

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    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  3. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

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    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells.

  4. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

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    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

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    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiantigen Print Immunoassay for Comparison of Diagnostic Antigens for Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis▿

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    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases. PMID:19906893

  7. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases.

  8. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

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    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  9. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

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    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characterisation of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium metacestode glycoprotein antigens.

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    Restrepo, B I; Obregón-Henao, A; Mesa, M; Gil, D L; Ortiz, B L; Mejía, J S; Villota, G E; Sanzón, F; Teale, J M

    2000-05-01

    Human neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. It usually affects the central nervous system of humans and can be confused with other brain pathologies. The Lens culinaris-binding glycoproteins from this parasite have been shown to be ideal targets for the development of a highly specific immunoassay for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. In the present study we characterised the carbohydrates associated with five antigenic glycoproteins of T. solium metacestodes in the range of 12-28 kilodaltons. Lectin-affinities and enzymatic deglycosylations suggested that each of the five antigens contain various glycoforms of asparagine-linked carbohydrates of the hybrid, complex and probably high mannose type. These carbohydrates accounted for at least 30-66% of the apparent molecular mass of the glycoconjugates. In contrast, there was no evidence for the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. Lectin affinity patterns suggested that the sugars are short and truncated in their biosynthetic route, and that some contain terminal galactose moieties. Elucidating the precise structure of the carbohydrates and establishing their role in antigenicity will be essential to design strategies to produce them in large and reproducible amounts for the development of improved immunoassays.

  11. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

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    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  12. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-01-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal

  13. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

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    Gleyce Alves Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  14. Serological diagnosis of Taenia solium in pigs: No measurable circulating antigens and antibody response following exposure to Taenia saginata oncospheres.

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    Dorny, P; Dermauw, V; Van Hul, A; Trevisan, C; Gabriël, S

    2017-10-15

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonosis included in the WHO's list of neglected tropical diseases. Accurate diagnostic tools for humans and pigs are needed to monitor intervention outcomes. Currently used diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis all have drawbacks. Serological tests are mainly confronted with problems of specificity. More specifically, circulating antigen detecting tests cross-react with Taenia hydatigena and the possibility of transient antigens as a result of aborted infections is suspected. Furthermore, the hypothesis has been raised that hatched ingested eggs of other Taenia species may lead to a transient antibody response or to the presence of circulating antigen detectable by serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. Here we describe the results of a study that consisted of oral administration of Taenia saginata eggs to five piglets followed by serological testing during five weeks and necropsy aiming at studying possible cross reactions in serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. The infectivity of the eggs was verified by in vitro hatching and by experimental infection of a calf. One piglet developed acute respiratory disease and died on day 6 post infection. The remaining four piglets did not show any clinical signs until euthanasia. None of the serum samples from four piglets collected between days 0 and 35 post infection gave a positive reaction in the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and in a commercial Western blot for antibody detection. In conclusion, this study showed that experimental exposure of four pigs to T. saginata eggs did not result in positive serologies for T. solium. These results may help interpreting serological results in monitoring of T. solium control programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

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    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

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    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

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    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Approaches To Investigate the Immunogenicity of Taenia solium-Derived KE7 Antigen.

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    Bobes, Raúl J; Navarrete-Perea, José; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Anaya, Víctor Hugo; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes-Torres, Jacquelynne; Estrada, Karel; Sánchez-Lopez, Filiberto; Soberón, Xavier; Rosas, Gabriela; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; García-Varela, Martín; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio Rafael; López-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Laclette, Juan P; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda

    2017-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis, a parasitic disease that affects human health in various regions of the world, is preventable by vaccination. Both the 97-amino-acid-long KETc7 peptide and its carboxyl-terminal, 18-amino-acid-long sequence (GK-1) are found in Taenia crassiceps Both peptides have proven protective capacity against cysticercosis and are part of the highly conserved, cestode-native, 264-amino-acid long protein KE7. KE7 belongs to a ubiquitously distributed family of proteins associated with membrane processes and may participate in several vital cell pathways. The aim of this study was to identify the T. solium KE7 (TsKE7) full-length protein and to determine its immunogenic properties. Recombinant TsKE7 (rTsKE7) was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta2 cells and used to obtain mouse polyclonal antibodies. Anti-rTsKE7 antibodies detected the expected native protein among the 350 spots developed from T. solium cyst vesicular fluid in a mass spectrometry-coupled immune proteomic analysis. These antibodies were then used to screen a phage-displayed 7-random-peptide library to map B-cell epitopes. The recognized phages displayed 9 peptides, with the consensus motif Y(F/Y)PS sequence, which includes YYYPS (named GK-1M, for being a GK-1 mimotope), exactly matching a part of GK-1. GK-1M was recognized by 58% of serum samples from cysticercotic pigs with 100% specificity but induced weak protection against murine cysticercosis. In silico analysis revealed a universal T-cell epitope(s) in native TsKE7 potentially capable of stimulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and helper T lymphocytes under different major histocompatibility complex class I and class II mouse haplotypes. Altogether, these results provide a rationale for the efficacy of the KETc7, rTsKE7, and GK-1 peptides as vaccines. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

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    Jenkins, A O; Michel, A; Rutten, V

    2017-05-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals. It also takes an in-depth view into assessing the genetic similarities and relationships between atypical mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and how they might explain the immunological imprint of environmental mycobacteria in directing the hosts' immune response upon subsequent exposure to other classes of mycobacteria. The outcome of this review suggests that genetic closeness between particular atypical mycobacteria and MTBC usually indicate a higher level of homology for certain shared protective antigens. This ultimately results in a higher level of cross reactive immune responses as compared with other atypical mycobacteria that are further away genetically. This would explain the different effects of environmental mycobacteria on MTBC that have been reported in the different studies. In other words the direction of the host immune system in response to exposure to MTBC would depend on the type of environmental mycobacteria that was encountered in the initial exposure. We also explain these mycobacterial interactions in the context of the phenomenon of "Original Mycobacterial Sin". The effects of these inevitable mycobacterial interactions on field diagnosis and control by vaccination and how to circumvent them are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

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    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  1. Homology building as a means to define antigenic epitopes on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Christensen, Inge T; Jørgensen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    in the gene coding for Pf-DHFR. Furthermore, we wanted to study the potential use of homology models in general and of Pf-DHFR in particular in predicting antigenic malarial surface epitopes. METHODS: A homology model of Pf-DHFR domain was employed to define an epitope for the development of site...

  2. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, A. O.; Michel, A.; Rutten, V.

    2017-01-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control

  3. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generated crude antigens were applied in a standard western blot assay. Results: 46 out of ... diagnose of T. solium cysticercosis in humans several serological tests ..... tion methods we can only state that there was no rel- evant difference ...

  5. ANTIGENIC RELATEDNESS OF SELECTED FLAVIVIRUSES: STUDY WITH HOMOLOGOUS AND HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNE MOUSE ASCITIC FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. BABA

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The antigenic relationship of 9 flaviviruses, Yellow fever (YF , Wesselsbron (WSL , Uganda S (UGS , Potiskum (POT, West Nile (WN , Banzi (BAN , Zika (ZK , Dengue type 1 (DEN-1 and Dengue type 2 (DEN-2, was assessed by cross-haemagglutination-inhibition (Cross-HI and cross-complement fixation (Cross-CF reactions between each of the viruses and their homologous immune mouse ascitic fluids. Titre ratios were calculated using the heterologous and homologous titres. Cross-CF reactions revealed wider antigenic variations among viruses than Cross-HI reactions. There was no significant antigenic variation between WSL, POT and YF viruses using either of those methods. However, definite differences in antigenicity were observed between them and UGS, BAN and ZK viruses. There were no significant differences between UGS, BAN and ZK or between DEN-1 and DEN-2. The serological relationship among flaviviruses is important in establishing diagnosis and epidemiology of these infections in Africa.A relação antigênica de 9 Flavivirus, Febre amarela (YF, Wesselsbron (WSL, Uganda S (UGS, Potiskum (POT, West Nile (WN, Banzi (BAN, Zika (ZK, Dengue tipo 1 (DEN-1 e Dengue tipo2 (DEN-2, foi avaliada por reação de inibição da hemaglutinação cruzada (cross-HI e reação de fixação do complemento cruzada (Cross-CF entre cada um dos virus e seu fluido ascítico homólogo em camundongos. Médias de títulos foram calculadas usando os títulos heterólogos e homólogos. Reações cruzadas CF revelaram maiores variações antigênicas entre virus do que reações cruzadas HI. Não houve variação antigênica significativa entre virus WSL, POT e YF usando cada um dos métodos. Todavia, diferenças definidas da antigenicidade foram observadas entre eles e os vírus UGS, BAN e ZK. Não existiram diferenças significativas entre UGS, BAN e ZK ou entre DEN-1 e DEN-2. A relação sorológica entre Flavivirus é importante para se estabelecer o diagnóstico e a

  6. Homology-Directed Recombination for Enhanced Engineering of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Hale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene editing by homology-directed recombination (HDR can be used to couple delivery of a therapeutic gene cassette with targeted genomic modifications to generate engineered human T cells with clinically useful profiles. Here, we explore the functionality of therapeutic cassettes delivered by these means and test the flexibility of this approach to clinically relevant alleles. Because CCR5-negative T cells are resistant to HIV-1 infection, CCR5-negative anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cells could be used to treat patients with HIV-associated B cell malignancies. We show that targeted delivery of an anti-CD19 CAR cassette to the CCR5 locus using a recombinant AAV homology template and an engineered megaTAL nuclease results in T cells that are functionally equivalent, in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models, to CAR T cells generated by random integration using lentiviral delivery. With the goal of developing off-the-shelf CAR T cell therapies, we next targeted CARs to the T cell receptor alpha constant (TRAC locus by HDR, producing TCR-negative anti-CD19 CAR and anti-B cell maturation antigen (BCMA CAR T cells. These novel cell products exhibited in vitro cytolytic activity against both tumor cell lines and primary cell targets. Our combined results indicate that high-efficiency HDR delivery of therapeutic genes may provide a flexible and robust method that can extend the clinical utility of cell therapeutics.

  7. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine...

  8. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia ( T. ) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium . A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  9. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  10. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabri?l, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies...

  11. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas

  12. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  13. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H

  14. Structural insights into a high affinity nanobody:antigen complex by homology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontitis-causing pathogens. P. gingivalis secrete a cysteine protease termed RgpB, which is specific for Arg-Xaa bonds in substrates. Recently, a nanobody-based assay was used to demonstrate that RgpB could represent a novel diagnostic target, thereby...... simplifying. P. gingivalis detection. The nanobody, VHH7, had a high binding affinity and was specific for RgpB, when tested towards the highly identical RgpA. In this study a homology model of VHH7 was build. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) comprising the paratope residues responsible for Rgp...

  15. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis.

  16. Trial of using antibodies as carriers of alkylating agents. Pt. 2. Evaluation of ability to form /sup 32/P-cyclophosphamide + immune antibody complexes with homologous antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzeciak, J; Felus, E; Nolewajka, E; Szaflarski, J; Dudziak, Z [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    /sup 32/P-cyclophosphamide was found to combine with ..gamma..-globulin fractions of immune sera. Immune sera incubated with /sup 32/P-cyclophosphamide retained ability to react specifically with homologou antigen in vitro in the system: MN antigens of human erythrocytes + rabbit anti-MN antibody, and probably reacted selectively with target antigens in vivo in the system: antigens of guinea pig kidney tissue + rabbit antibodies against these antigens. Hemagglutination, passive hemagglutination and precipitation in agar gel tests were used in the experiments. Ability to combine of the immune antibody + /sup 32/P-cyclophosphamide complex with homologous antigens was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of studied materials (erythrocyte agglutinates and organ homogenates). The results indicate feasibility of using immune antibodies as carriers of cytostatic agents.

  17. Structural insights into a high affinity nanobody:antigen complex by homology modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2017-09-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontitis-causing pathogens. P. gingivalis secrete a cysteine protease termed RgpB, which is specific for Arg-Xaa bonds in substrates. Recently, a nanobody-based assay was used to demonstrate that RgpB could represent a novel diagnostic target, thereby simplifying. P. gingivalis detection. The nanobody, VHH7, had a high binding affinity and was specific for RgpB, when tested towards the highly identical RgpA. In this study a homology model of VHH7 was build. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) comprising the paratope residues responsible for RgpB binding were identified and used as input to the docking. Furthermore, residues likely involved in the RgpB epitope was identified based upon RgpB:RgpA alignment and analysis of residue surface accessibility. CDR residues and putitative RgpB epitope residues were used as input to an information-driven flexible docking approach using the HADDOCK server. Analysis of the VHH7:RgpB model demonstrated that the epitope was found in the immunoglobulin-like domain and residue pairs located at the molecular paratope:epitope interface important for complex stability was identified. Collectively, the VHH7 homology model and VHH7:RgpB docking supplies knowledge of the residues involved in the high affinity interaction. This information could prove valuable in the design of an antibody-drug conjugate for specific RgpB targeting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay using two baculovirus expressed recombinant antigens for diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Min Z; Lewis, Melissa M; Rodriquez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Khan, Azra; Lin, Sehching; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-04-01

    Taeniasis diagnosis is an important step in the control and elimination of both cysticercosis and taeniasis. We report the development of 2 serological taeniasis diagnostic tests using recombinant antigens rES33 and rES38 expressed by baculovirus in insect cells in an EITB format. In laboratory testing with defined sera from nonendemic areas, rES33 has a sensitivity of 98% (n = 167) and a specificity of 99% (n = 310) (J index: 0.97); rES38 has a sensitivity of 99% (n = 146) and a specificity of 97% (n = 275) (J index: 0.96). Independent field testing in Peru showed 97% (n = 203) of the taeniasis sera were positive with rES33, and 100% of the nontaeniasis sera (n = 272) were negative with rES33; 98% (n = 198) of taeniasis sera were positive with rES38, and 91% (n = 274) of the nontaeniasis sera were negative with rES38. Among the Peruvian sera tested, 17 of 26 Peruvian Taenia saginata sera were false positive with rES38 test. Both tests were also examined with cysticercosis sera, with a positive rate ranging from 21% to 46%. rES33 and rES38 tests offer sensitive and specific diagnosis of taeniasis and easy sample collection through finger sticks that can be used in large-scale studies. They are currently being used in cysticercosis elimination programs in Peru.

  19. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, C; Pietsch-Escueta, S; Tsang, V; Corral-Leyva, G; Ng, L; Medina, M T; Astudillo, S; Padilla, N; Leyva, P; Martinez, L; Noh, J; Levine, M; del Villasenor, R; Sorvillo, F

    2005-02-01

    Taenia solium Cysticercosis is a leading cause of epilepsy and neurological disability in the developing world. It is caused by ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm, T. solium Taeniasis. The prevalence of either T. solium Cysticercosis or T. solium Taeniasis in the United States in populations at risk is poorly understood. The primary objectives of this study are to perform the first study of the sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in an at-risk community in the USA, specifically rural Southern California; identify T. solium Taeniasis positive individuals, and treat positive individuals for the tapeworm T. solium Taeniasis. Community based sero-prevalence study of antibodies to T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in 449 subjects living in a federally funded, predominantly Hispanic residential community; and in two migrant farm worker camps in rural Ventura County, California, USA. For this study, fingerstick blood samples were obtained. Serum immunoblots for both T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis were performed. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis was 1.8% and the sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis by serum immunoblot was 1.1%. Taenia solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis antibodies were not detected in children. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis was highest in the migrant farm worker community. Handwashing frequency was correlated with T. solium Taeniasis sero-positivity. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in this population, as detected by serum immunoblot, approximates the prevalence in some endemic areas of Latin America. Importantly, most patients likely had prior exposure, not active infection. This study establishes for the first time, the relative sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in at-risk populations in the United States.

  20. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Chile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages.T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development--days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32% of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15-30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages.This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite's immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations.

  1. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Nancy; Clark, Taryn; Arana, Yanina; Ortega, Ynes R; Palma, Sandra; Mejia, Alan; Angulo, Noelia; Kosek, Jon C; Kosek, Margaret; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Verastegui, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages. T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development--days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15-30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages. This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite's immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations.

  2. [Prokaryotic expression and histological localization of the Taenia solium CDC37 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Dai, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Ai-Hua

    2013-02-01

    To express Taenia solium gene encoding cell division cycle 37 protein (TsCDC37) and investigate its antigenicity and localization in adults of Taenia solium. The complete coding sequence of TsCDC37 was amplified by PCR based on the recombinant plasmid clone from the cDNA library of adult Taenia solium. The PCR product was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+). The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant TsCDC37 formulated in Freund's adjuvant. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein was examined by Western blotting. The localization of TsCDC37 in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. The recombinant expression vector was constructed successfully. The recombinant protein was about M(r) 52 000, it was then purified and specifically recognized by immuno sera of SD rats and sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TsCDC37 located at the tegument of T. solium adult and the eggs. TsCDC37 gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity. The recombinant protein is mainly expressed in tegument and egg, and is a common antigen of the three human taenia cestodes.

  3. Tamoxifen treatment in hamsters induces protection during taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

  4. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: the role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli.

  5. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V; Sikasunge, C S; Odongo-Aginya, E; Simukoko, C; Mwanjali, G; Alarakol, S; Ovuga, E; Matuja, W; Kihamia, C; Löscher, T; Winkler, A S; Bretzel, G

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium metacestodes/cysts obtained from pig carcasses constitute a primary source for diagnostic tools used for the detection of human cysticercosis. Data on T. solium cyst preparation in Africa is still scarce but required to establish independent reference laboratories. The aim of the present study is a) to present the likely yield of T. solium cyst material by the use of two different preparation methods in the field and b) to investigate its suitability for immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis. In Zambia, Uganda and Tanzania 670 pigs were screened for T. solium infection. Cysts were prepared by 'shaking method' and 'washing method'. Generated crude antigens were applied in a standard western blot assay. 46 out of 670 pigs (6.9%) were found positive for T. solium (Zambia: 12/367, 3.3%; Uganda: 11/217, 5.1%; Tanzania 23/86, 26.7%). Mean values of 77.7 ml whole cysts, 61.8 ml scolices/membranes and 10.9 ml cyst fluid were obtained per pig. Suitability of collected material for the use as crude antigen and molecular diagnostic techniques was demonstrated. This study clearly shows that T. solium cyst preparation in African settings by simple field methods constitutes an effective way to obtain high quality material as source for diagnostic tools and research purposes.

  6. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region.

  7. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Ash, Amanda; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Hobbs, Emma; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Thomas, Lian; Allen, John

    2014-03-28

    The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic "hotspot" of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other "hotspots" of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices.

  8. Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G and Its Murine Functional Homolog Qa2 in the Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício C. Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic susceptibility factors, parasite strain, and an adequate modulation of the immune system seem to be crucial for disease progression after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. HLA-G and its murine functional homolog Qa2 have well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. We evaluated the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR polymorphic sites (associated with mRNA stability and target for microRNA binding and HLA-G tissue expression (heart, colon, and esophagus in patients presenting Chagas disease, stratified according to the major clinical variants. Further, we investigated the transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in affected mouse tissues during T. cruzi experimental acute and early chronic infection induced by the CL strain. Chagas disease patients exhibited differential HLA-G 3′UTR susceptibility allele/genotype/haplotype patterns, according to the major clinical variant (digestive/cardiac/mixed/indeterminate. HLA-G constitutive expression on cardiac muscle and colonic cells was decreased in Chagasic tissues; however, no difference was observed for Chagasic and non-Chagasic esophagus tissues. The transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other anti and proinflammatory (CTLA-4, PDCD1, IL-10, INF-γ, and NOS-2 genes were induced only during the acute T. cruzi infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We present several lines of evidence indicating the role of immunomodulatory genes and molecules in human and experimental T. cruzi infection.

  9. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  10. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Mwape, Evans Kabemba

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community...... or transmission. A feasible strategy to combat T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis would include a combination of approaches focussing on both human (health education and treatment) and animal host (management, treatment and vaccination), which can vary for different communities and different geographical locations...

  11. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23]). A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants

  12. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  13. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia solium, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Polman, Katja; Kanobana, Kirezi; van Lieshout, Lisette; Brienen, Eric; Praet, Nicolas; Kabwe, Constantin; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-01

    Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community-based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), T. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR=2 (95%CI=1.1-5), p=0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR=3.8 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR=3.2 (95%CI=1.1-7.8), p=0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americanus (OR=2.2 (95%CI=1.2-3.8), p<0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR=2.7 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.02). These findings show that co

  14. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated with human Taenia solium infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mwanjali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD; 43% females were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA and antibody (Ab-ELISA. A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38. A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7% persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3% persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6% were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2% stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1% stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38 indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  17. Similar diagnostic performance for neurocysticercosis of three glycoprotein preparations from Taenia solium metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Guido E; Gomez, Diana I; Volcy, Michel; Franco, Andrés F; Cardona, Edgar A; Isaza, Rodrigo; Sanzón, Fernando; Teale, Judy M; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2003-03-01

    The detection of antibodies to Taenia solium metacestodes is very important in the differential diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, an electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) assay that uses an elaborate protocol with metacestode glycoproteins as antigens was compared with two other Western blots that use glycoproteins obtained using simpler methods, including an eluate from a lectin column, or the vesicular fluid (VF) of the parasite. The concordance between the three assays was 91% in patients with active NCC and 100% in patients with suspected NCC and previous documentation of negative serology. The specificities for the Western blots and the EITB assay were 98% and 100%, respectively (98% concordance). These data suggest that the simplest of these immunoassays, the one that uses the VF of T. solium metacestodes in a Western blot format, can be reliably used for the serologic diagnosis of NCC in developing countries where access to the EITB assay is difficult.

  18. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, I; Rivera, J T; Garcia, H H

    2016-03-01

    Taenia solium infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis) are a major scourge to most developing countries. Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human nervous system by the cystic larvae of this parasite, has a protean array of clinical manifestations varying from entirely asymptomatic infections to aggressive, lethal courses. The diversity of clinical manifestations reflects a series of contributing factors which include the number, size and location of the invading parasites, and particularly the inflammatory response of the host. This manuscript reviews the different presentations of T. solium infections in the human host with a focus on the mechanisms or processes responsible for their clinical expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16 ? -bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These eff...

  20. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Sta58 Major Antigen Gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: Sequence homology and Antigenic Comparison of Sta58 to the 60-Kilodalton Family of Stress Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    encoding the animals have shown that both cellular and humoral immune Sta58 protein antigen in E. coli. DNA sequence analysis of a responses occur after...infection, with the cellular immune 2.9-kilobase (kb) HindIl fragment carrying the Sta58 gene response being required for protection (16, 19, 25, 42...The first evidence of a 60-kDa common HtpB antigen) reacted strongly with protein antigens in the antigen family (Hsp6O) among procaryotes was based

  1. The human E48 antigen, highly homologous to the murine Ly-6 antigen ThB, is a GPI-anchored molecule apparently involved in keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, R H; Gerretsen, M; Knippels, E M; van Dijk, M.; van Essen, H; Weghuis, D O; Sinke, R J; Snow, G B; van Dongen, G A

    The E48 antigen, a putative human homologue of the 20-kD protein present in desmosomal preparations of bovine muzzle, and formerly called desmoglein III (dg4), is a promising target antigen for antibody-based therapy of squamous cell carcinoma in man. To anticipate the effect of high antibody dose

  2. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in three communities in north Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, R; Dorny, P; Nguyen, V K; Dang, T C T; Goddeeris, B; Craig, P S; Vercruysse, J

    2006-01-01

    (1) To investigate the response to a serum antigen-detecting ELISA for cysticercosis and a stool coproantigen test for taeniasis in two rural communities (mountainous and coastal areas) and one group of (peri-)urban factory workers; and (2) to examine clinical features of human cysticercosis in northern Vietnam. Villagers and factory workers and their families were informed and invited to participate in the study. Blood and faecal samples were collected from the participants and a simple questionnaire on taeniasis/cysticercosis completed. Serum was examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigen by a monoclonal-based sandwich ELISA. Ag-ELISA positive persons underwent a clinical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Taenia eggs and for copro-antigens. Tapeworms were identified following therapeutic expulsion using morphology and PCR-RFLP. Circulating cysticercus antigens, suggesting active infection, were detected in 5.3% (16/303), 0.6% (1/175) and 0.0% (0/229) of the sampled individuals from the mountainous, coastal and urban regions, respectively. Clinical examination and CT scan of the cysticercus antigen positive persons showed that active cysticercosis did not cause severe disease in most cases. Taenia copro-antigens were found in 0.3% (1/297), 1.8% (3/166) and 0.0% (0/228) of the stool samples from the mountainous, coastal and urban communities, respectively. Three tapeworms were expelled after treatment: two Taenia solium and one Taenia saginata. This survey points to a focal distribution of taeniasis/cysticercosis and suggests that human cysticercosis is rather acquired due to close contact with a T. solium carrier and self-infection, than through infection from the environment.

  3. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Taenia solium metacestodes/cysts obtained from pig carcasses constitute a primary source for diagnostic tools used for the detection of human cysticercosis. Data on T. solium cyst preparation in Africa is still scarce but required to establish independent reference laboratories. Objectives: The aim of the present ...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  5. Tetrahymena gene encodes a protein that is homologous with the liver-specific F-antigen and associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, R; Nørgaard, P; Andreasen, P H

    1992-01-01

    The F-antigen is a prominent liver protein which has been extensively used in studies on natural and induced immunological tolerance. However, its intracellular localization and biological function have remained elusive. It has generally been assumed that the F-antigen is confined phylogenetically...... of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles pointing to a role of TF-ag in membrane trafficking. Transcription of the TF-ag gene, as determined by run-on analyses, was only detectable in growing cells, and following transfer to starvation condition pre-existing TF-ag mRNA was rapidly degraded. The abundance...

  6. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where

  7. Ring-screening to control endemic transmission of Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis. These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination.We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot.Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0-30.0 in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7-25.9 in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.87 while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.91.Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation

  8. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty......Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...

  9. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome.

  10. Small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of sperm associated antigen 9 having structural homology with c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Ritu; Jagadish, Nirmala; Garg, Manoj; Mishra, Deepshikha; Dahiya, Neetu; Chaurasiya, Dipak; Suri, Anil

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we reported a novel testis-specific sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) protein, a new member of the JNK-interacting protein family, having a functional role in sperm-egg fusion [N. Jagadish, R. Rana, R. Selvi, D. Mishra, M. Garg, S. Yadav, J.C. Herr, K. Okumura, A. Hasegawa, K. Koyama, A. Suri, Biochem. J. 389 (2005) 73-82]. NCBI Blast searches revealed SPAG9 nucleotide sequence similarities with ESTs of various cancerous tissues. In the present study, we compared the efficiency of two independent SPAG9 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs, BS/U6/spag9 and BS/U6/spag9-I, to ablate the SPAG9 expression in mammalian cells. A positive correlation between the ratio of target gene versus siRNA and the suppression of SPAG9 expression was observed. Further, the cotransfection of BS/U6/spag9 with pcDNA-SPAG9 and pFlag-CMV2-JNK-3 resulted in specific suppression of SPAG9 without affecting JNK-3 expression. The present investigation will eventually extend the application of SPAG9 siRNA in in vivo targeting experiments that aim to define the SPAG9 functional genomics in tumor and reproductive biology

  11. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits triosephosphate isomerase activity of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Víctor, Sanabria-Ayala; Yolanda, Medina-Flores; Araceli, Zavala-Carballo; Lucía, Jiménez; Abraham, Landa

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained and characterized partially a monoclonal antibody (4H11D10B11 mAb) against triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium (TTPI). This antibody recognized the enzyme by both ELISA and western blot and was able to inhibit its enzymatic activity in 74%. Moreover, the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), products of digestion of the monoclonal antibody with papain, retained almost the same inhibitory effect. We determined the binding site by ELISA; synthetic peptides containing sequences from different non-conserved regions of the TTPI were confronted to the 4H11D10B11 mAb. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody was located on peptide TTPI-56 (ATPAQAQEVHKVVRDWIRKHVDAGIADKARI), and an analysis of mimotopes, obtained with the 4H11D10B11 mAb, suggests that the epitope spans the sequence WIRKHVDAGIAD, residues 193-204 of the enzyme. This epitope is located within helix 6, next to loop 6, an essential active loop during catalysis. The antibody did not recognize triosephosphate isomerase from man and pig, definitive and intermediary hosts of T. solium, respectively. Furthermore, it did not bind to the catalytic site, since kinetic analysis demonstrated that inhibition had a non-competitive profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  13. Novel inhibitors to Taenia solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase identified by virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, P.; Landa-Piedra, A.; Rodríguez-Romero, A.; Parra-Unda, R.; Rojo-Domínguez, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe in this work a successful virtual screening and experimental testing aimed to the identification of novel inhibitors of superoxide dismutase of the worm Taenia solium ( TsCu/Zn-SOD), a human parasite. Conformers from LeadQuest® database of drug-like compounds were selected and then docked on the surface of TsCu/Zn-SOD. Results were screened looking for ligand contacts with receptor side-chains not conserved in the human homologue, with a subsequent development of a score optimization by a set of energy minimization steps, aimed to identify lead compounds for in vitro experiments. Six out of fifty experimentally tested compounds showed μM inhibitory activity toward TsCu/Zn-SOD. Two of them showed species selectivity since did not inhibit the homologous human enzyme when assayed in vitro.

  14. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  17. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  18. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis.

  19. Designing a Minimal Intervention Strategy to Control Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell

    2017-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible. Logical models are presented which reflect changes in the risk that age cohorts of animals have for their potential to transmit T. solium. Interventions that include a combined application of vaccination, plus chemotherapy in young animals, are the most effective. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-01-17

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  1. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagida Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

  2. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Penggunaan Crude Antigen Cysticercus cellulosae Isolat Bali Untuk Optimalisasi Uji ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Sari Pati R U Sianturi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistiserkosis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang disebabkan oleh larva stadium metacestoda dari cacing pita yang disebut Cysticercus.  Cysticercus yang ditemukan pada babi adalah Cysticercus cellulosae yang merupakan larva dari cacing pita Taenia solium. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mengevaluasi antigen crude Cysticercus cellulosae untuk mendeteksi sistiserkosis pada babi. Cysticercus celllulosae yang digunakan adalah isolat lokal yang diperoleh dari babi terinfeksi Taenia solium asal Karangasem-Bali. Penelitian dilakukan untuk optimalisasi ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay terhadap antigen, serum, dan konjugat dengan cara mencari konsentrasi optimal dari antigen, pengenceran optimal serum, dan pengenceran optimal konjugat. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa crude antigen Cysticercus cellulosae isolat Bali bersifat antigenik dan dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi sistiserkosis pada babi dengan konsentrasi optimal antigen 0,3125 µg/ml, pengenceran optimal serum 1:50, dan pengenceran konjugat 1:2000.

  4. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mwape, K E; Van Damme, I; Hobbs, E; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Zulu, G; Colston, A; Willingham, A L; Devleesschauwer, B; Van Hul, A; Chota, A; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

    2017-11-16

    Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard). Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half), including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56%) and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%), out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3%) had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than 10 cysticerci. Depending on the aim of the

  5. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  6. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Van den Bossche, Peter; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p = 0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission

  7. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabemba E Mwape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA, while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA. Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3% were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708 individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00 and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis (p = 0.03 but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and

  8. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victor, B.; Kanobana, K.; Gabriel, S.; Polman, K.; Deckers, N.; Dorny, P.; Deelder, A.M.; Palmblad, M.

    2012-01-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to

  9. Taenia Solium Sneezed out from Nose by an Asymptomatic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, N D; Sharma, M; Neupane, S

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is an intestinal parasite and may be excreted in feces in infected patients but our case is unique, as an asymptomatic child sneezed out the proglottids of the parasite from his nose. After the full course of antihelminthic drug the patient excreted a whole worm in his stool.

  10. Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  11. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  12. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  13. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  14. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  15. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  17. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected...... protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  19. Taenia solium: current understanding of laboratory animal models of taeniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, A; Avila, G; Maravilla, P; Mendlovic, F; León-Cabrera, S; Cruz-Rivera, M; Garza, A; Gómez, B; Aguilar, L; Terán, N; Velasco, S; Benítez, M; Jimenez-Gonzalez, D E

    2010-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.

  20. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials...

  1. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina Møller; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll Skúli

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tis...

  2. Elimination of Taenia solium Transmission in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; O'Neal, Seth E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre; Hightower, Allen; Craig, Philip S; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Gauci, Charles G; Leontsini, Elli; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-06-16

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all the villages in which mass

  3. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Navarrete-Perea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS and the skeletal muscles (SM. The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  4. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Isasa, Marta; Paulo, Joao A; Corral-Corral, Ricardo; Flores-Bautista, Jeanette; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Gygi, Steven P; Laclette, Juan P

    2017-09-01

    In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts) can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and the skeletal muscles (SM). The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  5. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs...... and their durations varied largely. Some of the observed autonomic signs were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle tone leading to collapse. Stereotypic walk in circles was observed in several occasions...

  6. A review of the control of clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yixin; Hong, Qingbiao

    2012-11-01

    Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31 T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries

  7. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.

    2016-01-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  8. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  10. Association between Taenia solium infection and HIV/AIDS in northern Tanzania: a matched cross sectional-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Veronika; Kositz, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Carabin, Hélène; Ngowi, Bernard; Naman, Ezra; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John; Matuja, William; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2016-12-01

    The frequency of Taenia solium, a zoonotic helminth, is increasing in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high. However, little is known about how these two infections interact. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of HIV positive (+) and negative (-) individuals who are infected with Taenia solium (TSOL) and who present with clinical and neurological manifestations of cysticercosis (CC). In northern Tanzania, 170 HIV+ individuals and 170 HIV- controls matched for gender, age and village of origin were recruited. HIV staging and serological tests for TSOL antibodies (Ab) and antigen (Ag) were performed. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) was determined by computed tomography (CT) using standard diagnostic criteria. Neurological manifestations were confirmed by a standard neurological examination. In addition, demographic, clinical and neuroimaging data were collected. Further, CD4 + cell counts as well as information on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) were noted. No significant differences between HIV+ and HIV- individuals regarding the sero-prevalence of taeniosis-Ab (0.6% vs 1.2%), CC-Ab (2.4% vs 2.4%) and CC-Ag (0.6% vs 0.0%) were detected. A total of six NCC cases (3 HIV+ and 3 HIV-) were detected in the group of matched participants. Two individuals (1 HIV+ and 1 HIV-) presented with headaches as the main symptom for NCC, and four with asymptomatic NCC. Among the HIV+ group, TSOL was not associated with CD4 + cell counts, HAART duration or HIV stage. This study found lower prevalence of taeniosis, CC and NCC than had been reported in the region to date. This low level of infection may have resulted in an inability to find cross-sectional associations between HIV status and TSOL infection or NCC. Larger sample sizes will be required in future studies conducted in that area to conclude if HIV influences the way NCC manifests itself.

  11. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nina M; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll S; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lectures on functor homology

    CERN Document Server

    Touzé, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This book features a series of lectures that explores three different fields in which functor homology (short for homological algebra in functor categories) has recently played a significant role. For each of these applications, the functor viewpoint provides both essential insights and new methods for tackling difficult mathematical problems. In the lectures by Aurélien Djament, polynomial functors appear as coefficients in the homology of infinite families of classical groups, e.g. general linear groups or symplectic groups, and their stabilization. Djament’s theorem states that this stable homology can be computed using only the homology with trivial coefficients and the manageable functor homology. The series includes an intriguing development of Scorichenko’s unpublished results. The lectures by Wilberd van der Kallen lead to the solution of the general cohomological finite generation problem, extending Hilbert’s fourteenth problem and its solution to the context of cohomology. The focus here is o...

  13. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  14. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  15. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  16. Identification and characterization of Taenia solium enolase as a plasminogen-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón-Núñez, Dolores A; Fragoso, Gladis; Espitia, Clara; García-Varela, Martín; Soberón, Xavier; Rosas, Gabriela; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2018-06-01

    The larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticerci) is the causal agent of human and swine cysticercosis. When ingested by the host, T. solium eggs are activated and hatch in the intestine, releasing oncospheres that migrate to various tissues and evolve into cysticerci. Plasminogen (Plg) receptor proteins have been reported to play a role in migration processes for several pathogens. This work is aimed to identify Plg-binding proteins in T. solium cysticerci and determine whether T. solium recombinant enolase (rTsEnoA) is capable of specifically binding and activating human Plg. To identify Plg-binding proteins, a 2D-SDS-PAGE ligand blotting was performed, and recognized spots were identified by MS/MS. Seven proteins from T. solium cysticerci were found capable of binding Plg: fascicilin-1, fasciclin-2, enolase, MAPK, annexin, actin, and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. To determine whether rTsEnoA binds human Plg, a ligand blotting was performed and the results were confirmed by ELISA both in the presence and absence of εACA, a competitive Plg inhibitor. Finally, rTsEnoA-bound Plg was activated to plasmin in the presence of tPA. To better understand the evolution of enolase isoforms in T. solium, a phylogenetic inference analysis including 75 enolase amino acid sequences was conducted. The origin of flatworm enolase isoforms, except for Eno4, is independent of their vertebrate counterparts. Therefore, herein we propose to designate tapeworm protein isoforms as A, B, C, and 4. In conclusion, recombinant enolase showed a strong plasminogen binding and activating activity in vitro. T. solium enolase could play a role in parasite invasion along with other plasminogen-binding proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geometric homology revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Given a cohomology theory, there is a well-known abstract way to define the dual homology theory using the theory of spectra. In [4] the author provides a more geometric construction of the homology theory, using a generalization of the bordism groups. Such a generalization involves in its definition the vector bundle modification, which is a particular case of the Gysin map. In this paper we provide a more natural variant of that construction, which replaces the vector bundle modification wi...

  18. Detection of serum antibodies cross-reacting with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and beta-cell antigen zinc transporter 8 homologous peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Antonio; Masala, Speranza; Blasetti, Francesco; Maiore, Irene; Cossu, Davide; Paccagnini, Daniela; Mameli, Giuseppe; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2014-01-01

    MAP3865c, a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) cell membrane protein, has a relevant sequence homology with zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a beta-cell membrane protein involved in Zn++ transportation. Recently, antibodies recognizing MAP3865c epitopes have been shown to cross-react with ZnT8 in type 1 diabetes patients. The purpose of this study was to detect antibodies against MAP3865c peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and speculate on whether they may somehow be involved in the pathogenesis of this severe retinal disorder. Blood samples were obtained from 62 type 1 and 80 type 2 diabetes patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 81 healthy controls. Antibodies against 6 highly immunogenic MAP3865c peptides were detected by indirect ELISA. Type 1 diabetes patients had significantly higher rates of positive antibodies than controls. Conversely, no statistically significant differences were found between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. After categorization of type 1 diabetes patients into two groups, one with positive, the other with negative antibodies, we found that they had similar mean visual acuity (∼ 0.6) and identical rates of vitreous hemorrhage (28.6%). Conversely, Hashimoto's thyroiditis prevalence was 4/13 (30.7%) in the positive antibody group and 1/49 (2%) in the negative antibody group, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.016). This study confirmed that type 1 diabetes patients have significantly higher rates of positive antibodies against MAP/ZnT8 peptides, but failed to find a correlation between the presence of these antibodies and the severity degree of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The significantly higher prevalence of Hashimoto's disease among type 1 diabetes patients with positive antibodies might suggest a possible common environmental trigger for these conditions.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Dahlstrom, Eric; Requena, David; Guzmán, Frank; Ramirez, Manuel; Sheen, Patricia; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Cama, Vitaliano; Anzick, Sarah; Bruno, Dan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wilkins, Patricia; Nash, Theodore; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H; Porcella, Steve; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen. For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples. The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome) T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt) were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites. The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a significant step

  20. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen.For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples.The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites.The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a

  1. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  2. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Croker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR, two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

  5. CystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission...... interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes...... and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts...

  6. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  7. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-06-12

    This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear. A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence. The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively. With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

  9. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Benavides, Victor; Flecker, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2017-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs. We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens. Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as improved targets for

  10. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Pray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs.We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens.Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as

  11. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  12. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community...... chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number...

  13. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory.

  14. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...... infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly...

  15. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

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    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  16. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin...

  18. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were...

  19. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Bronsvoort, Barend M De C; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002-0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  1. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods. © 2015 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social...

  3. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian F Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I. 0.0002-0.0164 probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134 potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  4. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: The best way forward for sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Mwape, K E; Trevisan, C; Braae, U C; Magnussen, P; Thys, S; Bulaya, C; Phiri, I K; Sikasunge, C S; Makungu, C; Afonso, S; Nicolau, Q; Johansen, M V

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community level, improved standards of meat inspection, pig management, treatment of individual patients and possibly human populations, and treatment and/or vaccination of porcine populations. This manuscript looks critically into currently existing control options and provides suggestions on which (combination of) tools would be most effective in the control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Field data and disease transmission simulations suggest that implementation of a single intervention control strategy will not lead to a satisfactory reduction of disease morbidity or transmission. A feasible strategy to combat T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis would include a combination of approaches focussing on both human (health education and treatment) and animal host (management, treatment and vaccination), which can vary for different communities and different geographical locations. Selection of the specific strategy depends on cost-effectiveness analyses based on solid field data, currently unavailable, though urgently needed; as well as on health priorities and resources of the country. A One Health approach involving medical, veterinary, environmental and social sectors is essential for T. solium to be controlled and eventually eliminated. Finally the success of any intervention is largely dependent on the level of societal and political acceptance, commitment and engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A hyperendemic focus of Taenia solium transmission in the Banke District of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Keshav; Poudel, Ishab; Subedi, Suyog; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Cocker, Jo; Kushwaha, Peetambar; Colston, Angela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2017-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in countries where Taenia solium is endemic and the parasite is a major cause of food-borne disease globally. Pigs are the natural intermediate host involved in transmission of the parasite. T. solium is known to be endemic in Nepal, however there is limited reliable data about the prevalence of the disease in Nepal. The aim of this study was to determine accurately the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in slaughter age pigs in an area of Nepal where pigs are known to be free-roaming. Pigs were obtained from the Udaypur Village Development Committee (VDC) and Hirminiya & Betahani VDC of the Banke district in Nepal. One hundred and ten animals of slaughter age (approximately 8-16 months old) were purchased, slaughtered and the heart, liver, brain and half the body skeletal musculature were sliced using hand knives and the number and viability of T. solium cysts determined. Thirty two of the 110 animals were found to harbour T. solium cysticerci (29%), of which 30 (27%) were found to have viable cysticerci (93% of the infected animals). This is one of the highest prevalences of porcine cysticercosis that has been reported to date from the results of necropsy on randomly selected animals. This study highlights a high rate of transmission of T. solium in the Banke District of Nepal. It encourages further investigation of human and porcine cysticercosis in Nepal, as well as implementation of efforts to reduce transmission of the parasite and the associated human disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein profiles of Taenia solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and the central nervous system of pigs: Search for tissue-specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl José; Villalobos, Nelly; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis. This study was aimed to explore the 2DE protein maps of T. solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and central nervous system of naturally infected pigs. The gel images were analyzed through a combination of PDQuest™ and multivariate analysis. Results showed that differences in the protein patterns of cysts obtained from both tissues were remarkably discrete. Only 7 protein spots were found specifically associated to the skeletal muscle localization of the cysts; none was found significantly associated to the central nervous system. The use of distinct protein fractions of cysts allowed preliminary identification of several tissue-specific antigenic bands. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as several strategies directed to achieve the complete characterization of this parasite's proteome, in order to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue localization of the cysts and to open avenues for the development of immunological tissue-specific diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control.

  9. Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gabriël

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in Taenia solium endemic areas, primarily situated in low-income countries. Diagnosis is largely based upon the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" using the definitive/probable/no NCC diagnosis approach. Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a major diagnostic criterion, especially in areas where neuroimaging is absent. METHODS: The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE in an endemic area. RESULTS: The addition of antigen results as a major criterion allowed the correct diagnosis of definitive NCC in 10 out of 17 patients as opposed to 0/17 without antigen results in the absence of neuroimaging. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% were determined for the diagnosis of active NCC using antigen ELISA. While the use of a higher cutoff improves the specificity of the test to 96%, it decreases its sensitivity to 83%. CONCLUSIONS: In areas where neuroimaging is absent, NCC diagnosis according to the existing criteria is problematic. Taking into account its limitations for diagnosis of inactive NCC, antigen detection can be of added value for diagnosing NCC in PWE by supporting diagnostic and treatment decisions. Therefore, we recommend a revision of the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" for use in resource poor areas and suggest the inclusion of serum antigen detection as a major criterion.

  10. Association between Taenia Solium Infection and HIV/AIDS in Northern Tanzania: A Matched Cross Sectional-study.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika; Kositz, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Carabin, Hélène; Ngowi, Bernard; Naman, Ezra; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John; Matuja, William; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency of Taenia solium, a zoonotic helminth, is increasing in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high. However, little is known about how these two infections interact. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of HIV positive (+) and negative (−) individuals who are infected with Taenia solium (TSOL) and who present with clinical and neurological manifestations of cystice...

  11. Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Dan Higiene Perorangan Dengan Kejadian penyakit Cacing Pita (Taenia Solium) Pada Siswa SD Negeri 173545 di Desa Tambunan Kecamatan Balige Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Dewi Sartika

    2015-01-01

    Taenia Solium infection is an environmental-based disease and one type of it is tapeworm (taenia) know for its term taeniasis. Taenia was due to illness of parasitic tapeworm belonging to the genus taenia that can spread from animals to human, or otherwise taenias is the human beings is network by larva forms taenia as inedible taenia solium the worm (taenia solium ). The purpose of this analytical survey study with cross sectional design conducted in State Primary School no...

  12. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination.

  13. Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cederberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of value 0.006 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30 μg/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50 μg/mL.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S de Aluja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p menor que 0.01 and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program’s effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventionsto achieve eradication.

  15. [Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S; Suárez-Marín, Raúl; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Morales-Soto, Julio; Martínez-Maya, José Juan; Villalobos, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (ptaeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program's effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventions to achieve eradication.

  16. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and cli...

  17. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the

  18. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  19. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  20. CystiSim - An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Torgerson, Paul; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-12-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol and consists of two entities-pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in the potential

  1. CystiSim – An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Torgerson, Paul; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol and consists of two entities—pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in the potential

  2. Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; Davis, A; Dixon, H; Pawlowski, Z S; Proano, J

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme.

  3. Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M.; Davis, A.; Dixon, H.; Pawlowski, Z. S.; Proano, J.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme. PMID:2805217

  4. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade.

  5. Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme.

  6. Cross-reactive Legionella antigens and the antibody response during infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G; Pearlman, E

    1991-01-01

    In order to define cross-reactive Legionella antigens suitable for diagnostic purposes, we investigated sonicate antigens from two Legionella species, including two serogroups of L. pneumophila. The antigens were reacted with heterologous and homologous rabbit antisera in Western blot. Sera from ...

  7. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  8. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: from research towards implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Zbigniew; Allan, James; Sarti, Elsa

    2005-10-01

    Theoretically, considering the biology of its transmission and reservoirs, global eradication of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis is feasible. Recently much progress has been made in research on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis, although more operational research is still needed. In spite of this, global eradication of T. solium infection is still unlikely in the near future. Major obstacles to practical implementation of control measures include low levels of sanitation and health education amongst endemic populations, ineffective health services infrastructure and inadequate socioeconomic development in these areas. The continued public health impact of neurocysticercosis, especially fatalities and epilepsy, force us to identify improved options for control. In order to implement control measures in highly endemic areas the active involvement of medical services in controlling T. solium infection and more effective collaboration between medical and veterinary services is necessary. A switch is suggested from total reliance on meat inspection to active diagnosis and treatment of human taeniasis, protection of pigs against infection, promotion of health education and improved surveillance preparing chemotherapeutic and/or sanitary interventions. This could be implemented in areas where active transmission causes substantial morbidity and mortality provided there is the political will, social support, better financing and an effective organizational framework.

  9. Antigenic fractions from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes obtained by hydrophobicity for the immunodiagnosis of active and inactive forms of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriela B; Nunes, Daniela S; de Sousa, José Eduardo N; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the total extract of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (TC) and its antigenic fractions obtained by Triton X-114 fractionation techniques, such as detergent (DC) and aqueous (AC), in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40), which was further divided into active (n=20) and inactive (n=20) NCC, and Group 2 (control group), which comprised 39 CSF samples from patients who had another neurological disorder, were suffering from other infectious diseases of the brain or had other parasitic infections. The total extracts and antigenic fractions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect human IgG anti-Taenia solium. T. crassiceps fractions (DC and AC) showed the same value of sensitivity (Se), 100%, for active and inactive NCC and a specificity (Sp) of 97.4%. The DS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for active NCC, 95% Se for inactive NCC and a 92.3% Sp. The AS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for both active and inactive NCC and a 94.9% Sp. There was a positive correlation between the total saline extract of T. crassiceps (TC) and T. solium (TS) and their fractions (DC, AC, DS and AS). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic efficiency and Youden index were calculated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that detergent and aqueous fractions obtained from T. crassiceps metacestodes are important sources of specific antigens and are efficient for immunodiagnosis of active and inactive NCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis in a rural pig farming community of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Singh, Uttam

    2007-12-01

    There is a lack of information on the disease burden due to Taenia solium taeniasis and its associated risk factors in pig farming communities throughout the world. The present study was conducted in a rural pig farming community of north India to estimate the prevalence of T. solium taeniasis and associated factors. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 1181 subjects in 210 households in 30 villages. Stool specimens from 924 subjects were examined for eggs of Taenia and other parasites. Identification of T. solium was confirmed by morphological features of segments and species-specific DNA detection from segments and stool. The prevalence of T. solium taeniasis was 18.6% (172/924); factors associated with taeniasis on multivariate analysis were age above 15 years, history of passage of Taenia segments in stool, undercooked pork consumption and poor hand hygiene (hand-washing with clay/water after defecation). Seventy-eight subjects (6.6%) with epilepsy were identified. The study showed alarmingly high rates of epilepsy and T. solium taeniasis in the study community; it highlights the need for large-scale imaging-based surveys to identify the factors associated with epilepsy including neurocysticercosis. Health education, mass anthelminthic therapy and other preventive measures are required to control the menace of the disease.

  11. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  12. Mod two homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Cohomology and homology modulo 2 helps the reader grasp more readily the basics of a major tool in algebraic topology. Compared to a more general approach to (co)homology this refreshing approach has many pedagogical advantages: It leads more quickly to the essentials of the subject, An absence of signs and orientation considerations simplifies the theory, Computations and advanced applications can be presented at an earlier stage, Simple geometrical interpretations of (co)chains. Mod 2 (co)homology was developed in the first quarter of the twentieth century as an alternative to integral homology, before both became particular cases of (co)homology with arbitrary coefficients. The first chapters of this book may serve as a basis for a graduate-level introductory course to (co)homology. Simplicial and singular mod 2 (co)homology are introduced, with their products and Steenrod squares, as well as equivariant cohomology. Classical applications include Brouwer's fixed point theorem, Poincaré duality, Borsuk-Ula...

  13. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  14. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening, diagnosis and management of human cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis: technical recommendations by the COHEMI project study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Bonati, Maurizio; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Albonico, Marco; Requena-Méndez, Ana; Bisoffi, Zeno; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Hector H; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the central nervous system's localised form of cysticercosis, is considered to be the leading cause of epilepsy in the developing world. In Europe, the disease is mainly imported and affects both immigrants and travellers. However, autochthonous cases of cysticercosis in low-endemic countries could also originate from Taenia solium carriers (migrants or travellers) who acquired taeniasis overseas. Management of cysticercosis is a challenge for European healthcare providers as they are often hardly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. This study provides a summary of recommendations concerning screening, diagnosis and management of cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe drawn up by nine experts in migrant health and imported diseases with experience in cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Compositional Homology and Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Tedesco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of homology is the most solid theoretical basis elaborated by the morphological thinking during its history. The enucleation of some general criteria for the interpretation of homology is today a fundamental tool for life sciences, and for restoring their own opening to the question of qualitative innovation that arose so powerfully in the original Darwinian project. The aim of this paper is to verify the possible uses of the concept of compositional homology in order to provide of an adequate understanding of the dynamics of creative thinking.

  17. Taenia solium infection in Peru: a collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and researchers in a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nathaniel S; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I; Verastegui, Manuela R; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6-2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1-5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0-2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9-4.1%) by community was observed. This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru.

  18. Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

  19. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts.To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe.A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990-2011 was conducted.Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1% of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7% diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6% in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers. The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%, France (16.7% and Italy (8.3%. One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported.Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems.

  1. Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990-2011 was conducted. Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems.

  2. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12 weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-γ) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combating Taenia solium cysticercosis in Southeast Asia an opportunity for improving human health and livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A Lee; Wu, Hai-Wei; Conlan, James; Satrija, Fadjar

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the zoonotic pork tapeworm Taenia solium is emerging as a constraint for the nutritional and economic well-being of small-holder farming communities in many underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia. It occurs mainly in impoverished regions with inadequate sanitation, poor pig management practices and lack of meat inspection and control. Neurocysticercosis, the most serious form of the disease, is considered the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Although theoretically easy to control and declared eradicable, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis remains a neglected disease. There is a lack of information and awareness of the burden and transmission of the disease at the regional and global level, partially explained by the unavailability of good quality diagnostic tools in field-applicable formats. These factors are further compounded by a lack of validated simple and sustainable intervention packages as part of integrated helminth control programmes. To date, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis has not been eliminated from any region by a specific programme in Southeast Asia, and no national control programmes are yet in place except in parts of the People's Republic of China. The presence, distribution, public health importance and economic relevance of cysticercosis need to be better documented in Southeast Asia in order to bring it to the attention of affected communities, decision-makers and funding bodies. A number of proven cost-effective intervention tools for combating cysticercosis appear to be available but need to be field validated. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) serves as an important regional 'driving force' for managing research, capacity building, knowledge and stakeholder engagement essential for controlling cysticercosis in the Southeast Asian region while ensuring that

  4. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  5. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of regulatory proteases sequences identified through bioinformatics data mining in Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Bin; Lou, Zhong-Zi; Li, Li; Brindley, Paul J; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-06-04

    Cysticercosis remains a major neglected tropical disease of humanity in many regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and elsewhere. Owing to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drugs to prevent re-infection, identification of novel vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against Taenia solium and related helminth pathogens is a public health priority. The T. solium genome and the predicted proteome were reported recently, providing a wealth of information from which new interventional targets might be identified. In order to characterize and classify the entire repertoire of protease-encoding genes of T. solium, which act fundamental biological roles in all life processes, we analyzed the predicted proteins of this cestode through a combination of bioinformatics tools. Functional annotation was performed to yield insights into the signaling processes relevant to the complex developmental cycle of this tapeworm and to highlight a suite of the proteases as potential intervention targets. Within the genome of this helminth parasite, we identified 200 open reading frames encoding proteases from five clans, which correspond to 1.68% of the 11,902 protein-encoding genes predicted to be present in its genome. These proteases include calpains, cytosolic, mitochondrial signal peptidases, ubiquitylation related proteins, and others. Many not only show significant similarity to proteases in the Conserved Domain Database but have conserved active sites and catalytic domains. KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) analysis indicated that ~60% of these proteases share strong sequence identities with proteins of the KEGG database, which are involved in human disease, metabolic pathways, genetic information processes, cellular processes, environmental information processes and organismal systems. Also, we identified signal peptides and transmembrane helices through comparative analysis with classes of important regulatory proteases

  7. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja, Alberto

    -funded projects have addressed the problem, first by assessing the prevalence, risks and impacts of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs in Mozambique and Tanzania from 2006-2009, and, through an on-going project, by trying to develop sustainable solutions for control of the disease...... infections included poor pig husbandry practices especially free ranging of pigs, open defecation, age of pigs, pork cooking practices, lack of meat inspection, and lack of knowledge regarding transmission of the disease. The on-going project focuses on health education and proper pig management as means...

  8. An ocular cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia caused by Taenia solium Asian genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Dewiyani, Cokorda I; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhiko; Sudarmaja, Made; Sutisna, Putu; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-06-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a nine-year-old Balinese girl in Indonesia is reported. She presented with redness and pain in the left eye and showed a cysticercus in the anterior chamber in December 2010. Morphological feature of the cysticercus removed from the anterior chamber indicated that it was an immature cysticercus of Taenia species with no hooklets. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis using a piece of histopathological specimen revealed it a cysticercus of Taenia solium Asian genotype. Serology by immunoblot and ELISA highly specific to cysticercosis was negative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geospatial and age-related patterns of Taenia solium taeniasis in the rural health zone of Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Kanobana, Kirezi; Lukanu, Philippe; Abatih, Emmanuel; Baloji, Sylvain; Linsuke, Sylvie; Praet, Nicolas; Kapinga, Serge; Polman, Katja; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Wendy; Gabriel, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium infections are mostly endemic in less developed countries where poor hygiene conditions and free-range pig management favor their transmission. Knowledge on patterns of infections in both human and pig is crucial to design effective control strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution of taeniasis in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in the prospect of upcoming control activities. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24 villages of the health zone of Kimpese, Bas Congo Province. Individual and household characteristics, including geographical coordinates were recorded. Stool samples were collected from willing participants and analyzed using the copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) for the detection of taeniasis. Blood samples were collected from pigs and analyzed using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA) to detect porcine cysticercosis. Logistic regression and multilevel analysis were applied to identify risk factors. Global clustering and spatial correlation of taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis were assessed using K functions. Local clusters of both infections were identified using the Kulldorff's scan statistic. A total of 4751 participants above 5 years of age (median: 23 years; IQR: 11-41) were included. The overall proportion of taeniasis positivity was 23.4% (95% CI: 22.2-24.6), ranging from 1 to 60% between villages, with a significant between-household variance of 2.43 (SE=0.29, pTaeniasis was significantly associated with age (ptaeniasis (ptaeniasis in the study area. The role of age in taeniasis patterns and significant spatial clusters of both taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis were evidenced, though no spatial correlation was found between human and pig infections. Urgent control activities are needed for this endemic area. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  11. Use of expressed sequence tags as an alternative approach for the identification of Taenia solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victor, B.; Dorny, P.; Kanobana, K.; Polman, K.; Lindh, J.; Deelder, A.M.; Palmblad, M.; Gabriel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies

  12. Genotoxicity induced by Taenia solium and its reduction by immunization with calreticulin in a hamster model of taeniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana María; Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Chávez-Talavera, Oscar; Sordo, Monserrat; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity induced by neurocysticercosis has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in humans. The adult stage of Taenia solium lodges in the small intestine and is the main risk factor to acquire neurocysticercosis, nevertheless its carcinogenic potential has not been evaluated. In this study, we determined the genotoxic effect of T. solium infection in the hamster model of taeniosis. In addition, we assessed the effect of oral immunization with recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) plus cholera toxin as adjuvant on micronuclei induction, as this protein has been shown to induce 33-44% protection in the hamster model of taeniosis. Blood samples were collected from the orbital venous plexus of noninfected and infected hamsters at different days postinfection, as well as from orally immunized animals, to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes as a measure of genotoxicity induced by parasite exposure and rTsCRT vaccination. Our results indicate that infection with T. solium caused time-dependent DNA damage in vivo and that rTsCRT immunization reduced the genotoxic damage induced by the presence of the tapeworms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on ‘the control of neglected zoonotic diseases – from advocacy to action’, that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to el...

  14. Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rodrigo; Piñero, Daniel; Ramanankandrasana, Bienvenue; Dumas, Michel; Bouteille, Bernard; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-11-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severely incapacitating and even fatal presentation. Further, vaccine design and diagnosis technology have met with difficulties in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Parasite diversity underlying clinical heterogeneity and technological difficulties is little explored. Here, T. solium genetic population structure and diversity was studied by way of random amplified polymorphic DNA in individual cysticerci collected from pigs in Madagascar and two regions in Mexico. The amplification profiles of T. solium were also compared with those of the murine cysticercus Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain). We show significant genetic differentiation between Madagascar and Mexico and between regions in Mexico, but less so between cysticerci from different localities in Mexico and none between cysticerci from different tissues from the same pig. We also found restricted genetic variability within populations and gene flow was estimated to be low between populations. Thus, genetic differentiation of T. solium suggests that different evolutionary paths have been taken and provides support for its involvement in the differential tissue distribution of cysticerci and varying degrees of severity of the disease. It may also explain difficulties in the development of vaccines and tools for immunodiagnosis.

  15. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah; Magnussen, Pascal; Braae, Uffe Christian

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on 'the control of neglected zoonotic diseases - from advocacy to action', that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to elucidate theoretical outcomes of various control options suggested for TSTC elimination in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over a 4-year period. Our current knowledge regarding T. solium epidemiology and control primarily builds on studies from Latin America. A simple transmission model - built on data from Latin America - has been used to predict the effect of various interventions such as mass treatment of humans, vaccination and treatment of pigs, and health education of communities, potentially leading to change in bad practices and reducing transmission risks. Based on simulations of the transmission model, even a 4-year integrated One Health approach fails to eliminate TSTC from a small community and in all simulations, the prevalence of human taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis start to rise as soon as the programmes end. Our current knowledge regarding transmission and burden of TSTC in SSA is scarce and while claiming to be tool ready, the selection of diagnostic and surveillance tools, as well as the algorithms and stepwise approaches for control and elimination of TSTC remain major challenges.

  16. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Wnt4 gene in metacestodes of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-04-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.

  17. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  18. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent topological attributes, shown to be related to the robust quality of networks, also reflect the deficiency in certain connectivity properties of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential connectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis

  20. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Roncal, Elisa; Quiñones-García, Stefany; Clipman, Steven J; Calcina, Juan; Gavidia, Cesar M; Sheen, Patricia; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-12-01

    The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3%) out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100%) out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared parental genotype.

  1. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3% out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100% out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared

  2. Homological stability of diffeomorphism groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander; Madsen, Ib Henning

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we prove a stability theorem for block diffeomorphisms of 2d -dimensional manifolds that are connected sums of S d ×S d . Combining this with a recent theorem of S. Galatius and O. Randal-Williams and Morlet’s lemma of disjunction, we determine the homology of the classifying space ...

  3. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  4. Docking of B-cell epitope antigen to specific hepatitis B antibody

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interaction of pres1 region of hepatitis B virus B-cell epitope antigen with specific hepatitis B neutralizing monoclonal antibody was examined by docking study. We modelled the 3D complex structure of B-cell epitope antigen residues CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNCY by homology modelling and docked it with the ...

  5. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-2 alpha participates in axial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha (CTLA-2α) has been discovered and expressed in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. Structurally, it is homologous to the proregion of mouse cathepsin L, a lysosomal cystein proteinase. Expressed recombinant CTLA-2α is shown to exhibit selective inhibition to cathepsin L and ...

  6. State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

  7. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  8. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Johansen, Maria V

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly lower (psolium infected (4.7±3.0pg/mg) compared to control pigs (9.0±3.7pg/mg) prior to arrival at the research facility, however no significant difference was observed between the two groups at arrival and after approximately two weeks. Similar patterns were also observed for DHEA concentrations (infected pigs 253.9±82.3pg/mg, control pigs 387.7±116.4pg/mg) (p<0.001). Results showed that lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the impact of intervention strategies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using the EPICYST transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskill, Peter; Harrison, Wendy E; French, Michael D; Dixon, Matthew A; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2017-02-09

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and associated human infections, taeniasis, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, are serious public health problems, especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set goals for having a validated strategy for control and elimination of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis by 2015 and interventions scaled-up in selected countries by 2020. Timely achievement of these internationally-endorsed targets requires that the relative benefits and effectiveness of potential interventions be explored rigorously within a quantitative framework. A deterministic, compartmental transmission model (EPICYST) was developed to capture the dynamics of the taeniasis/cysticercosis disease system in the human and pig hosts. Cysticercosis prevalence in humans, an outcome of high epidemiological and clinical importance, was explicitly modelled. A next generation matrix approach was used to derive an expression for the basic reproduction number, R 0 . A full sensitivity analysis was performed using a methodology based on Latin-hypercube sampling partial rank correlation coefficient index. EPICYST outputs indicate that chemotherapeutic intervention targeted at humans or pigs would be highly effective at reducing taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence when applied singly, with annual chemotherapy of humans and pigs resulting, respectively, in 94 and 74% of human cysticercosis cases averted. Improved sanitation, meat inspection and animal husbandry are less effective but are still able to reduce prevalence singly or in combination. The value of R 0 for taeniasis was estimated at 1.4 (95% Credible Interval: 0.5-3.6). Human- and pig-targeted drug-focussed interventions appear to be the most efficacious approach from the options currently available. The model presented is a forward step towards developing an informed control and elimination strategy for cysticercosis. Together with its validation against field data, EPICYST will be a

  10. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Forkman, Björn

    2017-02-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social and feeding behaviours as well as the pattern of activity as indicators of reduced welfare in naturally infected sows. In total 13 T. solium naturally infected and 15 non-infected control sows were videotaped for 2 consecutive weeks using close circuit television cameras at research facilities at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Videos were analysed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the 2 week recording period. For each time point, videos were analysed during feeding, while the enrichment was provided, and by recording every half an hour the sows' behaviours performed over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed as this has so far been neglected. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771 bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3 h and lost it in 24 h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1 h and lost activity completely in 24 h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at −70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12 kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  12. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. Copyright

  13. Analyses of an expressed sequence tag library from Taenia solium, Cysticerca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by the oral ingestion of eggs from the human parasitic worm Taenia solium. Although drugs are available they are controversial because of the side effects and poor efficiency. An expressed sequence tag (EST library is a method used to describe the gene expression profile and sequence of mRNA from a specific organism and stage. Such information can be used in order to find new targets for the development of drugs and to get a better understanding of the parasite biology. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here an EST library consisting of 5760 sequences from the pig cysticerca stage has been constructed. In the library 1650 unique sequences were found and of these, 845 sequences (52% were novel to T. solium and not identified within other EST libraries. Furthermore, 918 sequences (55% were of unknown function. Amongst the 25 most frequently expressed sequences 6 had no relevant similarity to other sequences found in the Genbank NR DNA database. A prediction of putative signal peptides was also performed and 4 among the 25 were found to be predicted with a signal peptide. Proposed vaccine and diagnostic targets T24, Tsol18/HP6 and Tso31d could also be identified among the 25 most frequently expressed. CONCLUSIONS: An EST library has been produced from pig cysticerca and analyzed. More than half of the different ESTs sequenced contained a sequence with no suggested function and 845 novel EST sequences have been identified. The library increases the knowledge about what genes are expressed and to what level. It can also be used to study different areas of research such as drug and diagnostic development together with parasite fitness via e.g. immune modulation.

  14. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  15. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development.This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation, in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera.Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes.

  16. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or ‘recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible...... humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were...... investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs...

  17. cystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah

    and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces, leading to light or high infection intensities, respectively. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows evaluation of three...... interventions measures or combinations hereof: human mass drug administration (MDA), pig MDA, and pig vaccination. From the modelled simulations, cystiSim suggests that the combination of pig MDA and vaccination may have promising results. However, pig MDA as a standalone tool also provides a significant effect...... in reduction of T. solium prevalence. Human MDA is the least effective intervention measure. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these key biological parameters...

  18. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Minyoo Matata - The Vicious Worm - A Taenia solium Computer-Based Health-Education Tool - in Swahili

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Fèvre, Eric M.; Owiny, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Lack of knowledge is one of the main risk factors for the spread of the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium. The computer-based health-education tool 'The Vicious Worm' was developed to create awareness and provide evidence-based health education as a specific measure in control strategies. To increase...... the reach of the tool, a new version in Swahili was developed and can now be downloaded for free from http://theviciousworm.sites.ku.dk....

  20. Taenia solium from a community perspective: Preliminary costing data in the Katete and Sinda districts in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Emma C; Mwape, Kabemba E; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mambwe, Moses; Phiri, Isaac K; Masuku, Maxwell; Zulu, Gideon; Colston, Angela; Willingham, Arve Lee; Berkvens, Dirk; Dorny, Pierre; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko

    2018-02-15

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, however its socioeconomic cost is unknown. During a large-scale interventional study conducted in Zambia, baseline economic costs of human and porcine T. solium infections were measured. Questionnaire surveys were conducted within three neighbourhoods in Zambia's Eastern province in 2015 and 2016. A human health questionnaire, capturing costs of clinical symptoms commonly attributable to human cysticercosis and taeniasis, was conducted in randomly selected households (n = 267). All pig-keeping households were administered a pig socioeconomic questionnaire (n = 271) that captured pig demographic data, costs of pig-keeping, and economic losses from porcine cysticercosis. Of all respondents 62% had reportedly experienced at least one of the surveyed symptoms. Seizure-like episodes were reported by 12%, severe chronic headaches by 36%, and vision problems by 23% of respondents. These complaints resulted in 147 health care consultations and 17 hospitalizations in the five years preceding the study, and an estimated productivity loss of 608 working days per year. Of all pigs 69% were bought within villages. Nearly all adult pigs were sold to local traders, and tongue palpation for detection of cysticerci was commonly performed. Reportedly, 95% of pig owners could not sell tongue-positive pigs, while infected pigs fetched only 45% of the normal sale value. These preliminary costing data indicate that human and porcine T. solium infections substantially impact endemic areas of Eastern Zambia. A full socioeconomic burden assessment may enable improved T. solium management in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2018 Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) in the human and swine parasite Taenia solium: implications to the host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Díaz, Hugo; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Escobedo, Galileo; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; García-Varela, Martín; Del Río-Araiza, Víctor H; Palacios-Arreola, Margarita I; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2018-03-09

    We have previously reported that progesterone (P 4 ) has a direct in vitro effect on the scolex evagination and growth of Taenia solium cysticerci. Here, we explored the hypothesis that the P 4 direct effect on T. solium might be mediated by a novel steroid-binding parasite protein. By way of using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, flow cytometry analysis, double-dimension electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing the corresponding protein spot, we detected a novel PGRMC in T. solium. Molecular modeling studies accompanied by computer docking using the sequenced protein, together with phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment clearly demonstrated that T. solium PGRMC is from parasite origin. Our results show that P 4 in vitro increases parasite evagination and scolex size. Using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, we detected that parasite cells showed expression of a P 4 -binding like protein exclusively located at the cysticercus subtegumental tissue. Presence of the P 4 -binding protein in cyst cells was also confirmed by flow cytometry. Double-dimension electrophoresis analysis, followed by sequencing the corresponding protein spot, revealed a protein that was previously reported in the T. solium genome belonging to a membrane-associated progesterone receptor component (PGRMC). Molecular modeling studies accompanied by computer docking using the sequenced protein showed that PGRMC is potentially able to bind steroid hormones such as progesterone, estradiol, testosterone and dihydrodrotestosterone with different affinities. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment clearly demonstrated that T. solium PGRMC is related to a steroid-binding protein of Echinoccocus granulosus, both of them being nested within a cluster including similar proteins present in platyhelminths such as Schistocephalus solidus and Schistosoma haematobium. Progesterone may directly act upon T. solium cysticerci probably by binding to PGRMC. This research has implications in the

  2. Immunological mechanisms involved in the protection against intestinal taeniosis elicited by oral immunization with Taenia solium calreticulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Vaughan, Gilberto; Salazar, Ana María; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2012-11-01

    Oral immunization with functional recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) induces 37% reduction in tapeworm burden in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. Furthermore, tapeworms recovered from vaccinated animals exhibit diminished length, being frequently found in more posterior parts of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunological mechanisms involved in protection in response to rTsCRT oral immunization. Hamsters were orally immunized with rTsCRT using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant, weekly for 4 weeks. Fifteen days after the last boost animals were challenged with four T. solium cysticerci. Reduction in the adult worm recovery and increased transcription of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ in the mucosa of rTsCRT+CT immunized animals were observed. Immunization also induced goblet cell hyperplasia in the mucosa surrounding the implantation site of the parasite. Specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and fecal supernatants were detected after the second immunization, being more pronounced after challenge. Our data suggest that oral vaccination with rTsCRT+CT regulates a local expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ, stimulating secretion of IgA that, together with the increase of goblet cells and mucin production, could result in an unfavorable environment for T. solium promoting an impaired tapeworm development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  4. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  5. Kuranishi homology and Kuranishi cohomology

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    A Kuranishi space is a topological space with a Kuranishi structure, defined by Fukaya and Ono. Kuranishi structures occur naturally on moduli spaces of J-holomorphic curves in symplectic geometry. Let Y be an orbifold and R a commutative ring or Q-algebra. We define two kinds of Kuranishi homology KH_*(Y;R). The chain complex KC_*(Y;R) defining KH_*(Y;R) is spanned over R by [X,f,G], for X a compact oriented Kuranishi space with corners, f : X --> Y smooth, and G "gauge-fixing data" which ma...

  6. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Christian Braae

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. “Track-and-treat” of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤15 from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8% was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17–0.89, compared to baseline (4.1%. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8% had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32–0.76 in this district compared to baseline (13%, whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with ‘track-and-treat’ contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on

  7. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  8. Serodiagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Using Antigens from Vesicular Fluid of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Ednéia C.; Snege, Miriam; Vaz, Adelaide J.; Leser, Paulo G.

    2001-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is a severe parasitic infection of the central nervous system with universal distribution. To determine the efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot with antigens of T. crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra) compared to standard techniques (indirect immunofluorescence test [IFT] and complement fixation test [CFT]) using T. solium cysticerci (Tso) for the serodiagnosis of NC, we studied serum samples from 24 patients with NC, 30 supposedly healthy individuals, 76 blood bank donors, 45 individuals with other non-NC parasitoses, and 97 samples from individuals screened for cysticercosis serology (SC). The sensitivity observed was 100% for ELISA-Tso and ELISA-Tcra, 91.7% for the IFT, and 87.5% for the CFT. The specificity was 90% for ELISA-Tso, 96.7% for ELISA-Tcra, 50% for IFT, and 63.3% for CFT. The efficiency was highest for ELISA-Tcra, followed by ELISA-Tso, IFT, and CFT. Of the 23 samples from SC group, which were reactive to ELISA-Tso and/or ELISA-Tcra, only 3 were positive to immunblot-Tcra (specific peptides of 14- and 18-kDa) and to glycoprotein peptides purified from Tcra antigen (gp-Tcra), showing the low predictive value of ELISA for screening. None of the samples from the remaining groups showed specific reactivity in immunoblot-Tcra. These results demonstrate that ELISA-Tcra can be used as a screening method for the serodiagnosis of NC and support the need for specific tests for confirmation of the results. The immunoblot can be used as a confirmatory test both with Tcra and gp-Tcra, with the latter having an advantage in terms of visualization of the results. PMID:11687454

  9. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  10. Equivariant ordinary homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Costenoble, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this book takes the reader to the frontiers of equivariant topology, the study of objects with specified symmetries. The discussion is motivated by reference to a list of instructive “toy” examples and calculations in what is a relatively unexplored field. The authors also provide a reading path for the first-time reader less interested in working through sophisticated machinery but still desiring a rigorous understanding of the main concepts. The subject’s classical counterparts, ordinary homology and cohomology, dating back to the work of Henri Poincaré in topology, are calculational and theoretical tools which are important in many parts of mathematics and theoretical physics, particularly in the study of manifolds. Similarly powerful tools have been lacking, however, in the context of equivariant topology. Aimed at advanced graduate students and researchers in algebraic topology and related fields, the book assumes knowledge of basic algebraic topology and group act...

  11. Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellikka Matti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.

  12. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Vo, Tinh Van; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Phan, Trong Van; Hii, Sze Fui; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-07-01

    Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC), has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica) occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR) for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK) thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA) method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study. Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1) gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR) was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province, Central

  13. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Ng-Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC, has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study.Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1 gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1 gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province

  14. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark A.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Vo, Tinh Van; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Phan, Trong Van; Hii, Sze Fui; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC), has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica) occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR) for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK) thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA) method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study. Methodology/Principal findings Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1) gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR) was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342

  15. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health- and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½h individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall knowledge on aspects of acquisition and transmission of T. solium infections (78%), porcine cysticercosis treatment (77%), human tapeworm in general (72%), neurocysticercosis in general (49%), and porcine cysticercosis diagnosis (48%). However, there was a lack of knowledge on acquisition of neurocysticercosis (15%), prevention of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (28%), and relation between porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, and taeniosis (32%). Overall, the study subject's knowledge was significantly improved both immediately after (p=0.001) and two weeks after (pthe health education and knowledge regarding specific aspects was significantly improved in most aspects immediately after and two weeks after the health education. The focus group discussions showed positive attitudes towards the program and the study subjects found 'The Vicious Worm' efficient, simple, and appealing. The study revealed a good effect of 'The Vicious Worm' suggesting that it could be a useful health education tool, which should be further assessed and thereafter integrated in T. solium

  16. N-terminal sequence of human leukocyte glycoprotein Mo1: conservation across species and homology to platelet IIb/IIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M W; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Todd, R F; Arnaout, M A

    1986-12-12

    Mo1 and gp160-gp93 are two surface membrane glycoprotein heterodimers present on granulocytes and monocytes derived from humans and guinea pigs, respectively. We purified both antigens and found that their alpha subunits had identical N-termini which were significantly homologous to the alpha subunit of the human adhesion platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

  17. The effect of gamma radiation on the cysticeri of Taenia Solium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verster, A.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Van den Heever, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day +24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  19. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, Anna S.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite’s transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available. PMID:28892472

  20. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Donadeu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Target Product Profiles (TPPs are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis. Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  1. Evaluation of activity of triclabendazole against Taenia solium metacestode in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Vargas-Calla; Luis A Gomez-Puerta; Juan Calcina; Omar Gonzales-Viera; Cesar Gavidia; Maria T Lopez-Urbina; Hector H Garcia; Armando E Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in porcine cysticercosis. Methods:Eighteen naturally infected cysticercotic pigs were divided into 3 groups of 6 individuals each. The first group was treated orally with TCBZ at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight, the second group was treated orally with oxfendazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight and the third group received a placebo (control group). All animals were kept under the same management conditions. The pigs were euthanized 17 wk post-treatment and the number of surviving cysts in muscles was assessed and compared between groups. Results: All pigs treated with oxfendazole had only degenerated cysts in their carcasses. In contrast, TCBZ had very little effect against the parasitic cysts. Cysts from pigs in the TCBZ group looked apparently normal after treatment. However, histological evaluation showed a mild to moderate degree of inflammation. Conclusions: TCBZ is not an efficacious drug against Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine using a single dose.

  2. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases.

  3. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernatus Martin Mkupasi

    Full Text Available Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  4. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadeu, Meritxell; Fahrion, Anna S; Olliaro, Piero L; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-09-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  5. Homologous recombination in hybridoma cells: heavy chain chimeric antibody produced by gene targeting.

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, H P; Yarnold, S; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E; Folger, K R

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate that murine myeloma cells can efficiently mediate homologous recombination. The murine myeloma cell line J558L was shown to appropriately recombine two transfected DNA molecules in approximately 30% of cells that received and integrated intact copies of both molecules. This activity was then exploited to direct major reconstructions of an endogenous locus within a hybridoma cell line. Production of antigen-specific chimeric heavy chain was achieved by targeting the human IgG1 h...

  6. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Homotopic Chain Maps Have Equal s-Homology and d-Homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Kazemi-Baneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homotopy of chain maps on preabelian categories is investigated and the equality of standard homologies and d-homologies of homotopic chain maps is established. As a special case, if X and Y are the same homotopy type, then their nth d-homology R-modules are isomorphic, and if X is a contractible space, then its nth d-homology R-modules for n≠0 are trivial.

  8. Relative K-homology and normal operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuilov, Vladimir; Thomsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    -term exact sequence which generalizes the excision six-term exact sequence in the first variable of KK-theory. Subsequently we investigate the relative K-homology which arises from the group of relative extensions by specializing to abelian $C^*$-algebras. It turns out that this relative K-homology carries...

  9. Lectures on homology with internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, Yu.

    1993-09-01

    Homology with internal symmetries is a natural generalization of cyclic homology introduced, independently, by Connes and Tsygan, which has turned out to be a very useful tool in a number of problems of algebra, geometry topology, analysis and mathematical physics. It suffices to say cycling homology and cohomology are successfully applied in the index theory of elliptic operators on foliations, in the description of the homotopy type of pseudoisotopy spaces, in the theory of characteristic classes in algebraic K-theory. They are also applied in noncommutative differential geometry and in the cohomology of Lie algebras, the branches of mathematics which brought them to life in the first place. Essentially, we consider dihedral homology, which was successfully applied for the description of the homology type of groups of homeomorphisms and diffeomorphisms of simply connected manifolds. (author). 27 refs

  10. Identificación de marcadores microsatelites para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Taenia solium

    OpenAIRE

    Eguiluz Moya, María Lisseth

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad genética en parásitos está orientada hacia el esclarecimiento de la epidemiología y transmisión de las enfermedades. Muchos aspectos de la variación genética de Taenia solium se mantienen aún desconocidos. El estudio de la variación genética de este parásito permitiría comprender las diferencias observadas en la infectividad, patogenicidad y respuesta al tratamiento contra la neurocisticercosis. El polimorfismo de los loci microsatélites es un método utilizado ampliamente para e...

  11. Controlling Taenia solium and soil transmitted helminths in a northern Lao PDR village: Impact of a triple dose albendazole regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Amanda; Okello, Anna; Khamlome, Boualam; Inthavong, Phouth; Allen, John; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases endemic throughout Southeast Asia. Within Lao PDR, a remote northern hill tribe village had previously been identified as a hyper endemic focus for T. solium. To reduce this observed prevalence, a One Health intervention covering both pigs and humans was implemented, which included two Mass drug administrations (MDA1 and MDA2) for village residents using a triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime. In addition to the effect on T. solium levels, the dual impact of this anthelmintic regime on STHs within the community was also monitored. Faecal samples were collected pre and post MDA1 and MDA2 and analysed for the presence of Taenia species and the STHs Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm species. The McMaster technique was used to measure the changes in both prevalence and intensity of infection. Molecular characterisation of Taenia and hookworm species was conducted to detect zoonotic species. The level of taeniasis within the sampled population decreased by 79.4% after MDA1, remained steady during the five month inter-treatment interval and decreased again by 100% after MDA2. The prevalence of STHs decreased by 65.5% and 62.8% after MDA1 and MDA2 respectively; however an increase to 62.1% of pre MDA1 levels was detected during the inter-treatment interval. Individually, hookworm prevalence decreased by 83.4% (MDA1) and 84.5% (MDA2), A. lumbricoides by 95.6% and 93.5% and T. trichiura by 69.2% and 61%. The intensity of infection within the sampled population also decreased, with egg reduction rates of 94.4% and 97.8% for hookworm, 99.4% and 99.3% for A. lumbricoides and 77.2% and 88.5% for T. trichiura. Molecular characterisation identified a T. solium tapeworm carrier from 21.6% (13/60) of households in the village. T. saginata was identified in 5% (3/60) of households. The zoonotic hookworm A. ceylanicum was detected in the

  12. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  13. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1...

  14. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  15. MicroRNAs in Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: Insights as Promising Agents in Host-Parasite Interaction and Their Potential as Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Gutierrez-Loli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although, several miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, there is little information about their identification and function in Taenia. Furthermore, the impact of miRNAs in neurocysticercosis, the brain infection caused by larvae of Taenia solium is still unknown. During chronic infection, T. solium may activate numerous mechanisms aimed to modulate host immune responses. Helminthic miRNAs might also have effects on host mRNA expression and thus play an important role regulating host-parasite interactions. Also, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult and it usually requires neuroimaging and confirmatory serology. Since miRNAs are stable when released, they can be detected in body fluids and therefore have potential to diagnose infection, determine parasite burden, and ascertain effectiveness of treatment or disease progression, for instance. This review discusses the potential roles of miRNAs in T. solium infection, including regulation of host-parasite relationships and their eventual use as diagnostic or disease biomarkers. Additionally, we summarize the bioinformatics resources available for identification of T. solium miRNAs and prediction of their targets.

  16. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Palafox-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht, which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg, were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  17. MicroRNAs in Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: Insights as Promising Agents in Host-Parasite Interaction and Their Potential as Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Loli, Renzo; Orrego, Miguel A; Sevillano-Quispe, Oscar G; Herrera-Arrasco, Luis; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although, several miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, there is little information about their identification and function in Taenia . Furthermore, the impact of miRNAs in neurocysticercosis, the brain infection caused by larvae of Taenia solium is still unknown. During chronic infection, T. solium may activate numerous mechanisms aimed to modulate host immune responses. Helminthic miRNAs might also have effects on host mRNA expression and thus play an important role regulating host-parasite interactions. Also, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult and it usually requires neuroimaging and confirmatory serology. Since miRNAs are stable when released, they can be detected in body fluids and therefore have potential to diagnose infection, determine parasite burden, and ascertain effectiveness of treatment or disease progression, for instance. This review discusses the potential roles of miRNAs in T. solium infection, including regulation of host-parasite relationships and their eventual use as diagnostic or disease biomarkers. Additionally, we summarize the bioinformatics resources available for identification of T. solium miRNAs and prediction of their targets.

  18. Testing pigs of non-technified rearing farms for serum antibodies against Taenia solium in a region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.M. Rossi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Taenia solium is a zoonotic tapeworm of great importance in developing countries, due to the occurrence of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. Pigs have an important role in the biological cycle of the parasite as intermediate hosts. The scientific literature has been describing risk factors associated with the occurrence of this disease that must be avoided in countries with poor sanitation, in order to reduce the exposure of swine to the parasite eggs. This research focused on testing pigs of non-technified rearing farms for serum antibodies against Taenia solium in the region of Jaboticabal municipality, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The found prevalence was 6.82% (CI 95% 4.18 - 9.45 at animal level and 28.87% (CI 95% 16.74 - 40.40 at herd level. These figures are probably associated with low technification adoption during animal rearing in the studied area, which increased the exposure of the animals to risk factors associated with the occurrence of Taenia solium complex. The results found based on serological evidences of swine cysticercosis in the studied region serves as a warning to public sanitary authorities to improve public health and control T. solium.

  19. Taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata in Gianyar town and Taenia solium in Karangasem villages of Bali, Indonesia, 2011-2016: How to detect tapeworm carriers, anamnesis or microscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Sudarmaja, I Made; Saragih, John Master; Diarthini, Luh Putu Eka; Ariwati, Luh; Damayanti, Putu Ayu Asri; Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri; Kapti, Nengah; Sutisna, Putu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2017-10-01

    From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan ® , Bayer). A total of 39T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers

  20. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  1. Development and evaluation of a magnetic immunochromatographic test to detect Taenia solium, which causes taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Dong, X Fan; Laborde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-04-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766

  3. High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

    2006-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01).

  4. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  5. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  6. Risk factors, perceptions and practices associated with Taenia solium cysticercosis and its control in the smallholder pig production systems in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungu, Joseph M; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Ocaido, Michael; Grace, Delia

    2017-01-03

    Prevalence studies report Taenia solium cysticercosis in pig and human populations in Uganda. However, the factors influencing occurrence in smallholder pig production systems are not well documented and little is known about farmers' perceptions of T. solium cysticercosis or farmer practices that could reduce transmission. To determine the risk factors, perceptions and practices regarding T. solium cysticercosis, a household survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in 1185 households in the rural and urban pig production systems in Masaka, Mukono and Kamuli Districts. Logistic regression was used to measure associations of risk factors with infection. Performance scores were calculated to summarise perceptions and practices of farmers regarding taeniosis, human cysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis as well as farmer behavior related to control or breaking transmission. Pig breed type, farmers' knowledge about transmission, sources of water used, and pig keeping homes where family members were unable to use the latrine were all significantly associated with T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. Performance scores indicated that farmers were more aware of taeniosis (63.0%; 95% Confidence Interval 60.0-65.8) than human or porcine cysticercosis; only three farmers (0.3%, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8) had knowledge on all three conditions. More farmers reported that they dewormed pigs (94.1%) than reported deworming themselves and their family members (62.0%). Albendazole was the most commonly used drug for deworming both pigs and humans (85.0 and 81.5% respectively). Just over half (54.6%) of the farmers interviewed had clean water near the latrines for washing hands. Of these, only 41.9% used water with soap to wash hands after latrine use. Factors that significantly influenced occurrence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs were identified. Farmers had some knowledge about the disease but did not link taeniosis, human cysticercosis, and porcine cysticercosis

  7. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-01-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption

  8. Dualities in persistent (co)homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establish algebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existing algorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. We present experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm

  9. [The isolation and evaluation of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, V de S; de Assis, C M; Cano, M I; Lacaz, C da S

    1992-01-01

    Antigens from three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (354, 356, and JIG) and an antiserum against the mixing of these antigens have been produced, and evaluated immunochemically. The antigens were obtained through a modified Coleman & Kaufman technique (culture filtrate concentrated by acetone). Analysis by the immunodiffusion test (ID) against homologous serum has yielded 100% sensitivity (with the studied sera). Concerning heterologous sera we found reactivity with a serum of a patient of candidiasis and another with histoplasmosis. The same result was obtained with a reference antigen in immunodiffusion, showing similar standards of response. Titration of the antiserum by ID and counterimmunoelectrophoresis showed a title of 1:32, and by complement fixation (micro-technique) a title of 1:128. Using immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), the produced antiserum yielded 8 lines of precipitation (5 in the anodic pole and 3 in the cathodic one). In SDS-PAGE at 12.5% the antigen has presented a rather complex electrophoretic profile (26 proteic subunits with a molecular weight ranging from 18 a > 100 kDa). Immunogenicity of the antigen was observed in all fractions of SDS-PAGE when the immunoblotting against the antiserum was carried out.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: II. Tachyzoite antigenic characterization of eigth strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mitsuka

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Toxoplasma gondii strains were analyzed using ELISA and Western blot techniques, in order to demonstrate possible immunological differences. The analyzed strains were: LIV IV, LIV V and S 11 isolated from swine, RH and VPS from a human being, AS 28 from a wild mouse, HV III from a dog and CN from a cat. With the ELISA assay the eight strains showed similar reactivity with homologous and heterologous sera. The antigenic suspension, consisting of total cellular extract of tachyzoites, was effective in the indirect ELISA assay, with the positive sera reacting strongly and the negative not reacting with the antigens. The Western blot analysis showed that the T. gondii strains have similar antigenic profiles with a few variations. Three bands were observed in all strains: one of about 33 kDa (p33, another of 54 kDa (p54 and a third one of 66 kDa (p66. The HV III strain, isolated from a dog, did not show three antigens (50, 70 and 75 kDa that were present in the others. However, this difference was not detected by the ELISA assay. Only two antigens (62 kDa of the CN and 67 kDa of the LIV IV were strain-specific antigens.

  11. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  13. Investigating homology between proteins using energetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrabl, James O; Hilser, Vincent J

    2010-03-26

    Accumulated experimental observations demonstrate that protein stability is often preserved upon conservative point mutation. In contrast, less is known about the effects of large sequence or structure changes on the stability of a particular fold. Almost completely unknown is the degree to which stability of different regions of a protein is generally preserved throughout evolution. In this work, these questions are addressed through thermodynamic analysis of a large representative sample of protein fold space based on remote, yet accepted, homology. More than 3,000 proteins were computationally analyzed using the structural-thermodynamic algorithm COREX/BEST. Estimated position-specific stability (i.e., local Gibbs free energy of folding) and its component enthalpy and entropy were quantitatively compared between all proteins in the sample according to all-vs.-all pairwise structural alignment. It was discovered that the local stabilities of homologous pairs were significantly more correlated than those of non-homologous pairs, indicating that local stability was indeed generally conserved throughout evolution. However, the position-specific enthalpy and entropy underlying stability were less correlated, suggesting that the overall regional stability of a protein was more important than the thermodynamic mechanism utilized to achieve that stability. Finally, two different types of statistically exceptional evolutionary structure-thermodynamic relationships were noted. First, many homologous proteins contained regions of similar thermodynamics despite localized structure change, suggesting a thermodynamic mechanism enabling evolutionary fold change. Second, some homologous proteins with extremely similar structures nonetheless exhibited different local stabilities, a phenomenon previously observed experimentally in this laboratory. These two observations, in conjunction with the principal conclusion that homologous proteins generally conserved local stability, may

  14. Investigating homology between proteins using energetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Wrabl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated experimental observations demonstrate that protein stability is often preserved upon conservative point mutation. In contrast, less is known about the effects of large sequence or structure changes on the stability of a particular fold. Almost completely unknown is the degree to which stability of different regions of a protein is generally preserved throughout evolution. In this work, these questions are addressed through thermodynamic analysis of a large representative sample of protein fold space based on remote, yet accepted, homology. More than 3,000 proteins were computationally analyzed using the structural-thermodynamic algorithm COREX/BEST. Estimated position-specific stability (i.e., local Gibbs free energy of folding and its component enthalpy and entropy were quantitatively compared between all proteins in the sample according to all-vs.-all pairwise structural alignment. It was discovered that the local stabilities of homologous pairs were significantly more correlated than those of non-homologous pairs, indicating that local stability was indeed generally conserved throughout evolution. However, the position-specific enthalpy and entropy underlying stability were less correlated, suggesting that the overall regional stability of a protein was more important than the thermodynamic mechanism utilized to achieve that stability. Finally, two different types of statistically exceptional evolutionary structure-thermodynamic relationships were noted. First, many homologous proteins contained regions of similar thermodynamics despite localized structure change, suggesting a thermodynamic mechanism enabling evolutionary fold change. Second, some homologous proteins with extremely similar structures nonetheless exhibited different local stabilities, a phenomenon previously observed experimentally in this laboratory. These two observations, in conjunction with the principal conclusion that homologous proteins generally conserved

  15. Novel Functions for Glycosyltransferases Jhp0562 and GalT in Lewis Antigen Synthesis and Variation in Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Mary Ann; Kienesberger, Sabine; Blaser, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Lewis (Le) antigens are fucosylated oligosaccharides present in the Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. Expression of these antigens is believed to be important for H. pylori colonization, since Le antigens also are expressed on the gastric epithelia in humans. A galactosyltransferase encoded by β-(1,3)galT is essential for production of type 1 (Lea and Leb) antigens. The upstream gene jhp0562, which is present in many but not all H. pylori strains, is homologous to β-(1,3)galT but is of ...

  16. O-antigen protects gram-negative bacteria from histone killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Chaput

    Full Text Available Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  17. On the localisation of antigenic determinants in a Bence Jones protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyk, H.G. van; Myszkowska, K.

    1967-01-01

    1. 1. The presence of a low molecular weight protein (1.2 S), having antigenic determinants in common with the homologous Bence Jones protein (3.4 S), has been observed in the urine of a patient with multiple myeloma. Its amino acid composition and α-NH2-terminal amino acid residue make it likely

  18. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  19. Homological methods, representation theory, and cluster algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Trepode, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today’s mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas—representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, wh...

  20. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC.

  2. Porcine Cysticercosis: Possible Cross-Reactivity of Taenia hydatigena to GP50 Antigen in the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Claudio; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Flecker, Robert H; Gamboa, Ricardo; Barreto, Percy Vilchez; Dorny, Pierre; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E; For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru

    2017-12-01

    The lentil lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB, reported sensitivity 99% and specificity 100%) is used as a serologic marker of exposure to Taenia solium in pigs. However, only a limited number of parasites have been evaluated for cross reactivity. Pigs may host other related cestode infections, including Taenia hydatigena, which have not been formally evaluated for cross-reactions. We investigated a corral in Tumbes, Peru, a region where a cysticercosis elimination demonstration project was completed in 2012. In this corral, 14/19 (73.7%) 6-8-week-old piglets were reactive to GP50 on LLGP EITB, and all had circulating Taenia sp. antigens. From eight necropsied piglets; four were infected with T. hydatigena metacestodes whereas none had evidence of T. solium infection. Two resident dogs were subsequently confirmed to have T. hydatigena taeniasis. These results suggest GP50 cross-reactivity in T. hydatigena- infected pigs, although controlled experimental infection is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  3. A homology theory for smale spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Putnam, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    The author develops a homology theory for Smale spaces, which include the basics sets for an Axiom A diffeomorphism. It is based on two ingredients. The first is an improved version of Bowen's result that every such system is the image of a shift of finite type under a finite-to-one factor map. The second is Krieger's dimension group invariant for shifts of finite type. He proves a Lefschetz formula which relates the number of periodic points of the system for a given period to trace data from the action of the dynamics on the homology groups. The existence of such a theory was proposed by Bowen in the 1970s.

  4. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  6. Isocyanate test antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, M.H.; Alarie, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    A test antigen for detecting antibodies to a diisocyanate comprises the reaction product of a protein and a monoisocyanate derived from the same radical as the diisocyanate. The diisocyanates most usually encountered and therefore calling for antibody detection are those of toluene, hexamethylene, methylene, isophorone and naphthylene. The preferred protein is human serum albumin. (author)

  7. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  8. Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

    2013-06-01

    A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis.

  9. Homology and cohomology of Rees semigroup algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels; Gourdeau, Frédéric; White, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Let S by a Rees semigroup, and let 1¹(S) be its convolution semigroup algebra. Using Morita equivalence we show that bounded Hochschild homology and cohomology of l¹(S) is isomorphic to those of the underlying discrete group algebra....

  10. Induction of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J R; Moore, P D

    1988-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of UV irradiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to distinguish whether UV-induced recombination results from the induction of enzymes required for homologous recombination, or the production of substrate sites for recombination containing regions of DNA damage. We utilized split-dose experiments to investigate the induction of proteins required for survival, gene conversion, and mutation in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that inducing doses of UV irradiation followed by a 6 h period of incubation render the cells resistant to challenge doses of UV irradiation. The effects of inducing and challenge doses of UV irradiation upon interchromosomal gene conversion and mutation are strictly additive. Using the yeast URA3 gene cloned in non-replicating single- and double-stranded plasmid vectors that integrate into chromosomal genes upon transformation, we show that UV irradiation of haploid yeast cells and homologous plasmid DNA sequences each stimulate homologous recombination approximately two-fold, and that these effects are additive. Non-specific DNA damage has little effect on the stimulation of homologous recombination, as shown by studies in which UV-irradiated heterologous DNA was included in transformation/recombination experiments. We further demonstrate that the effect of competing single- and double-stranded heterologous DNA sequences differs in UV-irradiated and unirradiated cells, suggesting an induction of recombinational machinery in UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells.

  11. Threading homology through algebra selected patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Boffi, Giandomenico

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in mathematics, this book takes homological themes, such as Koszul complexes and their generalizations, and shows how these can be used to clarify certain problems in selected parts of algebra, as well as their success in solving a number of them.

  12. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  13. microRNA analysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci under praziquantel treatment and genome-wide identification of Taenia solium miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Matías Gastón; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Lichtenstein, Gabriel; Conti, Gabriela; Asurmendi, Sebastián; Milone, Diego Humberto; Stegmayer, Georgina; Kamenetzky, Laura; Cucher, Marcela; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and perform critical functions in development and disease. In spite of the increased interest in miRNAs from helminth parasites, no information is available on miRNAs from Taenia solium, the causative agent of cysticercosis, a neglected disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs from Taenia crassiceps, a laboratory model for T. solium studies, and identified miRNAs in the T. solium genome. Moreover, we analysed the effect of praziquantel, one of the two main drugs used for cysticercosis treatment, on the miRNA expression profile of T. crassiceps cysticerci. Using small RNA-seq and two independent algorithms for miRNA prediction, as well as northern blot validation, we found transcriptional evidence of 39 miRNA loci in T. crassiceps. Since miRNAs were mapped to the T. solium genome, these miRNAs are considered common to both parasites. The miRNA expression profile of T. crassiceps was biased to the same set of highly expressed miRNAs reported in other cestodes. We found a significant altered expression of miR-7b under praziquantel treatment. In addition, we searched for miRNAs predicted to target genes related to drug response. We performed a detailed target prediction for miR-7b and found genes related to drug action. We report an initial approach to study the effect of sub-lethal drug treatment on miRNA expression in a cestode parasite, which provides a platform for further studies of miRNA involvement in drug effects. The results of our work could be applied to drug development and provide basic knowledge of cysticercosis and other neglected helminth infections. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  15. Preliminary assessment of the computer-based Taenia solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake in primary school students in rural areas in eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Emma C; Mwape, Kabemba Evans; Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; Zulu, Gideon; Mambwe, Moses; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Phiri, Isaac Khozozo; Masuku, Maxwell; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Colston, Angela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, Arve Lee; Gabriël, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The zoonotic helminth Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, causing human (taeniasis and (neuro)cysticercosis) and pig (porcine cysticercosis) diseases with high health, social and economic burdens. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a health educational program intended to lead to powerful and cumulative improvements in knowledge, attitudes and practices that decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence. Half-day health education workshops were conducted in three primary schools in the highly endemic Eastern Province of Zambia, using the computer-based T. solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm'. Questionnaires were administered before and after the educational component to determine the program's impact on knowledge uptake in primary school students. In total, 99 students participated: 38 males and 61 females, with a median age of 14 years (range 10-18 years). Baseline general knowledge of T. solium, including awareness of the different human and pig disease states, and disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention, was quite high (average score 62%) and consistent across all three study areas. Participants' knowledge had significantly increased after the educational component, particularly regarding parasite transmission and disease prevention. Preliminary assessment of 'The Vicious Worm' indicates it is an effective tool for the short-term T. solium education of primary school students in Zambia. Follow-up studies are planned to assess the longer term impact of the program on knowledge uptake in the study neighbourhoods. Inclusion of tailored 'The Vicious Worm' educational workshops should be considered in integrated cysticercosis control programs in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  17. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  18. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  19. HA03 as an Iranian Candidate Concealed Antigen for Vaccination against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum: Comparative Structural and In silico Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades researchers had focused on developing a vaccine against tick based on protective antigen. Recombinant vaccines based on concealed antigen from Boophilus microplus have been developed in Australia and Cuba by the name of TICKGARD and GAVAC (De La Fuente and Kocan, 2006. Further studies on this antigen have shown some extent of protection against other species (De Vos et al., 2001. In Iran most important species is Hyalomma anatolicum and limited information about its control are available. This paper reports structural and polymorphic analysis of HA03 as an Iranian candidate concealed antigen of H. a. anatolicum deposited in Gen-Bank .(Aghaeipour et al. GQ228820. The comparison between this antigen and other mid gut concealed antigen that their characteristics are available in GenBank showed there are high rate of similarity between them. The HA03 amino acid sequence had a homology of around 89%, 64%, 56% with HA98, BM86, BM95 respectively. Potential of MHC class I and II binding region indicated a considerable variation between BM86 antigen and its efficiency against Iranian H. a. anatolicum. In addition, predicted major of hydrophobisity and similarity in N-glycosylation besides large amount of cystein and seven EGF like regions presented in protein structure revealed that value of HA03 as a new protective antigen and the necessity of the development, BM86 homolog of H. a. anatolicum HA03 based recombinant vaccine.

  20. Mapping occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and areas at risk of porcine cysticercosis in Central America and the Caribbean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Sithole, Fortune; Wang, Ziqi; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to map the occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis at national level within Central America and the Caribbean basin, and to map the distribution of porcine cysticercosis at first-level administrative subdivision level (department level) and the porcine population at risk. This zoonotic parasite is believed to be widely endemic across most of Latin America. However, there is little information readily available for Central America and the Caribbean basin. Taenia solium has been ranked the most important foodborne parasitic hazard globally and within endemic areas is a common cause of preventable epilepsy. We conducted a structured literature search in PubMed, supplemented and crossed-referenced with relevant academic databases, grey literature, and active searches in identified literature, to identify all records of T. solium presence in Central America and the Caribbean basin between 1986 and April 2017. To retrieve grey literature, government entities, researchers and relevant institutions across the region were contacted in an attempt to cover all countries and territories. Identified records containing data on porcine cysticercosis were geo-referenced to identify department level distribution and compared to modelled distributions of pigs reared under extensive production systems. We identified 51 records of T. solium at the national level, covering 13 countries and an additional three countries were included based on World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reports, giving a total of 16 countries out of 41 with evidence of the parasite's presence. Screening records for porcine cysticercosis data at the departmental level confirmed porcine cysticercosis presence in 11 departments across six countries (Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Venezuela). When comparing these results to areas where pigs were kept in extensive production systems and areas where no information on porcine cysticercosis exists, it is apparent

  1. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKriptokokosis merupakan infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan Cryptococcus sp. Predileksi jamur tersebut adalah susunan saraf pusat dan selaput otak. Terdapat 5 spesies Cryptococcus sp. yang menyebabkan penyakit pada manusia; yang paling banyak adalah Cr. neoformans dan Cr. gattii. Diagnosis kriptokokosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala klinis, pemeriksaan laboratoris serta radiologis. Pemeriksaan laboratoris dilakukan dengan identifikasi morfologi, serologi danPCR. Pemeriksaan secara morfologi dengan tinta India positif  bila jumlah sel jamur 10  sel/ml spesimen. Kultur dilakukan di media sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA dan niger sheed agar (NSA, jamur tumbuh setelah 5-7 hari. Deteksi antigen dan antibodi dilakukan pada cairan tubuh dan tidak membutuhkan waktu lama. Deteksi antibodi Cr.neoformans memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut, IgA masih positif setelah 1-2 tahun fase penyembuhan, IgG dapat persisten, pada individu imunokompromis menunjukkan hasil yang sangat kompleks dan dalam menentukan diagnosis sering tidak konsisten. Polisakarida adalah komponen paling berperan dalam virulensi Cr. neoformans. Komponen polisakarida terutama glucuronoxylomannan merupakan petanda penting dalam diagnosis kriptokokosis secara serologis. Deteksi antigen Cr. neoformans memiliki kelebihan yaitu menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut/kronis, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas tinggi, dapat mendeteksi polisakarida hingga 10 ng/ml sehingga dengan kadarantigen yang minimal tetap dapat mendiagnosis kriptokokosis.Kata kunci: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigenAbstractCryptococcosis is systemic infection that caused by Cryptococcus sp. Predilection of this fungi is the central nervous system and brain membrane. There are 5 species of Cryptococcus sp. that cause cryptococcosis in human; but the majority are caused by Cr. neoformans and Cr. gattii. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made based on clinical symptoms

  2. Homologation Reaction of Ketones with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Nuno R; Paterna, Roberta; Gois, Pedro M P

    2016-03-09

    This review covers the addition of diazo compounds to ketones to afford homologated ketones, either in the presence or in the absence of promoters or catalysts. Reactions with diazoalkanes, aryldiazomethanes, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, α-diazo esters, and disubstituted diazo compounds are covered, commenting on the complex regiochemistry of the reaction and the nature of the catalysts and promoters. The recent reports on the enantioselective version of ketone homologation reactions are gathered in one section, followed by reports on the use of cyclic ketones ring expansion in total synthesis. Although the first reports of this reaction appeared in the literature almost one century ago, the recent achievements, in particular, for the asymmetric version, forecast the development of new breakthroughs in the synthetically valuable field of diazo chemistry.

  3. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  4. Homological stability for unordered configuration spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    This paper consists of two related parts. In the first part we give a self-contained proof of homological stability for the spaces C_n(M;X) of configurations of n unordered points in a connected open manifold M with labels in a path-connected space X, with the best possible integral stability range...... of the spaces C_n(M) can be considered stable when M is a closed manifold. In this case there are no stabilisation maps, but one may still ask if the dimensions of the homology groups over some field stabilise with n. We prove that this is true when M is odd-dimensional, or when the field is F_2 or Q...

  5. Regulation of homologous recombination in eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich; Ehmsen, Kirk T.; Liu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is required for accurate chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division and constitutes a key repair and tolerance pathway for complex DNA damage including DNA double-stranded breaks, interstrand crosslinks, and DNA gaps. In addition, recombination and replication are inextricably linked, as recombination recovers stalled and broken replication forks enabling the evolution of larger genomes/replicons. Defects in recombination lead to genomic instability and ...

  6. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  7. Quandle and Biquandle Homology Calculation in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Fenn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In knot theory several knot invariants have been found over the last decades. This paper concerns itself with invariants of several of those invariants, namely the Homology of racks, quandles, biracks and biquandles. The software described in this paper calculates the rack, quandle and degenerate homology groups of racks and biracks. It works for any rack/quandle with finite elements where there are homology coefficients in 'Z'k. The up and down actions can be given either as a function of the elements of 'Z'k or provided as a matrix. When calculating a rack, the down action should coincide with the identity map. We have provided actions for both the general dihedral quandle and the group quandle over 'S'3. We also provide a second function to test if a set with a given action (or with both actions gives rise to a quandle or biquandle. The program is provided as an R package and can be found at https://github.com/ansgarwenzel/quhomology.   AMS subject classification: 57M27; 57M25

  8. Several aspects of some techniques avoiding homologous blood transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C.S.M. van Woerkens (Liesbeth)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe use of homologous blood products during anesthesia and surgery is not without risks. Complications due to homologous blood transfusions include transfusion reactions, isosensitization, transmission of infections (including HIV, hepatitis, CMV) and immunosuppression (resuiting in

  9. Genetic battle between Helicobacter pylori and humans. The mechanism underlying homologous recombination in bacteria, which can infect human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that colonises the human stomach. The chronic infection it causes results in peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. H. pylori can easily establish a chronic infection even if the immune system attacks this pathogen with oxidative stress agents and immunoglobulins. This is attributed to bacterial defence mechanisms against these stresses. As a defence mechanism against oxidative stresses, in bacterial genomes, homologous recombination can act as a repair pathway of DNA's double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, homologous recombination is also involved in the antigenic variation in H. pylori. Gene conversion alters genomic structures of babA and babB (encoding outer membrane proteins), resulting in escape from immunoglobulin attacks. Thus, homologous recombination in bacteria plays an important role in the maintenance of a chronic infection. In addition, H. pylori infection causes DSBs in human cells. Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Computing Homology Group Generators of Images Using Irregular Graph Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier , Samuel; Ion , Adrian; Haxhimusa , Yll; Kropatsch , Walter; Damiand , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a method for computing homology groups and their generators of a 2D image, using a hierarchical structure i.e. irregular graph pyramid. Starting from an image, a hierarchy of the image is built, by two operations that preserve homology of each region. Instead of computing homology generators in the base where the number of entities (cells) is large, we first reduce the number of cells by a graph pyramid. Then homology generators are computed efficiently on...

  11. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  12. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A PHF8 homolog in C. elegans promotes DNA repair via homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Lee

    Full Text Available PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, defects in which are associated with X-linked mental retardation. In this study, we examined the roles of two PHF8 homologs, JMJD-1.1 and JMJD-1.2, in the model organism C. elegans in response to DNA damage. A deletion mutation in either of the genes led to hypersensitivity to interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs, while only mutation of jmjd-1.1 resulted in hypersensitivity to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs. In response to ICLs, JMJD-1.1 did not affect the focus formation of FCD-2, a homolog of FANCD2, a key protein in the Fanconi anemia pathway. However, the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 was affected by the mutation: the accumulations of both proteins at ICLs appeared normal, but their subsequent disappearance was retarded, suggesting that later steps of homologous recombination were defective. Similar changes in the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 were seen in response to DSBs, supporting a role of JMJD-1.1 in homologous recombination. Such a role was also supported by our finding that the hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was rescued by knockdown of lig-4, a homolog of Ligase 4 active in nonhomologous end-joining. The hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was increased by rad-54 knockdown, suggesting that JMJD-1.1 acts in parallel with RAD-54 in modulating chromatin structure. Indeed, the level of histone H3 Lys9 tri-methylation, a marker of heterochromatin, was higher in jmjd-1.1 cells than in wild-type cells. We conclude that the histone demethylase JMJD-1.1 influences homologous recombination either by relaxing heterochromatin structure or by indirectly regulating the expression of multiple genes affecting DNA repair.

  14. Hochschild Homology and Cohomology of Klein Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Butin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of deformation quantization, a first step towards the study of star-products is the calculation of Hochschild cohomology. The aim of this article is precisely to determine the Hochschild homology and cohomology in two cases of algebraic varieties. On the one hand, we consider singular curves of the plane; here we recover, in a different way, a result proved by Fronsdal and make it more precise. On the other hand, we are interested in Klein surfaces. The use of a complex suggested by Kontsevich and the help of Groebner bases allow us to solve the problem.

  15. Homology in vertebrates bone mineral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdehmbehrehl, G.; Chultehm, D.; Sangaa, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using the neutron diffraction method a domination of low crystal syngonic (sp. gr. P63/m) phase Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (OH, F, Cl) in bull and sheep bones as well as in the fossil dinosaur bone has been established and crystal phases in all the bones have identical structure (homology). The result becomes to be an important contribution to fundamental science such as biological evolution and to be useful in medical practice and solution of radiobiological problems connected with vertebrates and man. (author)

  16. Homological Perturbation Theory for Nonperturbative Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2015-11-01

    We use the homological perturbation lemma to produce explicit formulas computing the class in the twisted de Rham complex represented by an arbitrary polynomial. This is a non-asymptotic version of the method of Feynman diagrams. In particular, we explain that phenomena usually thought of as particular to asymptotic integrals in fact also occur exactly: integrals of the type appearing in quantum field theory can be reduced in a totally algebraic fashion to integrals over an Euler-Lagrange locus, provided this locus is understood in the scheme-theoretic sense, so that imaginary critical points and multiplicities of degenerate critical points contribute.

  17. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  18. SANSparallel: interactive homology search against Uniprot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervuo, Panu; Holm, Liisa

    2015-07-01

    Proteins evolve by mutations and natural selection. The network of sequence similarities is a rich source for mining homologous relationships that inform on protein structure and function. There are many servers available to browse the network of homology relationships but one has to wait up to a minute for results. The SANSparallel webserver provides protein sequence database searches with immediate response and professional alignment visualization by third-party software. The output is a list, pairwise alignment or stacked alignment of sequence-similar proteins from Uniprot, UniRef90/50, Swissprot or Protein Data Bank. The stacked alignments are viewed in Jalview or as sequence logos. The database search uses the suffix array neighborhood search (SANS) method, which has been re-implemented as a client-server, improved and parallelized. The method is extremely fast and as sensitive as BLAST above 50% sequence identity. Benchmarks show that the method is highly competitive compared to previously published fast database search programs: UBLAST, DIAMOND, LAST, LAMBDA, RAPSEARCH2 and BLAT. The web server can be accessed interactively or programmatically at http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/cgi-bin/sans/sans.cgi. It can be used to make protein functional annotation pipelines more efficient, and it is useful in interactive exploration of the detailed evidence supporting the annotation of particular proteins of interest. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  20. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  1. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  2. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  3. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  4. Kinetic analysis of a monoclonal therapeutic antibody and its single-chain homolog by surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rekha; Andrien, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments have become an emerging class of therapeutics since 1986. Their versatility enables them to be engineered for optimal efficiency and decreased immunogenicity, and the path to market has been set by recent regulatory approvals. One of the initial criteria for success of any protein or antibody therapeutic is to understand its binding characteristics to the target antigen. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been widely used and is an important tool for ligand-antigen binding characterization. In this work, the binding kinetics of a recombinant mAb and its single-chain antibody homolog, single-chain variable fragment (scFv), was analyzed by SPR. These two proteins target the same antigen. The binding kinetics of the mAb (bivalent antibody) and scFv (monovalent scFv) for this antigen was analyzed along with an assessment of the thermodynamics of the binding interactions. Alternative binding configurations were investigated to evaluate potential experimental bias because theoretically experimental binding configuration should have no impact on binding kinetics. Self-association binding kinetics in the proteins' respective formulation solutions and antigen epitope mapping were also evaluated. Functional characterization of monoclonal and single-chain antibodies has become just as important as structural characterization in the biotechnology field.

  5. Seleção de peptídeos reconhecidos por imunoglobulinas Y anti-metacestódeo de Taenia solium por phage display

    OpenAIRE

    Manhani, Marianna Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Os metacestódeos de Taenia solium no homem instalam-se principalmente no sistema nervoso central (SNC) causando neurocisticercose (NC), a parasitose mais freqüente do SNC. A apresentação patológica da NC difere em relação à localização e viabilidade do cisticerco, e mecanismos da resposta imunológica. Para estabelecer o diagnóstico de NC é necessária uma interpretação correta dos sintomas clínicos, dos testes de neuroimagem e de imunodiagnósticos, e dos dados epidemiológicos. A...

  6. Shared and non-shared antigens from three different extracts of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carmena

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst fluid (HCF, somatic antigens (S-Ag and excretory-secretory products (ES-Ag of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces are used as the main antigenic sources for immunodiagnosis of human and dog echinococcosis. In order to determine their non-shared as well as their shared antigenic components, these extracts were studied by ELISA-inhibition and immunoblot-inhibition. Assays were carried out using homologous rabbit polyclonal antisera, human sera from individuals with surgically confirmed hydatidosis, and sera from dogs naturally infected with E. granulosus. High levels of cross-reactivity were observed for all antigenic extracts, but especially for ES-Ag and S-Ag. Canine antibodies evidenced lesser avidity for their specific antigens than antibodies from human origin. The major antigenic components shared by HCF, S-Ag, and ES-Ag have apparent molecular masses of 4-6, 20-24, 52, 80, and 100-104 kDa, including doublets of 41/45, 54/57, and 65/68 kDa. Non-shared polypeptides of each antigenic extract of E. granulosus were identified, having apparent masses of 108 and 78 kDa for HCF, of 124, 94, 83, and 75 kDa for S-Ag, and of 89, 66, 42, 39, 37, and 35 kDa for ES-Ag.

  7. Homologous Recombination—Experimental Systems, Analysis and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is the most complex of all recombination events that shape genomes and produce material for evolution. Homologous recombination events are exchanges between DNA molecules in the lengthy regions of shared identity, catalyzed by a group of dedicated enzymes. There is a variety of experimental systems in E. coli and Salmonella to detect homologous recombination events of several different kinds. Genetic analysis of homologous recombination reveals three separate phases of this process: pre-synapsis (the early phase), synapsis (homologous strand exchange) and post-synapsis (the late phase). In E. coli, there are at least two independent pathway of the early phase and at least two independent pathways of the late phase. All this complexity is incongruent with the originally ascribed role of homologous recombination as accelerator of genome evolution: there is simply not enough duplication and repetition in enterobacterial genomes for homologous recombination to have a detectable evolutionary role, and therefore not enough selection to maintain such a complexity. At the same time, the mechanisms of homologous recombination are uniquely suited for repair of complex DNA lesions called chromosomal lesions. In fact, the two major classes of chromosomal lesions are recognized and processed by the two individual pathways at the early phase of homologous recombination. It follows, therefore, that homologous recombination events are occasional reflections of the continual recombinational repair, made possible in cases of natural or artificial genome redundancy. PMID:26442506

  8. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  9. Effectiveness of a community-based educational programme in reducing the cumulative incidence and prevalence of human Taenia solium cysticercosis in Burkina Faso in 2011–14 (EFECAB: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The effectiveness of drug-free interventions in controlling human cysticercosis is not well known. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a community-based educational intervention in reducing the frequency of human cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. Methods: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial between 2011 and 2014. 60 eligible villages from three provinces (Boulkiemdé, Sanguié, and Nayala were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Villages raising pigs, that were not a regional capital or located on a main road, that were more than 20 km from Ouagadougou or 5 km from one another, were eligible. In each village, 60 participants were asked for blood samples at baseline, 18 months later (before randomisation, and 18 months after randomisation. Villages were block randomised (1:1 by pig-raising department immediately after the pre-randomisation visit. The intervention aimed to improve knowledge of Taenia solium transmission and control through screening and structured discussion of a 52-min movie, and to increase community self-efficacy through a Self-esteem, Associative strengths, Resourcefulness, Action planning, Responsibility (SARAR approach via the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST model. The primary outcome was active cysticercosis, defined as the presence of circulating antigens detected by use of B158/B60 ELISA. Effectiveness measured at the village level was estimated by use of three Bayesian hierarchical models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT0309339. Findings: Two villages in the same randomisation block were excluded, resulting in a final sample size of 58 villages. Overall, the intervention tended towards a decrease in the cumulative incidence of active cysticercosis from baseline to after randomisation (adjusted cumulative incidence ratio 0·65, 95% Bayesian credible interval [95% CrI] 0·39–1·05 and a decrease in active

  10. Acetylcholine Receptor: Complex of Homologous Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael A.; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Strader, Catherine D.; Hood, Leroy E.

    1980-06-01

    The acetylcholine receptor from the electric ray Torpedo californica is composed of five subunits; two are identical and the other three are structurally related to them. Microsequence analysis of the four polypeptides demonstrates amino acid homology among the subunits. Further sequence analysis of both membrane-bound and Triton-solubilized, chromatographically purified receptor gave the stoichiometry of the four subunits (40,000:50,000:60,000:65,000 daltons) as 2:1:1:1, indicating that this protein is a pentameric complex with a molecular weight of 255,000 daltons. Genealogical analysis suggests that divergence from a common ancestral gene occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry argues that each of the four subunits plays a functional role in the receptor's physiological action.

  11. Regulation of Homologous Recombination by SUMOylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    factors such as the homologous recombination (HR) machinery. HR constitutes the main DSB repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and despite being largely considered an error-free process and essential for genome stability, uncontrolled recombination can lead to loss of heterozygosity, translocations......, deletions, and genome rearrangements that can lead to cell death or cancer in humans. The post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitinlike modifier) has proven to be an important regulator of HR and genome integrity, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these roles are still unclear....... In this study I present new insights for the role of SUMOylation in regulating HR by dissecting the role of SUMO in the interaction between the central HR-mediator protein Rad52 and its paralogue Rad59 and the outcome of recombination. This data provides evidence for the importance of SUMO in promoting protein...

  12. Homological mirror symmetry. New developments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustin, Anton; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Karl-Georg

    2009-01-01

    Homological Mirror Symmetry, the study of dualities of certain quantum field theories in a mathematically rigorous form, has developed into a flourishing subject on its own over the past years. The present volume bridges a gap in the literature by providing a set of lectures and reviews that both introduce and representatively review the state-of-the art in the field from different perspectives. With contributions by K. Fukaya, M. Herbst, K. Hori, M. Huang, A. Kapustin, L. Katzarkov, A. Klemm, M. Kontsevich, D. Page, S. Quackenbush, E. Sharpe, P. Seidel, I. Smith and Y. Soibelman, this volume will be a reference on the topic for everyone starting to work or actively working on mathematical aspects of quantum field theory. (orig.)

  13. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong, E-mail: yxt27272@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (∼70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 Å maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  14. Modeling Non-homologous End Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the dominant DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway and involves several NHEJ proteins such as Ku, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, Ligase IV and so on. Once DSBs are generated, Ku is first recruited to the DNA end, followed by other NHEJ proteins for DNA end processing and ligation. Because of the direct ligation of break ends without the need for a homologous template, NHEJ turns out to be an error-prone but efficient repair pathway. Some mechanisms have been proposed of how the efficiency of NHEJ repair is affected. The type of DNA damage is an important factor of NHEJ repair. For instance, the length of DNA fragment may determine the recruitment efficiency of NHEJ protein such as Ku [1], or the complexity of the DNA breaks [2] is accounted for the choice of NHEJ proteins and subpathway of NHEJ repair. On the other hand, the chromatin structure also plays a role of the accessibility of NHEJ protein to the DNA damage site. In this talk, some mathematical models of NHEJ, that consist of series of biochemical reactions complying with the laws of chemical reaction (e.g. mass action, etc.), will be introduced. By mathematical and numerical analysis and parameter estimation, the models are able to capture the qualitative biological features and show good agreement with experimental data. As conclusions, from the viewpoint of modeling, how the NHEJ proteins are recruited will be first discussed for connection between the classical sequential model [4] and recently proposed two-phase model [5]. Then how the NHEJ repair pathway is affected, by the length of DNA fragment [6], the complexity of DNA damage [7] and the chromatin structure [8], will be addressed

  15. More on homological supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtash, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we first solve complex Morse flow equations for the simplest case of a bosonic harmonic oscillator to discuss localization in the context of Picard-Lefschetz theory. We briefly touch on the exact non-BPS solutions of the bosonized supersymmetric quantum mechanics on algebraic geometric grounds and report that their complex phases can be accessed through the cohomology of WKB 1-form of the underlying singular spectral curve subject to necessary cohomological corrections for nonzero genus. Motivated by Picard-Lefschetz theory, we write down a general formula for the index of N =4 quantum mechanics with background R -symmetry gauge fields. We conjecture that certain symmetries of the refined Witten index and singularities of the moduli space may be used to determine the correct intersection coefficients. A few examples, where this conjecture holds, are shown in both linear and closed quivers with rank-one quiver gauge groups. The R -anomaly removal along the "Morsified" relative homology cycles also called "Lefschetz thimbles" is shown to lead to the appearance of Stokes lines. We show that the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameters appear in the intersection coefficients for the relative homology of the quiver quantum mechanics resulting from dimensional reduction of 2 d N =(2 ,2 ) gauge theory on a circle and explicitly calculate integrals along the Lefschetz thimbles in N =4 C Pk -1 model. The Stokes jumping of coefficients and its relation to wall crossing phenomena is briefly discussed. We also find that the notion of "on-the-wall" index is related to the invariant Lefschetz thimbles under Stokes phenomena. An implication of the Lefschetz thimbles in constructing knots from quiver quantum mechanics is indicated.

  16. Clustering evolving proteins into homologous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Mahbob, Maisarah; Ragan, Mark A

    2013-04-08

    Clustering sequences into groups of putative homologs (families) is a critical first step in many areas of comparative biology and bioinformatics. The performance of clustering approaches in delineating biologically meaningful families depends strongly on characteristics of the data, including content bias and degree of divergence. New, highly scalable methods have recently been introduced to cluster the very large datasets being generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. However, there has been little systematic investigation of how characteristics of the data impact the performance of these approaches. Using clusters from a manually curated dataset as reference, we examined the performance of a widely used graph-based Markov clustering algorithm (MCL) and a greedy heuristic approach (UCLUST) in delineating protein families coded by three sets of bacterial genomes of different G+C content. Both MCL and UCLUST generated clusters that are comparable to the reference sets at specific parameter settings, although UCLUST tends to under-cluster compositionally biased sequences (G+C content 33% and 66%). Using simulated data, we sought to assess the individual effects of sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity, and underlying G+C content. Performance decreased with increasing sequence divergence, decreasing among-site rate variation, and increasing G+C bias. Two MCL-based methods recovered the simulated families more accurately than did UCLUST. MCL using local alignment distances is more robust across the investigated range of sequence features than are greedy heuristics using distances based on global alignment. Our results demonstrate that sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity and content bias can individually and in combination affect the accuracy with which MCL and UCLUST can recover homologous protein families. For application to data that are more divergent, and exhibit higher among-site rate variation and/or content bias, MCL may often be the better

  17. Detection of high endemic and zoonotic risk areas regarding the infestation with Taenia solium larvae in pigs in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Oleleu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, it is necessary to collect recent data on the prevalence of swine cysticercosis, to detect areas of high endemicity and zoonotic risk, to prevent economic losses through proper implementation of control programs. A retrospective epidemiological study was performed during the period 2009-2013, by accessing report/surveillance systems and management of infected animals by analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of swine cysticercosis in Romania. The study was conducted on the reporting of cases confirmed after the macroscopic exam in slaughterhouses after slaughtering the animals, in accordance to the national epidemio-surveillance strategic program for swine cysticercosis.In term of spatial spread, outbreaks were discovered in 7 countries (16.66% of the 42 existing in Romania. During the studied period there were a total of 10 disease outbreaks. In term of temporal spread, cases of disease had been recorded every year taken under study. Links between the same different outbreaks, exist in the same year or in successive years, so we can see evolution trend of infection in the north-west of Romania, where there were discovered five of seven outbreaks.Analyzing the maintaining/recurrence of infection in outbreaks, we can mention Alba country, located in the north-west of the country, where the infestation was maintained 4 years (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013. In Cluj, the results obtained were correlated with T. solium infestation in humans by eating pork. The obtained results demonstrated that the control programs currently applied are not sufficient to diminuate and/or eradicate these diseases in Romania. Serological surveillance and molecular diagnostic tests are mandatory to be introduced, besides the slaughterhouse basic exams.

  18. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gregory Bruce

    Full Text Available Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (Lymphocryptovirus genus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV (Rhadinovirus genus have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA lytic marker. The second group (n = 5 was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2 infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV, the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that

  19. K-homology and K-cohomology constructions of relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Sattar, A. Dabbour; Bayoumy, F.M.

    1990-08-01

    One of the important homology (cohomology) theories, based on systems of covering of the space, is the homology (cohomology) theory of relations. In the present work, by using the idea of K-homology and K-cohomology groups different varieties of the Dowker's theory are introduced and studied. These constructions are defined on the category of pairs of topological spaces and over a pair of coefficient groups. (author). 14 refs

  20. A local homology theory for linearly compact modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tu Cuong; Tran Tuan Nam

    2004-11-01

    We introduce a local homology theory for linearly modules which is in some sense dual to the local cohomology theory of A. Grothendieck. Some basic properties of local homology modules are shown such as: the vanishing and non-vanishing, the noetherianness of local homology modules. By using duality, we extend some well-known results in theory of local cohomology of A. Grothendieck. (author)

  1. On (co)homology of Frobenius Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Can; Van Oystaeyen, Fred; ZHANG, Yinhuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study Poisson (co)homology of a Frobenius Poisson algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a duality between Poisson homology and Poisson cohomology of Frobenius Poisson algebras, similar to that between Hochschild homology and Hochschild cohomology of Frobenius algebras. Then we use the non-degenerate bilinear form on a unimodular Frobenius Poisson algebra to construct a Batalin-Vilkovisky structure on the Poisson cohomology ring making it into a Batalin-Vilkovisk...

  2. A geometric model for Hochschild homology of Soergel bimodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Ben; Williamson, Geordie

    2008-01-01

    An important step in the calculation of the triply graded link homology of Khovanov and Rozansky is the determination of the Hochschild homology of Soergel bimodules for SL(n). We present a geometric model for this Hochschild homology for any simple group G, as B–equivariant intersection cohomology...... on generators whose degree is explicitly determined by the geometry of the orbit closure, and to describe its Hilbert series, proving a conjecture of Jacob Rasmussen....

  3. Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes: Navigating Meiosis without a Homologous Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on homology between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Yet by definition, sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex lack a homologous partner. Recent studies in a number of systems have shed light on the unique meiotic behavior of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and highlight both the commonalities and differences in divergent species. During meiotic prophase, the homology-dependent processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination have ...

  4. Colored Kauffman homology and super-A-polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Ramadevi, P.; Zodinmawia

    2014-01-01

    We study the structural properties of colored Kauffman homologies of knots. Quadruple-gradings play an essential role in revealing the differential structure of colored Kauffman homology. Using the differential structure, the Kauffman homologies carrying the symmetric tensor products of the vector representation for the trefoil and the figure-eight are determined. In addition, making use of relations from representation theory, we also obtain the HOMFLY homologies colored by rectangular Young tableaux with two rows for these knots. Furthermore, the notion of super-A-polynomials is extended in order to encompass two-parameter deformations of PSL(2,ℂ) character varieties

  5. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, αmethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

  6. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  7. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  8. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  9. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

  10. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  11. Genetic engineering of chimeric antigen receptors using lamprey derived variable lymphocyte receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are used to redirect effector cell specificity to selected cell surface antigens. Using CARs, antitumor activity can be initiated in patients with no prior tumor specific immunity. Although CARs have shown promising clinical results, the technology remains limited by the availability of specific cognate cell target antigens. To increase the repertoire of targetable tumor cell antigens we utilized the immune system of the sea lamprey to generate directed variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs. VLRs serve as membrane bound and soluble immune effectors analogous but not homologous to immunoglobulins. They have a fundamentally different structure than immunoglobulin (Ig-based antibodies while still demonstrating high degrees of specificity and affinity. To test the functionality of VLRs as the antigen recognition domain of CARs, two VLR-CARs were created. One contained a VLR specific for a murine B cell leukemia and the other contained a VLR specific for the human T cell surface antigen, CD5. The CAR design consisted of the VLR sequence, myc-epitope tag, CD28 transmembrane domain, and intracellular CD3ζ signaling domain. We demonstrate proof of concept, including gene transfer, biosynthesis, cell surface localization, and effector cell activation for multiple VLR-CAR designs. Therefore, VLRs provide an alternative means of CAR-based cancer recognition.

  12. CBH1 homologs and varian CBH1 cellulase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Neefe, Paulien

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  13. The Causes of Quasi-homologous CMEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Kai; Shen, Chenglong; Zhang, Quanhao [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Temmer, M.; Thalmann, J. K.; Veronig, A. M., E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: ljliu@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we identified the magnetic source locations of 142 quasi-homologous (QH) coronal mass ejections (CMEs), of which 121 are from solar cycle (SC) 23 and 21 from SC 24. Among those CMEs, 63% originated from the same source location as their predecessor (defined as S-type), while 37% originated from a different location within the same active region as their predecessor (defined as D-type). Their distinctly different waiting time distributions, peaking around 7.5 and 1.5 hr for S- and D-type CMEs, suggest that they might involve different physical mechanisms with different characteristic timescales. Through detailed analysis based on nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field modeling of two exemplary cases, we propose that the S-type QH CMES might involve a recurring energy release process from the same source location (by magnetic free energy replenishment), whereas the D-type QH CMEs can happen when a flux tube system is disturbed by a nearby CME.

  14. Torus actions, combinatorial topology, and homological algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhshtaber, V M; Panov, T E

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a survey of new results and open problems connected with fundamental combinatorial concepts, including polytopes, simplicial complexes, cubical complexes, and arrangements of subspaces. Attention is concentrated on simplicial and cubical subdivisions of manifolds, and especially on spheres. Important constructions are described that enable one to study these combinatorial objects by using commutative and homological algebra. The proposed approach to combinatorial problems is based on the theory of moment-angle complexes recently developed by the authors. The crucial construction assigns to each simplicial complex K with m vertices a T m -space Z K with special bigraded cellular decomposition. In the framework of this theory, well-known non-singular toric varieties arise as orbit spaces of maximally free actions of subtori on moment-angle complexes corresponding to simplicial spheres. It is shown that diverse invariants of simplicial complexes and related combinatorial-geometric objects can be expressed in terms of bigraded cohomology rings of the corresponding moment-angle complexes. Finally, it is shown that the new relationships between combinatorics, geometry, and topology lead to solutions of some well-known topological problems

  15. Statistical Inference for Porous Materials using Persistent Homology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chul [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We propose a porous materials analysis pipeline using persistent homology. We rst compute persistent homology of binarized 3D images of sampled material subvolumes. For each image we compute sets of homology intervals, which are represented as summary graphics called persistence diagrams. We convert persistence diagrams into image vectors in order to analyze the similarity of the homology of the material images using the mature tools for image analysis. Each image is treated as a vector and we compute its principal components to extract features. We t a statistical model using the loadings of principal components to estimate material porosity, permeability, anisotropy, and tortuosity. We also propose an adaptive version of the structural similarity index (SSIM), a similarity metric for images, as a measure to determine the statistical representative elementary volumes (sREV) for persistence homology. Thus we provide a capability for making a statistical inference of the uid ow and transport properties of porous materials based on their geometry and connectivity.

  16. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  17. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  18. Microbiota epitope similarity either dampens or enhances the immunogenicity of disease-associated antigenic epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Carrasco Pro

    Full Text Available The microbiome influences adaptive immunity and molecular mimicry influences T cell reactivity. Here, we evaluated whether the sequence similarity of various antigens to the microbiota dampens or increases immunogenicity of T cell epitopes. Sets of epitopes and control sequences derived from 38 antigenic categories (infectious pathogens, allergens, autoantigens were retrieved from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB. Their similarity to microbiome sequences was calculated using the BLOSUM62 matrix. We found that sequence similarity was associated with either dampened (tolerogenic; e.g. most allergens or increased (inflammatory; e.g. Dengue and West Nile viruses likelihood of a peptide being immunogenic as a function of epitope source category. Ten-fold cross-validation and validation using sets of manually curated epitopes and non-epitopes derived from allergens were used to confirm these initial observations. Furthermore, the genus from which the microbiome homologous sequences were derived influenced whether a tolerogenic versus inflammatory modulatory effect was observed, with Fusobacterium most associated with inflammatory influences and Bacteroides most associated with tolerogenic influences. We validated these effects using PBMCs stimulated with various sets of microbiome peptides. "Tolerogenic" microbiome peptides elicited IL-10 production, "inflammatory" peptides elicited mixed IL-10/IFNγ production, while microbiome epitopes homologous to self were completely unreactive for both cytokines. We also tested the sequence similarity of cockroach epitopes to specific microbiome sequences derived from households of cockroach allergic individuals and non-allergic controls. Microbiomes from cockroach allergic households were less likely to contain sequences homologous to previously defined cockroach allergens. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that microbiome sequences may contribute to the tolerization of T cells for allergen

  19. Productive Homologous and Non-homologous Recombination of Hepatitis C Virus in Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Mikkelsen, Lotte S.; Gottwein, Judith M.; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic recombination is an important mechanism for increasing diversity of RNA viruses, and constitutes a viral escape mechanism to host immune responses and to treatment with antiviral compounds. Although rare, epidemiologically important hepatitis C virus (HCV) recombinants have been reported. In addition, recombination is an important regulatory mechanism of cytopathogenicity for the related pestiviruses. Here we describe recombination of HCV RNA in cell culture leading to production of infectious virus. Initially, hepatoma cells were co-transfected with a replicating JFH1ΔE1E2 genome (genotype 2a) lacking functional envelope genes and strain J6 (2a), which has functional envelope genes but does not replicate in culture. After an initial decrease in the number of HCV positive cells, infection spread after 13–36 days. Sequencing of recovered viruses revealed non-homologous recombinants with J6 sequence from the 5′ end to the NS2–NS3 region followed by JFH1 sequence from Core to the 3′ end. These recombinants carried duplicated sequence of up to 2400 nucleotides. HCV replication was not required for recombination, as recombinants were observed in most experiments even when two replication incompetent genomes were co-transfected. Reverse genetic studies verified the viability of representative recombinants. After serial passage, subsequent recombination events reducing or eliminating the duplicated region were observed for some but not all recombinants. Furthermore, we found that inter-genotypic recombination could occur, but at a lower frequency than intra-genotypic recombination. Productive recombination of attenuated HCV genomes depended on expression of all HCV proteins and tolerated duplicated sequence. In general, no strong site specificity was observed. Non-homologous recombination was observed in most cases, while few homologous events were identified. A better understanding of HCV recombination could help identification of natural recombinants

  20. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vázquez-Flores

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  1. Productive homologous and non-homologous recombination of hepatitis C virus in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Galli, Andrea; Li, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    . In addition, recombination is an important regulatory mechanism of cytopathogenicity for the related pestiviruses. Here we describe recombination of HCV RNA in cell culture leading to production of infectious virus. Initially, hepatoma cells were co-transfected with a replicating JFH1ΔE1E2 genome (genotype 2a......) lacking functional envelope genes and strain J6 (2a), which has functional envelope genes but does not replicate in culture. After an initial decrease in the number of HCV positive cells, infection spread after 13-36 days. Sequencing of recovered viruses revealed non-homologous recombinants with J6...

  2. Detecting false positive sequence homology: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M Stanley; Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Clement, Mark J; Bybee, Seth M

    2016-02-24

    Accurate detection of homologous relationships of biological sequences (DNA or amino acid) amongst organisms is an important and often difficult task that is essential to various evolutionary studies, ranging from building phylogenies to predicting functional gene annotations. There are many existing heuristic tools, most commonly based on bidirectional BLAST searches that are used to identify homologous genes and combine them into two fundamentally distinct classes: orthologs and paralogs. Due to only using heuristic filtering based on significance score cutoffs and having no cluster post-processing tools available, these methods can often produce multiple clusters constituting unrelated (non-homologous) sequences. Therefore sequencing data extracted from incomplete genome/transcriptome assemblies originated from low coverage sequencing or produced by de novo processes without a reference genome are susceptible to high false positive rates of homology detection. In this paper we develop biologically informative features that can be extracted from multiple sequence alignments of putative homologous genes (orthologs and paralogs) and further utilized in context of guided experimentation to verify false positive outcomes. We demonstrate that our machine learning method trained on both known homology clusters obtained from OrthoDB and randomly generated sequence alignments (non-homologs), successfully determines apparent false positives inferred by heuristic algorithms especially among proteomes recovered from low-coverage RNA-seq data. Almost ~42 % and ~25 % of predicted putative homologies by InParanoid and HaMStR respectively were classified as false positives on experimental data set. Our process increases the quality of output from other clustering algorithms by providing a novel post-processing method that is both fast and efficient at removing low quality clusters of putative homologous genes recovered by heuristic-based approaches.

  3. The K-homology of nets of C∗-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2014-12-01

    Let X be a space, intended as a possibly curved space-time, and A a precosheaf of C∗-algebras on X. Motivated by algebraic quantum field theory, we study the Kasparov and Θ-summable K-homology of A interpreting them in terms of the holonomy equivariant K-homology of the associated C∗-dynamical system. This yields a characteristic class for K-homology cycles of A with values in the odd cohomology of X, that we interpret as a generalized statistical dimension.

  4. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-02-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s).

  5. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s). PMID:15664946

  6. Antibodies to variable Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface antigens are associated with protection from novel malaria infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D

    2000-01-01

    is maintained at low densities. Here, we test the hypothesis that the presence or absence of antibodies against variant antigens on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes protect individuals against some infectious challenges and render them susceptible to others. Plasma collected in Daraweesh...... susceptible and protected individuals. Together, the results indicate that pre-existing anti-PfEMP1 antibodies can reduce the risk of contracting clinical malaria when challenged by novel parasite clones expressing homologous, but not heterologous variable surface antigens. The results also confirm...

  7. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2017-01-01

    ’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group...... and knowledge regarding specific aspects was significantly improved in most aspects immediately after and two weeks after the health education. The focus group discussions showed positive attitudes towards the program and the study subjects found ‘The Vicious Worm’ efficient, simple, and appealing. The study...... discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health – and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½ hours individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall...

  9. Peptide and nucleotide sequences of rat CD4 (W3/25) antigen: evidence for derivation from a structure with four immunoglobulin-related domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.J.; Jefferies, W.A.; Barclay, A.N.; Gagnon, J.; Williams, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rat W3/25 antigen was the first marker antigen of helper T lymphocytes to be identified. Subsequently, the human OKT4 antigen (now called CD4) was described, and cell distribution and functional data suggested that W3/25 and OKT4 antigens were homologous. This is now confirmed by the matching of peptide sequences from W3/25 antigen with sequence predicted from rat cDNA clones detected by cross-hybridization with a cDNA probe for human CD4. Analysis of the two sequences suggests an evolutionary origin from a structure with four immunoglobulin-related domains, although only domain 1 at the NH 2 terminus meets the standard criteria for an immunoglobulin-related sequence. CD4 domains 2 and 4 contain disulfide bonds but seem like truncated immunoglobulin domains, whereas domain 3 may have a pattern of β-strands like an immunoglobulin variable domain, but without the disulfide bond

  10. STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment. PMID:22178422

  11. Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, their hybrids and other helminthic infections occurring in a neglected tropical diseases' highly endemic area in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Megumi; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Waikagul, Jitra; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Sako, Yasuhito; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Yoonuan, Tipparayat; Kounnavang, Sengchanh; Kawai, Satoru; Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp. (14%), and Taenia spp. (4%) eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2), T. saginata (n = 21), and T. asiatica (n = 5). Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold) revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not “pure T. asiatica” but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities. PMID:29420601

  12. Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, their hybrids and other helminthic infections occurring in a neglected tropical diseases' highly endemic area in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Otake Sato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%, Trichuris trichiura (27%, Ascaris spp. (14%, and Taenia spp. (4% eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2, T. saginata (n = 21, and T. asiatica (n = 5. Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not "pure T. asiatica" but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities.

  13. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  14. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  15. Homology of normal chains and cohomology of charges

    CERN Document Server

    Pauw, Th De; Pfeffer, W F

    2017-01-01

    The authors consider a category of pairs of compact metric spaces and Lipschitz maps where the pairs satisfy a linearly isoperimetric condition related to the solvability of the Plateau problem with partially free boundary. It includes properly all pairs of compact Lipschitz neighborhood retracts of a large class of Banach spaces. On this category the authors define homology and cohomology functors with real coefficients which satisfy the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms, but reflect the metric properties of the underlying spaces. As an example they show that the zero-dimensional homology of a space in our category is trivial if and only if the space is path connected by arcs of finite length. The homology and cohomology of a pair are, respectively, locally convex and Banach spaces that are in duality. Ignoring the topological structures, the homology and cohomology extend to all pairs of compact metric spaces. For locally acyclic spaces, the authors establish a natural isomorphism between their cohomology and the �...

  16. Generalized local homology and cohomology for linearly compact modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tuan Nam

    2006-07-01

    We study generalized local homology for linearly compact modules. By duality, we get some properties of generalized local cohomology modules and extend well-known properties of local cohomology of A. Grothendieck. (author)

  17. On the homology and the cohomology of certain polycyclic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1987-10-01

    The homology and the cohomology of infinite non-abelian split extensions of cyclic groups by cyclic groups have been computed through construction of nice free resolutions for these groups. (author). 16 refs

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Berberine on Zeste Homolog 2 (Ezh2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homolog 2 (Ezh2) expressions in KYSE450 human esophageal cancer cells. Methods: ... of the AXL receptor kinase. The results of ... effects of estrogen receptor antagonists on ..... protein EZH2 is involved in progression of prostate cancer.

  19. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam SM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.Keywords: protein modeling, antigenic sites, sequence variation

  20. Enhancing blockade of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: assessing combinations of antibodies against PfRH5 and other merozoite antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available No vaccine has yet proven effective against the blood-stages of Plasmodium falciparum, which cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. We recently found that PfRH5, a P. falciparum-specific protein expressed in merozoites, is efficiently targeted by broadly-neutralizing, vaccine-induced antibodies. Here we show that antibodies against PfRH5 efficiently inhibit the in vitro growth of short-term-adapted parasite isolates from Cambodia, and that the EC(50 values of antigen-specific antibodies against PfRH5 are lower than those against PfAMA1. Since antibody responses elicited by multiple antigens are speculated to improve the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines, we conducted detailed assessments of parasite growth inhibition by antibodies against PfRH5 in combination with antibodies against seven other merozoite antigens. We found that antibodies against PfRH5 act synergistically with antibodies against certain other merozoite antigens, most notably with antibodies against other erythrocyte-binding antigens such as PfRH4, to inhibit the growth of a homologous P. falciparum clone. A combination of antibodies against PfRH4 and basigin, the erythrocyte receptor for PfRH5, also potently inhibited parasite growth. This methodology provides the first quantitative evidence that polyclonal vaccine-induced antibodies can act synergistically against P. falciparum antigens and should help to guide the rational development of future multi-antigen vaccines.

  1. Matrix factorizations and homological mirror symmetry on the torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Johanna; Omer, Harun

    2007-01-01

    We consider matrix factorizations and homological mirror symmetry on the torus T 2 using a Landau-Ginzburg description. We identify the basic matrix factorizations of the Landau-Ginzburg superpotential and compute the full spectrum taking into account the explicit dependence on bulk and boundary moduli. We verify homological mirror symmetry by comparing three-point functions in the A-model and the B-model

  2. Regulation of homologous recombination at telomeres in budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is suppressed at normal length telomere sequences. In contrast, telomere recombination is allowed when telomeres erode in the absence of telomerase activity or as a consequence of nucleolytic degradation or incomplete replication. Here, we review the mechanisms that contr...... that contribute to regulating mitotic homologous recombination at telomeres and the role of these mechanisms in signalling short telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  3. Zeroth Poisson Homology, Foliated Cohomology and Perfect Poisson Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, David; Miranda, Eva

    2018-01-01

    We prove that, for compact regular Poisson manifolds, the zeroth homology group is isomorphic to the top foliated cohomology group, and we give some applications. In particular, we show that, for regular unimodular Poisson manifolds, top Poisson and foliated cohomology groups are isomorphic. Inspired by the symplectic setting, we define what a perfect Poisson manifold is. We use these Poisson homology computations to provide families of perfect Poisson manifolds.

  4. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  5. Acanthocheilonema viteae: Vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucius, R.; Textor, G.; Kern, A.; Kirsten, C.

    1991-01-01

    Jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (L3) of Acanthocheilonema viteae. The induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. Immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated L3 induced approximately 90% resistance. Immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated L3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 L3 induced 94.1% protection. The protection induced with 3 doses of 50 irradiated L3 did not decrease significantly during a period of 6 months. Sera of a proportion, but not all resistant jirds, contained antibodies against the surface of vector derived L3 as defined by IFAT. No surface antigens of microfilariae or adult worms were recognized by the sera. Vaccinated animals had antibody responses against antigens in the inner organs of L3 and in the cuticle and reproductive organs of adult worms as shown by IFAT. Immunoblotting with SDS-PAGE-separated L3 antigens and L3-CSN revealed that all sera contained antibodies against two exported antigens of 205 and 68 kDa, and against a nonexported antigen of 18 kDa. The 205-kDa antigen easily degraded into fragments of 165, 140, 125, and 105 kDa which were recognized by resistant jird sera. Various antigens of adult worms, but relatively few antigens of microfilariae, were also recognized. To test the relevance of exported antigens of L3 to resistance, jirds were immunized with L3-CSN together with a mild adjuvant. This immunization induced 67.7% resistance against challenge infection and sera of the immunized animals recognized the 205- and 68-kDa antigens of L3

  6. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  7. Automated typing of red blood cell and platelet antigens: a whole-genome sequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William J; Westhoff, Connie M; Gleadall, Nicholas S; Aguad, Maria; Smeland-Wagman, Robin; Vege, Sunitha; Simmons, Daimon P; Mah, Helen H; Lebo, Matthew S; Walter, Klaudia; Soranzo, Nicole; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Watkins, Nick A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Kaufman, Richard M; Rehm, Heidi L; Silberstein, Leslie E; Green, Robert C

    2018-06-01

    There are more than 300 known red blood cell (RBC) antigens and 33 platelet antigens that differ between individuals. Sensitisation to antigens is a serious complication that can occur in prenatal medicine and after blood transfusion, particularly for patients who require multiple transfusions. Although pre-transfusion compatibility testing largely relies on serological methods, reagents are not available for many antigens. Methods based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have been used, but typing for ABO and Rh-the most important blood groups-cannot be done with SNP typing alone. We aimed to develop a novel method based on whole-genome sequencing to identify RBC and platelet antigens. This whole-genome sequencing study is a subanalysis of data from patients in the whole-genome sequencing arm of the MedSeq Project randomised controlled trial (NCT01736566) with no measured patient outcomes. We created a database of molecular changes in RBC and platelet antigens and developed an automated antigen-typing algorithm based on whole-genome sequencing (bloodTyper). This algorithm was iteratively improved to address cis-trans haplotype ambiguities and homologous gene alignments. Whole-genome sequencing data from 110 MedSeq participants (30 × depth) were used to initially validate bloodTyper through comparison with conventional serology and SNP methods for typing of 38 RBC antigens in 12 blood-group systems and 22 human platelet antigens. bloodTyper was further validated with whole-genome sequencing data from 200 INTERVAL trial participants (15 × depth) with serological comparisons. We iteratively improved bloodTyper by comparing its typing results with conventional serological and SNP typing in three rounds of testing. The initial whole-genome sequencing typing algorithm was 99·5% concordant across the first 20 MedSeq genomes. Addressing discordances led to development of an improved algorithm that was 99·8% concordant for the remaining 90 Med

  8. MYCN: From Oncoprotein To Tumor-Associated Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito ePistoia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available MYCN is a well known oncogene overexpressed in different human malignancies including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, Wilms’ tumor and small cell lung cancer. In the case of neuroblastoma (NB, MYCN amplification is an established biomarker of poor prognosis. MYCN belongs to a family of transcription factors (the most important of which is CMYC that show a high degree of homology. Downregulation of MYC protein expression leads to tumor regression in animal models, indicating that MYC proteins represent interesting therapeutic targets.Pre-requisites for a candidate tumor-associated antigen (TAA to be targeted by immunotherapeutic approaches are the following, i expression should be tumor-restricted, ii the putative TAA should be up-regulated in cancer cells and iii protein should be processed into immunogenic peptides capable of associating to MHC molecules with high affinity. Indeed, the MYCN protein is not expressed in human adult tissues and upregulated variably in NB cells, and MYCN peptides capable of associating to HLA-A1 or –A2 molecules with high affinity have been identified. Thus the MYCN protein qualifies as putative TAA in NB.Additional issues that determine the feasibility of targeting a putative TAA with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and will be here discussed are the following, i the inadequacy of tumor cells per se to act as antigen-presenting cells witnessed, in the case of NB cells, by the low to absent expression of HLA- class I molecules, the lack of costimulatory molecules and multiple defects in the HLA class I related antigen processing machinery, and ii the immune evasion mechanisms operated by cancer cells to fool the host immune system, such as up-regulation of soluble immunosuppressive molecules (e.g. soluble MICA and HLA-G in the case of NB or generation of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment. A final issue that deserves consideration is the strategy used to generate

  9. Anti-HmuY antibodies specifically recognize Porphyromonas gingivalis HmuY protein but not homologous proteins in other periodontopathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Śmiga

    Full Text Available Given the emerging evidence of an association between periodontal infections and systemic conditions, the search for specific methods to detect the presence of P. gingivalis, a principal etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis, is of high importance. The aim of this study was to characterize antibodies raised against purified P. gingivalis HmuY protein and selected epitopes of the HmuY molecule. Since other periodontopathogens produce homologs of HmuY, we also aimed to characterize responses of antibodies raised against the HmuY protein or its epitopes to the closest homologous proteins from Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia. Rabbits were immunized with purified HmuY protein or three synthetic, KLH-conjugated peptides, derived from the P. gingivalis HmuY protein. The reactivity of anti-HmuY antibodies with purified proteins or bacteria was determined using Western blotting and ELISA assay. First, we found homologs of P. gingivalis HmuY in P. intermedia (PinO and PinA proteins and T. forsythia (Tfo protein and identified corrected nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Tfo. All proteins were overexpressed in E. coli and purified using ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography and gel filtration. We demonstrated that antibodies raised against P. gingivalis HmuY are highly specific to purified HmuY protein and HmuY attached to P. gingivalis cells. No reactivity between P. intermedia and T. forsythia or between purified HmuY homologs from these bacteria and anti-HmuY antibodies was detected. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that P. gingivalis HmuY protein may serve as an antigen for specific determination of serum antibodies raised against this bacterium.

  10. Genetic and antigenic relatedness of bovine herpesvirus-1 and pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The DNA sequence homology between the genomes of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) was examined. Reciprocal cross hybridization of viral DNA labeled by nick translation to Southern blots of Kpnl, BamH1, EcoR1, and HindIII restriction endonuclease digested DNA, detected homologous sequences dispersed throughout the genomes of the two viruses. The DNA-DNA hybrids were found to be stable under high stringency wash conditions. Sequences of a 32 P-labeled PRV DNA A fragment probe were found to hybridize only to the BHV-1 HindIII G fragment. This indicated that the sequence homology detected between these two viruses was not simply due to fortuitous hybridization of guanine plus cytosine rich sequences. The homology between BHV-1 and PRV was determined by liquid reassociation. It was found that the hybridization rates between 32 P-labeled PRV DNA and unlabeled BHV-1 DNA and 32 P-labeled BHV-1 DNA and unlabeled PRV DNA corresponded to approximately 8% reassociation. The antigenic relatedness between BHV-1 and PRV was also examined. Eighty percent plaque reduction serum neutralization tests showed that BHV-1 rabbit hyperimmune antiserum neutralized BHV-1 virus at a serum neutralization titer (SNT) of 1:256 and PRV virus at an (SNT) of 1:8. PRV rabbit hyperimmune antiserum neutralized PRV virus at an SNT of 1:4 and BHV-1 virus at an SNT of 1:2

  11. Studies on the isolation, structural analysis and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 and its relation to a human adrenal-specific cDNA, pG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, Børge; Højrup, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 was purified from second trimester human amniotic fluid by immunospecific affinity chromatography followed by reversed-phase chromatography. Fetal antigen 1 is a single chain glycoprotein with a M(r) of 32-38 kDa. The amino acid composition revealed a high content of cysteines......, prolines and amino acids (aa) with acidic side-chains indicating that fetal antigen 1 is a compactly folded, strongly hydrophilic molecule. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (37 aa) revealed no homology to other known protein sequences, implying that fetal antigen 1 is a 'novel' human protein. When the aa...... sequence was back-translated into the appropriate degenerate sequence of nucleic acids, fetal antigen 1 could be partially aligned to a 'human adrenal-specific mRNA, pG2'. The indirect immunoperoxidase technique demonstrated fetal antigen 1 in fetal hepatocytes, glandular cells of fetal pancreas...

  12. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Gorbunova, E.S.; Dobronravova, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals [ru

  13. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  14. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  15. Multiscale analysis of nonlinear systems using computational homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantin Mischaikow; Michael Schatz; William Kalies; Thomas Wanner

    2010-05-24

    This is a collaborative project between the principal investigators. However, as is to be expected, different PIs have greater focus on different aspects of the project. This report lists these major directions of research which were pursued during the funding period: (1) Computational Homology in Fluids - For the computational homology effort in thermal convection, the focus of the work during the first two years of the funding period included: (1) A clear demonstration that homology can sensitively detect the presence or absence of an important flow symmetry, (2) An investigation of homology as a probe for flow dynamics, and (3) The construction of a new convection apparatus for probing the effects of large-aspect-ratio. (2) Computational Homology in Cardiac Dynamics - We have initiated an effort to test the use of homology in characterizing data from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of arrhythmia in the heart. Recently, the use of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging in conjunction with voltage sensitive fluorescent dyes has enabled researchers to visualize electrical activity on the surface of cardiac tissue, both in vitro and in vivo. (3) Magnetohydrodynamics - A new research direction is to use computational homology to analyze results of large scale simulations of 2D turbulence in the presence of magnetic fields. Such simulations are relevant to the dynamics of black hole accretion disks. The complex flow patterns from simulations exhibit strong qualitative changes as a function of magnetic field strength. Efforts to characterize the pattern changes using Fourier methods and wavelet analysis have been unsuccessful. (4) Granular Flow - two experts in the area of granular media are studying 2D model experiments of earthquake dynamics where the stress fields can be measured; these stress fields from complex patterns of 'force chains' that may be amenable to analysis using computational homology. (5) Microstructure

  16. Multiscale analysis of nonlinear systems using computational homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantin Mischaikow, Rutgers University/Georgia Institute of Technology, Michael Schatz, Georgia Institute of Technology, William Kalies, Florida Atlantic University, Thomas Wanner,George Mason University

    2010-05-19

    This is a collaborative project between the principal investigators. However, as is to be expected, different PIs have greater focus on different aspects of the project. This report lists these major directions of research which were pursued during the funding period: (1) Computational Homology in Fluids - For the computational homology effort in thermal convection, the focus of the work during the first two years of the funding period included: (1) A clear demonstration that homology can sensitively detect the presence or absence of an important flow symmetry, (2) An investigation of homology as a probe for flow dynamics, and (3) The construction of a new convection apparatus for probing the effects of large-aspect-ratio. (2) Computational Homology in Cardiac Dynamics - We have initiated an effort to test the use of homology in characterizing data from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of arrhythmia in the heart. Recently, the use of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging in conjunction with voltage sensitive fluorescent dyes has enabled researchers to visualize electrical activity on the surface of cardiac tissue, both in vitro and in vivo. (3) Magnetohydrodynamics - A new research direction is to use computational homology to analyze results of large scale simulations of 2D turbulence in the presence of magnetic fields. Such simulations are relevant to the dynamics of black hole accretion disks. The complex flow patterns from simulations exhibit strong qualitative changes as a function of magnetic field strength. Efforts to characterize the pattern changes using Fourier methods and wavelet analysis have been unsuccessful. (4) Granular Flow - two experts in the area of granular media are studying 2D model experiments of earthquake dynamics where the stress fields can be measured; these stress fields from complex patterns of 'force chains' that may be amenable to analysis using computational homology. (5) Microstructure

  17. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  18. The OGCleaner: filtering false-positive homology clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M Stanley; Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Clement, Mark J; Snell, Quinn; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-01-01

    Detecting homologous sequences in organisms is an essential step in protein structure and function prediction, gene annotation and phylogenetic tree construction. Heuristic methods are often employed for quality control of putative homology clusters. These heuristics, however, usually only apply to pairwise sequence comparison and do not examine clusters as a whole. We present the Orthology Group Cleaner (the OGCleaner), a tool designed for filtering putative orthology groups as homology or non-homology clusters by considering all sequences in a cluster. The OGCleaner relies on high-quality orthologous groups identified in OrthoDB to train machine learning algorithms that are able to distinguish between true-positive and false-positive homology groups. This package aims to improve the quality of phylogenetic tree construction especially in instances of lower-quality transcriptome assemblies. https://github.com/byucsl/ogcleaner CONTACT: sfujimoto@gmail.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Primary homologies of the circumorbital bones of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Some snakes have two circumorbital ossifications that in the current literature are usually referred to as the postorbital and supraorbital. We review the arguments that have been proposed to justify this interpretation and provide counter-arguments that reject those conjectures of primary homology based on the observation of 32 species of lizards and 81 species of snakes (both extant and fossil). We present similarity arguments, both topological and structural, for reinterpretation of the primary homologies of the dorsal and posterior orbital ossifications of snakes. Applying the test of similarity, we conclude that the posterior orbital ossification of snakes is topologically consistent as the homolog of the lacertilian jugal, and that the dorsal orbital ossification present in some snakes (e.g., pythons, Loxocemus, and Calabaria) is the homolog of the lacertilian postfrontal. We therefore propose that the terms postorbital and supraorbital should be abandoned as reference language for the circumorbital bones of snakes, and be replaced with the terms jugal and postfrontal, respectively. The primary homology claim for the snake "postorbital" fails the test of similarity, while the term "supraorbital" is an unnecessary and inaccurate application of the concept of a neomorphic ossification, for an element that passes the test of similarity as a postfrontal. This reinterpretation of the circumorbital bones of snakes is bound to have important repercussions for future phylogenetic analyses and consequently for our understanding of the origin and evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  1. α1B-Adrenergic Receptors Differentially Associate with Rab Proteins during Homologous and Heterologous Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Badillo, Jean A.; Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B.; Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A.; Romero-Ávila, M. Teresa; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; García-Sáinz, J. Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Internalization of G protein-coupled receptors can be triggered by agonists or by other stimuli. The process begins within seconds of cell activation and contributes to receptor desensitization. The Rab GTPase family controls endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and endosomal fusion. Among their remarkable properties is the differential distribution of its members on the surface of various organelles. In the endocytic pathway, Rab 5 controls traffic from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, whereas Rab 4 and Rab 11 regulate rapid and slow recycling from early endosomes to the plasma membrane, respectively. Moreover, Rab 7 and Rab 9 regulate the traffic from late endosomes to lysosomes and recycling to the trans-Golgi. We explore the possibility that α1B-adrenergic receptor internalization induced by agonists (homologous) and by unrelated stimuli (heterologous) could involve different Rab proteins. This possibility was explored by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using cells coexpressing α1B-adrenergic receptors tagged with the red fluorescent protein, DsRed, and different Rab proteins tagged with the green fluorescent protein. It was observed that when α1B-adrenergic receptors were stimulated with noradrenaline, the receptors interacted with proteins present in early endosomes, such as the early endosomes antigen 1, Rab 5, Rab 4, and Rab 11 but not with late endosome markers, such as Rab 9 and Rab 7. In contrast, sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation induced rapid and transient α1B-adrenergic receptor interaction of relatively small magnitude with Rab 5 and a more pronounced and sustained one with Rab 9; interaction was also observed with Rab 7. Moreover, the GTPase activity of the Rab proteins appears to be required because no FRET was observed when dominant-negative Rab mutants were employed. These data indicate that α1B-adrenergic receptors are directed to different endocytic vesicles depending on the desensitization type (homologous vs

  2. Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Perdikaris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe or antigens (HBsAg in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg. The observed response was rapid (45 sec and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed.

  3. [Analysis of DNA-DNA homologies in obligate methylotrophic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Govorukhina, N I; Lysenko, A M; Trotsenko, Iu A

    1988-01-01

    The genotypic affinity of 19 bacterial strains obligately dependent on methanol or methylamine as carbon and energy sources was studied by techniques of molecular DNA hybridization. The high homology level (35-88%) between motile strain Methylophilus methanolovorus V-1447D and nonmotile strain Methylobacillus sp. VSB-792 as well as other motile strains (Pseudomonas methanolica ATCC 21704, Methylomonas methanolica NRRL 5458, Pseudomonas sp. W6, strain A3) indicates that all of them belong to one genus. Rather high level of homology (62-63%) was found between Methylobacillus glycogenes ATCC 29475 and Pseudomonas insueta ATCC 21276 and strain G-10. The motile strain Methylophilus methylotrophus NCIB 10515 has a low homology (below 20%) to other of the studied obligate methylobacteria. Therefore, at least two genetically different genera of obligate methylobacteria can be distinguished, namely Methylophilus and Methylobacillus, the latter being represented by both motile and nonmotile forms.

  4. Induction of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchta, H.; Swoboda, P.; Hohn, B.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of different factors on frequencies of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco plants was analyzed using a disrupted β-glucuronidase marker gene. Recombination frequencies were enhanced several fold by DNA damaging agents like UV-light or MMS (methyl methanesulfonate). Applying 3-methoxybenzamide (3-MB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP), an enzyme that is postulated to be involved in DNA repair, enhanced homologous recombination frequencies strongly. These findings indicate that homologous recombination is involved in DNA repair and can (at least partially) compensate for other DNA repair pathways. Indications that recombination in plants can be induced by environmental stress factors that are not likely to be involved in DNA metabolism were also found; Arabidopsis plants growing in a medium containing 0.1 M NaCl exhibited elevated recombination frequencies. The possible general effects of ‘environmental’ challenges on genome flexibility are discussed. (author)

  5. Khovanov homology for virtual knots with arbitrary coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manturov, Vassily O

    2007-01-01

    The Khovanov homology theory over an arbitrary coefficient ring is extended to the case of virtual knots. We introduce a complex which is well-defined in the virtual case and is homotopy equivalent to the original Khovanov complex in the classical case. Unlike Khovanov's original construction, our definition of the complex does not use any additional prescription of signs to the edges of a cube. Moreover, our method enables us to construct a Khovanov homology theory for 'twisted virtual knots' in the sense of Bourgoin and Viro (including knots in three-dimensional projective space). We generalize a number of results of Khovanov homology theory (the Wehrli complex, minimality problems, Frobenius extensions) to virtual knots with non-orientable atoms

  6. Homology groups for particles on one-connected graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaciÄ Żek, Tomasz; Sawicki, Adam

    2017-06-01

    We present a mathematical framework for describing the topology of configuration spaces for particles on one-connected graphs. In particular, we compute the homology groups over integers for different classes of one-connected graphs. Our approach is based on some fundamental combinatorial properties of the configuration spaces, Mayer-Vietoris sequences for different parts of configuration spaces, and some limited use of discrete Morse theory. As one of the results, we derive the closed-form formulae for ranks of the homology groups for indistinguishable particles on tree graphs. We also give a detailed discussion of the second homology group of the configuration space of both distinguishable and indistinguishable particles. Our motivation is the search for new kinds of quantum statistics.

  7. Evidentiation of Paramyosin (Sm-97 as a Modulating Antigen on Granulomatous Hypersensitivity to Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Cristine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A Schistosoma mansoni adult worm anionic fraction (PIII has previously been shown to protect mice against challenge infection and to reduce pulmonary and hepatic granulomatous hypersensitivity. Serum from PIII-immunized rabbit was used to screen a lgt11 cDNA library from S. mansoni adult worm in order to identify antigens capable of modulating granulomatous hypersensitivity. We obtained four clones with 400 (Sm-III.11, 900 (Sm-III.16, 1100 (Sm-III.10 and 1300 (Sm-III.12 bp of length. All clone-specific antibodies were able to recognize most of the PIII components. The sequence analysis showed that these clones presented high homology with S. mansoni paramyosin (Sm-97. These findings ascribe a new function to this antigen with an important role in modulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs

  8. Khovanov-Rozansky Graph Homology and Composition Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    In analogy with a recursive formula for the HOMFLY-PT polynomial of links given by Jaeger, we give a recursive formula for the graph polynomial introduced by Kauffman and Vogel. We show how this formula extends to the Khovanov–Rozansky graph homology.......In analogy with a recursive formula for the HOMFLY-PT polynomial of links given by Jaeger, we give a recursive formula for the graph polynomial introduced by Kauffman and Vogel. We show how this formula extends to the Khovanov–Rozansky graph homology....

  9. Macdonald operators and homological invariants of the colored Hopf link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awata, Hidetoshi; Kanno, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Using a power sum (boson) realization for the Macdonald operators, we investigate the Gukov, Iqbal, Kozcaz and Vafa (GIKV) proposal for the homological invariants of the colored Hopf link, which include Khovanov-Rozansky homology as a special case. We prove the polynomiality of the invariants obtained by GIKV's proposal for arbitrary representations. We derive a closed formula of the invariants of the colored Hopf link for antisymmetric representations. We argue that a little amendment of GIKV's proposal is required to make all the coefficients of the polynomial non-negative integers. (paper)

  10. Bat Caliciviruses and Human Noroviruses Are Antigenically Similar and Have Overlapping Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Jacob F; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Debbink, Kari; Beall, Anne; Mallory, Michael L; Yount, Boyd L; Graham, Rachel L; Huynh, Jeremy; Gates, J Edward; Donaldson, Eric F; Baric, Ralph S

    2018-05-22

    Emerging zoonotic viral diseases remain a challenge to global public health. Recent surveillance studies have implicated bats as potential reservoirs for a number of viral pathogens, including coronaviruses and Ebola viruses. Caliciviridae represent a major viral family contributing to emerging diseases in both human and animal populations and have been recently identified in bats. In this study, we blended metagenomics, phylogenetics, homology modeling, and in vitro assays to characterize two novel bat calicivirus (BtCalV) capsid sequences, corresponding to strain BtCalV/A10/USA/2009, identified in Perimyotis subflavus near Little Orleans, MD, and bat norovirus. We observed that bat norovirus formed virus-like particles and had epitopes and receptor-binding patterns similar to those of human noroviruses. To determine whether these observations stretch across multiple bat caliciviruses, we characterized a novel bat calicivirus, BtCalV/A10/USA/2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 likely represents a novel Caliciviridae genus and is most closely related to "recoviruses." Homology modeling revealed that the capsid sequences of BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 and bat norovirus resembled human norovirus capsid sequences and retained host ligand binding within the receptor-binding domains similar to that seen with human noroviruses. Both caliciviruses bound histo-blood group antigens in patterns that overlapped those seen with human and animal noroviruses. Taken together, our results indicate the potential for bat caliciviruses to bind histo-blood group antigens and overcome a significant barrier to cross-species transmission. Additionally, we have shown that bat norovirus maintains antigenic epitopes similar to those seen with human noroviruses, providing further evidence of evolutionary descent. Our results reiterate the importance of surveillance of wild-animal populations, especially of bats, for novel viral pathogens. IMPORTANCE Caliciviruses are

  11. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  12. Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Picchioni Bompeixe

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes influence individual susceptibility to NCC, we performed a case-control association analysis. Fifty-two Caucasoid patients and 149 matched controls were typed for antigens of the HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ loci. All patients had computerized tomography and clinical features compatible with parenchymal NCC. Indirect immunofluorescence of cerebrospinal fluid showed that 19 (37% of the patients presented anti-cysticercus antibodies at titers ³ 1:10. Frequencies of HLA specificities in the whole group of patients and in the subgroup with antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were compared to those of the control group. No significant difference was found. These results do not support the hypothesis of HLA gene participation in susceptibility to parenchymal neurocysticercosis.A neurocisticercose, causada pelo cisticerco, a larva do cestóide Taenia solium, é a infecção mais comum do sistema nervoso central e constitui importante problema de saúde pública em muitos países. A sua prevalência na região de Curitiba, localizada no Estado do Paraná, foi estimada em 9%, situando-se entre as mais elevadas do mundo. Os aspectos genéticos de suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose (NCC ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com o objetivo de investigar se genes do MHC influenciam a suscetibilidade individual à NCC, realizamos uma análise de associação caso-controle. Cinqüenta e dois pacientes caucasóides e 149 indivíduos-controle pareados foram tipados para antígenos dos locos HLA-A, B, C, DR e DQ. Todos os

  13. Presenting Influenza A M2e Antigen on Recombinant Spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łęga

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses. In this work we evaluated the possible use of Bacillus subtilis spores as a carrier of the Influenza A M2e antigen in mucosal vaccination. A tandem repeat of 4 consensus sequences coding for human-avian-swine-human M2e (M2eH-A-S-H peptide was fused to spore coat proteins and stably exposed on the spore surface, as demonstrated by the immunostaining of intact, recombinant spores. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant endospores carrying M2eH-A-S-H elicited specific antibody production without the addition of adjuvants. Bacillus subtilis endospores can serve as influenza antigen carriers. Recombinant spores constructed in this work showed low immunogenicity although were able to induce antibody production. The System of influenza antigen administration presented in this work is attractive mainly due to the omitting time-consuming and cost-intensive immunogen production and purification. Therefore modification should be made to increase the immunogenicity of the presented system.

  14. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

  15. Topological Hochschild homology and the Bass trace conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrick, A. J.; Hesselholt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use the methods of topological Hochschild homology to shed new light on groups satisfying the Bass trace conjecture. Factorization of the Hattori–Stallings rank map through the Bökstedt–Hsiang–Madsen cyclotomic trace map leads to Linnell's restriction on such groups. As a new consequence...

  16. The homological content of the Jones representations at $q = -1$

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Jens Kristian; Fuglede Jørgensen, Søren

    We generalize a discovery of Kasahara and show that the Jones representations of braid groups, when evaluated at $q = -1$, are related to the action on homology of a branched double cover of the underlying punctured disk. As an application, we prove for a large family of pseudo-Anosov mapping...

  17. Topological quantum information, virtual Jones polynomials and Khovanov homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, Louis H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give a quantum statistical interpretation of the bracket polynomial state sum 〈K〉, the Jones polynomial V K (t) and virtual knot theory versions of the Jones polynomial, including the arrow polynomial. We use these quantum mechanical interpretations to give new quantum algorithms for these Jones polynomials. In those cases where the Khovanov homology is defined, the Hilbert space C(K) of our model is isomorphic with the chain complex for Khovanov homology with coefficients in the complex numbers. There is a natural unitary transformation U:C(K) → C(K) such that 〈K〉 = Trace(U), where 〈K〉 denotes the evaluation of the state sum model for the corresponding polynomial. We show that for the Khovanov boundary operator ∂:C(K) → C(K), we have the relationship ∂U + U∂ = 0. Consequently, the operator U acts on the Khovanov homology, and we obtain a direct relationship between the Khovanov homology and this quantum algorithm for the Jones polynomial. (paper)

  18. Homology of the open moduli space of curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey on the proof of a generalized version of the Mumford conjecture obtained in joint work with M. Weiss stating that a certain map between some classifying spaces which a priori have different natures induces an isomorphism at the level of integral homology. We also discuss our proo...

  19. On the Cogosvili functor generated by a homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Satter, A. Dabbour; Mahmoud, S.

    1991-09-01

    In the present work we discuss the Cogosvili functor generated by a homology, and study the construction of the corresponding groups and their induced homomorphisms. Moreover, we investigate the properties of this functor and prove that the set of such functors are isomorphic to the Bauer homotopy theory. (author). 19 refs

  20. Multiresolution persistent homology for excessively large biomolecular datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhao, Zhixiong [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wei, Guo-Wei, E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Although persistent homology has emerged as a promising tool for the topological simplification of complex data, it is computationally intractable for large datasets. We introduce multiresolution persistent homology to handle excessively large datasets. We match the resolution with the scale of interest so as to represent large scale datasets with appropriate resolution. We utilize flexibility-rigidity index to access the topological connectivity of the data set and define a rigidity density for the filtration analysis. By appropriately tuning the resolution of the rigidity density, we are able to focus the topological lens on the scale of interest. The proposed multiresolution topological analysis is validated by a hexagonal fractal image which has three distinct scales. We further demonstrate the proposed method for extracting topological fingerprints from DNA molecules. In particular, the topological persistence of a virus capsid with 273 780 atoms is successfully analyzed which would otherwise be inaccessible to the normal point cloud method and unreliable by using coarse-grained multiscale persistent homology. The proposed method has also been successfully applied to the protein domain classification, which is the first time that persistent homology is used for practical protein domain analysis, to our knowledge. The proposed multiresolution topological method has potential applications in arbitrary data sets, such as social networks, biological networks, and graphs.

  1. Human Fanconi anemia monoubiquitination pathway promotes homologous DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koji; Yang, Yun-Gui; Pierce, Andrew J; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu; Digweed, Martin; D'Andrea, Alan D; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Jasin, Maria

    2005-01-25

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone-marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. Cells from FA patients are hypersensitive to agents that produce DNA crosslinks and, after treatment with these agents, have pronounced chromosome breakage and other cytogenetic abnormalities. Eight FANC genes have been cloned, and the encoded proteins interact in a common cellular pathway. DNA-damaging agents activate the monoubiquitination of FANCD2, resulting in its targeting to nuclear foci that also contain BRCA1 and BRCA2/FANCD1, proteins involved in homology-directed DNA repair. Given the interaction of the FANC proteins with BRCA1 and BRCA2, we tested whether cells from FA patients (groups A, G, and D2) and mouse Fanca-/- cells with a targeted mutation are impaired for this repair pathway. We find that both the upstream (FANCA and FANCG) and downstream (FANCD2) FA pathway components promote homology-directed repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). The FANCD2 monoubiquitination site is critical for normal levels of repair, whereas the ATM phosphorylation site is not. The defect in these cells, however, is mild, differentiating them from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutant cells. Surprisingly, we provide evidence that these proteins, like BRCA1 but unlike BRCA2, promote a second DSB repair pathway involving homology, i.e., single-strand annealing. These results suggest an early role for the FANC proteins in homologous DSB repair pathway choice.

  2. Characterization of Leishmania Soluble Exo-Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Liwang

    2003-01-01

    .... Vaccine development is the ultimate solution for this problem. Our previous research indicates that Leishmania parasites secrete, excrete, or shed antigens into the medium during in vitro culture...

  3. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads......-antigen-antibody conjugates, and v) detecting said bead-antigen-antibody conjugates. Further aspects include an antibody detection kit, a bead-antigen conjugate and a composition comprising at least two different groups of bead-antigen-conjugates....

  4. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  5. Increased seroreactivity to proinsulin and homologous mycobacterial peptides in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Niegowska

    Full Text Available Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA is a slowly progressing form of immune-mediated diabetes that combines phenotypical features of type 2 diabetes (T2D with the presence of islet cell antigens detected in type 1 diabetes (T1D. Heterogeneous clinical picture have led to the classification of patients based on the levels of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GADA that correlate with clinical phenotypes closer to T1D or T2D when GADA titers are high or low, respectively. To date, LADA etiology remains elusive despite numerous studies investigating on genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at evaluation of a putative role played by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP as an infective agent in LADA pathogenesis. MAP is known to cause chronic enteritis in ruminants and has been associated with autoimmune disorders in humans. We analyzed seroreactivity of 223 Sardinian LADA subjects and 182 healthy volunteers against MAP-derived peptides and their human homologs of proinsulin and zinc transporter 8 protein. A significantly elevated positivity for MAP/proinsulin was detected among patients, with the highest prevalence in the 32-41-year-old T1D-like LADA subgroup, supporting our hypothesis of a possible MAP contribution in the development of autoimmunity.

  6. Structural and functional studies of a 50 kDa antigenic protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Yee Siew; Lim, Theam Soon; Chew, Ai Lan; Aziah, Ismail; Ismail, Asma

    2011-04-01

    The high typhoid incidence rate in developing and under-developed countries emphasizes the need for a rapid, affordable and accessible diagnostic test for effective therapy and disease management. TYPHIDOT®, a rapid dot enzyme immunoassay test for typhoid, was developed from the discovery of a ∼50 kDa protein specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. However, the structure of this antigen remains unknown till today. Studies on the structure of this antigen are important to elucidate its function, which will in turn increase the efficiency of the development and improvement of the typhoid detection test. This paper described the predictive structure and function of the antigenically specific protein. The homology modeling approach was employed to construct the three-dimensional structure of the antigen. The built structure possesses the features of TolC-like outer membrane protein. Molecular docking simulation was also performed to further probe the functionality of the antigen. Docking results showed that hexamminecobalt, Co(NH(3))(6)(3+), as an inhibitor of TolC protein, formed favorable hydrogen bonds with D368 and D371 of the antigen. The single point (D368A, D371A) and double point (D368A and D371A) mutations of the antigen showed a decrease (single point mutation) and loss (double point mutations) of binding affinity towards hexamminecobalt. The architecture features of the built model and the docking simulation reinforced and supported that this antigen is indeed the variant of outer membrane protein, TolC. As channel proteins are important for the virulence and survival of bacteria, therefore this ∼50 kDa channel protein is a good specific target for typhoid detection test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccinomics Approach to the Identification of Candidate Protective Antigens for the Control of Tick Vector Infestations and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Contreras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, tick-borne fever (TBF in small ruminants, and other forms of anaplasmosis in different domestic and wild animals. The main vectors of this pathogen are Ixodes tick species, particularly I. scapularis in the United States and I. ricinus in Europe. One of the main limitations for the development of effective vaccines for the prevention and control of A. phagocytophilum infection and transmission is the identification of effective tick protective antigens. The objective of this study was to apply a vaccinomics approach to I. scapularis-A. phagocytophilum interactions for the identification and characterization of candidate tick protective antigens for the control of vector infestations and A. phagocytophilum infection. The vaccinomics pipeline included the use of quantitative transcriptomics and proteomics data from uninfected and A. phagocytophilum-infected I. scapularis ticks for the selection of candidate protective antigens based on the variation in tick mRNA and protein levels in response to infection, their putative biological function, and the effect of antibodies against these proteins on tick cell apoptosis and pathogen infection. The characterization of selected candidate tick protective antigens included the identification and characterization of I. ricinus homologs, functional characterization by different methodologies including RNA interference, immunofluorescence, gene expression profiling, and artificial tick feeding on rabbit antibodies against the recombinant antigens to select the candidates for vaccination trials. The vaccinomics pipeline developed in this study resulted in the identification of two candidate tick protective antigens that could be selected for future vaccination trials. The results showed that I. scapularis lipocalin (ISCW005600 and lectin pathway inhibitor (AAY66632 and I. ricinus homologs constitute

  8. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination

  9. Radioimmunoassay for a human prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer

  10. Immunoassay of poliovirus antigens by single-radial-diffusion: development and characteristics of a sensitive autoradiographic zone size enhancement (ZE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, G.C.; Wood, J.M.; Minor, P.D.; Dandawate, C.N.; Magrath, D.I.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of polioviruses in single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) tests were investigated with a view to developing accurate and sensitive antigen assay systems. In direct SRD tests, the reactions were type-specific for polioviruses of types 1, 2 and 3 but the tests were of low sensitivity, being applicable only to the assay of virus concentrates. A novel autoradiographic zone size enhancement (ZE) test was developed which increased the sensitivity of the SRD assay 40-to 100-fold. The ZE test was dependent upon the ability of unlabelled poliovirus to co-migrate with the radioactive marker virus and so enhance the zone size detected autoradiographically. The areas of the autoradiographic zones were directly proportional to the concentration of unlabelled antigen. The ZE test was capable of detecting poliovirus D antigens in amounts corresponding to 10sup(3.3) to 10sup(4.3) TCID 50 of infectious virus. Studies with poliovirus type 3 strains indicated that the ZE test was narrowly strain-specific for the D-antigen of poliovirus type 3 strains when homologous type 3 D-antigen was used as radioactive marker, but broadly cross-reactive for the D-antigen of type 3 viruses when heterologous poliovirus type 3 D-antigen was used as marker. (author)

  11. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp and distinct bands of three antigens have been found in double immunodiffusion using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit indicating the presence of specific antibody against each antigen. All three antigens have shown major and minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 15 to 110 kDa during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: The antigenic cross-reactivity was thought to result from shared antigens. The existence of paracloacal papillae found in the anterior part of the male was not a unique feature for species differentiation.

  12. Interactions among Trypanosoma brucei RAD51 paralogues in DNA repair and antigenic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Rachel; Stockdale, Christopher; Lapsley, Craig; Wilkes, Jonathan; McCulloch, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination in Trypanosoma brucei is used for moving variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes into expression sites during immune evasion by antigenic variation. A major route for such VSG switching is gene conversion reactions in which RAD51, a universally conserved recombinase, catalyses homology-directed strand exchange. In any eukaryote, RAD51-directed strand exchange in vivo is mediated by further factors, including RAD51-related proteins termed Rad51 paralogues. These appear to be ubiquitously conserved, although their detailed roles in recombination remain unclear. In T. brucei, four putative RAD51 paralogue genes have been identified by sequence homology. Here we show that all four RAD51 paralogues act in DNA repair, recombination and RAD51 subnuclear dynamics, though not equivalently, while mutation of only one RAD51 paralogue gene significantly impedes VSG switching. We also show that the T. brucei RAD51 paralogues interact, and that the complexes they form may explain the distinct phenotypes of the mutants as well as observed expression interdependency. Finally, we document the Rad51 paralogues that are encoded by a wide range of protists, demonstrating that the Rad51 paralogue repertoire in T. brucei is unusually large among microbial eukaryotes and that one member of the protein family corresponds with a key, conserved eukaryotic Rad51 paralogue. PMID:21615552

  13. Intersection spaces, spatial homology truncation, and string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Banagl, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Intersection cohomology assigns groups which satisfy a generalized form of Poincaré duality over the rationals to a stratified singular space. The present monograph introduces a method that assigns to certain classes of stratified spaces cell complexes, called intersection spaces, whose ordinary rational homology satisfies generalized Poincaré duality. The cornerstone of the method is a process of spatial homology truncation, whose functoriality properties are analyzed in detail. The material on truncation is autonomous and may be of independent interest to homotopy theorists. The cohomology of intersection spaces is not isomorphic to intersection cohomology and possesses algebraic features such as perversity-internal cup-products and cohomology operations that are not generally available for intersection cohomology. A mirror-symmetric interpretation, as well as applications to string theory concerning massless D-branes arising in type IIB theory during a Calabi-Yau conifold transition, are discussed.

  14. A homology sound-based algorithm for speech signal interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-jiao; Chen, Hou-jin; Li, Ju-peng; Zhang, Zhan-song

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at secure analog speech communication, a homology sound-based algorithm for speech signal interference is proposed in this paper. We first split speech signal into phonetic fragments by a short-term energy method and establish an interference noise cache library with the phonetic fragments. Then we implement the homology sound interference by mixing the randomly selected interferential fragments and the original speech in real time. The computer simulation results indicated that the interference produced by this algorithm has advantages of real time, randomness, and high correlation with the original signal, comparing with the traditional noise interference methods such as white noise interference. After further studies, the proposed algorithm may be readily used in secure speech communication.

  15. The endless tale of non-homologous end-joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Eric; Chen, David J

    2008-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced in cells by ionizing radiation and reactive oxygen species. In addition, they are commonly generated during V(D)J recombination, an essential aspect of the developing immune system. Failure to effectively repair these DSBs can result in chromosome breakage, cell death, onset of cancer, and defects in the immune system of higher vertebrates. Fortunately, all mammalian cells possess two enzymatic pathways that mediate the repair of DSBs: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The NHEJ process utilizes enzymes that capture both ends of the broken DNA molecule, bring them together in a synaptic DNA-protein complex, and finally repair the DNA break. In this review, all the known enzymes that play a role in the NHEJ process are discussed and a working model for the co-operation of these enzymes during DSB repair is presented.

  16. Homology and isomorphism: Bourdieu in conversation with New Institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingyao

    2016-06-01

    Bourdieusian Field Theory (BFT) provided decisive inspiration for the early conceptual formulation of New Institutionalism (NI). This paper attempts to reinvigorate the stalled intellectual dialogue between NI and BFT by comparing NI's concept of isomorphism with BFT's notion of homology. I argue that Bourdieu's understanding of domination-oriented social action, transposable habitus, and a non-linear causality, embodied in his neglected concept of homology, provides an alternative theorization of field-level convergence to New Institutionalism's central idea of institutional isomorphism. To showcase how BFT can be useful for organizational research, I postulate a habitus-informed and field-conditioned theory of transference to enrich NI's spin-off thesis of 'diffusion'. I propose that while NI can benefit from BFT's potential of bringing social structure back into organizational research, BFT can enrich its social analysis by borrowing from NI's elaboration of the symbolic system of organizations. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  17. RTEL1 maintains genomic stability by suppressing homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Louise J; Youds, Jillian L; Ward, Jordan D; McIlwraith, Michael J; O'Neil, Nigel J; Petalcorin, Mark I R; Martin, Julie S; Collis, Spencer J; Cantor, Sharon B; Auclair, Melissa; Tissenbaum, Heidi; West, Stephen C; Rose, Ann M; Boulton, Simon J

    2008-10-17

    Homologous recombination (HR) is an important conserved process for DNA repair and ensures maintenance of genome integrity. Inappropriate HR causes gross chromosomal rearrangements and tumorigenesis in mammals. In yeast, the Srs2 helicase eliminates inappropriate recombination events, but the functional equivalent of Srs2 in higher eukaryotes has been elusive. Here, we identify C. elegans RTEL-1 as a functional analog of Srs2 and describe its vertebrate counterpart, RTEL1, which is required for genome stability and tumor avoidance. We find that rtel-1 mutant worms and RTEL1-depleted human cells share characteristic phenotypes with yeast srs2 mutants: lethality upon deletion of the sgs1/BLM homolog, hyperrecombination, and DNA damage sensitivity. In vitro, purified human RTEL1 antagonizes HR by promoting the disassembly of D loop recombination intermediates in a reaction dependent upon ATP hydrolysis. We propose that loss of HR control after deregulation of RTEL1 may be a critical event that drives genome instability and cancer.

  18. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  19. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  20. MYCN: from oncoprotein to tumor-associated antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, Vito; Morandi, Fabio; Pezzolo, Annalisa; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Prigione, Ignazia

    2012-01-01

    MYCN is a well-known oncogene over-expressed in different human malignancies including neuroblastoma (NB), rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, Wilms’ tumor, and small cell lung cancer. In the case of NB, MYCN amplification is an established biomarker of poor-prognosis. MYCN belongs to a family of transcription factors (the most important of which is C-MYC) that show a high degree of homology. Down-regulation of MYC protein expression leads to tumor regression in animal models, indicating that MYC proteins represent interesting therapeutic targets. Pre-requisites for a candidate tumor-associated antigen (TAA) to be targeted by immunotherapeutic approaches are the following, (i) expression should be tumor-restricted, (ii) the putative TAA should be up-regulated in cancer cells, and (iii) protein should be processed into immunogenic peptides capable of associating to major histocompatibility complex molecules with high affinity. Indeed, the MYCN protein is not expressed in human adult tissues and up-regulated variably in NB cells, and MYCN peptides capable of associating to HLA-A1 or HLA-A2 molecules with high affinity have been identified. Thus the MYCN protein qualifies as putative TAA in NB. Additional issues that determine the feasibility of targeting a putative TAA with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and will be here discussed are the following, (i) the inadequacy of tumor cells per se to act as antigen-presenting cells witnessed, in the case of NB cells, by the low to absent expression of HLA class I molecules, the lack of co-stimulatory molecules and multiple defects in the HLA class I related antigen processing machinery, and (ii) the immune evasion mechanisms operated by cancer cells to fool the host immune system, such as up-regulation of soluble immunosuppressive molecules (e.g., soluble MICA and HLA-G in the case of NB) or generation of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment. A final issue that deserves consideration is the

  1. MYCN: from oncoprotein to tumor-associated antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistoia, Vito; Morandi, Fabio; Pezzolo, Annalisa; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Prigione, Ignazia, E-mail: vitopistoia@ospedale-gaslini.ge.it [Laboratory of Oncology, Translational Research and Laboratory Medicine, G. Gaslini Institute, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    MYCN is a well-known oncogene over-expressed in different human malignancies including neuroblastoma (NB), rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, Wilms’ tumor, and small cell lung cancer. In the case of NB, MYCN amplification is an established biomarker of poor-prognosis. MYCN belongs to a family of transcription factors (the most important of which is C-MYC) that show a high degree of homology. Down-regulation of MYC protein expression leads to tumor regression in animal models, indicating that MYC proteins represent interesting therapeutic targets. Pre-requisites for a candidate tumor-associated antigen (TAA) to be targeted by immunotherapeutic approaches are the following, (i) expression should be tumor-restricted, (ii) the putative TAA should be up-regulated in cancer cells, and (iii) protein should be processed into immunogenic peptides capable of associating to major histocompatibility complex molecules with high affinity. Indeed, the MYCN protein is not expressed in human adult tissues and up-regulated variably in NB cells, and MYCN peptides capable of associating to HLA-A1 or HLA-A2 molecules with high affinity have been identified. Thus the MYCN protein qualifies as putative TAA in NB. Additional issues that determine the feasibility of targeting a putative TAA with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and will be here discussed are the following, (i) the inadequacy of tumor cells per se to act as antigen-presenting cells witnessed, in the case of NB cells, by the low to absent expression of HLA class I molecules, the lack of co-stimulatory molecules and multiple defects in the HLA class I related antigen processing machinery, and (ii) the immune evasion mechanisms operated by cancer cells to fool the host immune system, such as up-regulation of soluble immunosuppressive molecules (e.g., soluble MICA and HLA-G in the case of NB) or generation of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment. A final issue that deserves consideration is the

  2. Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Kelso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

  3. Phenylbutyrate inhibits homologous recombination induced by camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Gitte S; Germann, Susanne M; Westergaard, Tine; Lisby, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Homologous recombination is accompanied by extensive changes to chromatin organization at the site of DNA damage. Some of these changes are mediated through acetylation/deacetylation of histones. Here, we show that recombinational repair of DNA damage induced by the anti-cancer drug camptothecin (CPT) and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is blocked by sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, PBA suppresses CPT- and MMS-induced genetic recombination as well as DNA double-strand break repair during mating-type interconversion. Treatment with PBA is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in histone H4 lysine 8 acetylation. Live cell imaging of homologous recombination proteins indicates that repair of CPT-induced DNA damage is redirected to a non-recombinogenic pathway in the presence of PBA without loss in cell viability. In contrast, the suppression of MMS-induced recombination by PBA is accompanied by a dramatic loss in cell viability. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PBA inhibits DNA damage-induced homologous recombination likely by mediating changes in chromatin acetylation. Moreover, the combination of PBA with genotoxic agents can lead to different cell fates depending on the type of DNA damage inflicted. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lenoir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH and Tec homology (TH domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  5. Prefiltering Model for Homology Detection Algorithms on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamosa, Germán; de Pedro, Luis; González, Ivan; Tamames, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Homology detection has evolved over the time from heavy algorithms based on dynamic programming approaches to lightweight alternatives based on different heuristic models. However, the main problem with these algorithms is that they use complex statistical models, which makes it difficult to achieve a relevant speedup and find exact matches with the original results. Thus, their acceleration is essential. The aim of this article was to prefilter a sequence database. To make this work, we have implemented a groundbreaking heuristic model based on NVIDIA's graphics processing units (GPUs) and multicore processors. Depending on the sensitivity settings, this makes it possible to quickly reduce the sequence database by factors between 50% and 95%, while rejecting no significant sequences. Furthermore, this prefiltering application can be used together with multiple homology detection algorithms as a part of a next-generation sequencing system. Extensive performance and accuracy tests have been carried out in the Spanish National Centre for Biotechnology (NCB). The results show that GPU hardware can accelerate the execution times of former homology detection applications, such as National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for Proteins (BLASTP), up to a factor of 4.

  6. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Marc; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael

    2015-10-23

    The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH) and Tec homology (TH) domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  7. Evaluating Recombinant Antigen ROP1 Efficacy in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Keshavarzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite with a relatively broad host range infecting both mammals and birds. Toxoplasma proteins are strong antigens that can begin strong immune reactions, among which Rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1 can be named discharging from rhoptry cell-organ. ROP1 is regarded as a competitor for recombinant vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the cloning and expression of ROP1 Toxoplasma gondii in a cloning vector as well as to create this recombinant antigen in order to be applied for later uses. Methods:Genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii was removed and reproduced by PCR, then the PCR product was cloned into the EcoR1 and BamH1 sites of cloning vector, pUET1, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 plysS strain. Moreover, pcROP1 was sub-cloned into the HindIII and EcoRI sites of the pcDNA3 in order to produce recombining eukaryotic declaration vector. The cloned ROP1 was verified by PCR, limitation enzymes (HindIII and BglΙ digestion and nucleotide sequencing. Then, this recombinant antigen was covered applying IgM and ELISAIgG. Results:The study results demonstrated that a fragment of 757 bp was separated. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the ROP1 cloned in pUET1vector revealed high homology (96% with RH strain Gene Bank Accession (No. M71274. Conclusion:The recombinant ROP1 antigen in an IgM Rec-ELISA test can be replaced with the tachyzoite antigen in IgG and IgM serologic tests.

  8. Cancer Antigen Prioritization: A Road Map to Work in Defining Vaccines Against Specific Targets. A Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel E.; Vázquez, Ana María; Alonso, Daniel F.

    2012-01-01

    The use of anti-idiotype antibodies as vaccines to stimulate antitumor immunity is a very promising pathway in the therapy of cancer. A good body of work in animal tumor models have demonstrated the efficacy of anti-Id vaccines in preventing tumor growth and curing mice with established tumors. A number of monoclonal anti-Id antibodies that mimic different human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed and tested in the clinic, demonstrating interesting. In general terms, the antigen mimicry by anti-Id antibodies has reflected structural homology in the most of the cases, and amino acid sequence homology in a minority of them. The major challenge of immunotherapy using anti-idiotype vaccines is to identify the optimal anti-idiotype antibody that will function as a true surrogate antigen for a TAA system, and ideally will generate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Several clinical studies have shown enhanced patient's survival when receiving anti-Id vaccines, the true demonstration of efficacy of these vaccines will depend upon the results of several randomized Phase III clinical trials that are currently planned or ongoing (Bhattacharya-Chatterjee et al.,).

  9. Cancer Antigen Prioritization: A Road Map to Work in Defining Vaccines Against Specific Targets. A Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel E. [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Quilmes National University, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vázquez, Ana María [Center of Molecular Immunology, La Habana (Cuba); Alonso, Daniel F., E-mail: degomez@unq.edu.ar [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Quilmes National University, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-28

    The use of anti-idiotype antibodies as vaccines to stimulate antitumor immunity is a very promising pathway in the therapy of cancer. A good body of work in animal tumor models have demonstrated the efficacy of anti-Id vaccines in preventing tumor growth and curing mice with established tumors. A number of monoclonal anti-Id antibodies that mimic different human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed and tested in the clinic, demonstrating interesting. In general terms, the antigen mimicry by anti-Id antibodies has reflected structural homology in the most of the cases, and amino acid sequence homology in a minority of them. The major challenge of immunotherapy using anti-idiotype vaccines is to identify the optimal anti-idiotype antibody that will function as a true surrogate antigen for a TAA system, and ideally will generate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Several clinical studies have shown enhanced patient's survival when receiving anti-Id vaccines, the true demonstration of efficacy of these vaccines will depend upon the results of several randomized Phase III clinical trials that are currently planned or ongoing (Bhattacharya-Chatterjee et al.,).

  10. Computational elucidation of potential antigenic CTL epitopes in Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikhit, Manas R; Kumar, Santosh; Vijaymahantesh; Sahoo, Bikash R; Mansuri, Rani; Amit, Ajay; Yousuf Ansari, Md; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Bimal, Sanjiva; Das, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is important for the control of Ebola virus infection. We hypothesized that those HLA A0201 and HLA B40 restricted epitopes derived from Ebola virus proteins, would mount a good antigenic response. Here we employed an immunoinformatics approach to identify specific 9mer amino acid which may be capable of inducing a robust cell-mediated immune response in humans. We identified a set of 28 epitopes that had no homologs in humans. Specifically, the epitopes derived from NP, RdRp, GP and VP40 share population coverage of 93.40%, 84.15%, 74.94% and 77.12%, respectively. Based on the other HLA binding specificity and population coverage, seven novel promiscuous epitopes were identified. These 7 promiscuous epitopes from NP, RdRp and GP were found to have world-wide population coverage of more than 95% indicating their potential significance as useful candidates for vaccine design. Epitope conservancy analysis also suggested that most of the peptides are highly conserved (100%) in other virulent Ebola strain (Mayinga-76, Kikwit-95 and Makona-G3816- 2014) and can therefore be further investigated for their immunological relevance and usefulness as vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stem cell antigen-1 in skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Harold S; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-08-15

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1 in normal, post-natal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. We systematically compared Sca-1-/- (KO) and Sca-1+/+ (WT) mice and hindlimb muscles to elucidate the tissue, contractile, and functional effects of Sca-1 in young and aging animals. Comparison of muscle volume, fibrosis, myofiber cross-sectional area, and Pax7+ myoblast number showed little differences between ages or genotypes. Exercise protocols, however, demonstrated decreased stamina in KO versus WT mice, with young KO mice achieving results similar to aging WT animals. In addition, KO mice did not improve with practice, while WT animals demonstrated conditioning over time. Surprisingly, myomechanical analysis of isolated muscles showed that KO young muscle generated more force and experienced less fatigue. However, KO muscle also demonstrated incomplete relaxation with fatigue. These findings suggest that Sca-1 is necessary for muscle conditioning with exercise, and that deficient conditioning in Sca-1 KO animals becomes more pronounced with age.

  12. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  13. Genetic selection and DNA sequences of 4.5S RNA homologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Thon, G; Tolentino, E

    1989-01-01

    A general strategy for cloning the functional homologs of an Escherichia coli gene was used to clone homologs of 4.5S RNA from other bacteria. The genes encoding these homologs were selected by their ability to complement a deletion of the gene for 4.5S RNA. DNA sequences of the regions encoding...

  14. Posttransplant chimeric antigen receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Zakrzewski, Johannes; James, Scott; Sadelain, Michel

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic T-cell engineering is emerging as a powerful approach to treat refractory hematological malignancies. Its most successful embodiment to date is based on the use of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19, a cell surface molecule found in most B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Remarkable complete remissions have been obtained with autologous T cells expressing CD19 CARs in patients with relapsed, chemo-refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Allogeneic CAR T cells may also be harnessed to treat relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the use of donor T cells poses unique challenges owing to potential alloreactivity. We review different approaches to mitigate the risk of causing or aggravating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including CAR therapies based on donor leukocyte infusion, virus-specific T cells, T-cell receptor-deficient T cells, lymphoid progenitor cells, and regulatory T cells. Advances in CAR design, T-cell selection and gene editing are poised to enable the safe use of allogeneic CAR T cells without incurring GVHD. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  16. Animal Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels appear to be homologous to and derived from the ubiquitous cation diffusion facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Dorjee G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen stimulation of immune cells triggers Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels, promoting an immune response to pathogens. Defects in a CRAC (Orai channel in humans gives rise to the hereditary Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID syndrome. We here report results that define the evolutionary relationship of the CRAC channel proteins of animals, and the ubiquitous Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF carrier proteins. Findings CDF antiporters derived from a primordial 2 transmembrane spanner (TMS hairpin structure by intragenic triplication to yield 6 TMS proteins. Four programs (IC/GAP, GGSEARCH, HMMER and SAM were evaluated for identifying sequence similarity and establishing homology using statistical means. Overall, the order of sensitivity (similarity detection was IC/GAP = GGSEARCH > HMMER > SAM, but the use of all four programs was superior to the use of any two or three of them. Members of the CDF family appeared to be homologous to members of the 4 TMS Orai channel proteins. Conclusions CRAC channels derived from CDF carriers by loss of the first two TMSs of the latter. Based on statistical analyses with multiple programs, TMSs 3-6 in CDF carriers are homologous to TMSs 1-4 in CRAC channels, and the former was the precursor of the latter. This is an unusual example of how a functionally and structurally more complex protein may have predated a simpler one.

  17. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility

  18. Neisseria meningitidis antigen NMB0088: sequence variability, protein topology and vaccine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Gretel; Yero, Daniel; Climent, Yanet; Caballero, Evelin; Cobas, Karem; Niebla, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    The significance of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B membrane proteins as vaccine candidates is continually growing. Here, we studied different aspects of antigen NMB0088, a protein that is abundant in outer-membrane vesicle preparations and is thought to be a surface protein. The gene encoding protein NMB0088 was sequenced in a panel of 34 different meningococcal strains with clinical and epidemiological relevance. After this analysis, four variants of NMB0088 were identified; the variability was confined to three specific segments, designated VR1, VR2 and VR3. Secondary structure predictions, refined with alignment analysis and homology modelling using FadL of Escherichia coli, revealed that almost all the variable regions were located in extracellular loop domains. In addition, the NMB0088 antigen was expressed in E. coli and a procedure for obtaining purified recombinant NMB0088 is described. The humoral immune response elicited in BALB/c mice was measured by ELISA and Western blotting, while the functional activity of these antibodies was determined in a serum bactericidal assay and an animal protection model. After immunization in mice, the recombinant protein was capable of inducing a protective response when it was administered inserted into liposomes. According to our results, the recombinant NMB0088 protein may represent a novel antigen for a vaccine against meningococcal disease. However, results from the variability study should be considered for designing a cross-protective formulation in future studies.

  19. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of crustacean proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Re Vega, Enrique de la; De la Mora, Eugenio; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Litopenaeus vannamei was recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were obtained and processed to 3 Å. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3 Å, β = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3 Å resolution, with an overall R meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen

  20. p53 regulates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by both homologous and non-homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, H.; Powell, S.N.; Dahm-Daphi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: p53 is known to suppress spontaneous homologous recombination (HR), while its role in non-homologous recombination (NHR) remains to be clarified. Here, we sought to determine the influence of p53 on the repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by HR or NHR using specially designed recombination substrates that integrate into the genome. Isogenic mouse fibroblast pairs with or without expression of exogenous p53 protein were utilized. A reporter plasmid carrying a mutated XGPRT gene was chromosomally integrated and DSBs were generated within the plasmid by the I-SceI endonuclease. Subsequent homology-mediated repair from an episomal donor resulted in XGPRT reconstitution and cellular resistance to a selection antibiotic. Analogously, the repair of chromosomal I-SceI breaks by NHR using another novel reporter plasmid restored XGPRT translation. For p53-null cells, the mean frequency of I-SceI break repair via HR was 5.5 x 10 -4 . The p53-Val135 mutant, which previously has been shown to suppress spontaneous HR by 14-fold employing the same cell system and reporter gene, only caused a 2- to 3-fold suppression of break-induced HR. In contrast, a dramatic effect of p53 on repair via NHR was found. Preliminary sequence analysis indicated that there was at least a 1000-fold reduction of illegitimate repair events resulting in loss of sequence at the break sites. The observed effects were mediated by p53 mutants defective in regulation of the cell-cycle and apoptosis. The main findings were: (1) p53 virtually blocked illegitimate rejoining of chromosomal ends. (2) The suppression of homologous DSB repair was less pronounced than the inhibition of spontaneous HR. We hypothesize that p53 allows to a certain extent error-free homology-dependent repair to proceed, while blocking error-prone NHR. The data support and extent a previous model, in which p53 maintains genomic stability by regulating recombination independently of its transactivation function

  1. Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy León

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisticercosis (NCC. Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis.

  2. Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiwari, Raj

    1999-01-01

    .... We proposed to identify these novel antigens in an experimental rat model using purified preparations of the heat shock protein gp96 and a library of synthetic distinct antibodies that were available...

  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  4. Vaccination with Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Neuraminidase Protects against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza Virus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Alaina J; Gabbard, Jon D; Li, Zhuo; Dlugolenski, Daniel A; Johnson, Scott K; Tripp, Ralph A; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses along with other emerging influenza viruses continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enable the evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure. The neuraminidase (NA) surface glycoprotein, while diverse, has a conserved enzymatic site and presents an appealing target for priming broadly effective antibody responses. Here we show that vaccination with parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a promising live viral vector expressing NA from avian (H5N1) or pandemic (H1N1) influenza virus, elicited NA-specific antibody and T cell responses, which conferred protection against homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. Vaccination with PIV5-N1 NA provided cross-protection against challenge with a heterosubtypic (H3N2) virus. Experiments using antibody transfer indicate that antibodies to NA have an important role in protection. These findings indicate that PIV5 expressing NA may be effective as a broadly protective vaccine against seasonal influenza and emerging pandemic threats. IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality annually, while emerging viruses pose potential pandemic threats. Currently licensed influenza virus vaccines rely on the antigenic match of hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine strain selection, and most vaccines rely on HA inhibition titers to determine efficacy, despite the growing

  5. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  6. The colocalization transition of homologous chromosomes at meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemi, Mario; Panning, Barbara; Prisco, Antonella

    2008-06-01

    Meiosis is the specialized cell division required in sexual reproduction. During its early stages, in the mother cell nucleus, homologous chromosomes recognize each other and colocalize in a crucial step that remains one of the most mysterious of meiosis. Starting from recent discoveries on the system molecular components and interactions, we discuss a statistical mechanics model of chromosome early pairing. Binding molecules mediate long-distance interaction of special DNA recognition sequences and, if their concentration exceeds a critical threshold, they induce a spontaneous colocalization transition of chromosomes, otherwise independently diffusing.

  7. Homology and cohomology of a class of polycyclic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1984-11-01

    The homology and the cohomology of the class of polycyclic groups G given by generators h 1 , h 2 ,..., hsub(n+1) and relations h 2 -1 h 1 h 2 =h 1 sup(m 1 ),h 3 -1 h 2 h 3 =h 2 sup(m 2 ),..., hsub(n+1) -1 hsub(n) hsub(n+1)=hsub(n)sup(msub(n)) are determined through the construction of a suitable free ZG resolution for the trivial ZG module Z. (author)

  8. Experiments with a homologous, inactivated canine parvovirus vaccine in vaccination programmers for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J H; Hermann-Dekkers, W M

    1982-01-01

    The significance of canine parvovirus (CPV) infections as a permanent threat susceptible dogs, in particular pups, made the authors develop three liquid homologous inactivated adjuvant CPV vaccines that were compatible with existing canine vaccines and could be incorporated in current vaccination programmes. On vaccine (Kavak Parvo) contained only the CPV component, the second product (Kavak i-LP) also contained two inactivated leptospiral antigens, and the third vaccine (Kavak i-HLP) contained in addition an inactivated canine hepatitis virus. This paper reports on the studies conducted to test the safety and efficacy of the three products. They were used as such and as diluents for freeze dried vaccines containing live attenuated measles, distemper, and hepatitis viruses. The study was performed in a breeding kennel where all dogs were free from CPV antibodies and the nonvaccinated sentinels remained so for the course of the study. All vaccines proved to be safe in dogs of all ages, including pregnant bitches. The efficacy of the CPV component was studied both by monitoring antibody titres for more than a year and by challenge exposure of some dogs to virulent CPV. The results obtained from these studies prove that the CPV component used in the three vaccines can be incorporated as indicated in the recommended canine vaccination programmes. The observations that the inactivated CPV and hepatitis components do induce an active immunity in pups that are still protected by low levels of maternally derived antibodies against these viruses, make those vaccines very suitable in breeding kennels. Additional studies on a comparative basis are being continued in edemically CPV infected breeding kennels to quantify the significance of these observations in these special conditions.

  9. Phage display used for gene cloning of human recombinant antibody against the erythrocyte surface antigen, rhesus D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, M; Nielsen, L K; Andersen, P S

    1995-01-01

    A novel phage display system has been developed for PCR amplification and cloning of the Fab fragments of human immunoglobulin genes. Using this system, we have cloned an antibody from a mouse-human hybridoma cell line directed against the erythrocyte antigen rhesus D. Intact erythrocytes were used...... for absorption of the Fab phages. Soluble Fab fragments produced from the cloned material showed identical performance to the parental antibody in agglutination assays. Gel filtration confirmed that the Fab fragment consists of a kappa-Fd heterodimer. The successful use of intact cells for selection of specific...... Fab phages demonstrates that it is possible to by-pass purification of the antigen of interest. Comparison with published germline sequences demonstrated that the immunoglobulin coding regions had the highest homology to the VH 1.9III and V kappa Hum kappa v325 germline genes, respectively....

  10. Crystal structure of a TAPBPR–MHC I complex reveals the mechanism of peptide editing in antigen presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiansheng; Natarajan, Kannan; Boyd, Lisa F.; Morozov, Giora I.; Mage, Michael G.; Margulies, David H. (NIH); (Hebrew)

    2017-10-12

    Central to CD8+ T cell–mediated immunity is the recognition of peptide–major histocompatibility complex class I (p–MHC I) proteins displayed by antigen-presenting cells. Chaperone-mediated loading of high-affinity peptides onto MHC I is a key step in the MHC I antigen presentation pathway. However, the structure of MHC I with a chaperone that facilitates peptide loading has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of MHC I in complex with the peptide editor TAPBPR (TAP-binding protein–related), a tapasin homolog. TAPBPR remodels the peptide-binding groove of MHC I, resulting in the release of low-affinity peptide. Changes include groove relaxation, modifications of key binding pockets, and domain adjustments. This structure captures a peptide-receptive state of MHC I and provides insights into the mechanism of peptide editing by TAPBPR and, by analogy, tapasin.

  11. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  12. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  13. Impact of homologous recombination on individual cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Kerstin; Wrona, Agnieszka; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Borgmann, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Individual radiosensitivity as measured with in vitro irradiated lymphocytes using metaphase analysis can predict the risk of normal tissue effects after radiotherapy. This parameter is considered to be primarily determined by the cellular repair capacity of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). It is now tested to which extent this capacity also depends on homologous recombination (HR), which is a pathway available when cells are in S/G2 phase. Methods: Experiments were performed with CHO K1 cells, in which HR was suppressed via knock-down of RAD51 using RNA interference (RNAi). RAD51 was measured via western and foci formation, cell survival by colony forming, DSBs by γH2AX foci formation, and chromosomal damage using PCC, G0 or G2 assay. Results: In quiescent G1 cells DSB repair is completed 6 h after irradiation. But there is still a substantial fraction of non-repaired DSBs. Most of these DSBs are repaired when G1 cells are stimulated into cell cycle. Suppression of HR by down-regulation of RAD51 did not affect this repair. In contrast, repair was inhibited when cells were irradiated in late S/G2. In line with these data down-regulation of HR did affect survival of cells irradiated in late S/G2, but not in G1. Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity as measured for G0/1 cells using metaphase analysis does not depend on homologous recombination

  14. On discrete symmetries and torsion homology in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, Christoph [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,München (Germany); Palti, Eran; Till, Oskar; Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-06-04

    We study the relation between discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory compactifications and torsion homology on the associated Calabi-Yau manifold. Focusing on the simplest example of a ℤ{sub 2} symmetry, we show that there are two physically distinct ways that such a discrete gauge symmetry can arise. First, compactifications of M-Theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds which support a genus-one fibration with a bi-section are known to be dual to six-dimensional F-theory vacua with a ℤ{sub 2} gauge symmetry. We show that the resulting five-dimensional theories do not have a ℤ{sub 2} symmetry but that the latter emerges only in the F-theory decompactification limit. Accordingly the genus-one fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds do not exhibit torsion in homology. Associated to the bi-section fibration is a Jacobian fibration which does support a section. Compactifying on these related but distinct varieties does lead to a ℤ{sub 2} symmetry in five dimensions and, accordingly, we find explicitly an associated torsion cycle. We identify the expected particle and membrane system of the discrete symmetry in terms of wrapped M2 and M5 branes and present a field-theory description of the physics for both cases in terms of circle reductions of six-dimensional theories. Our results and methods generalise straightforwardly to larger discrete symmetries and to four-dimensional compactifications.

  15. Structural analysis of zwitterionic liquids vs. homologous ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Boning; Kuroda, Kosuke; Takahashi, Kenji; Castner, Edward W.

    2018-05-01

    Zwitterionic liquids (Zw-ILs) have been developed that are homologous to monovalent ionic liquids (ILs) and show great promise for controlled dissolution of cellulosic biomass. Using both high energy X-ray scattering and atomistic molecular simulations, this article compares the bulk liquid structural properties for novel Zw-ILs with their homologous ILs. It is shown that the significant localization of the charges on Zw-ILs leads to charge ordering similar to that observed for conventional ionic liquids with monovalent anions and cations. A low-intensity first sharp diffraction peak in the liquid structure factor S(q) is observed for both the Zw-IL and the IL. This is unexpected since both the Zw-IL and IL have a 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl (diether) functional group on the cationic imidazolium ring and ether functional groups are known to suppress this peak. Detailed analyses show that this intermediate range order in the liquid structure arises for slightly different reasons in the Zw-IL vs. the IL. For the Zw-IL, the ether tails in the liquid are shown to aggregate into nanoscale domains.

  16. Gimeracil sensitizes cells to radiation via inhibition of homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Masaru; Sakata, Koh-ichi; Someya, Masanori; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Iijima, Kenta; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Akari; Hareyama, Masato; Fukushima, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: 5-Chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (Gimeracil) is a component of an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1. Gimeracil is originally added to S-1 to yield prolonged 5-FU concentrations in tumor tissues by inhibiting dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, which degrades 5-FU. We found that Gimeracil by itself had the radiosensitizing effect. Methods and materials: We used various cell lines deficient in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) as well as DLD-1 and HeLa in clonogenic assay. γ-H2AX focus formation and SCneo assay was performed to examine the effects of Gimeracil on DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms. Results: Results of γ-H2AX focus assay indicated that Gimeracil inhibited DNA DSB repair. It did not sensitize cells deficient in HR but sensitized those deficient in NHEJ. In SCneo assay, Gimeracil reduced the frequency of neo-positive clones. Additionally, it sensitized the cells in S-phase more than in G0/G1. Conclusions: Gimeracil inhibits HR. Because HR plays key roles in the repair of DSBH caused by radiotherapy, Gimeracil may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy through the suppression of HR-mediated DNA repair pathways.

  17. Protein homology model refinement by large-scale energy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Kim, David E; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2018-03-20

    Proteins fold to their lowest free-energy structures, and hence the most straightforward way to increase the accuracy of a partially incorrect protein structure model is to search for the lowest-energy nearby structure. This direct approach has met with little success for two reasons: first, energy function inaccuracies can lead to false energy minima, resulting in model degradation rather than improvement; and second, even with an accurate energy function, the search problem is formidable because the energy only drops considerably in the immediate vicinity of the global minimum, and there are a very large number of degrees of freedom. Here we describe a large-scale energy optimization-based refinement method that incorporates advances in both search and energy function accuracy that can substantially improve the accuracy of low-resolution homology models. The method refined low-resolution homology models into correct folds for 50 of 84 diverse protein families and generated improved models in recent blind structure prediction experiments. Analyses of the basis for these improvements reveal contributions from both the improvements in conformational sampling techniques and the energy function.

  18. In silico analysis of candidate proteins sharing homology with Streptococcus agalactiae proteins and their role in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Rajeshwari; Samanta, Luna

    2017-02-01

    Leukocytospermia is a physiologic condition defined as human semen with a leukocyte count of >1 x 10 6 cells/ml that is often correlated with male infertility. Moreover, bacteriospermia has been associated with leukocytospermia ultimately leading to male infertility. We have found that semen samples with >1 x 10 6 /ml leukocytes and/or bacteriospermia have oxidative predominance as evidenced by augmented protein carbonyl and lipid peroxidation status of the semen which is implicated in sperm dysfunction. It has been reported that Streptococcus agalactiae is present in bacteriospermic samples. Previous research has shown that human leukocyte antigen beta chain paralog (HLA-DRB) alleles interact best with the infected sperm cells rather than the non-infected cells. Little is known about the interaction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present on leukocytes with the sperm upon bacterial infection and how it induces an immunological response which we have addressed by epitope mapping. Therefore, we examined MHC class II derived bacterial peptides which might have human sperm-related functional aspects. Twenty-two S. agalactiae proteins were obtained from PUBMED protein database for our study. Protein sequences with more than two accession numbers were aligned using CLUSTAL Omega to check their conservation pattern. Each protein sequence was then analyzed for T-cell epitope prediction against HLA-DRB alleles using the immune epitope database (IEDB) analysis tool. Out of a plethora of peptides obtained from this analysis, peptides corresponding to proteins of interest such as DNA binding response regulator, hyaluronate lyase and laminin binding protein were screened against the human proteome using Blastp. Interestingly, we have found bacterial peptides sharing homology with human peptides deciphering some of the important sperm functions. Antibodies raised against these probable bacterial antigens of fertility will not only help us understand the mechanism of

  19. HOMOLOGY MODELING AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS UREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. M. tuberculosis urease (MTU is an attractive target for chemotherapeutic intervention in tuberculosis by designing new safe and efficient enzyme inhibitors. A prerequisite for designing such inhibitors is an understanding of urease's three-dimensional (3D structure organization. 3D structure of M. tuberculosis urease is unknown. When experimental three-dimensional structure of a protein is not known, homology modeling, the most commonly used computational structure prediction method, is the technique of choice. This paper aimed to build a 3D-structure of M. tuberculosis urease by homology modeling and to study its stability by molecular dynamics simulations. Materials and methods. To build MTU model, five high-resolution X-ray structures of bacterial ureases with three-subunit composition (2KAU, 5G4H, 4UBP, 4СEU, and 4EPB have been selected as templates. For each template five stochastic alignments were created and for each alignment, a three-dimensional model was built. Then, each model was energy minimized and the models were ranked by quality Z-score. The MTU model with highest quality estimation amongst 25 potential models was selected. To further improve structure quality the model was refined by short molecular dynamics simulation that resulted in 20 snapshots which were rated according to their energy and the quality Z-score. The best scoring model having minimum energy was chosen as a final homology model of 3D structure for M. tuberculosis. The final model of MTU was also validated by using PDBsum and QMEAN servers. These checks confirmed good quality of MTU homology model. Results and discussion. Homology model of MTU is a nonamer (homotrimer of heterotrimers, (αβγ3 consisting of 2349 residues. In MTU heterotrimer, sub-units α, β, and γ tightly interact with each other at a surface of approximately 3000 Å2. Sub-unit α contains the enzyme active site with two Ni atoms coordinated by amino acid residues His347, His

  20. Antigen Cross-Presentation of Immune Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α+ DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8− DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets. PMID:24744762

  1. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patra; Seikh Sahanawaz Alam; Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur; Hridayesh Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp...

  2. Development of a T7 Phage Display Library to Detect Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis by a Panel of Novel Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvinder Talwar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease, diagnosed through tissue biopsy of involved organs in the absence of other causes such as tuberculosis (TB. No specific serologic test is available to diagnose and differentiate sarcoidosis from TB. Using a high throughput method, we developed a T7 phage display cDNA library derived from mRNA isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells and leukocytes of sarcoidosis patients. This complex cDNA library was biopanned to obtain 1152 potential sarcoidosis antigens and a microarray was constructed to immunoscreen two different sets of sera from healthy controls and sarcoidosis. Meta-analysis identified 259 discriminating sarcoidosis antigens, and multivariate analysis identified 32 antigens with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83% to classify sarcoidosis from healthy controls. Additionally, interrogating the same microarray platform with sera from subjects with TB, we identified 50 clones that distinguish between TB, sarcoidosis and healthy controls. The top 10 sarcoidosis and TB specific clones were sequenced and homologies were searched in the public database revealing unique epitopes and mimotopes in each group. Here, we show for the first time that immunoscreenings of a library derived from sarcoidosis tissue differentiates between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis antigens. These novel biomarkers can improve diagnosis of sarcoidosis and TB, and may aid to develop or evaluate a TB vaccine.

  3. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining repair pathways in bovine embryos with different developmental competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrique Barreta, Marcos; Garziera Gasperin, Bernardo; Braga Rissi, Vitor; Cesaro, Matheus Pedrotti de; Ferreira, Rogério; Oliveira, João Francisco de; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes controlling homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathways in bovine embryos of different developmental potential. It also evaluated whether bovine embryos can respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced with ultraviolet irradiation by regulating expression of genes involved in HR and NHEJ repair pathways. Embryos with high, intermediate or low developmental competence were selected based on the cleavage time after in vitro insemination and were removed from in vitro culture before (36 h), during (72 h) and after (96 h) the expected period of embryonic genome activation. All studied genes were expressed before, during and after the genome activation period regardless the developmental competence of the embryos. Higher mRNA expression of 53BP1 and RAD52 was found before genome activation in embryos with low developmental competence. Expression of 53BP1, RAD51 and KU70 was downregulated at 72 h and upregulated at 168 h post-insemination in response to DSBs induced by ultraviolet irradiation. In conclusion, important genes controlling HR and NHEJ DNA-repair pathways are expressed in bovine embryos, however genes participating in these pathways are only regulated after the period of embryo genome activation in response to ultraviolet-induced DSBs.

  4. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining repair pathways in bovine embryos with different developmental competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrique Barreta, Marcos [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario de Curitibanos, Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garziera Gasperin, Bernardo; Braga Rissi, Vitor; Cesaro, Matheus Pedrotti de [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogerio [Centro de Educacao Superior do Oeste-Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Chapeco, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Joao Francisco de; Goncalves, Paulo Bayard Dias [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Reproducao Animal-BioRep, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bordignon, Vilceu, E-mail: vilceu.bordignon@mcgill.ca [Department of Animal Science, McGill University, Ste-Anne-De-Bellevue, QC (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes controlling homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathways in bovine embryos of different developmental potential. It also evaluated whether bovine embryos can respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced with ultraviolet irradiation by regulating expression of genes involved in HR and NHEJ repair pathways. Embryos with high, intermediate or low developmental competence were selected based on the cleavage time after in vitro insemination and were removed from in vitro culture before (36 h), during (72 h) and after (96 h) the expected period of embryonic genome activation. All studied genes were expressed before, during and after the genome activation period regardless the developmental competence of the embryos. Higher mRNA expression of 53BP1 and RAD52 was found before genome activation in embryos with low developmental competence. Expression of 53BP1, RAD51 and KU70 was downregulated at 72 h and upregulated at 168 h post-insemination in response to DSBs induced by ultraviolet irradiation. In conclusion, important genes controlling HR and NHEJ DNA-repair pathways are expressed in bovine embryos, however genes participating in these pathways are only regulated after the period of embryo genome activation in response to ultraviolet-induced DSBs.

  5. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  6. Human Tumor Antigens Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J

    2017-05-01

    The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding YES. Most were identified through spontaneous antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses found in cancer patients and include peptides, glycopeptides, phosphopeptides, viral peptides, and peptides resulting from common mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, or common gene fusion events. Many have been extensively tested as candidates for anticancer vaccines. More recently, attention has been focused on the potentially large number of unique tumor antigens, mutated neoantigens, that are the predicted products of the numerous mutations revealed by exome sequencing of primary tumors. Only a few have been confirmed as targets of spontaneous immunity and immunosurveillance, and even fewer have been tested in preclinical and clinical settings. The field has been divided for a long time on the relative importance of shared versus mutated antigens in tumor surveillance and as candidates for vaccines. This question will eventually need to be answered in a head to head comparison in well-designed clinical trials. One advantage that shared antigens have over mutated antigens is their potential to be used in vaccines for primary cancer prevention. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(5); 347-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun

    1978-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  8. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  9. Cloning and Expression of HSP of Taenia Solium Oncosphere%猪带绦虫六钩蚴 HSP 的克隆和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 赵权

    2013-01-01

      The HSP gene was separately amplified from total RNA of activated Taenia solium oncosphere by RT -PCR.The PCR products were cloned into pGH vector,recombinant positive clones was sequenced after restriction enzyme digestion.The HSP gene was subcloned into pET28a expression vector,the recombinant pET28a-HSP infected into E.coliBL21.IPTG was added to induce fusion expression and the expression products was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot.One fusion protein band about 35 kDa was identified by SDS -PAGE after inducible expression after inducible expression,The result would lay foundations for the mechanism of invasion of between oncosphere and host,and the design of new vaccine anti-porcine cysticercosis and taeniasis.%  提取猪带绦虫激活和未激活六钩蚴总 RNA,RT-PCR 扩增 HSP 目的基因,将目的基因与 pGH 克隆载体连接,经酶切鉴定后,将阳性重组质粒进行测序,结果扩增出激活的六钩蚴的目的片段。将目的基因亚克隆到原核表达载体 pET-28a-HSP中,并将获得的 pET28a-HSP 阳性重组子转化至宿主菌 E.coliBL21,IPTG 进行诱导表达,并对重组抗原 pET-28a-HSP 进行SDS-PAGE 和 Western-blot 检测。结果表明重组经 SDS-PAGE 分析可见一条约35 kDa 大小的融合蛋白条带的抗原,Western-blot 结果显示其能被囊虫病人阳性血清识别。这将为进一步阐明六钩蚴入侵中间宿主的机理、设计新型抗猪囊虫病和绦虫病疫苗打下基础。

  10. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  11. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of