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Sample records for solids ts volatile

  1. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  2. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  3. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  5. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  6. THE DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF SOLID FUELS BY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    BICA Marin; SOFRONIE Sorin; CERNAIANU Corina Dana

    2014-01-01

    The volatile materials released during the heating of solid fuels ignite at relatively low temperatures releasing heat function of their quantity and quality. This heat raises the temperature of the solid residue creating the conditions for his ignition and burning. In the case of burning of the pulverized coal the phenomenon of production, ignition and burning of volatile materials are studied in different articles.

  7. Process for producing volatile hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-02-03

    In a process for producing volatile hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous solids, a hydrocarbonaceus solid is passed in subdivided state and in the form of a bed downwardly through an externally unheated distilling retort wherein the evolution of volatiles from the bed is effected while solid material comprising combustible heavy residue is discharged from the lower portion of the bed and retort, combustibles are burned from the discharged solid material. The admixture resultant combustion gases with the vapours evolved in the retort is prevented, and a stream of hydrocarbon fluid is heated by indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases produced by burning to a high temperature and is introduced into the distilling retort and direct contact with bed, supplying heat to the latter for effecting the evolution of volatiles from the hydrocarbonaceous solid. The improvement consists of subjecting the volatile distillation products evolved and removed from the bed to a fractionation and separating selected relatively light and heavy hydrocarbon fractions from the distillation products, withdrawing at least one of the selected fractions from the prcess as a product heating at least one other of the selected fractions to high temperature by the indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases, and introducing the thus heated hydrocarbon fraction into direct contact with the bed.

  8. Separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W W

    1915-10-19

    A process is set forth for the separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials, in which the vapors produced from the carbonaceous material at higher temperatures and withdrawn into the separate vapor chamber are led in succession through the lower temperature vapors as continuously to deposit their condensible ingredients in the chamber by the action of the successive cooler vapors.

  9. High-solid Anaerobic Co-digestion of Sewage Sludge and Cattle Manure: The Effects of Volatile Solid Ratio and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Dong; Yi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    High-solid anaerobic digestion is an attractive solution to the problem of sewage sludge disposal. One method that can be used to enhance the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the generation of methane from anaerobic digestion involves combining an alkaline pretreatment step with the synergistic effects of sewage sludge and cattle manure co-digestion, which improves the activity of key enzymes and microorganisms in the anaerobic co-digestion system to promote the digestion of organic waste. In this study, we describe an efficient strategy that involves adjusting the volatile solid (VS) ratio (sewage sludge/cattle manure: 3/7) and initial pH (9.0) to improve VFA production and methane generation from the co-digestion of sludge and manure. The experimental results indicate that the maximum VFA production was 98.33 g/kg-TS (total solid) at the optimal conditions. Furthermore, methane generation in a long-term semi-continuously operated reactor (at a VS ratio of 3/7 and pH of 9.0) was greater than 120.0 L/kg-TS. PMID:27725704

  10. [Influence of liquid or solid culture conditions on the volatile components of mycelia of Isariacateinannulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ruili; Li, Kangle; Hu, Fenglin

    2011-12-01

    To determine the volatile components of mycelia of Isaria cateinannulata cultured under different culture conditions, and to analyze the relationships between the culture conditions and volatile metabolites. Mycelia were cultured in solid plates with SDAY medium and liquid shake flasks with SDY medium. The culture conditions were at 25 degrees C and 8 days. Volatile components in the mycelia of I. cateinannulata were extracted with simultaneous distillation extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Alkenes, alkanes, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were existed abundantly both in the mycelia of liquid and solid cultures, but the kinds and relative concentrations of the volatile components in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were very different. Forty-one compounds were identified from the mycelia of solid culture and 32 compounds were identified from the mycelia of liquid culture. Esters, quinones and oximes were only found in solid cultured mycelia whereas carboxylic acids were only discovered in the mycelia of liquid culture. At the same time, mycelia of liquid culture contained much more phenols. The most abundant compounds in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were hydrocarbons. The volatile extracts of solid cultured mycelia contained 57.6% alkenes and 9.19% alkanes. The volatile extracts of liquid cultured mycelia contained 7.85% alkenes and 22.4% alkanes. Liquid or solid culture conditions influenced the volatile components of mycelia of I. cateinannulata.

  11. Gas-solid alkali destruction of volatile chlorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many chlorocarbons are environmental dangers and health hazards. The simplest perchlorinated hydrocarbon, carbon tetrachloride, is near the top of the list of hazardous compounds. Carbon tetrachloride was used as a cleaning fluid, solvent, and fire-extinguishing agent. The nuclear and defense complexes also employed great quantities of carbon tetrachloride and other chlorocarbons as cleaning and degreasing agents. Many sites nationwide have underground chlorocarbon contamination plumes. Bulk chlorocarbon inventories at many locations await treatment and disposal. Often the problem is compounded by the chlorocarbon being radioactively contaminated. Waste inventory and groundwater contamination problems exist for many other chlorocarbons, especially methylene chloride, chloroform, and tri- and tetrachloroethylene. In this work solid soda lime (a fused mixture of approximately 95% CaO and 5% NaOH in a coarse, granulated form) at 350 C to 400 C acts as the hydrolyzing degradation, and off-gas scrubbing medium. Within soda lime CO 2 and HCl from hydrolysis and degradation convert immediately to calcium and sodium chlorides and carbonates, with water vapor as a volatile byproduct

  12. [GC-MS combined with AMDIS and Kováts retention index to investigate dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Ping; Pan, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Mei-Jun; Luo, Guan-Hua; Liu, You-Ping

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees (from slight stir-baking, stir-baking to yellow, stir-baking to brown, to stir-baking to scorch). In the present experiment, the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples with different stir-baking degrees were collected at different processing time points. The contents of volatile oil in various samples were determined by steam distillation method, and the volatile compounds were extracted by using static headspace sampling method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS) and automated mass spectral deconrolution and identification system (AMDIS) were combined with Kováts retention index to analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile compounds. The results showed that with the deepening of the stir-baking degree, the content of volatile oil was decreased step by step in 4 phases, and both the compositions and contents of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma showed significant changes. The results showed that the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in the process of stir-baking were closely related to the processing degree; in addition, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and honey bran had adsorption on each other. These results can provide a scientific basis for elucidating the stir-baking (with bran) mechanism of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Methodperformance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  14. Micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with MEEKC for quantitative analysis of lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus using molecular sieve TS-1 as a sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Wei, Mengmeng; Wang, Shan; Zheng, Liqiong; He, Zheng; Cao, Jun; Yan, Jizhong

    2017-09-15

    A simple and effective method was developed for determining lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus by using a micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique coupled with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC). Molecular sieve, TS-1, was applied as a solid supporting material in micro MSPD extraction for the first time. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency, such as type of dispersant, mass ratio of the sample to the dispersant, grinding time, elution solvent and volume were optimized. The optimal extraction conditions involve dispersing 25mg of powdered Schisandrae samples with 50mg of TS-1 by a mortar and pestle. A grinding time of 150s was adopted. The blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction cartridge and the target analytes were eluted with 500μL of methanol. Moreover, several parameters affecting MEEKC separation were studied, including the type of oil, SDS concentration, type and concentration of cosurfactant, and concentration of organic modifier. A satisfactory linearity (R>0.9998) was obtained, and the calculated limits of quantitation were less than 2.77μg/mL. Finally, the micro MSPD-MEEKC method was successfully applied to the analysis of lignans in complex Schisandrae fructus samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in volatile compound composition of Antrodia camphorata during solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongjun; Zhang, Baorong; Li, Weijiang; Xu, Ganrong

    2011-10-01

    Although the volatiles present in mushrooms and fungi have been investigated by many researchers, including Antrodia camphorata in submerged fermentation, there are few data available regarding changes in volatile compounds during fermentation. Our research has revealed that solid state fermentation of A. camphorata is highly odiferous compared with submerged cultures and the odor changed with increasing culture time. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in volatile compound composition of A. camphorata during solid state fermentation. Altogether, 124 major volatile compounds were identified. The volatile compounds produced by A. camphorata during growth in solid state fermentation were quite different. Oct-1-en-3-ol, octan-3-one and methyl 2-phenylacetate were predominant in exponential growth phase production, while the dominant volatiles produced in stationary phase were octan-3-one and methyl 2-phenylacetate. In stationary phase, lactone compounds in A. camphorata, such as 5-butyloxolan-2-one, 5-heptyloxolan-2-one, 6-heptyloxan-2-one, contributed greatly to peach and fruit-like flavor. Terpene and terpene alcohol compounds, such as 1-terpineol, L-linalool, T-cadinol, (E, E)-farnesol, β-elemene, cis-α-bisabolene and α-muurolene, made different contributions to herbal fresh aroma in A. camphorata. Nineteen volatile sesquiterpenes were detected from solid state fermentation of A. camphorata. The compounds 5-n-butyl-5H-furan-2-one, β-ionone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, aromadendrene oxide, diepi-α-cedrene epoxide, β-elemene, α-selinene, α-muurolene, azulene, germacrene D, γ-cadinene and 2-methylpyrazine have not hitherto been reported in A. camphorata. The preliminary results suggest that the aroma-active compounds produced by A camphorata in solid state fermentation might serve as an important source of natural aroma compounds for the food and cosmetic industries or antibiotic activity compounds. The sesquiterpenes could be

  16. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...

  17. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  18. Application of head-space solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of volatile metabolites emitted by Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Montanarella, Luca

    1996-01-01

    Head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been used to collect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fungi of the genus Penicillium. Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the analysis of the profiles of volatile metabolites characteristic...

  19. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  20. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  1. Determination of volatile compounds in grape distillates by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Banović, Mara; Persurić, Dordano; Radeka, Sanja; Sladonja, Barbara

    2006-01-06

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure on octadecylsilica (C18) was developed for accumulation of volatile compounds from grape distillates. The procedure was optimised for final analysis by capillary gas chromatography. At mass concentrations in model solutions ranging from 0.1 to 50 mg/l solid-phase extraction recoveries of all analytes ranged from 69% for 2-phenylethanol to 102% for capric acid, with RSD values from 2 to 9%. SPE recoveries of internal standards to be added in the sample solution prior to extraction, higher alcohols 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-undecanol, were 97 and 93%, respectively, with RSD values of 3%. Detection limits of analyzed compounds in model solutions ranged from 0.011 mg/l for isoamyl acetate to 0.037 mg/l for caproic acid. Method efficiency was tested in relation to acetic acid content, volume fraction of ethanol and possible matrix effects. A significant influence of matrix on SPE efficiency for geraniol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol was detected. For the same reason, 2-phenylethanol could not be determined by developed SPE method in samples of grape distillates. The developed solid-phase extraction method was successfully applied to determine the differences in volatile compound content in different grape distillates produced by the distillation of crushed, pressed and fermented grapes.

  2. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF LITHRAEA CAUSTICA (LITRE) DETERMINATED BY SOLID PHASE MICRO-EXTRACTION (SPME)

    OpenAIRE

    GARBARINO, JUAN A; SALVATORE, GIUSEPPE; PIVANOVO, MARISA; CHAMY, MARÍA CRISTINA; NICOLETTI, MARCELLO; DE IOANNES, ALFREDO

    2002-01-01

    The head space of the aerial parts of Lithraea caustica was analyzed by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) technique, obtaining as main volatile compounds the monoterpenes, myrcene, a -pinene, , p-cymene and limonene, as well as the sesquiterpene caryophylene. De las partes áereas de Lithraea caustica y usando la técnica de Micro-Extracción en Fase Sólida (MEFS), fueron identificados y cuantificados los principales compuestos volátiles: los monoterpenos, mirceno, a -pineno, p-cimeno y lim...

  4. Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Abi-Zaid, I E; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Samples were prepared under similar conditions as in homemade tea. Volatiles were isolated using solid phase extraction method (SPE) with Porapak Q trap followed by desorption with acetone. Estimated mean values for short and medium chain carboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ketones lay in the range of 50-64 microg kg(-1) whilst aliphatic alcohols and acyclic hydrocarbons had values lower than 6 microg kg(-1). The major volatiles were terpenes (275-382 microg kg(-1)) that reached 89 % of the total composition. A total of 16 compounds, among them dodecane, acetoin, acetol, citral, geraniol and octanoic acid have been described by the first time in peppermint tea. These findings could be attributed to the different analytical approach employed, mainly to the use of different extraction/pre-concentration techniques. Given the apparently lower proportion of terpenes in the aqueous extract it may be that the chemical properties of the peppermint essential oil are not entirely reproduced with homemade tea.

  5. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: an application to quantification of mushroom volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-04-03

    Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033-0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111-0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3-108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of volatiles in silver carp by headspace solid phase micro-extraction coupled with GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuping; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Liao Tao; Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Li Xin; Li Xiaoding; Wu Wenjin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the determination of volatiles using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was presented. The extraction conditions were optimized with reference to these volatiles as hexanal, heptanal, benzaldehyde, 1-Octen-3-ol, octanal, nonanal, decenal, 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-decadienal. The extraction of fish muscle followed by incubation on a StableFlex divinyl benzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber during 50 in at 60 obtained the most effective extraction of the analytes. The methods by HS-SPME and GC-MS were effective in detecting volatiles in the gills, scales, viscera and fish muscles. The types of volatiles in the gill were more than other organs and the number of odors compounds was 63, and the number of volatiles in scales, viscera and fish muscles was 48, 44 and 42 respectively. (authors)

  7. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials.

  8. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  9. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented

  10. Assessment of TS-1, a thick cane mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shama Rao, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    A true breeding thick cane mutant TS-1, induced by radiations, was obtained in variety Co-419. TS-1 was found to be superior to Co-419 with respect to cane size, weight, yield and juice quality. The thick canes of TS-1 were found to be solid even at 14 months age and so also their ratoons. The tillering habit of TS-1 has a definite advantage over other varieties with respect to easy intercultural field operations. TS-1 is now being tested under various agroclimatic zones in Karnataka, Maharashtra and U.P. (auth.)

  11. Solid phase microextraction: measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Dhaka City air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussam, A; Alauddin, M; Khan, A H; Chowdhury, D; Bibi, H; Bhattacharjee, M; Sultana, S

    2002-08-01

    A solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique was applied for the sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air polluted by two stroke autorickshaw engines and automobile exhausts in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The methodology was tested by insitu sampling of an aromatic hydrocarbon mixture gas standard with a precision of +/-5% and an average accuracy of 1-20%. The accuracy for total VOCs concentration measurement was about 7%. VOC's in ambient air were collected by exposing the SPME fiber at four locations in Dhaka city. The chromatograms showed signature similar to that of unburned gasoline (petrol) and weathered diesel containing more than 200 organic compounds; some of these compounds were positively identified. These are normal hydrocarbons pentane (n-C5H2) through nonacosane (n-C29H60), aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, xylenes, and 1-isocyanato-3-methoxybenzene. Two samples collected near an autorickshaw station contained 783000 and 1479000 microg/m3 of VOCs. In particular, the concentration of toluene was 50-100 times higher than the threshold limiting value of 2000 microg/m3. Two other samples collected on street median showed 135000 microg/m3 and 180000 microg/m3 of total VOCs. The method detection limit of the technique for most semi-volatile organic compounds was 1 microg/m3.

  12. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) for profiling the volatile metabolites produced by Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kimura, Minako; Yabe, Yoshito; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masaya; Horibe, Isao; Okuno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from Glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with different fibers, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), was investigated. C4-C6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of VOCs isolated by CAR/PDMS fiber. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of VOCs isolated by PDMS fiber. During the growth phase, Ochracin was produced in the large majority of VOCs. 3-Methylbutanol and phenylethyl alcohol were found in the log phase of it. Alcohols were found in cultures of higher age, while sesquiterpenes were found to be characteristic of initial growth stage of G. cingulata.

  13. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  14. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  15. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O 2 concentration (p −1 (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%

  16. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-04

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  17. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  18. Analysis of Volatile Components of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. by Steam Distillation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. plays an important role in its antibacterial and antiphlogistic activities. In this work, the volatile components were extracted by steam distillation (SD and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 49 volatile components were identified by GC-MS, and the major volatile components were α-limonene (20.59–35.07%, fenchone (15.79–31.81%, α-caryophyllene (6.98–10.32%, β-caryophyllene (6.98–10.19%, and piperitenone oxide (1.96–11.63%. The comparison of the volatile components from A. indianum (Lour. Merr. grown in two regions of China was reported. Also, the comparison of the volatile components by SD and HS-SPME was discussed. The results showed that the major volatile components of A. indianum (Lour. Merr. from two regions of China were similar but varied with different extraction methods. These results were indicative of the suitability of HS-SPME method for simple, rapid, and solvent-free analysis of the volatile components of the medicinal plants.

  19. Oxidation of volatile organic vapours in air by solid potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba Ghareh; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S; Raoof, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may frequently contaminate groundwater and pose threat to human health when migrating into the unsaturated soil zone and upward to the indoor air. The kinetic of chemical oxidation has been investigated widely for dissolved VOCs in the saturated zone. But, so far there have been few studies on the use of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of vapour phase contaminants. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene vapours by solid potassium permanganate. Results revealed that solid potassium permanganate is able to transform the vapour of these compounds into harmless oxidation products. The degradation rates for TCE and ethanol were higher than for toluene. The degradation process was modelled using a kinetic model, linear in the gas concentration of VOC [ML(-3)] and relative surface area of potassium permanganate grains (surface area of potassium permanganate divided by gas volume) [L(-1)]. The second-order reaction rate constants for TCE, ethanol, and toluene were found to be equal to 2.0×10(-6) cm s(-1), 1.7×10(-7) cm s(-1), and 7.0×10(-8) cm s(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Maik A; Yuan, Xue; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2007-03-01

    In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-microm film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochmann, Maik A.; Schmidt, Torsten C. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany); Chair of Instrumental Analysis, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Yuan, Xue [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-{mu}m film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of volatile components from Melipona beecheii geopropolis from Southeast Mexico by headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Ahira; López-Rivera, Paulina; Duarte-Lisci, Georgina; López-Ramírez, Ángel; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2016-01-01

    A head space solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimised to extract and analyse volatile compounds of Melipona beecheii geopropolis. Seventy-three constituents were identified using this technique in the sample of geopropolis collected. The main compounds detected include β-fenchene (14.53-15.45%), styrene (8.72-9.98%), benzaldehyde (7.44-7.82%) and the most relevant volatile components presents at high level in the geopropolis were terpenoids (58.17%).

  3. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  4. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) for the determination of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llompart, Maria [Departamento de Quimica Analitica Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Li, Ken; Fingas, Merv [Emergencies Science Division, Environment Canada, Environmental Technology Centre, 3439 River Road, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-02-08

    We have investigated the use of headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) as a sample concentration and preparation technique for the analysis of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil samples. Soil samples were suspended in solvent and the SPME fibre suspended in the headspace above the slurry. Finally, the fibre was desorbed in the Gas Chromatograph (GC) injection port and the analysis of the samples was carried out. Since the transfer of contaminants from the soil to the SPME fibre involves four separate phases (soil-solvent-headspace and fibre coating), parameters affecting the distribution of the analytes were investigated. Using a well-aged artificially spiked garden soil, different solvents (both organic and aqueous) were used to enhance the release of the contaminants from the solid matrix to the headspace. It was found that simple addition of water is adequate for the purpose of analysing the target volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in soil. The addition of 1 ml of water to 1 g of soil yielded maximum response. Without water addition, the target VOCs were almost not released from the matrix and a poor response was observed. The effect of headspace volume on response as well as the addition of salt were also investigated. Comparison studies between conventional static headspace (HS) at high temperature (95C) and the new technology HSSPME at room temperature (=20C) were performed. The results obtained with both techniques were in good agreement. HSSPME precision and linearity were found to be better than automated headspace method and HSSPME also produced a significant enhancement in response. The detection and quantification limits for the target VOCs in soils were in the sub-ng g{sup -1} level. Finally, we tried to extend the applicability of the method to the analysis of semivolatiles. For these studies, two natural soils contaminated with diesel fuel and wood preservative, as well as a standard urban dust contaminated with polyaromatic

  5. Automated headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction to analyse the volatile fraction of food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2004-01-23

    High concentration capacity headspace techniques (headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE)) are a bridge between static and dynamic headspace, since they give high concentration factors as does dynamic headspace (D-HS), and are as easy to apply and as reproducible as static headspace (S-HS). In 2000, Chromtech (Idstein, Germany) introduced an inside-needle technique for vapour and liquid sampling, solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE), also known as "the magic needle". In SPDE, analytes are concentrated on a 50 microm film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and activated carbon (10%) coated onto the inside wall of the stainless steel needle (5 cm) of a 2.5 ml gas tight syringe. When SPDE is used for headspace sampling (HS-SPDE), a fixed volume of the headspace of the sample under investigation is sucked up an appropriate number of times with the gas tight syringe and an analyte amount suitable for a reliable GC or GC-MS analysis accumulates in the polymer coating the needle wall. This article describes the preliminary results of both a study on the optimisation of sampling parameters conditioning HS-SPDE recovery, through the analysis of a standard mixture of highly volatile compounds (beta-pinene, isoamyl acetate and linalool) and of the HS-SPDE-GC-MS analyses of aromatic plants and food matrices. This study shows that HS-SPDE is a successful technique for HS-sampling with high concentration capability, good repeatability and intermediate precision, also when it is compared to HS-SPME.

  6. The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurso, Cettina; Verzera, Antonella; Romeo, Vincenza; Ziino, Marisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) have been studied by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Seventy components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards; the average composition (ppm) as single components and classes of substances is reported. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters, aromatic aldehydes, esters and ethers, furans, isothiocyanates and thiocyanates, sulfurated compounds, nitriles, terpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified. Leaf volatiles in Isatis tinctoria L. were characterized by a high amount of isothiocyanates which accounted for about 40 % of the total volatile fraction. Isothiocyanates are important and characteristic flavour compounds in Brassica vegetables and the cancer chemo-protective attributes are recently responsible for their growing interest.

  7. Changes in volatile profile of soybean residue (okara) upon solid-state fermentation by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Weng Chan; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Soybean residue (okara), a by-product of soymilk, is produced in large volumes by the soy food industry and is often discarded due to its undesirable flavour. As it contains a considerable amount of protein and fats, biotransformation of okara to improve its flavour presents an opportunity for alternative utilisation. This paper evaluated 10 yeasts in the solid-state fermentation of okara based on their volatile profiles as analysed with HS-SPME GC-MS/FID. Four 'dairy yeasts' (Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces lactis) and six 'wine yeasts' (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Williopsis saturnus) were studied. The main off-odourants in okara, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, significantly decreased after fermentation due to their bioconversion into methyl ketones and/or esters. The okara fermented by dairy yeasts contained greater proportions of methyl ketones, while that by wine yeasts contained more ethyl and acetyl esters. Notably, the okara fermented by W. saturnus contained 13 esters and the total GC-FID peak area of esters was about 380 times that in fresh okara, leading to a perceptible fruity note. Okara can be exploited as an inexpensive substrate for bioflavour extraction and/or a more pleasant food ingredient via yeast fermentation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS, has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera, Tokushima (Ulva prolifera, and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza. Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera. Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum. Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  9. Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  10. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI SAMPAH BUAH DAN SAYUR : PENGARUH VOLATILE SOLID DAN LIMONEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyantina Rukmini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Biogas merupakan salah satu sumber energi alternatif yang sedang dikembangkan dan sumber energi yang terbarukan. Bahan baku yang digunakan adalah kulit jeruk busuk (Citrus sinensia osbeck dan kobis (Brassica oleracea. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh volatile solid dan limonen terhadap produksi biogas. Penelitian menggunakan erlenmeyer 500 mL sebanyak 6 buah, waterbath, manometer air, dan thermometer. Volume total digester 350 mL. Penelitian dilakukan dengan cara menghancurkan bahan baku supaya lebih mudah didegradasi oleh bakteri. Oksigen yang bersifat toxic bagi bakteri anaerobik, dapat dihilangkan dengan penambahan N2 dalam digester pada awal operasi. Penelitian dilakukan pada kondisi mesofilik (30 – 400C selama 50 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada digester yang memiliki VS sama (T1 dan T3 dengan 15% VS, dan T2 dan T4 dengan 20% VS, dengan konsentrasi kulit jeruk/limonen berbeda (T1= 114ppm< T3= 170ppm, dan T2= 152ppm

  12. Field measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere using solid-phase microextraction Arrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó Barreira, Luís Miguel; Duporté, Geoffroy; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Hyrsky, Lydia; Heikkinen, Enna; Jussila, Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2018-02-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by terrestrial vegetation participate in a diversity of natural processes. These compounds impact both short-range processes, such as on plant protection and communication, and long-range processes, for example by participating in aerosol particle formation and growth. The biodiversity of plant species around the Earth, the vast assortment of emitted BVOCs, and their trace atmospheric concentrations contribute to the substantial remaining uncertainties about the effects of these compounds on atmospheric chemistry and physics, and call for the development of novel collection devices that can offer portability with improved selectivity and capacity. In this study, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow sampling system was used for the static and dynamic collection of BVOCs from a boreal forest, and samples were subsequently analyzed on site by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This system offers higher sampling capacity and improved robustness when compared to traditional equilibrium-based SPME techniques, such as SPME fibers. Field measurements were performed in summer 2017 at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiälä, Finland. Complementary laboratory tests were also performed to compare the SPME-based techniques under controlled experimental conditions and to evaluate the effect of temperature and relative humidity on their extraction performance. The most abundant monoterpenes and aldehydes were successfully collected. A significant improvement on sampling capacity was observed with the new SPME Arrow system over SPME fibers, with collected amounts being approximately 2 × higher for monoterpenes and 7-8 × higher for aldehydes. BVOC species exhibited different affinities for the type of sorbent materials used (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-carbon wide range (WR) vs. PDMS-divinylbenzene (DVB)). Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic

  13. Characterization of the volatile profile of Antarctic bacteria by using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, Riccardo; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; de Pascale, Donatella; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Michaud, Luigi; LoGiudice, Angelina; Fani, Renato; Bartolucci, Gianluca

    2011-10-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are significant pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients and are resistant to a plethora of antibiotics. In this context, microorganisms from Antarctica are interesting because they produce antimicrobial compounds inhibiting the growth of other bacteria. This is particularly true for bacteria isolated from Antarctic sponges. The aim of this work was to characterize a set of Antarctic bacteria for their ability to produce new natural drugs that could be exploited in the control of infections in CF patients by Bcc bacteria. Hence, 11 bacterial strains allocated to different genera (e.g., Pseudoalteromonas, Arthrobacter and Psychrobacter) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of 21 Bcc strains and some other human pathogens. All these bacteria completely inhibited the growth of most, if not all, Bcc strains, suggesting a highly specific activity toward Bcc strains. Experimental evidences showed that the antimicrobial compounds are small volatile organic compounds, and are constitutively produced via an unknown pathway. The microbial volatile profile was obtained by SPME-GC-MS within the m/z interval of 40-450. Solid phase micro extraction technique affords the possibility to extract the volatile compounds in head space with a minimal sample perturbation. Principal component analysis and successive cluster discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships among the volatile organic compounds with the aim of classifying the microorganisms by their volatile profile. These data highlight the potentiality of Antarctic bacteria as novel sources of antibacterial substances to face Bcc infections in CF patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Degradation of volatile hydrocarbons from steam-classified solid waste by a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Joseph G; Tracy, Karen D; Eley, Michael H

    2003-03-01

    Steam classification is a process for treatment of solid waste that allows recovery of volatile organic compounds from the waste via steam condensate and off-gases. A mixed culture of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was used to degrade the contaminants in the condensate, which contained approx. 60 hydrocarbons, of which 38 were degraded within 4 d. Many of the hydrocarbons, including styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, chloroform, 1,3-dichloropropene, were completely or nearly completely degraded within one day, while trichloroethylene and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were degraded more slowly.

  15. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loge, G.

    1994-09-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U3O8. Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF6. This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid.

  16. Oxidation of volatile organic vapours in air by solid potassium permanganate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoodlu, M.G.; Hartog, N.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Raoof, A.

    2013-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may frequently contaminate groundwater and pose threat to human health when migrating into the unsaturated soil zone and upward to the indoor air. The kinetic of chemical oxidation has been investigated widely for dissolved VOCs in the saturated zone. But, so far

  17. Use of solid phase microextraction to identify volatile organic compounds in brazilian wines from different grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian wine industry has shown significant growth in recent years and the insertion of new concepts, such as geographical indications as signs of quality, has placed Brazil in tune with the tendencies of world wine production. The aim of this work was to apply the Solid Phase Microextraction technique in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to study Brazilian wines made from different grape varieties, in order to separate and identify their volatile organic compounds. These substances were identified by comparisons between the spectra obtained with those presented in the NIST library database, and by comparisons with linear retention indices and literature data. The amounts of the compounds were calculated based on the total peak areas of the chromatograms. Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and grouped into alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and terpenes. Most of them belonged to the ester function, conferring a fruity aroma on the wines. The alcohols may have originated from the yeast metabolism, contributing to the alcoholic and floral aromas. Ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol and diethyl maleate were identified in all the varieties, except Merlot. Decanal, methyl citronellate, (E-2-hexenyl-3-methylbutyrate were only found in Merlot, while 2,3-butanediol was only present in the Tannat wines. 2-Phenylethanol was present in all varieties and is recognized as giving pleasant rose and honey attributes to wines. This study showed that the volatile profile of red wines is mainly characterized by esters and higher alcohols. The statistical analysis of the comparison of averages showed a greater amount of averages significantly different in the relative areas of Merlot wine. The Principal Component Analysis showed one grouping composed only of the Merlot wine samples, and this was probably related to the existence of the volatile organic compounds that were specifically identified in

  18. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  19. Development of Solid Ceramic Dosimeters for the Time-Integrative Passive Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Riza Gabriela; Nam, Go-Un; Eom, In-Yong; Hong, Yong-Seok

    2017-11-07

    Time-integrative passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water can now be accomplished using a solid ceramic dosimeter. A nonporous ceramic, which excludes the permeation of water, allowing only gas-phase diffusion of VOCs into the resin inside the dosimeter, effectively captured the VOCs. The mass accumulation of 11 VOCs linearly increased with time over a wide range of aqueous-phase concentrations (16.9 to 1100 μg L -1 ), and the linearity was dependent upon the Henry's constant (H). The average diffusivity of the VOCs in the solid ceramic was 1.46 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 25 °C, which was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that in air (8.09 × 10 -6 m 2 s -1 ). This value was 60% greater than that in the water-permeable porous ceramic (0.92 × 10 -10 m 2 s -1 ), suggesting that its mass accumulation could be more effective than that of porous ceramic dosimeters. The mass accumulation of the VOCs in the solid ceramic dosimeter increased in the presence of salt (≥0.1 M) and with increasing temperature (4 to 40 °C) but varied only slightly with dissolved organic matter concentration. The solid ceramic dosimeter was suitable for the field testing and measurement of time-weighted average concentrations of VOC-contaminated waters.

  20. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Study of new technique of solid combustible materials to determination of volatile elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, R.C. de.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for direct trace element analysis of solid combustible materials is described. The samples (up to 10 mg) are weighed on a graphite platform wich is then placed in a quartz tube, at the focal point of three infrared lamps. When the lamps are turned on, the sample burns in a stream of air, and the resulting dry aerosol containing volatile elements such as Hg, Cd, Bi, Tl, Zn, Pb and Cu is carried into the mixing chamber and thence into the flame, where the atomic absorption measurement is carried out. This technique overcomes chemical sample preparation steps, avoiding contaminations of losses associated with these steps. A ''furnace in flame'' system where the aerosol is transported to a flame heated T-tube is also described. The influence of flame stoichiometry, observation height, platform material and air flux intensity was studied inorder to determine optimal analytical conditions. (author) [pt

  2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in pleural effusions by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with cryotrap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Hong; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with cryotrap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied to the analysis of volatile organic compounds in pleural effusions. The highly volatile organic compounds were separated successfully with high sensitivity by the employment of a cryotrap device, with the construction of a cold column head by freezing a segment of metal capillary with liquid nitrogen. A total of 76 volatile organic compounds were identified in 50 pleural effusion samples (20 malignant effusions and 30 benign effusions). Among them, 34 more volatile organic compounds were detected with the retention time less than 8 min, by comparing with the normal headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method. Furthermore, 24 volatile organic compounds with high occurrence frequency in pleural effusion samples, 18 of which with the retention time less than 8 min, were selected for the comparative analysis. The results of average peak area comparison and box-plot analysis showed that except for cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and tetramethylbenzene, which have been reported as potential cancer biomarkers, cyclohexanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-heptane, ethylbenzene, and xylene also had differential expression between malignant and benign effusions. Therefore, the proposed approach was valuable for the comprehensive characterization of volatile organic compounds in pleural effusions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Applications of Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS in the Study of Grape and Wine Volatile Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarita Panighel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are responsible for the wine “bouquet”, which is perceived by sniffing the headspace of a glass, and of the aroma component (palate-aroma of the overall flavor, which is perceived on drinking. Grape aroma compounds are transferred to the wine and undergo minimal alteration during fermentation (e.g., monoterpenes and methoxypyrazines; others are precursors of aroma compounds which form in winemaking and during wine aging (e.g., glycosidically-bound volatile compounds and C13-norisoprenoids. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME is a fast and simple technique which was developed for analysis of volatile compounds. This review describes some SPME methods coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS used to study the grape and wine volatiles.

  4. Studying Plant–Insect Interactions with Solid Phase Microextraction: Screening for Airborne Volatile Emissions Response of Soybeans to the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshuang Cai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines induces soybean (Glycine max leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME for extraction of volatiles from A. glycines-infested plant. Objectives were to (1 determine if SPME can be used to collect soybean plant volatiles and to (2 use headspace SPME-GC-MS approach to screen compounds associated with A. glycines-infested soybeans, grown in the laboratory and in the field, to identify previously known and potentially novel chemical markers of infestation. A total of 62 plant volatiles were identified, representing 10 chemical classes. 39 compounds had not been found in previous studies of soybean volatile emissions. 3-hexen-1-ol, dimethyl nonatriene, indole, caryophyllene, benzaldehyde, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA, benzene ethanol, and farnesene were considered herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. For reproductive field-grown soybeans, three compounds were emitted in greater abundance from leaves infested with A. glycines, cis-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, MeSA and farnesene. In summary, SPME can detect the emission of HIPVs from plants infested with insect herbivores.

  5. Optimization of the solid-phase microextraction method in the determination of Ixodes ricinus (L.) volatiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2006), s. 236-241 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GC/MS * Ixodes ricinus * solid-phase microextraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2006

  6. Analysis of the Volatile Profile of Core Chinese Mango Germplasm by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant published research on the volatile characterization of mango germplasm, the aroma differentiation of Chinese cultivars remains unclear. Using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, the composition and relative content of volatiles in 37 cultivars representing the diversity of Chinese mango germplasm were investigated. Results indicated that there are distinct differences in the components and content of volatile compounds among and within cultivars. In total, 114 volatile compounds, including 23 monoterpenes, 16 sesquiterpenes, 29 non-terpene hydrocarbons, 25 esters, 11 aldehydes, five alcohols and five ketones, were identified. The total volatile content among cultivars ranged from 211 to 26,022 μg/kg fresh weight (FW, with 123-fold variation. Terpene compounds were the basic background volatiles, and 34 cultivars exhibited abundant monoterpenes. On the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA, terpinolene and α-pinene were important components constituting the aroma of Chinese mango cultivars. Most obviously, a number of mango cultivars with high content of various aroma components were observed, and they can serve as potential germplasms for both breeding and direct use.

  7. Rapid determination of the volatile components in tobacco by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqin; Chu, Guohai; Zhou, Guojun; Jiang, Jian; Yuan, Kailong; Pan, Yuanjiang; Song, Zhiyu; Li, Zuguang; Xia, Qian; Lu, Xinbo; Xiao, Weiqiang

    2016-03-01

    An ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction was first employed to determine the volatile components in tobacco samples. The method combined the advantages of ultrasound, microwave, and headspace solid-phase microextraction. The extraction, separation, and enrichment were performed in a single step, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. In the developed method, several experimental parameters, such as fiber type, ultrasound power, and irradiation time, were optimized to improve sampling efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, there were 37, 36, 34, and 36 components identified in tobacco from Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, and Zimbabwe, respectively, including esters, heterocycles, alkanes, ketones, terpenoids, acids, phenols, and alcohols. The compound types were roughly the same while the contents were varied from different origins due to the disparity of their growing conditions, such as soil, water, and climate. In addition, the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction method was compared with the microwave-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction methods. More types of volatile components were obtained by using the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction method, moreover, the contents were high. The results indicated that the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction technique was a simple, time-saving and highly efficient approach, which was especially suitable for analysis of the volatile components in tobacco. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterisation of volatile profiles in 50 native Peruvian chili pepper using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kirti; Ruiz, Candy; Calderon, Rosa; Marcelo, Mavel; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-11-01

    The volatiles were characterised by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). A total of 127 compounds were identified with terpenes (including mono terpenes and sesquiterpenes - a total of 45 compounds), esters (31 compounds) and hydrocarbons (20 compounds) were the predominant volatile compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds yielded 2 significant PC's, which together accounted for 90.3% of the total variance in the data set and the scatter plot generated between PC1 and PC2 successfully segregated the 50 chili pepper samples into 7 groups. Clusters of hydrocarbons, esters, terpenes, aldehyde and ketones formed the major determinants of the difference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the health risks and odor concentration of volatile compounds from a municipal solid waste landfill in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Liu, Shihua; Li, Wenhui; Yan, Luchun; Shu, Mushui; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Wenbin

    2018-07-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are a source of odorous and toxic compounds. In this work, we present an integrated assessment of the odor concentration and human health risks of volatile compounds to evaluate the environmental quality at a MSW landfill. Air samples were collected seasonally from six areas of the landfill with different functions. The total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 204.0 to 7426.7 μg m -3 , and the concentrations in temporarily and permanently capped areas were 50.3 and 83.4% lower than those in the tipping area, respectively. The odor concentration was greatest at the leachate collection tank (1732-6254 ou E m -3 ) and tipping area (1573-4113 ou E m -3 ) and was mainly caused by hydrogen sulfide (57.9 and 49.1%, respectively). Moreover, the odor concentration was positively correlated with the temperature (r = 0.500, p waste areas exceeded acceptable levels. Moreover, the cumulative HI (2.5-5.7) and R (1.0E-04 to 3.4E-04) in the waste areas should receive special attention since they were above acceptable levels during all of the seasons. Aromatic and halogenated compounds dominated the cumulative R, accounting for 79 and 21% of the total, on average, while for the cumulative HI, sulfur compounds contributed the most (67%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of solid phase microfiber extraction fibers for the monitoring of volatile organoarsinicals emitted from a plant-soil system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L; Lin, Z-Q; Dixon, R P; Johnson, K A

    2013-11-15

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants and microbes to clean up inorganic and organic pollutants, has shown great promise as an inexpensive and feasible form of remediation. More recently, studies have shown that some plants have an amazing capacity to volatilize contaminants and can be an effective remediation strategy if the chemicals released are non-toxic. Arsenic contamination and remediation has drawn great attention in the scientific community. However, its toxicity also varies depending on its form. We evaluated, optimized, and then utilized a solid phase microfiber extraction (SPME) head space sampling technique to characterize the organoarsinical emissions from rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) in arsenic treated soils to determine if the potentially more toxic organic forms of arsenic (AsH3, AsH2CH3, AsH(CH3)2, and As(CH3)3) were being emitted from the plant-soil system. The SPME fiber that proved best fitted for this application was the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber with a 45 min sampling period. We did detect and confirm the emissions of dimethylchloroarsine (AsCl(CH3)2) and pentamethylarsine (As(CH3)5). However, it was determined that the more toxic organic forms of arsenic were not released during phytovolatilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  14. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m 3 which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m 3 . In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m 3 . High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m 3 , a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was

  15. Polymeric ionic liquid coatings versus commercial solid-phase microextraction coatings for the determination of volatile compounds in cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Yu, Honglian; Cole, William T S; Ho, Tien D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Afonso, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    The extraction performance of four polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings has been studied and compared to that of commercial SPME coatings for the extraction of 16 volatile compounds in cheeses. The analytes include 2 free fatty acids, 2 aldehydes, 2 ketones and 10 phenols and were determined by headspace (HS)-SPME coupled to gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection (FID). The PIL-based coatings produced by UV co-polymerization were more efficient than PIL-based coatings produced by thermal AIBN polymerization. Partition coefficients of analytes between the sample and the coating (Kfs) were estimated for all PIL-based coatings and the commercial SPME fiber showing the best performance among the commercial fibers tested: carboxen-polydimethylsyloxane (CAR-PDMS). For the PIL-based fibers, the highest K(fs) value (1.96 ± 0.03) was obtained for eugenol. The normalized calibration slope, which takes into account the SPME coating thickness, was also used as a simpler approximate tool to compare the nature of the coating within the determinations, with results entirely comparable to those obtained with estimated K(fs) values. The PIL-based materials obtained by UV co-polymerization containing the 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium chloride IL monomer and 1,12-di(3-vinylimiazolium)dodecane dibromide IL crosslinker exhibited the best performance in the extraction of the select analytes from cheeses. Despite a coating thickness of only 7 µm, this copolymeric sorbent coating was capable of quantitating analytes in HS-SPME in a 30 to 2000 µg L(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient (R) values higher than 0.9938, inter-day precision values (as relative standard deviation in %) varying from 6.1 to 20%, and detection limits down to 1.6 µg L(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from Rosaceae family by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-qMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2009-06-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample amount, dilution factor, ionic strength, and desorption time, were optimized and discussed. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 50 degrees C for 30 min with constant magnetic stirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds among pulp (46, 45, and 39), peel (64, 60, and 64), and entire fruit (65, 43, and 50) in PP, PS, and SS apples, respectively. Ethyl esters, terpenes, and higher alcohols were found to be the most representative volatiles. Alpha-farnesene, hexan-1-ol and hexyl 2-methylbutyrate were the compounds found in the volatile profile of studied apples with the largest GC area, representing, on average, 24.71, 14.06, and 10.80% of the total volatile fraction from PP, PS, and SS apples. In PP entire apple, the most abundant compounds identified were alpha-farnesene (30.49%), the unknown compound m/z (69, 101, 157) (21.82%) and hexyl acetate (6.57%). Regarding PS entire apple the major compounds were alpha-farnesene (16.87%), estragole (15.43%), hexan-1-ol (10.94), and E-2-hexenal (10.67). Alpha-farnesene (30.3%), hexan-1-ol (18.90%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (4.7%), and pentan-1-ol (4.6%) were also found as SS entire apple volatiles present in a higher relative content. Principal

  17. Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Crocetta TURAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days. The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.

  18. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day −1 . • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day −1

  19. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajeena Beevi, B., E-mail: sajeenanazer@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala 680 009 (India); Madhu, G., E-mail: profmadhugopal@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India); Sahoo, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: dksahoo@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of tuna waste for the production of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Penabad, Noela; Kennes, Christian; Veiga, Maria C

    2017-10-01

    Fish canning industries generate a significant amount of solid waste that can be digested anaerobically into volatile fatty acids (VFA). The aim of this research was to study the effect of various pHs, ranging from 5.0 to 10.0, and percentage of total solids on the anaerobic digestion of tuna waste into VFA, both in batch assays and continuous reactor. The production of VFA was affected by pH and was significantly higher under alkaline conditions. At pH 8.0, the VFA production reached 30,611mgCOD/L. The VFA mainly consisted of acetic, propionic, n-butyric and i-valeric acids. Acetic acid was the main product at all the pHs tested. In terms of total solids (TS) the best results were obtained with 2.5% total solids, reaching 0.73gCOD VFA /gCOD waste . At higher TS concentrations (5 and 8% TS) lower yields were reached probably due to inhibition at high VFA concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of volatile compound emission and odor pollution from municipal solid waste treating/disposal facilities of a city in Eastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hanwen; Duan, Zhenhan; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Transfer station, incineration plant, and landfill site made up the major parts of municipal solid waste disposal system of S city in Eastern China. Characteristics of volatile compounds (VCs) and odor pollution of each facility were investigated from a systematic perspective. Also major index...... in the waste tipping port of the incineration plant. A positive correlation between the olfactory and chemical odor concentrations was found with R2 = 0.918 (n = 15, P technology to deal...... with the non-source-separated waste. Strong attention thus needs to be paid on the enclosed systems in incineration plant to avoid any accidental odor emission....

  2. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on biogas generation yield from organic fraction of municipal solid waste under medium solids concentration circumstance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasapoor, Mazdak; Ajabshirchi, Yahya; Adl, Mehrdad; Abdi, Reza; Gharibi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic pretreatment improved biogas yields at lower TS content samples. • Time of ultrasonication was significantly effective on maximum biogas yields. • Ultrasonic pretreatment can cause the release of TVFA content before digestion. • Specific energy between 5000 kJ/kg TS and 10,000 kJ/kg TS improved biogas yields. - Abstract: Hydrolysis is the most rate limiting step in almost all anaerobic digestion systems. To tackle long time duration, ultrasonic pretreatment proved that it can effectively improve biogas yield efficiency by effecting on soluble particles. In this study, the effect of three different ultrasonic power densities (0.2 W/mL, 0.4 W/mL and 0.6 W/mL) at three different times (10 min, 20 min and 30 min) on biogas yield of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at three different total solid content (6%, 8% and 10%) were analyzed. Results showed significant (p < 0.01) effect of both sonication density and time of sonication on biogas final yield and biogas yield after 72 h digestion with the 6% TS content. Parameters like specific energy input and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) content were also evaluated to find the best sonication treatments for OFMSW. For lower TS contents (6% and 8%), sonication treatment significantly (p < 0.01) increased TVFA concentration before digesting. It is also proved that specific energy input between 5000 kJ/kg TS and 10,000 kJ/kg TS can effectively increase the biogas yields, especially for 6% TS content, and caused maximum biogas yield produced after 72 h of digestion.

  3. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loge, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U 3 O 8 . Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF 4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF 6 . This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid

  5. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its...... advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  6. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Volatile secondary lipid oxidation products can be identified and quantified by GC-FID or GC-MS. An extraction step is, however, needed before GC analysis. A range of different extraction methods are available such as static headspace, dynamic headspace and SPME. Each of these methods has its...... advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  7. TS LOOP ALCOVE VENTILATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.M. Lahnalampi

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis is to examine the existing, constructor installed, physical ventilation installations located in each of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Springs (TS) Loop Alcoves No.1, No.2, No.3, No.4, No.6, and No.7. Alcove No.5 is excluded from the scope of this analysis since it is an A/E design system. Each ventilation installation will be analyzed for the purpose of determining if requirements for acceptance into the A/E design technical baseline have been met. The ventilation installations will be evaluated using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements (ESFDR) (YMP 1997) requirements. The end product will be a technical analysis that will define ventilation installation compliance issues, any outstanding field changes, and use-as-is design deviations that are required to bring the ventilation installations into compliance with requirements for acceptance into the A/E design technical baseline. The analysis will provide guidance for alcove ventilation component design modifications to be developed to correct any deficient components that do not meet minimum requirements and standards

  8. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuomin; Wang Qingtang; Li Gongke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. ► NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. ► NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7–4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the potential study of trace and small molecular

  9. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  10. Volatile Hydrocarbon Analysis in Blood by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction: The Interpretation of VHC Patterns in Fire-Related Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian; Hara, Kenji; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Takayama, Mio; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Matsusue, Aya; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was used to quantitate the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons from the blood of cadavers by cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 24 compounds including aromatic and aliphatic volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed by this method. The analytes in the headspace of 0.1 g of blood mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water plus 1 µL of an internal standard solution were adsorbed onto a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 0°C for 15 min, and measured using a GC-MS full scan method. The limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 6.8 to 10 ng per 1 g of blood. This method was applied to actual autopsy cases to quantitate the level of volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) in the blood of cadavers who died in fire-related incidents. The patterns of the VHCs revealed the presence or absence of accelerants. Petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline and kerosene were differentiated. The detection of C8-C13 aliphatic hydrocarbons indicated the presence of kerosene; the detection of C3 alkylbenzenes in the absence of C8-C13 aliphatic hydrocarbons was indicative of gasoline; and elevated levels of styrene or benzene in the absence of C3/C4 alkylbenzenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons indicated a normal construction fire. This sensitive HS-SPME method could help aid the investigation of fire-related deaths by providing a simple pattern to use for the interpretation of VHCs in human blood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Volatile organo-selenium speciation in biological matter by solid phase microextraction-moderate temperature multicapillary gas chromatography with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, C.; Sanz Landaluze, J.; Ximenez-Embun, P.; Madrid-Albarran, Y.; Camara, C

    2004-01-16

    Microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) in combination with multicapillary (MC) gas chromatography could be proven to be useful for element specific detection of volatile species. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for preconcentration and sample-matrix separation. The fiber desorption unit as well as the heating control for the MC column were in-house developed and multicapillary column was operated at moderate temperatures (30-100 deg. C). The method was optimized for organo-selenium species (dimethylselenide (DMSe), diethylselenide (DEtSe) and dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe)), using a chemometric approach. Stationary phases for the separation column were optimized using a conventional GC and contrasted with the results obtained with the MC. Application was focussed on selenium accumulating biological matter, such as lupine, yeast, Indian mustard and garlic. These samples were grown in hydroponic solution containing inorganic selenium (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}). SPME sampling was carried out in fixed volume flow boxes in headspace above the living plants and in vials using treated samples. Results demonstrate inorganic selenium transformation into volatile organic species during metabolism. Separation is fast, a chromatogram can be obtained in less than 3 min and detection limits were at sub-ppb level for all investigated species. The system is independent from the use of a conventional gas chromatographic oven and can be used as a versatile alternative to highly cost intensive methods such as GC-ICP-MS.

  12. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  13. Role of solid-phase microextraction in the identification of highly volatile pheromones of two Rhinoceros beetles Scapanes australis and Strategus aloeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, D; Ramirez-Lucas, P; Malosse, C; Aldana, R; Kakul, T; Morin, J P

    2000-07-14

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplings from live insects or natural secretion allowed one to identify the aggregation pheromones of the pest beetles Scapanes australis and Strategus aloeus by efficient and rapid isolation of their highly volatile (72 < M(r) < 116) components. S. australis male pheromone was identified as a 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol [67:33 (R)-(-):(S)-(+) ratio], 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2,3-butanediol [43:17:40 (R,R)-(-):(S,S)-(+):meso ratio], and S. aloeus pheromone as a 95.5:4.0:0.5 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanone, 3-pentanone and sec.-butyl acetate by GC-MS using conventional and chiral capillary columns. This is the first report of Scarabaeidae pheromones based on such small and common molecules.

  14. Dynamic effect of total solid content, low substrate/inoculum ratio and particle size on solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Steyer, J-P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Among all the process parameters of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), total solid content (TS), inoculation (S/X ratio) and size of the organic solid particles can be optimized to improve methane yield and process stability. To evaluate the effects of each parameter and their interactions on methane production, a three level Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented in SS-AD batch tests degrading wheat straw by adjusting: TS content from 15% to 25%, S/X ratio (in volatile solids) between 28 and 47 and particle size with a mean diameter ranging from 0.1 to 1.4mm. A dynamic analysis of the methane production indicates that the S/X ratio has only an effect during the start-up phase of the SS-AD. During the growing phase, TS content becomes the main parameter governing the methane production and its strong interaction with the particle size suggests the important role of water compartmentation on SS-AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do's and Don'ts for Liposuction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Do's and don’ts for liposuction Don’t ...

  16. Not in Traffic Surveillance (NiTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Not-in-Traffic Surveillance (NiTS) system is a virtual data collection system designed to provide counts and details regarding fatalities and injuries that occur...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during the...

  18. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multivariate analysis of the volatile components in tobacco based on infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqin; Pan, Yuanjiang; Zhou, Guojun; Chu, Guohai; Jiang, Jian; Yuan, Kailong; Xia, Qian; Cheng, Changhe

    2016-11-01

    A novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method has been developed for the rapid determination of the volatile components in tobacco. The optimal extraction conditions for maximizing the extraction efficiency were as follows: 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber, extraction time of 20 min, infrared power of 175 W, and distance between the infrared lamp and the headspace vial of 2 cm. Under the optimum conditions, 50 components were found to exist in all ten tobacco samples from different geographical origins. Compared with conventional water-bath heating and nonheating extraction methods, the extraction efficiency of infrared-assisted extraction was greatly improved. Furthermore, multivariate analysis including principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and similarity analysis were performed to evaluate the chemical information of these samples and divided them into three classifications, including rich, moderate, and fresh flavors. The above-mentioned classification results were consistent with the sensory evaluation, which was pivotal and meaningful for tobacco discrimination. As a simple, fast, cost-effective, and highly efficient method, the infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction technique is powerful and promising for distinguishing the geographical origins of the tobacco samples coupled to suitable chemometrics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Extraction and Identification of Volatile Components of Two Salvia Species Native to Iran (Salvia limbata and S. multicaulis by Using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramezani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are 58 species belonging to sage genus as annual and perennial plant in different regions of Iran that 18 species of them are endemic to Iran and they have different medicinal properties such as antibiotic, sedative, carminative, antispasmodic and commonly used in treatment of respiratory problems: infections, cough, cold and sore throat and cosmetics industries. The present study has aimed to evaluate the composition of essential oils achieved by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction method from aerial parts of two Salvia species native to Iran: Salvia limbata and Salvia multicaulis. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried out at the Research Station of Agriculture College, TarbiatModares University in Tehran, Iran during the years 2011-2013. The seeds of Salvialimbata and Salvia multicauliswere collected in Ardabil and Isfahan provinces in 2009. The seeds were sown in planting trays(filled with soil and cocopeat 1:1 under controlled greenhouse condition (temperature: 26±1°C, light: 3000 lux, relative humidity: 65% in the last week of February 2011. The soil of experimental pots (soil and coco peat 2:1 was a clay silt loam with pH of 7.4. After two months,seedlings with uniform height and stem diameter with two true leaves were transferred to a growth chamber adjusted to 30/20 °C, 50% relative humidity, light intensity of approximately 3000 Lux and 16 h photoperiod.Aerial parts of two cultivated plantsincludingSalvia limbata and Salvia multicaulisat flowering stage were harvested in June 2012 and kept at 80°C until further experiments. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method for the first time in Iran for these species. Before the SPME, the leaves lyophilized and then were used. The optimization of SPME extraction and desorption conditions were performed by analyzing dried leaves of Salvia officinalis L., used as the matrix. The sample preparation procedure was as: 15 mg of dried

  1. Study on the correlation between volatile fatty acids and gas production in dry fermentation of kitchen waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangqiang; Ma, Yunfeng; Du, Boying; Wang, Qi; Hu, Qiongqiong; Bian, Yushan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, continuous kitchen waste fermentation and anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted to analyze the gas production potential, and to study the correlation between gas production rate and volatile fatty acid (VFAs) and its component concentration. During the experiment, the total solid(TS) concentration of the reaction system was increased by adding the kitchen waste, analysis of kitchen waste dry fermentation process to start, run, imbalance and imbalance after recovery and the parameters in the process of realizing the change trend and influencing factors of dry fermentation process, pH and ammonia concentration.

  2. TS/EL ELECTRICAL WORK REQUEST FORM

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate the processing of requests for minor electrical installation work to be carried out by the TS/EL group, a new procedure designed to improve contacts and exchange of information with customers has been set up. The procedure comprises a check to determine whether the TS/EL or the TS/FM group is responsible for the area where the electrical work is to be done. If the work is to be performed by the EL group, an on-line request form must be completed. The following steps must be completed: On a web browser, use the link http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/el/el.htm In the left-hand menu choose ‘Demande de Travaux Electriques’ Enter the building number to check which group to contact and click ‘FIND’ If the area is: Under FM’s responsibility:\tCall 77777 Under EL’s responsibility:\tClick the link to the work form, complete it and send it (click ‘ENVOYER’) IMPORTANT This form is for minor electrical installation requests only. Please call 72201 in t...

  3. Measurement of non-enteric emission fluxes of volatile fatty acids from a California dairy by solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis, Phillip; Sorenson, Mark; Beene, Matt; Krauter, Charles; Shamp, Brian; Hasson, Alam S.

    Dairies are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's San Joaquin Valley; a region that experiences high ozone levels during summer. Short-chain carboxylic acids, or volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are believed to make up a large fraction of VOC emissions from these facilities, although there are few studies to substantiate this. In this work, a method using a flux chamber coupled to solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers followed by analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed to quantify emissions of six VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid) from non-enteric sources. The technique was then used to quantify VFA fluxes from a small dairy located on the campus of California State University Fresno. Both animal feed and animal waste are found to be major sources of VFAs, with acetic acid contributing 70-90% of emissions from the sources tested. Measured total acid fluxes during spring (with an average temperature of 20 °C) were 1.84 ± 0.01, 1.06 ± 0.08, (1.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -2, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -2 and (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -2 g m -2 h -1 from silage, total mixed rations, flushing lane, open lot and lagoon sources, respectively. VFA emissions from the sources tested total 390 ± 80 g h -1. The data indicate high fluxes of VFAs from dairy facilities, but differences in the design and operation of dairies in the San Joaquin Valley as well as seasonal variations mean that additional measurements must be made to accurately determine emissions inventories for the region.

  4. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  5. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  7. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile organic sulphur and selenium compounds in beers, wines and spirits using gas chromatography and atomic emission detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Natalia; Peñalver, Rosa; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-09-25

    A rapid and solvent-free method for the determination of eight volatile organic sulphur and two selenium compounds in different beverage samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with atomic emission detection has been developed. The bonded carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was the most suitable for preconcentrating the analytes from the headspace of the sample solution. Volumes of 20 mL of undiluted beer were used while, in the case of wines and spirits, sample:water ratios of 5:15 and 2:18, respectively, were used, in order to obtain the maximum sensitivity. Quantitation was carried out by using synthetic matrices of beer and wine, and a spiked sample for spirits, and using ethyl methyl sulphide and isopropyl disulphide as internal standards. Detection limits ranged from 8 ng L(-1) to 40 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound and the beverage sample analyzed, with a fiber time exposure of 20 min at ambient temperature. The optimized method was successfully applied to different samples, some of the studied compounds being detected at concentration levels in the 0.04-152 ng mL(-1) range.

  8. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  9. Multivariate analysis of volatile compounds detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography: A tool for sensory classification of cork stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantal; Besalú, Emili; Bañeras, Lluís; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2011-06-15

    The volatile fraction of aqueous cork macerates of tainted and non-tainted agglomerate cork stoppers was analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography. Twenty compounds containing terpenoids, aliphatic alcohols, lignin-related compounds and others were selected and analysed in individual corks. Cork stoppers were previously classified in six different classes according to sensory descriptions including, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole taint and other frequent, non-characteristic odours found in cork. A multivariate analysis of the chromatographic data of 20 selected chemical compounds using linear discriminant analysis models helped in the differentiation of the a priori made groups. The discriminant model selected five compounds as the best combination. Selected compounds appear in the model in the following order; 2,4,6 TCA, fenchyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzothiazole. Unfortunately, not all six a priori differentiated sensory classes were clearly discriminated in the model, probably indicating that no measurable differences exist in the chromatographic data for some categories. The predictive analyses of a refined model in which two sensory classes were fused together resulted in a good classification. Prediction rates of control (non-tainted), TCA, musty-earthy-vegetative, vegetative and chemical descriptions were 100%, 100%, 85%, 67.3% and 100%, respectively, when the modified model was used. The multivariate analysis of chromatographic data will help in the classification of stoppers and provide a perfect complement to sensory analyses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  11. TS-1 and TS-2 transient overpower tests on FFTF fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.; Ferrell, P.C.; Culley, G.E.; Weber, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The TS-1 and TS-2 TREAT transient experiments subjected a low burnup (2 MWd/kg) and a medium burnup (58 MWd/kg), respectively, FFTF irradiated fuel pin to unprotected 5 cents/s overpower transient conditions. The fuel pin failure response was similar in the two tests, which demonstrated a large margin to failure (P/P 0 > 3) and a favorable upper level failure location. Thus, for these transient conditions, burnup effects on transient performance appeared to be minimal in the range tested. Pin disruption in the medium burnup TS-2 test was more severe due to the higher fission gas pressurization, but failure occurred at only a 5% lower power level than for the low burnup TS-1 fuel pin. Both tests exhibited axial extrusion of molten fuel to the region above the fuel column several seconds before pin failure, demonstrating a potentially beneficial inherent safety mechanism to delay failure and mitigate accident consequences

  12. Improved quantification of livestock associated odorous volatile organic compounds in a standard flow-through system using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuyan; Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Jenks, William S; Laor, Yael; Leeuwen, J Hans van; Hoff, Steven J

    2015-10-02

    Aerial emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important nuisance factor from livestock production systems. Reliable air sampling and analysis methods are needed to develop and test odor mitigation technologies. Quantification of VOCs responsible for livestock odor remains an analytical challenge due to physicochemical properties of VOCs and the requirement for low detection thresholds. A new air sampling and analysis method was developed for testing of odor/VOCs mitigation in simulated livestock emissions system. A flow-through standard gas generating system simulating odorous VOCs in livestock barn emissions was built on laboratory scale and tested to continuously generate ten odorous VOCs commonly defining livestock odor. Standard VOCs included sulfur VOCs (S-VOCs), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and p-cresol. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized for sampling of diluted odorous gas mixtures in the moving air followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. CAR/PDMS 85μm fiber was shown to have the best sensitivity for the target odorous VOCs. A practical 5-min sampling time was selected to ensure optimal extraction of VFAs and p-cresol, as well as minimum displacement of S-VOCs. Method detection limits ranged from 0.39 to 2.64ppbv for S-VOCs, 0.23 to 0.77ppbv for VFAs, and 0.31ppbv for p-cresol. The method developed was applied to quantify VOCs and odorous VOC mitigation with UV light treatment. The measured concentrations ranged from 20.1 to 815ppbv for S-VOCs, 10.3 to 315ppbv for VFAs, and 4.73 to 417ppbv for p-cresol. Relative standard deviations between replicates ranged from 0.67% to 12.9%, 0.50% to 11.4%, 0.83% to 5.14% for S-VOCs, VFAs, and p-cresol, respectively. This research shows that a simple manual SPME sampler could be used successfully for quantification of important classes of odorous VOCs at concentrations relevant for real aerial emissions from livestock operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  13. T.S. Eliot i nordisk efterkrigstidsdigtning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Stein

    2009-01-01

    andet indkredses den særlige fascinationskraft ved Eliots æstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i The Waste Land (1922), nemlig at der er tale om en uhyre sofistikeret brug af montageformen. For det tredje peges der gennem et par digtlæsninger på, hvordan Eliots montage-æstetik kan følges i nordisk poesi......Hvad er årsagen til, at T.S. Eliot måske mere end nogen anden digter har haft indflydelse på nordiske digtere i det 20. århundrede? Dette vil blive undersøgt i tre tempi i denne artikel. For det første gives der et generelt rids af, hvor man finder T.S. Eliots aftryk i nordisk litteratur. For det...

  14. Determination of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters using headspace solid-phase microextraction with a benzyl-functionalized crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdivan, Melek; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-08-01

    A benzyl-functionalized crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL), produced through the co-polymerization of the 1-vinylbenzyl-3-hexadecylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (VBHDIM-NTf 2 ) ionic liquid (IL) monomer and 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium)dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ((DVBIM) 2 C 12- 2NTf 2 ) IL crosslinker, was successfully used as a sorbent coating in headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection (FID) to determine seven volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. Optimum extraction conditions for the PAHs when using the novel sorbent include an extraction temperature of 50°C, an ionic strength content adjusted with 30% (w/v) NaCl in the aqueous sample, and an extraction time of 60 min. The extraction performance of the crosslinked PIL fiber was compared to the SPME commercial coating polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The calibration ranges of the studied PAHs were linear in the range of 0.02-20 µg L -1 for the crosslinked PIL fiber. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated by examining the spiked recoveries of seven PAHs which produced values ranging from 67.2% to 130% (for river- and seawater samples), and precision values lower than 9.4% for a spiked level of 1 µg L -1 , and detection limits between 0.01 and 0.04 µg L -1 , which supports the sensitivity of the method using GC-FID.

  15. Evaluation of needle trap micro-extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction: Obtaining comprehensive information on volatile emissions from in vitro cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Peter; Bergmann, Andreas; Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Küntzel, Anne; Reinhold, Petra; Köhler, Heike; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2018-05-14

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from in vitro cultures may reveal information on species and metabolism. Owing to low nmol L -1 concentration ranges, pre-concentration techniques are required for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based analyses. This study was intended to compare the efficiency of established micro-extraction techniques - solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and needle-trap micro-extraction (NTME) - for the analysis of complex VOC patterns. For SPME, a 75 μm Carboxen®/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was used. The NTME needle was packed with divinylbenzene, Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000. The headspace was sampled bi-directionally. Seventy-two VOCs were calibrated by reference standard mixtures in the range of 0.041-62.24 nmol L -1 by means of GC-MS. Both pre-concentration methods were applied to profile VOCs from cultures of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 3.93 nmol L -1 (median = 0.030 nmol L -1 ) for NTME and from 0.001 to 5.684 nmol L -1 (median = 0.043 nmol L -1 ) for SPME. NTME showed advantages in assessing polar compounds such as alcohols. SPME showed advantages in reproducibility but disadvantages in sensitivity for N-containing compounds. Micro-extraction techniques such as SPME and NTME are well suited for trace VOC profiling over cultures if the limitations of each technique is taken into account. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  17. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, M.I.; Beltran, J.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. → Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. → Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. → HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 μm fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 μg L -1 ). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs

  18. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervera, M.I. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Beltran, J., E-mail: joaquim.beltran@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. {yields} Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. {yields} Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. {yields} HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 {mu}m fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with

  19. Heavy metal speciation in solid-phase materials from a bacterial sulfate reducing bioreactor using sequential extraction procedure combined with acid volatile sulfide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-04-01

    Heavy metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity depends largely on the chemical form of metals and ultimately determines potential for environmental pollution. For this reason, determining the chemical form of heavy metals and metalloids, immobilized in sludges by biological mediated sulfate reduction, is important to evaluate their mobility and bioavailability. A modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure (SEP), complemented with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneous extracted metals (SEM) measurements, were applied to determine the partitioning of five heavy metals (defined as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, and the metalloid As) in anoxic solid-phase material (ASM) from an anaerobic, sulfate reducing bioreactor into six operationally defined fractions. These fractions were water soluble, exchangeable, bound to carbonates (acid soluble), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (reducible), bound to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable) and residual. It was found that the distribution of Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and As in ASM was strongly influenced by its association with the above solid fractions. The fraction corresponding to organic matter and sulfides appeared to be the most important scavenging phases of As, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu in ASM (59.8-86.7%). This result was supported by AVS and SEM (Sigma Zn, Ni and Cu) measurements, which indicated that the heavy metals existed overwhelmingly as sulfides in the organic matter and sulfide fraction. A substantial amount of Fe and Ni at 16.4 and 20.1%, respectively, were also present in the carbonate fraction, while an appreciable portion of As (18.3%) and Zn (19.4%) was bound to Fe-Mn oxides. A significant amount of heavy metals was also associated with the residual fraction, ranging from 2.1% for Zn to 18.8% for As. Based on the average total extractable heavy metal (TEHM) values, the concentration of heavy metals in the ASM was in the order of Cu > Ni > Zn > Fe > As. If the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals are assumed to be

  20. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  1. An Effective Method to Detect Volatile Intermediates Generated in the Bioconversion of Coal to Methane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after In-Situ Extraction Using Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction under Strict Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Baoyu; Tai, Chao; Wu, Li; Zhao, Han; Guan, Jiadong; Chen, Linyong

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of coal to methane has gained increased attention in recent decades because of its economic and environmental advantages. However, the mechanism of this process is difficult to study in depth, partly because of difficulties associated with the analysis of intermediates generated in coal bioconversion. In this investigation, we report on an effective method to analyze volatile intermediates generated in the bioconversion of coal under strict anaerobic conditions. We conduct in-situ extraction of intermediates using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioconversion simulation equipment was modified and combined with a solid-phase micro-extraction device. In-situ extraction could be achieved by using the combined units, to avoid a breakdown in anaerobic conditions and to maintain the experiment continuity. More than 30 intermediates were identified qualitatively in the conversion process, and the variation in trends of some typical intermediates has been discussed. Volatile organic acids (C2-C7) were chosen for a quantitative study of the intermediates because of their importance during coal bioconversion to methane. Fiber coating, extraction time, and solution acidity were optimized in the solid-phase micro-extraction procedure. The pressure was enhanced during the bioconversion process to investigate the influence of headspace pressure on analyte extraction. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.0006 to 0.02 mmol/L for the volatile organic acids and the relative standard deviations were between 4.6% and 11.5%. The volatile organic acids (C2-C7) generated in the bioconversion process were 0.01-1.15 mmol/L with a recovery range from 80% to 105%. The developed method is useful for further in-depth research on the bioconversion of coal to methane.

  2. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  3. Influence of harvest maturity and fruit logistics on pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) volatiles assessed by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof B; Grauwet, Tara; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-05-01

    Profiling of volatiles from pineapple fruits was performed at four ripening stages using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). In total, 142 volatiles were detected, of which 132 were identified. Multivariate data analysis was carried out to assess the effect of post-harvest storage on volatiles composition of green-ripe sea-freighted pineapple in comparison to air-freighted fruits harvested at full maturity. The latter fruits were characterised by volatiles described as potent odorants in pineapples, such as δ-octalactone, γ-lactones, 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene and 1,3,5,8-undecatetraene, as well as various methyl esters. In contrast, post-harvest storage of green-ripe sea-freighted fruits resulted in an increased formation of ethyl esters, acetates, acetoxy esters and alcohols, thus allowing the authentication of sea- and air-freighted pineapples, respectively. Particularly, compounds presumably derived from methyl-branched amino acid catabolism were identified in the fruits at later post-harvest stages. In addition, physicochemical traits were determined to characterise the fruit maturity stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-targeted volatile profiles for the classification of the botanical origin of Chinese honey by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Jin, Linghe; Fan, Chunlin; Wang, Wenwen

    2017-11-01

    A potential method for the discrimination and prediction of honey samples of various botanical origins was developed based on the non-targeted volatile profiles obtained by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. The blind analysis of non-targeted volatile profiles was carried out using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for 87 authentic honey samples from four botanical origins (acacia, linden, vitex, and rape). The number of variables was reduced from 2734 to 70 by using a series of filters. Based on the optimized 70 variables, 79.12% of the variance was explained by the first four principal components. Partial least squares discriminant analysis, naïve Bayes analysis, and back-propagation artificial neural network were used to develop the classification and prediction models. The 100% accuracy revealed a perfect classification of the botanical origins. In addition, the reliability and practicability of the models were validated by an independent set of additional 20 authentic honey samples. All 20 samples were accurately classified. The confidence measures indicated that the performance of the naïve Bayes model was better than the other two models. Finally, the characteristic volatile compounds of linden honey were tentatively identified. The proposed method is reliable and accurate for the classification of honey of various botanical origins. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Graphene-supported zinc oxide solid-phase microextraction coating with enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of sulfur volatiles in Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suling; Du, Zhuo; Li, Gongke

    2012-10-19

    A graphene-supported zinc oxide (ZnO) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared via a sol-gel approach. Graphite oxide (GO), with rich oxygen-containing groups, was selected as the starting material to anchor ZnO on its nucleation center. After being deoxidized by hydrazine, the Zn(OH)2/GO coating was dehydrated at high temperature to give the ZnO/graphene coating. Sol-gel technology could efficiently incorporate ZnO/graphene composites into the sol-gel network and provided strong chemical bonding between sol-gel polymeric SPME coating and silica fiber surface, which enhanced the durability of the fiber and allowed more than 200 replicate extractions. Results indicated that pure ZnO coated fiber did not show adsorption selectivity toward sulfur compounds, which might because the ZnO nanoparticles were enwrapped in the sol-gel network, and the strong coordination action between Zn ion and S ion was therefore blocked. The incorporation of graphene into ZnO based sol-gel network greatly enlarged the BET surface area from 1.2 m2/g to 169.4 m2/g and further increased the adsorption sites. Combining the superior properties of extraordinary surface area of graphene and the strong coordination action of ZnO to sulfur compounds, the ZnO/graphene SPME fiber showed much higher adsorption affinity to 1-octanethiol (enrichment factor, EF, 1087) than other aliphatic compounds without sulfur-containing groups (EFsPDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) SPME fibers. Several most abundant sulfur volatiles in Chinese chive and garlic sprout were analyzed using the ZnO/graphene SPME fiber in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their limits of detection were 0.1-0.7 μg/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) using one fiber ranged from 3.6% to 9.1%. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility for three parallel prepared fibers was 4.8-10.8%. The contents were in the range of 1.0-46.4 μg/g with recoveries of 80.1-91.6% for four main

  6. Bureau de documentation TS/EL/DO

    CERN Document Server

    Dujardin, M

    2004-01-01

    Le bureau de documentation a comme responsabilité de fournir et manager toute la documentation nécessaire au groupe TS-EL. Ce travail utilise des outils CAO (EUCLID- AUTOCAD) et de gestion de base de donnés ORACLE (GESMAR,EDMS) largement utilisé dans le département TS mais aussi des applications métiers tel que le transfert des donnés CAO vers les bases de données, le cheminement automatique ou la schématique électrique. La section se concentre sur des études de grands ensembles et l'intégration 3D des équipements électriques. Les études de services généraux sont généralement sous-traitées. Le projet LHC occupe actuellement la quasi totalité de nos ressources. Pour mener à bien les études électriques du LHC, caractérisées par une définition tardive des besoins et de nombreuses modifications, une structure souple et réactive a été mis en place : Une cellule CAO 3D EUCLID, en charge des layouts d'équipements et des cheminements, en relation avec l'intégration, et une cellule d'é...

  7. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  8. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi......The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  9. The TS 600: automatic control system for eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulet, J.P.

    1986-10-01

    In the scope of fabrication and in service inspection of the PWR steam generator tubing bendle, FRAMATOME developed an automatic Eddy Current testing system: TS600. Based on a mini-computer, TS600 allows to digitize, to store and to process data in various ways, so it is possible to perform several kinds of inspection: conventional inservice inspection, roll area profilometry...... TS600 can also be used to develop new methods of examination [fr

  10. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  11. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of selected volatile organic compounds in human urine by gas chromatography selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-SRI-TOF-MS) coupled with head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl

    2016-08-07

    Selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with NO(+) as the reagent ion (SRI-TOF-MS(NO(+))) in conjunction with gas chromatography (GC) and head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to determine selected volatile organic compounds in human urine. A total of 16 volatiles exhibiting high incidence rates were quantified in the urine of 19 healthy volunteers. Amongst them there were ten ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 4-heptanone), three volatile sulphur compounds (dimethyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, and methyl propyl sulfide), and three heterocyclic compounds (furan, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran). The concentrations of the species under study varied between 0.55 nmol L(-1) (0.05 nmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for allyl methyl sulfide and 11.6 μmol L(-1) (1.54 μmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for acetone considering medians. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.08 nmol L(-1) for allyl methyl sulfide to 1.0 nmol L(-1) for acetone and furan (with RSDs ranging from 5 to 9%). The presented experimental setup assists both real-time and GC analyses of volatile organic compounds, which can be performed consecutively using the same analytical system. Such an approach supports the novel concept of hybrid volatolomics, an approach which combines VOC profiles obtained from two or more body fluids to improve and complement the chemical information on the physiological status of an individual.

  13. Stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces the concept of stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time and, hence, extends standard stochastic volatility (SV) models to allow for an additional source of randomness associated with greater variability in the data. We discuss how stochastic volatility...... of volatility can be defined both non-parametrically, where we link it to the quadratic variation of the stochastic variance process, and parametrically, where we propose two new SV models which allow for stochastic volatility of volatility. In addition, we show that volatility of volatility can be estimated...

  14. Identification and characterization of a Bacillus subtilis strain TS06 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replant disease is a major limitation for strawberry production in greenhouse. Bio-control may be a good way to cope with the replant diseases. Here, we report identification and characterization of a bacterial strain TS06 that may be used as a bio-control agent against the replant diseases in strawberry. TS06 was identified ...

  15. TS LOOP NON-POTABLE PUMP EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    1999-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the existing subsurface non-potable water system from the portal pump to the end of the water line in the South Ramp and determines if the pump size and spacing meets the system pressure and flow requirements for construction operations and incipient fire fighting capability as established in the Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M andO 1998b). This analysis does not address the non potable water system in the Cross Drift which is covered under a previous design analysis (CRWMS-M andO 1998a). The Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis references sections of OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart L for requirements applicable to the incipient fire fighting hose stations used underground. This analysis does not address mechanical system valves, fittings, risers and other components of the system piping. This system is not designed or intended to meet all National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes for a fire fighting system but is only considered a backup system to fire extinguishers that are installed throughout the Topopah Springs (TS) Loop and may be used to fight small incipient stage fires

  16. LIDAR TS for ITER core plasma. Part II: simultaneous two wavelength LIDAR TS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, C.; Nielsen, P.; Salzmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    We have shown recently, and in more detail at this conference (Salzmann et al) that the LIDAR approach to ITER core TS measurements requires only two mirrors in the inaccessible port plug area of the machine. This leads to simplified and robust alignment, lower risk of mirror damage by plasma contamination and much simpler calibration, compared with the awkward and vulnerable optical geometry of the conventional imaging TS approach, currently under development by ITER. In the present work we have extended the simulation code used previously to include the case of launching two laser pulses, of different wavelengths, simultaneously in LIDAR geometry. The aim of this approach is to broaden the choice of lasers available for the diagnostic. In the simulation code it is assumed that two short duration (300 ps) laser pulses of different wavelengths, from an Nd:YAG laser are launched through the plasma simultaneously. The temperature and density profiles are deduced in the usual way but from the resulting combined scattered signals in the different spectral channels of the single spectrometer. The spectral response and quantum efficiencies of the detectors used in the simulation are taken from catalogue data for commercially available Hamamatsu MCP-PMTs. The response times, gateability and tolerance to stray light levels of this type of photomultiplier have already been demonstrated in the JET LIDAR system and give sufficient spatial resolution to meet the ITER specification. Here we present the new simulation results from the code. They demonstrate that when the detectors are combined with this two laser, LIDAR approach, the full range of the specified ITER core plasma Te and ne can be measured with sufficient accuracy. So, with commercially available detectors and a simple modification of a Nd:YAG laser similar to that currently being used in the design of the conventional ITER core TS design mentioned above, the ITER requirements can be met.

  17. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  18. Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eCogiamanian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years renewed interest has centered on non-invasive transcutaneous weak direct currents applied over the scalp to modulate cortical excitability (brain polarization or transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS. Extensive literature shows that tDCS induces marked changes in cortical excitability that outlast stimulation.Aiming at developing a new, non invasive, approach to spinal cord neuromodulation we assessed the after-effects of thoracic transcutaneous spinal DC stimulation (tsDCS on somatosensory potentials (SEPs evoked in healthy subjects by posterior tibial nerve (PTN stimulation. Our findings showed that thoracic anodal tsDCS depresses the cervico-medullary PTN-SEP component (P30 without eliciting adverse effects. tsDCS also modulates post-activation H-reflex dynamics. Later works further confirmed that transcutaneous electric fields modulate spinal cord function. Subsequent studies in our laboratory showed that tsDCS modulates the flexion reflex in the human lower limb. Besides influencing the laser evoked potentials, tsDCS increases pain tolerance in healthy subjects. Hence, though the underlying mechanisms remain speculative, tsDCS modulates activity in lemniscal, spinothalamic and segmental motor systems.Here we review currently available experimental evidence that non-invasive spinal cord stimulation influences spinal function in humans and argue that, by focally modulating spinal excitability, tsDCS could provide a novel therapeutic tool complementary to drugs and invasive spinal cord stimulation in managing various pathologic conditions, including pain.

  19. Effect of mixture ratio, solids concentration and hydraulic retention time on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongsatitkul, Prayoon; Elefsiniotis, Panagiotis; Wareham, David G

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes how the degradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is affected through codigestion with varying amounts of return activated sludge (RAS). Solid waste that had its inorganic fraction selectively removed was mixed with RAS in ratios of 100% OFMSW, 50% OFMSW/50% RAS, and 25% OFMSW/75% RAS. The total solids (TS) concentration was held at 8% and three anaerobic digester systems treating the mixtures were held (for the first run) at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 28 days. Increasing amounts of RAS did not however improve the mixture's digestability, as indicated by little change and/or a drop in the main performance indices [including percentage volatile solids (VS) removal and specific gas production]. The optimum ratio in this research therefore appeared to be 100% OFMSW with an associated 85.1 ± 0.6% VS removal and 0.72 ± 0.01 L total gas g(- 1) VS. In the second run, the effect of increasing percentage of TS (8, 12% and 15%) at a system HRT of 28 days was observed to yield no improvement in the main performance indices (i.e. percentage VS removal and specific gas production). Finally, during the third run, variations in the total system HRT were investigated at an 8% TS, again using 100% OFMSW. Of the HRTs explored (23, 28 and 33 days), the longest HRT yielded the best performance overall, particularly in terms of specific gas production (0.77 ± 0.01 L total gas g(-1) VS).

  20. TS WEBSITE AND SOCIAL MEDIA ANALYTICS- DECEMBER 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This PowerPoint included accomplishments reached in December 2016, along with how many TS users and Pulse users there are currently. Not only does this PowerPoint...

  1. TS WEBSITE AND SOCIAL MEDIA ANALYTICS NOVEMBER 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This PowerPoint included accomplishments reached in November 2016, along with how many TS users and Pulse users there are currently. Not only does this PowerPoint...

  2. Operation and consolidation: lifetime of equipment and priorities TS

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar-Alonso, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999 the TS department has benchmarked his services with the industry and other research laboratories and has prepared several consolidation plans. An evaluation of the results obtained from the different consolidation plans will be summarized. The difference between the projects achieved and those planned will be analyzed. The impact of the differed consolidation and of the maintenance backlog will be analyzed in order to present the future TS consolidation strategy

  3. DECREASE OF SOLIDS IN GRAY WATER BY AERATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alonso Torres-Avalos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process is a biological treatment consisting basically of agitation and aeration of a waste water mixture and a selected microorganisms sludge. The oxidation of organic matter was determined with several tests such as BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Sedimented Solids, SS (Sediment Solids, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, FVS (fixed and volatile solids and finally a measurement of treated water turbidity. The results obtained for the reduction of the organic load during the first two days of treatment (samples 1, 2 and 3 are visible in each of the organic loading tests; during the last two days according to the samples 4 and 5 the solids showed an increase in organic load. The related organoleptic properties such as color showed a notable decrease. As for the tests performed at pH show a change, samples 1, 2 and 3 approaching a range where they are neutral and the last two samples (4 and 5 the pH has an elevation until it becomes alkaline. The efficiency of the method used for the treatment of residual water during the first days reduced the organic load with a variation of TS and TSS of 760, 569 ppm respectively. This is a viable alternative since this is a low cost method with short term results because organoleptic properties such as odor and color were lost during the first day of treatment.

  4. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  5. Composition control of low-volatile solids through chemical vapor transport reactions. III. The example of gallium monoselenide: Control of the polytypic structure, non-stoichiometry and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavrazhnov, A.; Naumov, A.; Sidey, V.; Pervov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work is devoted to the composition control of solids with selective CVT method. ► Phase identity and non-stoichiometry of solids (GaSe, etc.) depend on CVT-temperatures. ► The interrelation between the properties of GaSe and CVT conditions is also found. ► For iodide transporting system the diagram of phase stability of solids is adjusted. ► High temperatures and Se-rich non-stoichiometry are necessary for γ-GaSe stability. - Abstract: By means of particular examples, the present work demonstrates the possibility of directed delicate non-destructive control of structure, composition and properties of inorganic solids using the method of selective chemical vapor transport (SCVT). Gallium monoselenide GaSe is the main model object. Additional, though less detailed, explanation is given by the example of gallium monosulfide GaS. Experimental evidences on the possibility of the control of polytypic structure, non-stoichiometry and properties of gallium monoselenide were obtained in non-isothermal variant of selective chemical vapor transport which has non-destructive character. Diagnostics of the phase (polytypic) composition and non-stoichiometry of GaSe was performed with the use of X-ray diffractometry as well as with the use of cathode luminescence spectra. It was experimentally found that there exists a connection of non-stoichiometry and the properties of gallium selenides with the determining conditions of selective chemical vapor transport: temperature of controlled sample (T 2 ) and the difference of temperatures between the hot and cold zones (ΔT). It is shown that the phase diagram of Ga–Se system needs to be partially revised near the composition of Ga 1 Se 1 . The reason for such revision is the fact that two polytypes (ε-GaSe and γ-GaSe) exist on this phase diagram as independent phases.

  6. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemically pretreating slaughterhouse solid waste to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Juarez, Cyntia R; Rodríguez-García, Adrián; Cárdenas-Mijangos, Jesús; Montoya-Herrera, Leticia; Godinez Mora-Tovar, Luis A; Bustos-Bustos, Erika; Rodríguez-Valadez, Francisco; Manríquez-Rocha, Juan

    2014-10-01

    The combined effect of temperature and pretreatment of the substrate on the anaerobic treatment of the organic fraction of slaughterhouse solid waste was studied. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of pretreating the waste on the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. The effect was analyzed at two temperature ranges (the psychrophilic and the mesophilic ranges), in order to evaluate the effect of temperature on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process for this residue. The experiments were performed in 6 L batch reactors for 30 days. Two temperature ranges were studied: the psychrophilic range (at room temperature, 18°C average) and the mesophilic range (at 37°C). The waste was pretreated with NaOH before the anaerobic treatment. The result of pretreating with NaOH was a 194% increase in the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) with a dose of 0.6 g NaOH per g of volatile suspended solids (VSS). In addition, the soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand ratio (sCOD/tCOD) increased from 0.31 to 0.7. For the anaerobic treatment, better results were observed in the mesophilic range, achieving 70.7%, 47% and 47.2% removal efficiencies for tCOD, total solids (TS), and volatile solids (VS), respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Construction of a system for proper TS-1 application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Sayaka; Morimoto, Shigefumi; Kagawa, Kunihiko; Katada, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi

    2010-03-01

    TS-1 is an oral anti-tumor drug, which contains 5-chloro-2, 4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), a compound mainly excreted in urine. Since the CDHP concentration is increased among patients with impaired renal function, the frequency of side effects of TS-1 increases in such patients. Therefore, we constructed a computer-aided system that enables prompt monitoring of creatinine clearance (Ccr) calculated from the serum creatinine levels of patients prescribed TS-1 at the time pharmacists prepare the medicine. With this system, we found two cases who were prescribed TS-1, despite their decreased Ccr. One was a patient whose estimated Ccr was less than 30 mL/min/m2. With such renal malfunction, pharmacokinetics of the drug was considerably changed compared with normal control, and the dosage should be reduced. The other case presented with severe jaundice and had only a mild decrease of renal function (Ccr: 50 mL/min/m2). So we measured the concentration of uracil in the urine and performed a drug lymphocyte stimulation test for further investigation of concomitant affecting factors. Our system is useful because it can show pharmacists both the dosage TS-1 patients take and their renal function at a glance in real time. This system can be adapted for every medicine which might accumulate in patients with renal dysfunction.

  9. Cell cycle phase dependent emergence of thymidylate synthase studied by monoclonal antibody (M-TS-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, S; Hoshino, T; Iwasaki, K; Nomura, K; Jastreboff, M M

    1989-05-01

    A method of identifying thymidylate synthase (TS) at the cellular level was developed using anti-TS monoclonal antibody (M-TS-4), a monoclonal antibody created against purified TS from a HeLa cell line. In HeLa cells and four human glioma cell lines (U-251, U-87, 343-MGA, and SF-188), TS was identified primarily in the cytoplasm. Autoradiographic and flow cytometric studies showed that TS appeared mainly in the G1 phase and subsided early in the S phase; thus, the G1 phase can be divided into TS-positive and -negative fractions. Nuclear TS was not demonstrated unequivocally with M-TS-4, and the relationship between nuclear TS and DNA synthesis could not be determined. Although the percentage of TS-positive cells was larger than the S-phase fraction measured by autoradiography after a pulse of tritiated thymidine or by the immunoperoxidase method using BUdR, the ratios were within a similar range (1.2-1.4) in all cell lines studied. Therefore, the S-phase fraction can be estimated indirectly from the percentage of TS-positive cells measured by M-TS-4. Because the emergence of TS detected by our method is cell cycle dependent, M-TS-4 may be useful for biochemical studies of TS and for cytokinetic analysis.

  10. Gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry of Pinot Noir wine volatile compounds (δ13C) and solid residues (δ13C, δ15N) for the reassessment of vineyard water-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Vogiatzaki, Maria; Zufferey, Vivian

    2017-09-29

    This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ 13 C VOC/VPDB ) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ 13 C SR/VPDB , δ 15 N SR/Air-N2 ). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques. Wines were produced from the grapes by the same oenological protocol. This permitted for the assessment of the effects in the biochemistry of wines solely induced by the changes in the plant-soil water status. This mimicked the more recurrent and prolonged periods of soil water deficiency due to climate changes. Water stress in grapevine was assessed by the measurement of the predawn leaf water potential (Ψ pd ) and the stable carbon isotope composition of the berry sugars during harvest (must sugars). For quantitation purposes and the normalization of the measured stable carbon isotope ratios of the VOCs, the wine samples were spiked with three standard compounds with known concentration and δ 13 C VPDB values. VOCs were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and GC/C/IRMS. δ 13 C values were obtained for eighteen VOCs. The solid residues were obtained by freeze-drying wine aliquots and were analyzed for their C and N content and isotope composition by EA/IRMS. All the isotopic ratios (δ 13 C SR , δ 15 N SR , δ 13 C VOC ) are highly correlated with the Ψ pd values, indicating that the proposed gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach is a useful tool to

  11. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L{sup -1} were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies. (orig.)

  12. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John R; Asteria-Peñaloza, Renée; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Davila, Gilberto; Hammond, S Katharine; Ryde, Ian T; Meyer, Joel N; Benowitz, Neal; Thompson, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers. Urine was collected from 23 women who were 3 months post-partum three times over 72h: morning (fasting), after lunch, and following dinner or use of wood-fired traditional sauna baths (samples=68). Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations of metabolites of four PAHs and eight VOCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Long-term (pregnancy through 3 months prenatal) exposure to particulate matter and airborne PAHs were measured. Women using wood-fueled chimney stoves are exposed to high levels of particulate matter (median 48h PM 2.5 105.7μg/m 3 ; inter-quartile range (IQR): 77.6-130.4). Urinary PAH and VOC metabolites were significantly associated with woodsmoke exposures: 2-naphthol (median (IQR) in ng/mg creatinine: 295.9 (74.4-430.9) after sauna versus 23.9 (17.1-49.5) fasting; and acrolein: 571.7 (429.3-1040.7) after sauna versus 268.0 (178.3-398.6) fasting. Urinary PAH (total PAH: ρ=0.89, p0.85) or PAH and VOC biomarkers (ρ=-0.20 to 0.38, p>0.07). Urinary metabolite concentrations were significantly greater than those of heavy smokers (mean cigarettes/day=18) across all PAHs. In 15 (65%) women, maximum 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations exceeded the occupational exposure limit of coke-oven workers. The high concentrations of urinary PAH and VOC metabolites among

  13. Kunstisuvi 1999 / Sirje Eelma, Rait Prääts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eelma, Sirje, 1950-

    1999-01-01

    12. juunist näitus "Rahvusvaheline väikegraafika ja eesti väikeskulptuur" Kuressaare Raegaleriis. Koostajad ja kujundajad Sirje Eelma, Terje Ojaver. 19. juunist Haapsalu Linnagaleriis ja lisaruumides väljapanek "Motiiv". Koostajad Agur Kruusing, Sirje Eelma, Rait Prääts, kujundaja Agur Kruusing. Pärnu Linnagaleriis näitus "Minimaal". Koostaja ja kujundaja Rait Prääts. Muuseumiaidas eesti noorema kunsti väljapanek "Voolab". Koostaja Karol Kallas. Juuli lõpul Selgase dolomiidipäevad Kuressaares. Pärast põhinäituste lõppemist valiknäitus Paide Vallitornis

  14. Emotion of Physiological Signals Classification Based on TS Feature Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yujing; Mo Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper propose a method of TS-MLP about emotion recognition of physiological signal.It can recognize emotion successfully by Tabu search which selects features of emotion’s physiological signals and multilayer perceptron that is used to classify emotion.Simulation shows that it has achieved good emotion classification performance.

  15. TS-05: 150 lines of java with high architectural complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    In the short time span available in a software architecture course, it is difficult to find a software system that is both interesting from an architectural perspective and so small that it does not overwhelm the students.We present TS-05 which is a bare 150 line Java "toy-system" that never...

  16. Enhanced catalytic oxidation by hierarchically structured TS-1 zeolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, H.; Zhao, Jiao; Zhao, J.; Xu, S.; Li, Junping; Zhang, Weiping; Guo, X.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Yang, Q.; Li, Can

    2010-01-01

    A TS-1 zeolite with a disordered network of mesopores penetrating the microporous crystalline zeolite framework was successfully synthesized by a one-pot carbon hard-templating synthesis approach. Besides conventional methods to characterize the mesoporosity, the use of variable-temperature 129Xe

  17. Move of Purchasing Offices TS – AB* – AT*

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The TS – AB* - AT* Purchasing Offices and the Purchasing Pool have moved to Building 5 – 2nd and *3rd floors. The phone and fax numbers are unchanged. We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the move. Thank you for your understanding. Finance Department – Purchasing Service.

  18. Theatrical Style and the Work of T.S. Eliot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Warren Meredith

    This study examines T.S. Eliot's intentions for the staging of his plays, as revealed in the texts themselves and in related documents. His plays reflect his basically naturalistic conception of the stage environment and the acting; two of the plays, "Sweeney Agonistes," which was unfinished, and "The Family Reunion," demonstrate his inability to…

  19. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  20. Vacuum-assisted headspace-solid phase microextraction for determining volatile free fatty acids and phenols. Investigations on the effect of pressure on competitive adsorption phenomena in a multicomponent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Psillakis, Elefteria; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Yiantzi, Evangelia; Afonso, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    This work proposes a new vacuum headspace solid-phase microextraction (Vac-HSSPME) method combined to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection for the determination of free fatty acids (FFAs) and phenols. All target analytes of the multicomponent solution were volatiles but their low Henry's Law constants rendered them amenable to Vac-HSSPME. The ability of a new and easy to construct Vac-HSSPME sampler to maintain low-pressure conditions for extended sampling times was concurrently demonstrated. Vac-HSSPME and regular HSSPME methods were independently optimized and the results were compared at all times. The performances of four commercial SPME fibers and two polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME fibers were evaluated and the best overall results were obtained with the adsorbent-type CAR/PDMS fiber. For the concentrations used here, competitive displacement became more intense for the smaller and more volatile analytes of the multi-component solution when lowering the sampling pressure. The extraction time profiles showed that Vac-HSSPME had a dramatic positive effect on extraction kinetics. The local maxima of adsorbed analytes recorded with Vac-HSSPME occurred faster, but were always lower than that with regular HSSPME due to the faster analyte-loading from the multicomponent solution. Increasing the sampling temperature during Vac-HSSPME reduced the extraction efficiency of smaller analytes due to the enhancement in water molecule collisions with the fiber. This effect was not recorded for the larger phenolic compounds. Based on the optimum values selected, Vac-HSSPME required a shorter extraction time and milder sampling conditions than regular HSSPME: 20 min and 35 °C for Vac-HSSPME versus 40 min and 45 °C for regular HSSPME. The performance of the optimized Vac-HSSPME and regular HSSPME procedures were assessed and Vac-HSSPME method proved to be more sensitive, with lower limits of detection (from 0.14 to 13 μg L -1 ), and better intra

  1. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  2. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EPA Method 8321B (SW-846): Solvent-Extractable Nonvolatile Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Thermospray-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-TS-MS) or Ultraviolet (UV) Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 8321B describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, aqueous liquid, drinking water and wipe samples using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for extractable non-volatile compounds.

  4. Automotive standard ISO/TS 16949 as a quality determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present the standard ISO/TS 16949. In the modern world of competition, quality is one of the most important factors. Modern organizations should gamble on quality, regardless of the type of business, because it is the basic form of running a business effectively. It is not only a factor of market success, but also an indication of organizational culture.

  5. Electromagnetic noise spectrum at John TS [transmission station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    Canadian National (CN) is proposing the development of a commercial office tower on a site directly south of John Transmission Station (TS). CN is concerned about the potential effects of fields originating from John TS and other nearby sources on the operation of sensitive equipment and occupants of the building. Potential equipment and tenants might include data processing equipment and television and radio broadcasting companies. A study was conducted to characterize the severity of the electromagnetic environment at the site in order to address these concerns. Measurements of the electromagnetic spectrum from 100 kHz to 300 MHz were performed from a mobile test facility that features a 5 kW diesel generator and an extendible antenna mast. Peak measurements were made using a selectable measurement time of 0.05 s. It was found that the highest noise levels result from micro-gap discharges under dry weather conditions. The micro-gap discharges are characteristic of defect noise sources associated with substation hardware. At 0.5 MHz the noise levels are typical of median noise levels expected for the International Radio Consultive Committee (CCIR) defined business environment. At 74 MHz the noise levels are more severe than the expected levels for this type of environment. However, levels more representative of the business environment will be achieved by eliminating the micro-gap noise sources attributed to John TS. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Measurement of the CKM matrix element |V_ts

    CERN Document Server

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |V_ts|, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √s=8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb⁻¹. The analysis is based on 112171 reconstructed tt̅ candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 tt̅→WWbs̅ decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element |V_ts|². To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K0s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called "boosted decision trees". The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of |V_ts|² < 1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, includi...

  7. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  8. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  9. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  10. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  11. A Comparison of Tropical Storm (TS) and Non-TS Gust Factors for Assessing Peak Wind Probabilities at the Eastern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Crawford, Winifred C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is an important forecast element to ensure the safety of personnel and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in East-Central Florida. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), the organization that issues forecasts for the KSC/CCAFS area, finds that peak winds are more difficult to forecast than mean winds. This difficulty motivated the 45 WS to request two independent studies. The first (Merceret 2009) was the development of a reliable model for gust factors (GF) relating the peak to the mean wind speed in tropical storms (TS). The second (Lambert et al. 2008) was a climatological study of non-TS cool season (October-April) mean and peak wind speeds by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et al. 2004) without the use of GF. Both studies presented their statistics as functions of mean wind speed and height. Most of the few comparisons of TS and non-TS GF in the literature suggest that non-TS GF at a given height and mean wind speed are smaller than the corresponding TS GF. The investigation reported here converted the non-TS peak wind statistics calculated by the AMU to the equivalent GF statistics and compared them with the previous TS GF results. The advantage of this effort over all previously reported studies of its kind is that the TS and non-TS data were taken from the same towers in the same locations. This eliminates differing surface attributes, including roughness length and thermal properties, as a major source of variance in the comparison. The goal of this study is two-fold: to determine the relationship between the non-TS and TS GF and their standard deviations (GFSD) and to determine if models similar to those developed for TS data in Merceret (2009) could be developed for the non-TS environment. The results are consistent with the literature, but include much more detailed, quantitative information on the nature of the relationship between TS and non-TS GF and GFSD as a function

  12. Fast and simple screening for the simultaneous analysis of seven metabolites derived from five volatile organic compounds in human urine using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Ting-Chen; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on cancer classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1), based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong mechanistic evidence. In particular, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatized or released into the atmosphere and can become ubiquitous, as they originate from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, such as paints, pesticides, vehicle exhausts, cooking fumes, and tobacco smoke. Humans may be exposed to VOCs through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact, which may increase the risk of leukemia, birth defects, neurocognitive impairment, and cancer. Therefore, the focus of this study was the development of a simple, effective and rapid sample preparation method for the simultaneous determination of seven metabolites (6 mercaptic acids+t,t-muconic acid) derived from five VOCs (acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and xylene) in human urine by using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An aliquot of each diluted urinary sample was directly injected into an autosampler through a trap column to reduce contamination, and then the retained target compounds were eluted by back-flush mode into an analytical column for separation. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was utilized for quantification. The coefficients of correlation (r(2)) for the calibration curves were greater than 0.995. Reproducibility was assessed by the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day precision, which showed results for coefficient of variation (CV) that were low 0.9 to 6.6% and 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively, and results for recovery that ranged from 90.8 to 108.9% and 92.1 to 107.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of

  13. Reconstitution of Qbeta RNA replicase from a covalently bonded elongation factor Tu-Ts complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Blumenthal, T

    1976-01-01

    of these polypeptides, protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts, can be covalently crosslinked with dimethyl suberimidate to form a complex which lacks the ability to catalyze the known host functions catalyzed by the individual elongation factors. Using a previously developed reconstitution system we have...... examined the effects of crosslinking the EF-Tu-Ts complex on reconstituted replicase activity. Renaturation is significantly more efficient when exogenously added native EF-Tu-Ts is crosslinked than when it is not. Crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts can be purified from a crude crosslinked postribosomal supernatant...... by its ability to replace EF-Tu and EF-Ts in the renaturation of denatured Qbeta replicase. A sample of Qbeta replicase with crosslinked EF-Tu-Ts replacing the individual elongation factors was prepared. Although it lacked EF-Tu and EF-Ts activities, it could initiate transcription of both poly...

  14. Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduraru, D N; Nica, A; Carsote, M; Valea, A

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. This is a narrative review. Results. The "do's" for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) are the following: it represents the "gold standard" for secretor and non-secretor adrenal tumors and the first line therapy for CS with an improvement of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities; the success rate depending on the adequate patients' selection and the surgeon's skills. The "don'ts" are large (>6-8 centimeters), locally invasive, malignant tumors requiring open adrenalectomy (OA). Robotic adrenalectomy is a new alternative for LA, with similar safety and conversion rate and lower pain drugs use. The "don'ts" are the following: lack of randomized controlled studies including oncologic outcome, different availability at surgical centers. Related to the sub-types of CS, the "do's" are the following: adrenal adenomas which are cured by LA, while adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) requires adrenalectomy as first line therapy and adjuvant mitotane therapy; synchronous bilateral adrenalectomy (SBA) is useful for Cushing's disease (only cases refractory to pituitary targeted therapy), for ectopic Cushing's syndrome (cases with unknown or inoperable primary site), and for bilateral cortisol producing adenomas. The less established aspects are the following: criteria of skilled surgeon to approach ACC; the timing of surgery in subclinical CS; the need for adrenal vein catheterization (which is not available in many centers) to avoid unnecessary SBA. Conclusion. Adrenalectomy for CS is a dynamic domain; LA overstepped the former OA area. The future will improve the knowledge related to RA while the cutting edge is represented by a specific frame of intervention in SCS, children and pregnant women. Abbreviations: ACC = adrenocortical carcinoma, ACTH = Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, CD = Cushing's disease, CS

  15. CaTs Lab (CHAOS and Thermal Sciences Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teate, Anthony A.

    2002-01-01

    The CHAOS and Thermal Sciences Laboratory (CaTs) at James Madison University evolved into a noteworthy effort to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten students and faculty directly, and nearly 50 students indirectly, CaTs, through recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring programs, tutorial services and research and computational laboratories, fulfilled its intent to initiate an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self-actualization skills of undergraduate students with potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The stated goal of the program was to increase by 5% the number of enrolled mathematics and science students into the program. Success far exceeded the program goals by producing 100% graduation rate of all supported recipients during its tenure, with 30% of the students subsequently in pursuit of graduate degrees. Student retention in the program exceeded 90% and faculty participation exceeded the three members involved in mentoring and tutoring, gaining multi-disciplinary support. Aggressive marketing of the program resulted in several paid summer internships and commitments from NASA and an ongoing relationship with CHROME, a nationally recognized organization which focuses on developing minority students in the sciences and mathematics. Success of the program was only limited by the limited fiscal resources at NASA which resulted in phasing out of the program.

  16. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  17. Analysis of volatiles from irradiated yeast extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Tao; Li Xin; Zu Xiaoyan; Chen Yuxia; Geng Shengrong

    2013-01-01

    The method for determination volatiles from irradiated yeast extract (YE) using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed in this paper. The extraction conditions were optimized with reference to the peak area and number of volatiles as aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, acid, ester and sulfur compounds. The optimized conditions of HS-SPME for volatiles in irradiated YE were: divinyl benzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber, extration time 40 min, extraction temperature 40℃. The volatiles from YE irradiated by 0-19.8 kGy were detected using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS. The results showed that only 15 volatiles were detected from no irradiated YE and main compounds were acetic acid, 2, 3-butanediol and 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-. There were 40 volatiles detected from irradiated YE and the main compounds were acetic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, heptanal and nonanal. Compare to no irradiated yeast extract, the aldehyde, ketone, alkene and disulfide, dimethyl were produced by irradiating process. (authors)

  18. CATALYTIC PERFORMANCES OF Fe2O3/TS-1 CATALYST IN PHENOL HYDROXYLATION REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Prasetyoko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylation reaction of phenol into diphenol, such as hydroquinone and catechol, has a great role in many industrial applications. Phenol hydroxylation reaction can be carried out using Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1 as catalyst and H2O2 as an oxidant. TS-1 catalyst shows high activity and selectivity for phenol hydroxylation reaction. However, its hydrophobic sites lead to slow H2O2 adsorption toward the active site of TS-1. Consequently, the reaction rate of phenol hydroxylation reaction is tends to be low. Addition of metal oxide Fe2O3 enhanced hydrophilicity of TS-1 catalyst. Liquid phase catalytic phenol hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant was carried out over iron (III oxide-modified TS-1 catalyst (Fe2O3/TS-1, that were prepared by impregnation method using iron (III nitrate as precursor and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, pyridine adsorption, and hydrophilicity techniques. Catalysts 1Fe2O3/TS-1 showed maximum catalytic activity of hydroquinone product. In this research, the increase of hydroquinone formation rate is due to the higher hydrophilicity of Fe2O3/TS-1 catalysts compare to the parent catalyst, TS-1.   Keywords: Fe2O3/TS-1, hydrophilic site, phenol hydroxylation

  19. Sputtering of the most volatile solids: The solid hydrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.; Ellegaard, O.

    1995-01-01

    -film yield can be approximated fairly well by a quadratic function of the stopping power except for a somewhat steeper dependence for proton-bombarded deuterium. The yield increases strongly with decreasing sublimation energy from one isotope to another. No existing theory can account for the dependence...

  20. Evaluation the anaerobic digestion performance of solid residual kitchen waste by NaHCO3 buffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shumei; Huang, Yue; Yang, Lili; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Mingxing; Xu, Zhiyang; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum methane production of SRKW was 479 mL/gTS added . • Anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering. • Protease activity was mainly affected by high organic load. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion has been considered as a promising energy-producing process for kitchen waste treatment. In this paper, the anaerobic digestion (AD) performances of solid residual kitchen waste (SRKW) with or without NaHCO 3 buffering were investigated. The results indicated that the methane production reached the maximum of 479 mL/gTS added at the inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR, based on VS) of 1:1.4 without buffering, accompanied by VS removal rate of 78.91%. Moreover, the anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering, and the methane yield at ISR 1:2.8 was improved by 48.5% with NaHCO 3 addition. However, the methanogenesis with or without NaHCO 3 buffer was suppressed at ISR 1:3.5, indicated from the lowest methane yield of 55.50 mL/gTS added and high volatile fatty acids concentration of more than 14,000 mg/L. Furthermore, proteins in SRKW were not degraded completely at excessive organic loading, since the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in ISR 1:3.5 groups with (2738 mg/L) and without NaHCO 3 buffering (2654 mg/L) were lower than the theoretical value of 3500 mg/L and the protease activities in ISR 1:3.5 groups were also inhibited

  1. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of solid poultry slaughterhouse waste: effect of hydraulic retention time and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Esa A; Rintala, Jukka A

    2002-07-01

    We studied the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and loading on anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse wastes, using semi-continuously fed, laboratory-scale digesters at 31 degrees C. The effect on process performance was highly significant: Anaerobic digestion appeared feasible with a loading of up to 0.8 kg volatile solids (VS)/m3 d and an HRT of 50-100 days. The specific methane yield was high, from 0.52 to 0.55 m3/kg VS(added). On the other hand, at a higher loading, in the range from 1.0 to 2.1 kg VS/m3 d, and a shorter HRT, in the range from 25 to 13 days, the process appeared inhibited and/or overloaded, as indicated by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids and the decline in the methane yield. However, the inhibition was reversible. The nitrogen in the feed, ca. 7.8% of total solids (TS), was organic nitrogen with little ammonia present, whereas in the digested material ammonia accounted for 52-67% (up to 3.8 g/l) of total nitrogen. The TS and VS removals amounted to 76% and 64%, respectively. Our results show that on a continuous basis under the studied conditions and with a loading of up to 0.8 kg VS/m3 d metric ton (wet weight) of the studied waste mixture could yield up to 140 m3 of methane.

  2. SAS4A and FPIN2X validation for slow ramp TOP accidents: experiments TS-1 and TS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present further results in the series of experimental analyses being performed using SAS4A and FPIN2X in order to provide a systematic validation of these codes. The two experiments discussed here, TS-1 and TS-2, were performed by Westinghouse Hanford/Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (WHC/HEDL) in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility. They were slow ramp transient overpowers (TOPs) of ∼ 5 cent/s equivalent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) ramp rate, single-pin experiments in flowing sodium loops. The good agreement found here adds significantly to the experimental data base that provides the foundation for SAS4A and FPIN2X validation. It also shows that prefailure internal fuel motion is a phenomenon that has to be correctly accounted for, not only as a potential inherent safety mechanism, but also before any accurate prediction of fuel failure and subsequent fuel motion and the associated reactivity effects can be made. This is also true for metal-fueled pins. This capability is provided by PINACLE, which is being incorporated into SAS4A

  3. LIDAR TS for ITER core plasma. Part I: layout & hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, H.; Gowers, C.; Nielsen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The original time-of-flight design of the Thomson scattering diagnostic for the ITER core plasma has been shown up by ITER. This decision was justified by insufficiencies of some of the components. In this paper we show that with available, present day technology a LIDAR TS system is feasible which meets all the ITER specifications. As opposed to the conventional TS system the LIDAR TS also measures the high field side of the plasma. The optical layout of the front end has been changed only little in comparison with the latest one considered by ITER. The main change is that it offers an optical collection without any vignetting over the low field side. The throughput of the system is defined only by the size and the angle of acceptance of the detectors. This, in combination with the fact that the LIDAR system uses only one set of spectral channels for the whole line of sight, means that no absolute calibration using Raman or Rayleigh scattering from a non-hydrogen isotope gas fill of the vessel is needed. Alignment of the system is easy since the collection optics view the footprint of the laser on the inner wall. In the described design we use, simultaneously, two different wavelength pulses from a Nd:YAG laser system. Its fundamental wavelength ensures measurements of 2 keV up to more than 40 keV, whereas the injection of the second harmonic enables measurements of low temperatures. As it is the purpose of this paper to show the technological feasibility of the LIDAR system, the hardware is considered in Part I of the paper. In Part II we demonstrate by numerical simulations that the accuracy of the measurements as required by ITER is maintained throughout the given plasma parameter range. The effect of enhanced background radiation in the wavelength range 400 nm-500 nm is considered. In Part III the recovery of calibration in case of changing spectral transmission of the front end is treated. We also investigate how to improve the spatial resolution at the

  4. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a novel mitochondrial isoform of human rTS protein and unusual phylogenetic distribution of the rTS gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ping; Nair, Jayakumar R; Song, Lei; McGuire, John J; Dolnick, Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    Background The rTS gene (ENOSF1), first identified in Homo sapiens as a gene complementary to the thymidylate synthase (TYMS) mRNA, is known to encode two protein isoforms, rTSα and rTSβ. The rTSβ isoform appears to be an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of signaling molecules involved in the down-regulation of thymidylate synthase, but the exact cellular functions of rTS genes are largely unknown. Results Through comparative genomic sequence analysis, we predicted the existence of a novel protein isoform, rTS, which has a 27 residue longer N-terminus by virtue of utilizing an alternative start codon located upstream of the start codon in rTSβ. We observed that a similar extended N-terminus could be predicted in all rTS genes for which genomic sequences are available and the extended regions are conserved from bacteria to human. Therefore, we reasoned that the protein with the extended N-terminus might represent an ancestral form of the rTS protein. Sequence analysis strongly predicts a mitochondrial signal sequence in the extended N-terminal of human rTSγ, which is absent in rTSβ. We confirmed the existence of rTS in human mitochondria experimentally by demonstrating the presence of both rTSγ and rTSβ proteins in mitochondria isolated by subcellular fractionation. In addition, our comprehensive analysis of rTS orthologous sequences reveals an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this gene, which suggests the occurrence of one or more horizontal gene transfer events. Conclusion The presence of two rTS isoforms in mitochondria suggests that the rTS signaling pathway may be active within mitochondria. Our report also presents an example of identifying novel protein isoforms and for improving gene annotation through comparative genomic analysis. PMID:16162288

  5. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a novel mitochondrial isoform of human rTS protein and unusual phylogenetic distribution of the rTS gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire John J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rTS gene (ENOSF1, first identified in Homo sapiens as a gene complementary to the thymidylate synthase (TYMS mRNA, is known to encode two protein isoforms, rTSα and rTSβ. The rTSβ isoform appears to be an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of signaling molecules involved in the down-regulation of thymidylate synthase, but the exact cellular functions of rTS genes are largely unknown. Results Through comparative genomic sequence analysis, we predicted the existence of a novel protein isoform, rTS, which has a 27 residue longer N-terminus by virtue of utilizing an alternative start codon located upstream of the start codon in rTSβ. We observed that a similar extended N-terminus could be predicted in all rTS genes for which genomic sequences are available and the extended regions are conserved from bacteria to human. Therefore, we reasoned that the protein with the extended N-terminus might represent an ancestral form of the rTS protein. Sequence analysis strongly predicts a mitochondrial signal sequence in the extended N-terminal of human rTSγ, which is absent in rTSβ. We confirmed the existence of rTS in human mitochondria experimentally by demonstrating the presence of both rTSγ and rTSβ proteins in mitochondria isolated by subcellular fractionation. In addition, our comprehensive analysis of rTS orthologous sequences reveals an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this gene, which suggests the occurrence of one or more horizontal gene transfer events. Conclusion The presence of two rTS isoforms in mitochondria suggests that the rTS signaling pathway may be active within mitochondria. Our report also presents an example of identifying novel protein isoforms and for improving gene annotation through comparative genomic analysis.

  6. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  7. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  8. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  9. Positron identification by TRDs in TS93 and PAMELA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; De Cataldo, G.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1997-01-01

    We are involved in a program to study the antimatter components of the cosmic rays in outer space. We present the performances of a transition radiation detector we have built for positron identification during a balloon flight in 1993. The flight (TS93) was dedicated to the measurement of the positron spectrum in the energy range 4-50 GeV. We present also the design and expected performances of a similar detector we intend to build for a future experiment (PAMELA), to be run on a satellite by the end of 1999, in order to complete this program with higher statistics and at higher energies, namely about 200 GeV. (orig.)

  10. Intermittent magnetic reconnection in TS-3 merging experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Ii, T.; Tanabe, H.; Ito, S.; Kuwahata, A.; Ito, T.; Kamino, Y.; Yamada, T.; Inomoto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ejection of current sheet with plasma mass causes impulsive and intermittent magnetic reconnection in the TS-3 spherical tokamak (ST) merging experiment. Under high guide toroidal field, the sheet resistivity is almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than the ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet resistivity result in flux and plasma pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the pileup exceeds a critical limit, the sheet is ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed is slow during the flux/plasma pileup and is fast during the ejection, suggesting that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increases the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable the merging tokamaks to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even when their current-sheet resistivity is low under high guide field.

  11. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  12. ISO/TS 16949 system in quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the automotive industry the use of modern technology and provision of the highest quality product and related services is the most important element of rivalry between global corporations and motorcycles. In a competitive struggle for the recognition of its brand in the automotive market global organizations continuously raise the requirements for quality management systems, so that the finished product meets all the standards in terms of safety, quality and satisfying the ever-growing needs of customers - present and future drivers and passengers of cars. ISO/TS 16949 quality management system is presented in the paper. A framework for customer specific requirement as well as preventing problems is shown.

  13. Composite repairs qualification according to ISO/TS 24817

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meniconi, Luiz C.M.; Perrut, Valber A. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-07-01

    Composite repairs for metallic pipes from three different suppliers were evaluated according to ISO Technical Specification TS 24817. The intended application scenarios are offshore production plants, but the design methodology is also applicable to onshore pipelines and pipework. The evaluation covered all the relevant mechanical properties and established the maximum application temperatures for each repair system. The tests also considered the application of composite repair sleeves to metallic pipes with through thickness defects, by measuring the strain energy release rates of the composite-metal interfaces. The test campaigns aimed to verify the applicability of the recently published ISO document, and to implement it as the routine procedure for composite repairs evaluation within PETROBRAS. The tests also addressed the influence of metallic pipe surface preparation on the final properties of the repair sleeves, especially in relation to the long term behavior of leaking pipes repaired by means of composite materials. (author)

  14. A Federated Capability-based Access Control Mechanism for Internet of Things (IoTs)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of Internet of Things (IoTs) allows heterogeneous embedded smart devices to collaboratively provide intelligent services with or without human intervention. While leveraging the large-scale IoT-based applications like Smart Gird and Smart Cities, IoT also incurs more concerns on privacy and security. Among the top security challenges that IoTs face is that access authorization is critical in resource and information protection over IoTs. Traditional access control approaches, l...

  15. Solderability study of RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yifei; Duckworth, Robert C.; Ha, Tam T.; Gouge, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Study examines the implication of solder and flux selection in YBCO splice joints. Focus is on commercially available RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors. Solderability varied with solder and flux for three different stabilizations tested. Resistivity of stabilizer was dominant factor in splice joint resistance. Solder materials affected splice joint resistance when solderability was poor. The solderability of commercially available YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  16. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  17. Solid phase extraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the detailed investigation of volatiles in South African red wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Crouch, A.M.; Górecki, T.; Villiers, de A.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) has been applied for the analysis of volatile compounds in three young South African red wines. In spite of the significant benefits offered by GC × GC–TOFMS for the separation and

  18. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  19. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  20. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  1. Precursor effect on the property and catalytic behavior of Fe-TS-1 in butadiene epoxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei; Zhao, Huahua; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jun; Song, Huanling; Chou, Lingjun

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron precursor on the property and catalytic behavior of iron modified titanium silicalite molecular sieve (Fe-TS-1) catalysts in butadiene selective epoxidation has been studied. Three Fe-TS-1 catalysts were prepared, using iron nitrate, iron chloride and iron sulfate as precursors, which played an important role in adjusting the textural properties and chemical states of TS-1. Of the prepared Fe-TS-1 catalysts, those modified by iron nitrate (FN-TS-1) exhibited a significant enhanced performance in butadiene selective epoxidation compared to those derived from iron sulfate (FS-TS-1) or iron chloride (FC-TS-1) precursors. To obtain a deep understanding of their structure-performance relationship, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis), Fourier transformed infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to characterize Fe-TS-1 catalysts. Experimental results indicated that textural structures and acid sites of modified catalysts as well as the type of Fe species influenced by the precursors were all responsible for the activity and product distribution.

  2. A modified commercial gas chromatograph for the continuous monitoring of the thermal degradation of sunflower oil and off-line solid phase extraction gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of released volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, I; Sanz, J; Escudero, A; de Marcos, S; Ferreira, V; Galbán, J

    2015-04-03

    A homemade flow cell attached to a commercial Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) has been designed for the continuous monitoring of volatile compounds released during heating edible oils. Analytical parameters such as mass of sample, temperature and flow rates have been optimized and the obtained results have been compared with the corresponding thermographs from standard TG systems. Results show that under optimum conditions, the profiles of volatiles released upon heating are comparable to the profiles of TG curves, suggesting that the FID based system could be an alternative to TGA. Additionally, volatiles have been retained in a Lichrolut EN(®) resin, eluted and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In this case, forty five compounds have been identified (acids, alcohols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and furans) and compared with the FID signals, working both in air or nitrogen atmosphere. It has been concluded that the oxidative thermal degradation is prevented in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the egg transmission and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates genotyped as ts-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Natalie K; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2015-01-01

    Live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines are used for the control of respiratory disease, egg production losses and egg transmission associated with M. gallisepticum infection in long-lived poultry. The first field case of apparent increased virulence and vertical transmission of ts-11, a live M. gallisepticum vaccine, has been reported. In that study a M. gallisepticum isolate from the broiler progeny of ts-11-vaccinated breeders was genotyped as ts-11 by sequence analysis of four different genetic targets and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and found to be significantly more virulent than ts-11 vaccine. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the rate of egg transmission and pathogenicity of ts-11 vaccine and isolates recovered from ts-11-vaccinated breeders (K6222B) and their broiler progeny (K6216D) which had been genotyped as ts-11. Groups of 28-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens at 87% average weekly egg production were inoculated with sterile broth media (negative controls), ts-11 vaccine, K6222B, K6216D or R strain (positive controls) by eye-drop and aerosol. K6216D transmitted via the egg at an average rate of 4.0% in the third and fourth weeks post-infection, while egg transmission of K6222B and ts-11 vaccine was not detected. M. gallisepticum was isolated from the air sacs, ovaries and oviducts of hens infected with K6216D and K6222B, but not from those infected with ts-11 vaccine. K6216D and K6222B both induced respiratory signs and significantly more tracheal colonization and more severe tracheal and air sac lesions than ts-11 vaccine (P ≤ 0.05). There were no substantial differences in the egg production of ts-11, K6216D and K6222B infected groups. These results provide the first conclusive evidence of transovarian transmission of an isolate genotyped as ts-11 and indicate that isolates genotyed as ts-11 vary in their virulence and ability to transmit via the egg.

  4. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  5. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Understanding volatile elements in the early solar system is a key step toward understanding the processes of planetary formation and the composition of Earth, but the origin of volatiles on Earth is not well understood. In this article, we present measurements of silicon isotope ratios in angrites, a class of meteorites dating from the first few million years after condensation of solids from the solar nebula. We show that the silicon isotope composition of angrites is consistent with a depl...

  6. A virtual computing infrastructure for TS-CV SCADA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    2008-01-01

    In modern data centres, it is an emerging trend to operate and manage computers as software components or logical resources and not as physical machines. This technique is known as â€ワvirtualisation” and the new computers are referred to as â€ワvirtual machines” (VMs). Multiple VMs can be consolidated on a single hardware platform and managed in ways that are not possible with physical machines. However, this is not yet widely practiced for control system deployment. In TS-CV, a collection of VMs or a â€ワvirtual infrastructure” is installed since 2005 for SCADA systems, PLC program development, and alarm transmission. This makes it possible to consolidate distributed, heterogeneous operating systems and applications on a limited number of standardised high-performance servers in the Central Control Room (CCR). More generally, virtualisation assists in offering continuous computing services for controls and maintaining performance and assuring quality. Implementing our systems in a vi...

  7. Ceļa servitūts

    OpenAIRE

    Livdāns, Dāvis

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Ceļa servitūts.” Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt ceļa servitūta nodibināšanas kārtību, iespējamās kļūdas, praksē nodibināto servitūtu problēmjautājumus un to risinājumus. Bakalaura darba tapšanas stadijā autors izmantoja zinātnisko literatūru, normatīvos aktus, kā arīi ar to tapšanu saistītos dokumentus un juridiskās prakses materiālus. Darbā ir apskatīti gan Civillikumā noteiktie servitūtu nodibināšanas pamati, gan citi iespējamie nodibināšanas pamati, pēc kā ir an...

  8. Antigenicity analysis of Vibrio harveyi TS-628 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yingxue; WANG Jun; WANG Shifeng; YAN Qingpi

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi,the major causative agent of vibriosis,affects a diverse range of marine cultured organisms over a wide geographical area.However,reports about screening the effective antigen and research on vaccines of V.harveyi are scarce.Flagellin,lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMP) are major immunogenic antigens in many Gram-negative bacteria.In this study,the flagellin,OMP and LPS of the V.harveyi TS-628 strain isolated from infected groupers were extracted and Western blot analysis was used to detect the antigenicity of these extractions.Results of the Western blot assay reveal that there are four positive flagellin bands:35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa and 52 kDa bands displayed the strongest positive reaction.There are five positive OMP bands about 35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,47 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa appeared to have the strongest positive reaction although the other four proteins also displayed strong reactions.However,LPS is Western blot-negative.These results indicate that the 43 kDa and 52 kDa flagellin and OMP of size 43 kDa,52 kDa can be candidates for developing vaccines against V.harveyi.

  9. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  10. Volatility Properties of Polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    2002-06-01

    Thermodynamical constants to describe evaporation processes of polonium are summarized and critically discussed. Additionally, systematic changes of the properties of the chalcogenes are analyzed, empirical correlations are proofed and cyclic processes are balanced. Accordingly, the existing values of entropies for polonium are acceptable. Questionable, however, are those values of enthalpies, which have been deduced from results of the experimental investigations of the vapor pressure temperature dependency, of the melting point, and of the boiling temperatures. Technical difficulties and possible error sources of the measurements resulting from the radioactive decay properties of 210 Po are discussed. Using extrapolative standard enthalpies and entropies as well as their temperature dependency, the equilibrium partial pressure of the monomeric and dimeric polonium above the pure condensed phase and the equilibrium constant of the dimerization reaction in the gas phase are calculated: log p/pa Po (g) = (11.797 ± 0.024) -(9883.4 ± 9.5)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (10.661 ± 0.057) - (9328.4 ± 4.9)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log p/pa Po 2 (g) = (13.698 ± 0.049) - (8592.3 ± 19.6)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (11.424 ± 0.124) - (7584.1 ± 98.1)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log K (dim) = (-4.895 ± 0.012) + (11071 ± 6)/T. According to these calculations and in contrast to other works, polonium evaporates in the entire temperature range between 298 and 1300 K in the dimeric state. Hence, 'latent heats' of the volatilization processes are clearly larger compared to literature data. Especially in the temperature range of the solid polonium the calculated vapor pressure curve shifts significantly to lower values, whereas the boiling point was almost reproduced by the calculation. The results of the extrapolation for the standard enthalpy of the gaseous monomeric polonium and the dimerization enthalpy ΔH 0 298 Po (g) = 188.9 kJ/mol and ΔH 0 298 (form) Po 2 (g) = 211.5 kJ/mol are

  11. Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 2 Agenda • Solid Rocket Motors • History of Sea Level Testing • Small Component Testing • Full-scale Testing • Altitude...Facility • History of Testing • Questions -Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 3 RQ-West • AFRL/RQ...INTEGRATION FACILITY NATIONAL HOVER TEST FACILITY TITAN SRM TEST FACILITY TS-1C1-125 LARGE ENGINE/COMPONENT TEST FACILITY TS-1A 1-120 1-115 X-33 LAUNCH

  12. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  13. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  14. Scientific Communication for Positive Action: Do's and Don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquini, A.; Wood, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazard presentations often highlight disasters that may ensue from natural processes when mitigation or preparedness actions are not taken. Examples include images of raging fires, collapsed buildings, and flooded urban areas. Research has shown that this makes presentations more interesting and more memorable. Such images are the stock and trade of disaster reporting by the media. Unfortunately, it may also trigger avoidance and denial in the audience, resulting in preparedness reduction; the opposite effect of what may have been intended by the speaker. Recent social research has provided insight into a better approach. The theory of communicating actionable risk posits that people will take action against hazards when they know what to do, think it would work, and know someone who did it. This approach was recently applied in an intervention designed to motivate earthquake-resistant construction in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Social theory further suggests that a tendency towards action is strengthened by hearing a consistent message over time, and by providing the audience with an appropriate opportunity to seek out relevant information. This presentation shows how, by taking this transdisciplinary step, scientists can make small changes in their hazard communication, thereby acting as positive influencers of change. A summary of "do's" and "don'ts" is given for reference. 1. Show examples of what to do. 2. Show effectiveness of actions. 3. Give sense of knowing someone who did it. 4. Deliver consistent message, repeatedly. 5. Give opportunity for more information. DON'T: 1. Make the disaster the star. 2. Contradict other communications.

  15. Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (TS-1 induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Minakawa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available TS-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug that contains tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil. A 78-year-old Japanese male who was diagnosed with carcinoma of the oral floor (rT4aN0M0 was prescribed a standard dose of TS-1 (80 mg/day. On Day 8 after administration of TS-1, an eruption developed. There was erythema, along with vesicles and erosions involving the lip, face, neck, trunk, limbs, and genitals. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST for TS-1 was negative on the 23rd day, but positive on the 43rd day (20 days after discontinuing prednisolone. The condition was diagnosed as Stevens–Johnson syndrome due to TS-1 because of the clinical course and laboratory results. This case and 24 cases previously reported in the literature were analyzed. The types of drug eruption were drug-related lupus (9 cases, acral erythema (7 cases, scleroderma-like skin lesion (2 cases, Stevens–Johnson syndrome (2 cases, lichenoid eruption (1 case, purpura (1 case, lichen planus (1 case, erythema multiforme (1 case, hypopigmentation (1 case and toxic epidermal necrolysis (1 case, respectively. In view of the increasing usage of TS-1 in several common cancers, clinicians should be aware of drug eruptions due to TS-1.

  16. 77 FR 43817 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Office of Postsecondary Education; Talent Search (TS) Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...; Talent Search (TS) Annual Performance Report SUMMARY: The Talent Search program provides Federal... Records Management Services, Office of Management, publishes this notice containing proposed information... records. Title of Collection: Talent Search (TS) Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: Pending...

  17. Effect of Gd2O3 doping on structure and boron volatility of borosilicate glass sealants in solid oxide fuel cells-A study on the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Shengwei; Ren, Mengyuan; Yang, Hsiwen; Tang, Dian; Chen, Kongfa; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-04-01

    Boron volatility is one of the most important properties of borosilicate-based glass sealants in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as boron contaminants react with lanthanum-containing cathodes, forming LaBO3 and degrading the activity of SOFCs. Here, we report that the reaction between the volatile boron and a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode during polarization can be significantly reduced by doping aluminoborosilicate glass with Gd2O3. Specifically, the Gd cations in glass with 2 mol.% Gd2O3 dissolve preferentially in the borate-rich environment to form more Gd-metaborate structures and promote the formation of calcium metaborate (CaB2O4); they also condense the B-O network after heat treatment, which suppresses poisoning by boron contaminants on the LSCF cathode. The results provide insights into design and development of a reliable sealing glass for SOFC applications.

  18. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  19. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  20. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  1. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  2. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles: Insights into the Abundances of Volatiles in the Moon from Lunar Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the time of publication of New Views of the Moon, it was thought that the Moon was bone dry with less than about 1 ppb H2O. However in 2007, initial reports at the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference speculated that H-species were present in both apatites and pyroclastic volcanic lunar glasses. These early reports were later confirmed through peer-review, which motivated many subsequent studies on magmatic volatiles in and on the Moon within the last decade. Some of these studies have cast into question the post-Apollo view of lunar formation, the distribution and sources of volatiles in the Earth-Moon system, and the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon. The mineral apatite has been one of the pillars of this new field of study, and it will be the primary focus of this abstract. Although apatite has been used both to understand the abundances of volatiles in lunar systems as well as the isotopic compositions of those volatiles, the focus here will be on the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O. This work demonstrates the utility of apatite in advancing our understanding of lunar volatiles, hence apatite should be among the topics covered in the endogenous lunar volatile chapter in NVM II. Truncated ternary plot of apatite X-site occupancy (mol%) from highlands apatite and mare basalt apatite plotted on the relative volatile abundance diagram from. The solid black lines delineate fields of relative abundances of F, Cl, and H2O (on a weight basis) in the melt from which the apatite crystallized. The diagram was constructed using available apatite/melt partitioning data for fluorine, chlorine, and hydroxyl.

  3. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  4. Rheological online determination of the organic dry substance concentration of sewage sludge; Rheologische online Bestimmung des oTS-Gehalts von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, P.; Boehm, A.; Fessler, J.; Liebelt, U. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Traegner, U. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik, Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In order to adjust the filter cake to a certain calorific value and to enhance the dehydratability of sludge, ash, carbon and flocculation agents are added to the latter prior to filtration. Dosage of the additives depends on the sludge's content of organic solids, determined in the form of the so-called organic dry substance concentration. In bench-scale and technical-scale experiments on the rheological properties of sewage sludge, a correlation between organic dry substance concentration and rheological properties, especially the liquid limit of sewage sludge, was established. This knowledge was used to develop a measuring technique for online determination of organic dry substance concentration by means of rheology. (orig.) [German] Zur Einstellung eines bestimmten Heizwertes des Filterkuchens und zur Verbesserung der Entwaesserbarkeit werden dem Schlamm vor der Filtration Asche, Kohle und Flockungsmittel zugegeben. Die Dosierung der Zuschlagsstoffe erfolgt in Abhaengigkeit vom Gehalt des Schlamms an organischem Feststoff, bestimmt in Form der sog. oTS-Konzentration. In Labor- und Betriebsversuchen zum rheologischen Verhalten von Klaerschlamm konnte eine Korrelation zwischen der oTS-Konzentration und den Fliesseigenschaften, insbesondere der Fliessgrenze von Klaerschlamm ermittelt werden. Diese Erkenntnis wurde in ein Messverfahren zur online-Bestimmung der oTS-Konzentration mittels Rheologie umgesetzt. (orig.)

  5. Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS) are two modules of a single data management system that share common tables and...

  6. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... workers, extended family members, or babysitters) knows what medicines your child is taking and when he or she should ... ts Don’t give OTC cough and cold medicines to a child younger than 4 years of age unless your ...

  7. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  8. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  9. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  10. Advanced high temperature superconductor film-based process using RABiTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Hawsey, R.A.; Hack, J.; Moon, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor), Managing contractor for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Midwest Superconductivity, Inc. (MSI) and Westinghouse Science and Electric Company (WEC) was to develop the basis for a commercial process for the manufacturing of superconducting tape based on the RABiTS technology developed at ORNL. The chosen method for deposition of YBCO films on RABiTS was Metal Organic chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)

  11. Konstantin Päts ja NSV Liidu Tallinna saatkond / Magnus Ilmjärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilmjärv, Magnus, 1961-

    1999-01-01

    Järg Sep/13,14,15,16,17,18,20,21,22,22 lk. 17,21,17,18,18,16,17,21,18,14. Päts kui Nõukogude saatkonna lobitegija. Välisminister Pusta kangutamine. Pätsi info venelastele J. Tõnissoni kohta. Balti riikide vahelise koostöö takistamine. J. Puhk tõmmati venelaste mõjusfääri. Päts nõuab Eesti valitsuselt uut kaubanduslepingut venelastega

  12. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  13. T-S Fuzzy Modelling and H∞ Attitude Control for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the T-S fuzzy modelling and H∞ attitude control in three channels for hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs. First, the control-oriented affine nonlinear model has been established which is transformed from the reentry dynamics. Then, based on Taylor’s expansion approach and the fuzzy linearization approach, the homogeneous T-S local modelling technique for HGVs is proposed. Given the approximation accuracy and controller design complexity, appropriate fuzzy premise variables and operating points of interest are selected to construct the T-S homogeneous submodels. With so-called fuzzy blending, the original plant is transformed into the overall T-S fuzzy model with disturbance. By utilizing Lyapunov functional approach, a state feedback fuzzy controller has been designed based on relaxed linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to stable the original plants with a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ T-S fuzzy controller for the original attitude dynamics; the superiority of the designed T-S fuzzy controller compared with other local controllers based on the constructed fuzzy model is shown as well.

  14. Movable Thomson scattering system based on optical fiber (TS-probe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narihara, K.; Hayashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a movable compact Thomson scattering (TS) system based on optical fibers (TS-probe). A TS-probe consists of a probe head, optical fiber, a laser-diode, polychromators and lock-in amplifiers. A laser beam optics and light collection optics are mounted rigidly on a probe head with a fixed scattering position. Laser light and scattered light are transmitted by flexible optical fibers, enabling us to move the TS-prove head freely during plasma discharge. The light signal scattered from an amplitude-modulated laser is detected against the plasma light based on the principle of the lock-in amplifier. With a modulated laser power of 300W, the scattered signal from a sheet plasma of 15 mm depth and n e -10 19 m -3 will be measured with 10% accuracy by setting the integrating time to 0.1 s. The TS-probe head is like a 1/20 model of the currently operating LHD-TS. (author)

  15. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of volatile composition of Laurencia dendroidea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gressler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the characterization of the volatile compounds of Laurencia dendroidea. Solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol, hydrodistillation extracts and headspace solid-phase microextraction samples were obtained and analyzed by GC-MS. Forty-six volatile components were identified in L. dendroidea, among them hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters and terpenes.

  17. Comparison of methods for determining volatile compounds in cheese, milk, and whey powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but selecting the proper procedures presents challenges. Heat is applied to drive volatiles from the samp...

  18. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  19. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  20. Essays on nonparametric econometrics of stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Volatility is a concept that describes the variation of financial returns. Measuring and modelling volatility dynamics is an important aspect of financial econometrics. This thesis is concerned with nonparametric approaches to volatility measurement and volatility model validation.

  1. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  2. Effect of Trichoderma viride biofertilizer on ammonia volatilization from an alkaline soil in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Shengjun; Wu, Shanghua; Feng, Shugeng; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2018-04-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization is one of the primary pathways of nitrogen (N) loss from soils after chemical fertilizer is applied, especially from the alkaline soils in Northern China, which results in lower efficiency for chemical fertilizers. Therefore, we conducted an incubation experiment using an alkaline soil from Tianjin (pH8.37-8.43) to evaluate the suppression effect of Trichoderma viride (T. viride) biofertilizer on NH 3 volatilization, and compared the differences in microbial community structure among all samples. The results showed that viable T. viride biofertilizer (T) decreased NH 3 volatilization by 42.21% compared with conventional fertilizer ((CK), urea), while nonviable T. viride biofertilizer (TS) decreased NH 3 volatilization by 32.42%. NH 3 volatilization was significantly higher in CK and sweet potato starch wastewater (SPSW) treatments during the peak period. T. viride biofertilizer also improved the transfer of ammonium from soil to sweet sorghum. Plant dry weights increased 91.23% and 61.08% for T and TS, respectively, compared to CK. Moreover, T. viride biofertilizer enhanced nitrification by increasing the abundance of ammonium-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The results of high-throughput sequencing indicated that the microbial community structure and composition were significantly changed by the application of T. viride biofertilizer. This study demonstrated the immense potential of T. viride biofertilizer in reducing NH 3 volatilization from alkaline soil and simultaneously improving the utilization of fertilizer N by sweet sorghum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection...... and identified or characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 120 VOCs were characterized by retention index and mass spectra. Fifty-three compounds were characterized as terpenoid compounds, among which 18 could be identified. Among the VOCs were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, esters, ketones....... The relationship between the excretion of geosmin and the production of spores was examined for one isolate. A good correlation between headspace geosmin and the number of spores was observed, suggesting that VOCs could be used to indicate the activity of these microorganisms in heterogeneous substrates....

  4. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  5. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  6. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  7. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  8. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  9. T.S. ELIOT'S MISREADING OF SOME LITERARY SOURCES IN THE WASTE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Satya Limanta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A poet cannot be a poet at all if he is not connected with all the poetic tradition before him. This is T.S. Eliot's dictum which he stated in Tradition and the Individual Talent and which he practiced in his work The Waste Land. T.S. Eliot showed his relationship with the past through all the quotations and allusions to mythical, literary, and religious works. His reading of those sources according to Paul de Man cannot avoid misreading or misinterpretation. Harold Bloom has tried to build up a theory of misreading, which he prefers to call misprision, especially applied to and done by poets in The Anxiety of Influence. Throughout this article I shall show how T.S. Eliot has applied some of the ways Bloom describes in reading some of the literary sources, and by so doing Eliot has given new meaning to them.

  10. ChemTS: an efficient python library for de novo molecular generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Jinzhe; Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Terayama, Kei; Tsuda, Koji

    2017-12-01

    Automatic design of organic materials requires black-box optimization in a vast chemical space. In conventional molecular design algorithms, a molecule is built as a combination of predetermined fragments. Recently, deep neural network models such as variational autoencoders and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are shown to be effective in de novo design of molecules without any predetermined fragments. This paper presents a novel Python library ChemTS that explores the chemical space by combining Monte Carlo tree search and an RNN. In a benchmarking problem of optimizing the octanol-water partition coefficient and synthesizability, our algorithm showed superior efficiency in finding high-scoring molecules. ChemTS is available at https://github.com/tsudalab/ChemTS.

  11. A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

  12. AHP 40: NAMUYI TIBETAN pha⁵⁴ tsə⁵⁴ RITUALS AND ORAL CHANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libu Lakhi (Li Jianfu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available sa54 da54 (b. 1939 is a Namuyi pha54 tsə54 - a traditional Namuyi religious practitioner/ specialist - who chants and conducts religious rituals. He lives and practices in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This article introduces pha54 tsə54 sa54 da54 and the many hours of his oral materials recorded by Libu Lakhi in 2009 that are archived at http://tinyurl.com/lgf3row. In addition, aspects of Namuyi religion are described, including terms of mountain deities, ill omens and taboos, the pha54 tsə54, sa54 da54, chants, and a personal account of a ritual done in Dashui Village, Minsheng Township, Xichang City, Sichuan Province in March 2013. An appendix, seven photographs, and a diagram provide additional detail.

  13. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  14. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  15. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 2.5∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 7.2∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 99mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 3.2∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 8.6∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 83mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial and nutritional regulation of high-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Jin, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of single fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) can be easily interrupted by rapid acidogenesis and inhibition of methanogen, and the digestion system tends to be particularly unstable at high solid content. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of FVW in batch experiments under mesophilic condition at a high solid concentration of 10% was successfully conducted to overcome the acidogenesis problem through several modifications. Firstly, compared with the conventional anaerobic sludge (CAS), the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was found to be a better inoculum due to its higher Archaea abundance. Secondly, waste activated sludge (WAS) was chosen to co-digest with FVW, because WAS had abundant proteins that could generate intermediate ammonium. The ammonium could neutralize the accumulated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and prevent the pH value of the digestion system from rapidly decreasing. Co-digestion of FVW and WAS with TS ratio of 60:40 gave the highest biogas yield of 562 mL/g-VS and the highest methane yield of 362 mL/g-VS. Key parameters in the digestion process, including VFAs concentration, pH, enzyme activity, and microbial activity, were also examined.

  17. Digastric Muscle Phenotypes of the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J Glass

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is frequently associated with complex difficulties in oromotor development, feeding, and swallowing. However, the muscle phenotypes underlying these deficits are unclear. We tested the hypotheses that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS has significantly altered myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoform profiles of the muscles involved in feeding and swallowing, as well as reductions in the speed of these movements during behavioral assays. SDS-PAGE, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR were used to assess MyHC isoform expression in pertinent muscles, and functional feeding and swallowing performance were quantified through videofluoroscopy and mastication assays. We found that both the anterior digastric (ADG and posterior digastric (PDG muscles in 11-day old and 5-6 week old Ts65Dn groups showed significantly lower MyHC 2b protein levels than in age-matched euploid control groups. In videofluoroscopic and videotape assays used to quantify swallowing and mastication performance, 5-6 week old Ts65Dn and euploid controls showed similar swallow rates, inter-swallow intervals, and mastication rates. In analysis of adults, 10-11 week old Ts65Dn mice revealed significantly less MyHC 2b mRNA expression in the posterior digastric, but not the anterior digastric muscle as compared with euploid controls. Analysis of MyHC 2b protein levels across an adult age range (10-53 weeks of age revealed lower levels of MyHC 2b protein in the PDG of Ts65Dn than in euploids, but similar levels of MyHC 2b in the ADG. Cumulatively, these results indicate biochemical differences in some, but not all, muscles involved in swallowing and jaw movement in Ts65Dn mice that manifest early in post-natal development, and persist into adulthood. These findings suggest potential utility of this model for future investigations of the mechanisms of oromotor difficulties associated with Down syndrome.

  18. BlendCAC: A BLockchain-ENabled Decentralized Capability-based Access Control for IoTs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of Internet of Things (IoTs) allows heterogeneous embedded smart devices to collaboratively provide smart services with or without human intervention. While leveraging the large scale IoT based applications like Smart Gird or Smart Cities, IoTs also incur more concerns on privacy and security. Among the top security challenges that IoTs face, access authorization is critical in resource sharing and information protection. One of the weaknesses in today's access control (AC) is ...

  19. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  20. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  1. A Solution-Based Temperature Sensor Using the Organic Compound CuTsPc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahino Mah Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical cell using an organic compound, copper (II phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuTsPc, has been fabricated and investigated as a solution-based temperature sensor. The capacitance and resistance of the ITO/CuTsPc solution/ITO chemical cell has been characterized as a function of temperature in the temperature range of 25–80 °C. A linear response with minimal hysteresis is observed. The fabricated temperature sensor has shown high consistency and sensitive response towards a specific range of temperature values.

  2. Safety inspections - the role of TS : risks, their assessment and the role of safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar-Alonso, Isabel; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the DG decided a new approach for safety at CERN. This had as consequence the creation of a new unit, the safety service provider, in the TS department. The organization and the services that this unit provides to CERN will be described and the achievements since the creation of the unit will be summarized. Some important personnel safety systems, on their side have been the responsibility of the TS Department for many years. Their importance has grown with the arrival of LHC and their complexity and impact on operation has increased. Their role as well as the importance of an appropriate regulatory framework shall be discussed.

  3. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over Eosin Y-Sensitized TS-1 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojie; Jin Zhiliang; Li Yuexiang; Li Shuben; Lu Gongxuan

    2008-01-01

    Eosin Y-sensitized TS-1 zeolite was studied for the photo-reduction of water into hydrogen driven by visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm). The optimal pH and weight ratio between Eosin Y and TS-1 zeolite is 7 and 1/8, respectively. In the presence of triethanolamine (TEA) as an electron donor, the highest rate of hydrogen generation and apparent quantum efficiency are 34 μmol h -1 and 9.4%, respectively, under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). Short-term stability test indicates that the catalyst is rather stable during 50 h photoreaction

  4. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over Eosin Y-Sensitized TS-1 zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Jin Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yuexiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanjing Road 245, Nanchang 330047 (China); Li Shuben [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: gxlu@lzb.ac.cn

    2008-05-30

    Eosin Y-sensitized TS-1 zeolite was studied for the photo-reduction of water into hydrogen driven by visible light ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm). The optimal pH and weight ratio between Eosin Y and TS-1 zeolite is 7 and 1/8, respectively. In the presence of triethanolamine (TEA) as an electron donor, the highest rate of hydrogen generation and apparent quantum efficiency are 34 {mu}mol h{sup -1} and 9.4%, respectively, under visible light irradiation ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm). Short-term stability test indicates that the catalyst is rather stable during 50 h photoreaction.

  5. Review of $V_{cb}$ and $V_{td}/V_{ts}$

    OpenAIRE

    Forty, Roger W

    1997-01-01

    The current experimental status of the CKM matrix element V_cb and the ratio V_td/V_ts is reviewed. Knowledge of these elements has a strong impact on the unitarity triangle, of interest for studies of CP violation in the B system. The measurements of V_cb from both inclusive semileptonic b decays and the exclusive channel B -> D* l nu are reaching high precision. For V_td/V_ts the strongest upper limit is derived from studies of B-Bbar mixing.

  6. Aleksandr Gol’ts, Armiia Rossii: 11 poteriannykh let, Moscow: Zakharov, 2004, 224 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Staar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Specialist of military questions, Aleksandr Gol’ts worked for Red Star (Krasnaia Zvezda, the newspaper of the Russian Ministry of Defense, before joining various prestigious magazines such as Itogi. He is considered one of the most prominent journalist on military matters in Russia today. His book, “The Russian Army : 11 lost years”, is dedicated to military reforms in post-Soviet Russia. With his extensive knowledge of institutional realities of the military establishment, Gol’ts provides a...

  7. Arc Security System Based on Harmonics Detection for the TS ICRH Transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger-by, G.; Beaumont, B.; Lombard, G.; Millon, L.; Mollard, P.; Volpe, D.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1999 and with the help of I.P.P. (Institut fuer Plasmaphysik) Garching, we have tested in the Tore Supra (T.S.) ICRH transmitter, arcs security systems based on harmonics detection in a frequency band lower than the generator frequency. These systems have been designed for ASDEX in order to discriminate between the arcs and the ELMS mismatches during H-mode plasmas; they have been supplied to T.S. by a loan contract by I.P.P. The first tests done in T.S. were very successful and have permitted in 2000 to build a prototype matching T.S. technical requirements. These systems have some advantages in comparison with traditional securities which are based on use of a level on the V r /V f (Reflected to Forward voltage ratio) calculation . They do not use calculation, calibration with frequency or level. They can use RF signals from directional couplers or probes, so they are fully independent of the measurement systems. The detection bandwidth (4 MHz-35 MHz on TS) is independent of the antennae working frequencies. The detection principle is therefore insensitive to the crosstalk between the antennae and to the antennae coupling variations. The RF arc security box is installed in the generator hall which can be located far from the torus hall and the antennae (about 50 m on T.S.) a feature which is very relevant for the ITER transmitters. In 2001 we have built 3 systems based on our prototype in order to improve the protection of the 3 ICRH generators and antennae. These systems use industrial pass-band filters and a very sensitive linear detection (- 60 dBm) in order to facilitate the adjustment. Optical fibbers are used to transfer, with a very high immunity, the trip information to the generator electronic pilot. To guarantee safe operation, a checking test of the entire security chain is performed with a 10 MHz RF oscillator before each plasma start. The RF principle used on T.S. ICRH transmitter and its electronic interactions with the VME command control of

  8. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  9. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  10. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  11. Identificação de compostos voláteis da cúrcuma empregando microextração por fase sólida e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas Identification of volatile compounds of turmeric using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana R. Mata

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Compostos voláteis da cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L. cultivada no Brasil foram isolados por microextração por fase sólida. Os rizomas foram cozidos em solução de bicarbonato de sódio 0,1%, fatiados, secos e triturados. Visando estabelecer o sistema ideal para a microextração, fibras de polidimetilsiloxano de 100µm de espessura foram expostas ao headspace de frascos de 10mL. Estudou-se a influência das seguintes variáveis sobre o rendimento dos compostos voláteis obtidos: amostras em pó (0,1 a 1,0g e em solução (40mg/L, diferentes temperaturas (40 a 70ºC e tempos (2 a 20min de partição. O efeito da temperatura (210 a 240ºC e do tempo (3 e 5min de dessorção também foi avaliado. As melhores condições para a partição dos compostos voláteis foram 0,1g do pó, 70ºC e 5min. A temperatura de 220ºC e o tempo de 5 minutos foram os de maior eficiência para a dessorção. A cromatografia gasosa foi conduzida em coluna capilar, detecção por ionização de chama e identificação por espectrometria de massas. A análise dos espectros de massas obtidos para os nove compostos voláteis predominantes indicou a presença de ar-curcúmeno, ar-turmerona, zingibereno, beta-sesquifelandreno, sabineno, 1,8-cineol e 1,4-terpineol.Volatile compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. cultived in Brazil were isolated by solid phase microextraction. The rhizomes were cooked in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution, sliced, dried and ground. Polydimethyldiloxanes fibers (100 mm diameter were exposed to the headspace of 10 mL flasks with the aim of establishing an ideal microextraction system. The influence of the following parameters on the volatile substances obtained was studied: powder samples (0.1 to 1.0 g and dissolved samples (40 mg/L, different temperatures (40 to 70ºC and partition periods (2 to 20 min. The effect of temperature (210 to 240ºC and time (3 to 5 min on desorption efficiency was also evaluated. Optimum conditions for the

  12. HS-SPME-GC-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMI-VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM DRIED LEAVES OF Mikania glomerata Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeraldo A. Cappelaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the identification of volatile and semi-volatile compounds and a comparison of the chromatographic profiles obtained by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction/Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry detection (HS-SPME-GC-MS of dried leaves of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae, also known as 'guaco.' Three different types of commercial SPME fibers were tested: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB and polyacrylate (PA. Fifty-nine compounds were fully identified by HS-SPME-HRGC-MS, including coumarin, a marker for the quality control of guaco-based phytomedicines; most of the other identified compounds were mono- and sesquiterpenes. PA fibers performed better in the analysis of coumarin, while PDMS-DVB proved to be the best choice for a general and non-selective analysis of volatile and semi-volatile guaco-based compounds. The SPME method is faster and requires a smaller sample than conventional hydrodistillation of essential oils, providing a general overview of the volatile and semi-volatile compounds of M. glomerata.

  13. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in

  14. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The persistent nature of equity volatility is investigated by means of a multi-factor stochastic volatility model with time varying parameters. The parameters are estimated by means of a sequential matching procedure which adopts as auxiliary model a time-varying generalization of the HAR model f...

  15. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may also provide contact information, such as a telephone number and/or e-mail address. PHMSA and the.... PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport... (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R-1), which is scheduled for...

  16. Deep-HiTS: Rotation Invariant Convolutional Neural Network for Transient Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Vives, Guillermo; Reyes, Ignacio; Förster, Francisco; Estévez, Pablo A.; Maureira, Juan-Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We introduce Deep-HiTS, a rotation-invariant convolutional neural network (CNN) model for classifying images of transient candidates into artifacts or real sources for the High cadence Transient Survey (HiTS). CNNs have the advantage of learning the features automatically from the data while achieving high performance. We compare our CNN model against a feature engineering approach using random forests (RFs). We show that our CNN significantly outperforms the RF model, reducing the error by almost half. Furthermore, for a fixed number of approximately 2000 allowed false transient candidates per night, we are able to reduce the misclassified real transients by approximately one-fifth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time CNNs have been used to detect astronomical transient events. Our approach will be very useful when processing images from next generation instruments such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. We have made all our code and data available to the community for the sake of allowing further developments and comparisons at https://github.com/guille-c/Deep-HiTS. Deep-HiTS is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v3.0.

  17. Study of the Integration of the CNU-TS-1 Mobile Tunnel Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liming; Zhong, Ruofei; Sun, Haili; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    A rapid, precise and automated means for the regular inspection and maintenance of a large number of tunnels is needed. Based on the depth study of the tunnel monitoring method, the CNU-TS-1 mobile tunnel monitoring system (TS1) is developed and presented. It can efficiently obtain the cross-sections that are orthogonal to the tunnel in a dynamic way, and the control measurements that depend on design data are eliminated. By using odometers to locate the cross-sections and correcting the data based on longitudinal joints of tunnel segment lining, the cost of the system has been significantly reduced, and the interval between adjacent cross-sections can reach 1-2 cm when pushed to collect data at a normal walking speed. Meanwhile, the relative deformation of tunnel can be analyzed by selecting cross-sections from original data. Through the measurement of the actual tunnel, the applicability of the system for tunnel deformation detection is verified, and the system is shown to be 15 times more efficient than that of the total station. The simulation experiment of the tunnel deformation indicates that the measurement accuracy of TS1 for cross-sections is 1.1 mm. Compared with the traditional method, TS1 improves the efficiency as well as increases the density of the obtained points.

  18. Study of the Integration of the CNU-TS-1 Mobile Tunnel Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, precise and automated means for the regular inspection and maintenance of a large number of tunnels is needed. Based on the depth study of the tunnel monitoring method, the CNU-TS-1 mobile tunnel monitoring system (TS1 is developed and presented. It can efficiently obtain the cross-sections that are orthogonal to the tunnel in a dynamic way, and the control measurements that depend on design data are eliminated. By using odometers to locate the cross-sections and correcting the data based on longitudinal joints of tunnel segment lining, the cost of the system has been significantly reduced, and the interval between adjacent cross-sections can reach 1–2 cm when pushed to collect data at a normal walking speed. Meanwhile, the relative deformation of tunnel can be analyzed by selecting cross-sections from original data. Through the measurement of the actual tunnel, the applicability of the system for tunnel deformation detection is verified, and the system is shown to be 15 times more efficient than that of the total station. The simulation experiment of the tunnel deformation indicates that the measurement accuracy of TS1 for cross-sections is 1.1 mm. Compared with the traditional method, TS1 improves the efficiency as well as increases the density of the obtained points.

  19. Impôts, taxes et équité entre les sexes : codes, comportements et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 déc. 2010 ... On sait que les impôts et la taxation peuvent favoriser l'égalité socioéconomique, mais ... Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. ... Gender and taxation in South Africa: a policy brief.

  20. The E-learning Cabaret: do's and don'ts in E-Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2006). The E-Learning Cabaret: do's and don'ts in E-Learning Design. Book of Abstracts, 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning & Teaching, Online Educa Berlin (pp. 169-171). November, 29-December, 1, 2006, Berlin, Germany: ICWE-GmbH.

  1. 75 FR 67705 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Talent Search (TS) Program; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Talent Search (TS... currently being served by a Talent Search project, especially schools that the State has identified as the... reliable third-party sources when providing information on the implementation of their Talent Search...

  2. PFCRT and DHFR-TS Sequences for Monitoring Drug Resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    from falciparum malaria isolates collected in Adzopé City, Côte d'Ivoire in 2007. Methods: Blood ... performed using specific primers of pfcrt and dhfr-ts. During the study .... The following mixture was prepared to a final volume of 50 ..... following the withdrawal of these anti- malarials as ... Malaria vaccines in Africa. Acta Trop.

  3. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of proximal aTraumaTic. resToraTive ... absTracT. Objective: To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (gic) ... or symptoms of periodontal disease, and clinically the ..... saliva contamination on the bond of dentine resin-.

  4. Guidelines : the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. METHODS: The authors built consensus by an iterative

  5. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  6. Fundamental volatility is regime specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.

    2006-01-01

    A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more

  7. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  8. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  9. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  10. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  11. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  12. Nonparametric methods for volatility density estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van Bert; Spreij, P.J.C.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic volatility modelling of financial processes has become increasingly popular. The proposed models usually contain a stationary volatility process. We will motivate and review several nonparametric methods for estimation of the density of the volatility process. Both models based on

  13. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Palmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have cloned genes encoding elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and expressed and purified the proteins to greater than 95% homogeneity. Sequence analysis indicated that P. aeruginosa EF-Tu and EF-Ts are 84% and 55% identical to E. coli counterparts, respectively. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active when assayed in GDP exchange assays. Kinetic parameters for the interaction of EF-Tu with GDP in the absence of EF-Ts were observed to be = 33 μM, = 0.003 s−1, and the specificity constant was  s−1 μM−1. In the presence of EF-Ts, these values were shifted to = 2 μM, = 0.005 s−1, and the specificity constant was  s−1 μM−1. The equilibrium dissociation constants governing the binding of EF-Tu to GDP ( were 30–75 nM and to GTP ( were 125–200 nM. EF-Ts stimulated the exchange of GDP by EF-Tu 10-fold. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in forming a ternary complex with GTP and aminoacylated tRNA and was functional in poly(U-dependent binding of Phe-tRNAPhe at the A-site of P. aeruginosa ribosomes. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in poly(U-programmed polyphenylalanine protein synthesis system composed of all P. aeruginosa components.

  15. Transport of UF6 in compliance with TS-R-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised) 1996 Edition include requirements for packages containing uranium hexafluoride (UF6); these are the first and only substance-specific requirements in the IAEA regulations. These requirements have already particularly affected, and will further affect, the transport of non-fissile and fissile excepted UF 6 and the packages used for these transports. Non-fissile and fissile excepted UF6 (ASTM C 787) has been transported worldwide for decades in a safe and reliable manner, using internationally standardised packages. Under the auspices of the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), an industry working group has been evaluating the existing packages against the requirements in TS-R-1. As new requirements came into effect, there were new challenges for the use of these standard packages, including the free drop test and the thermal requirements. In close cooperation with the WNTI HEXT Industry Working Group, a consortium of UF6 producers/users has worked together on the design and development, testing and certification of technical solutions for modification and optimisation of the existing packages to comply with TS-R-1. This paper reviews the existing standard packages against the requirements in TS-R-1. An update is also given describing the enhancements to the standard packages that have been designed and developed recently. The paper also describes how these solutions have been tested and certified, as well as the status of implementation. Finally, a review is made of the options that are available internationally to transport UF6 in compliance with TS-R-1. (author)

  16. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  17. Development of an Operational TS Dataset Production System for the Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwang Soon

    2017-04-01

    An operational TS (Temperature and Salinity) dataset production system was developed to provide near real-time data to the data assimilation system periodically. It collects the latest 15 days' TS data of the north western pacific area (20°N - 55°N, 110°E - 150°E), applies QC tests to the archived data and supplies them to numerical prediction models of KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology). The latest real-time TS data are collected from Argo GDAC and GTSPP data server every week. Argo data are downloaded from /latest_data directory of Argo GDAC. Because many duplicated data exist when all profile data are extracted from all Argo netCDF files, DB system is used to avoid duplication. All metadata (float ID, location, observation date and time, etc) of all Argo floats is stored into Database system and a Matlab program was developed to manipulate DB data, to check the duplication and to exclude duplicated data. GTSPP data are downloaded from /realtime directory of GTSPP data service. The latest data except ARGO data are extracted from the original data. Another Matlab program was coded to inspect all collected data using 10 QC tests and produce final dataset which can be used by the assimilation system. Three regional range tests to inspect annual, seasonal and monthly variations are included in the QC procedures. The C program was developed to provide regional ranges to data managers. It can calculate upper limit and lower limit of temperature and salinity at depth from 0 to 1550m. The final TS dataset contains the latest 15 days' TS data in netCDF format. It is updated every week and transmitted to numerical modeler of KIOST for operational use.

  18. A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste during its storage in an evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Jiménez, A M; Martín, A

    2006-01-01

    A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) during its storage in an evaporation pond was carried out. This system is traditionally used as the final disposal of this waste or constitutes a previous stage before being processed by cogeneration or anaerobic digestion processes. A laboratory-scale pond with a total volume of 520 l was used. The experiment was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003 covering a total period of 269 days. During the experiment, the variations of temperature (outside and inside the pond), the effective volume of the OMSW in the pond, moisture content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total volatile acids (TVA), pH and cumulative methane production as a function of the operation time were evaluated. The experimental results obtained showed that the characteristics of the two-phase OMSW in the pond were dependent on the time of operation and temperature. During the experiment, three periods were clearly observed and differentiated: (a) An initial period with a rapid reduction of moisture content and effective volume, with an increase of TS, VS and TCOD removals, a decrease of pH and an increase of TVA and methane production until day 21. (b) A second period of slow decrease of moisture content and effective volume, due to the decrease of the ambient temperature. This period took place between day 21 and days 120-150 of assay, and it was characterised by a slight change in the OMSW properties. (c) A third period where the characteristics of the waste in the pond changed considerably due to the increase of the temperature outside the pond. The methane gas production also showed an increase due to the increase of methanogenic activity with the increase of temperature. An empirical model to describe the changes of two-phase OMSW characteristics and methane production with the operation time was developed. The proposed model, based on the use of

  19. "Cremaster' tsükkel" : Matthew Barney avastusretk kunsti ja filmikunsti vahealal / Miriam Dagan ; tõlk. Epp Aareleid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dagan, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika kunstniku ja režissööri kunstnikufilmidest "Cremaster' tsükkel" (1994-2002). Viie tsükli põhisündmusest. Viienda filmi rekvisiitor oli Meeli Salumäe, Kostabi Maailma assistent New Yorgis

  20. Evaluation of the Airborne CASI/TASI Ts-VI Space Method for Estimating Near-Surface Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution airborne data with little sub-pixel heterogeneity were used to evaluate the suitability of the temperature/vegetation (Ts/VI space method developed from satellite observations, and were explored to improve the performance of the Ts/VI space method for estimating soil moisture (SM. An evaluation of the airborne ΔTs/Fr space (incorporated with air temperature revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI saturation and disturbed pixels were hindering the appropriate construction of the space. The non-disturbed ΔTs/Fr space, which was modified by adjusting the NDVI saturation and eliminating the disturbed pixels, was clearly correlated with the measured SM. The SM estimations of the non-disturbed ΔTs/Fr  space using the evaporative fraction (EF and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI were validated by using the SM measured at a depth of 4 cm, which was determined according to the land surface types. The validation results show that the EF approach provides superior estimates with a lower RMSE (0.023 m3·m−3 value and a higher correlation coefficient (0.68 than the TVDI. The application of the airborne ΔTs/Fr  space shows that the two modifications proposed in this study strengthen the link between the ΔTs/Fr space and SM, which is important for improving the precision of the remote sensing Ts/VI space method for monitoring SM.

  1. A green surfactant-assisted synthesis of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with excellent catalytic properties for oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuting; Li, Fen; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Jia, Mingjun; Yu, Jihong

    2016-02-25

    Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with uniform intracrystalline mesopores have been successfully synthesized through the hydrothermal method by using the green and cheap surfactant Triton X-100 as the mesoporous template. The resultant materials exhibit remarkably enhanced catalytic activity in oxidative desulfurization reactions compared to the conventional TS-1 zeolite.

  2. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment-opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. We consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. To calibrate and assess the risk/return profile of the portfolio, we present an analytical framework offering pragmatic solutions for long-term investors seeking exposure to volatility. The benefit of volatility exposure for a co...

  3. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  4. ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) volatile production during high pCO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Fuji’apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] volatile compound dynamics were characterized during cold storage in air or at low pO2 controlled atmosphere (CA) with up to 5 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds in storage chambers were adsorbed onto solid sorbent traps and analyzed by GC-MS....

  5. Parallel Prediction of Stock Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Jenq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a measurement of the risk of financial products. A stock will hit new highs and lows over time and if these highs and lows fluctuate wildly, then it is considered a high volatile stock. Such a stock is considered riskier than a stock whose volatility is low. Although highly volatile stocks are riskier, the returns that they generate for investors can be quite high. Of course, with a riskier stock also comes the chance of losing money and yielding negative returns. In this project, we will use historic stock data to help us forecast volatility. Since the financial industry usually uses S&P 500 as the indicator of the market, we will use S&P 500 as a benchmark to compute the risk. We will also use artificial neural networks as a tool to predict volatilities for a specific time frame that will be set when we configure this neural network. There have been reports that neural networks with different numbers of layers and different numbers of hidden nodes may generate varying results. In fact, we may be able to find the best configuration of a neural network to compute volatilities. We will implement this system using the parallel approach. The system can be used as a tool for investors to allocating and hedging assets.

  6. Simultaneous and multi-criteria optimization of TS requirements and maintenance at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Sanchez, A.; Carlos, S.; Serradell, V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main concerns of the nuclear industry is to improve the availability of safety-related systems at nuclear power plants (NPPs) to achieve high safety levels. The development of efficient testing and maintenance has been traditionally one of the different ways to guarantee high levels of systems availability, which are implemented at NPP through technical specification and maintenance requirements (TS and M). On the other hand, there is a widely recognized interest in using the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) for risk-informed applications aimed to emphasize both effective risk control and effective resource expenditures at NPPs. TS and M-related parameters in a plant are associated with controlling risk or with satisfying requirements, and are candidate to be evaluated for their resource effectiveness in risk-informed applications. The resource versus risk-control effectiveness principles formally enter in optimization problems where the cost or the burden for the plant staff is to be minimized while the risk or the availability of the safety equipment is constrained to be at a given level, and vice versa. Optimization of TS and M has been found interesting from the very beginning. However, the resolution of such a kind of optimization problem has been limited to focus on only individual TS and M-related parameters (STI, AOT, PM frequency, etc.) and/or adopting an individual optimization criterion (availability, costs, plant risks, etc.). Nevertheless, a number of reasons exist (e.g. interaction, similar scope, etc.) that justify the growing interest in the last years to focus on the simultaneous and multi-criteria optimization of TS and M. In the simultaneous optimization of TS and M-related parameters based on risk (or unavailability) and cost, like in many other engineering optimization problems, one normally faces multi-modal and non-linear objective functions and a variety of both linear and non-linear constraints. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have

  7. Natural sparkling guava wine: volatile and physicochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although different tropical fruit species have been used in the development of fermented beverages, there are only few references in the literature to the production of natural sparkling wines from fruits other than grapes. In this sense, the objective of the present research was the development and physicochemical and volatile characterization of a natural sparkling guava wine produced by the champenoise method. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME technique on samples. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which 51 were identified. Esters were the predominant class of volatile compounds (a total of 26, followed by alcohols (10, terpenes (9, ketones (3, and acids (3. Volatile compounds with possible odoriferous activity were reported in the beverage, including ethyl octanoate, ethyl 5-hexenoate, phenethyl acetate, (E-β-damascenone, (E-ethyl cinnamate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl 3-(E-hexenoate, and methyl 5-hexenoate. Natural sparkling guava wine produced showed a complex composition of fruity and floral aromas. Furthermore, the use of the champenoise method, traditionally applied to grapes, enabled the manufacture of a natural sparkling guava wine with physicochemical characteristics equivalent to those of sparkling wines made from grapes.

  8. Volatiles in the Martian regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.C.; Baird, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of released volatiles on Mars has been derived based upon Viking measurements of atmospheric and surface chemical composition, and upon the inferred mineralogy of a ubiquitous regolith, assumed to average 200m in depth. This model is consistent with the relative abundances of volatiles (except for S) on the Earth's surface, but implies one-fifteenth of the volatile release of Earth if starting materials were comparable. All constituents are accommodated as chemical components of, or absorbed phases on, regolith materials--without the necessity of invoking unobservable deposits of carbonates, nitrates, or permafrost ice

  9. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable....

  10. Analysis of the influencing factors of PAEs volatilization from typical plastic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weidong; Chi, Chenchen; Zhou, Chen; Xia, Meng; Ronda, Cees; Shen, Xueyou

    2018-04-01

    The primary emphasis of this research was to investigate the foundations of phthalate (PAEs) pollutant source researches and then firstly confirmed the concept of the coefficient of volatile strength, namely phthalate total content in per unit mass and unit surface area of pollutant sources. Through surveying and evaluating the coefficient of volatile strength of PAEs from typical plastic products, this research carried out reasonable classification of PAEs pollutant sources into three categories and then investigated the relationship amongst the coefficient of volatile strength as well as other environmental factors and the concentration level of total PAEs in indoor air measured in environment chambers. Research obtained phthalate concentration results under different temperature, humidity, the coefficient of volatile strength and the closed time through the chamber experiment. In addition, this study further explored the correlation and ratio of influencing factors that affect the concentration level of total PAEs in environment chambers, including environmental factors, the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs and contents of total PAEs in plastic products. The research created an improved database system of phthalate the coefficient of volatile strengths of each type of plastic goods, and tentatively revealed that the volatile patterns of PAEs from different typical plastic goods, finally confirmed that the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs is a major factor that affects the indoor air total PAEs concentration, which laid a solid foundation for further establishing the volatile equation of PAEs from plastic products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Volatiles Profile of Red Apple from Marche Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fraternale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of different parts (whole fruit, peel and flesh of a rare wild red apple named “Mela Rossa Val Metauro” was established by SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction sampling, followed by GC-MS analysis. The most prominent constituent in all the three parts was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene. The presence of the ester ethyl hexanoate particularly in the flesh (39.8% gives a special exotic flavor to the fruit.

  12. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  13. Instability and dynamics of volatile thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hangjie; Witelski, Thomas P.

    2018-02-01

    Volatile viscous fluids on partially wetting solid substrates can exhibit interesting interfacial instabilities and pattern formation. We study the dynamics of vapor condensation and fluid evaporation governed by a one-sided model in a low-Reynolds-number lubrication approximation incorporating surface tension, intermolecular effects, and evaporative fluxes. Parameter ranges for evaporation-dominated and condensation-dominated regimes and a critical case are identified. Interfacial instabilities driven by the competition between the disjoining pressure and evaporative effects are studied via linear stability analysis. Transient pattern formation in nearly flat evolving films in the critical case is investigated. In the weak evaporation limit unstable modes of finite-amplitude nonuniform steady states lead to rich droplet dynamics, including flattening, symmetry breaking, and droplet merging. Numerical simulations show that long-time behaviors leading to evaporation or condensation are sensitive to transitions between filmwise and dropwise dynamics.

  14. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Galantamine improves olfactory learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio M Simoes; Busquet, Nicolas; Blatner, Megan; Maclean, Kenneth N; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of congenital intellectual disability. Although DS involves multiple disturbances in various tissues, there is little doubt that in terms of quality of life cognitive impairment is the most serious facet and there is no effective treatment for this aspect of the syndrome. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulates multiple aspects of DS including cognitive impairment. Here the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS was evaluated in an associative learning paradigm based on olfactory cues. In contrast to disomic controls, trisomic mice exhibited significant deficits in olfactory learning. Treatment of trisomic mice with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine resulted in a significant improvement in olfactory learning. Collectively, our study indicates that olfactory learning can be a sensitive tool for evaluating deficits in associative learning in mouse models of DS and that galantamine has therapeutic potential for improving cognitive abilities.

  16. Memory H ∞ performance control of a class T-S fuzzy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; He, Xiqin; Wu, Zhihua; Kang, Xiulan; Xiu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    For much nonlinear system in the control system, both the stability of the system and certain performance indicators are required. The characteristics of T-S model in fuzzy system make it possible to illustrate a great amount of nonlinear system efficiently. First and foremost, the T-S model with uncertainties and external disturbance is utilized to interpret nonlinear system so as to implement H∞ performance control by means of fuzzy control theory. Meantime, owing to the tremendous existence of time delay phenomenon in the controlled, feedback controller with memory fuzzy state is fabricated. On the basis of Lyapunov Stability Theory, the closed-loop system becomes stable by establishing Lyapunov function. Gain matrix of the memory state feedback controller is obtained by applying linear matrix inequality methodology. And simultaneously it makes the system meet the requirement of the H∞ performance indicator. Ultimately, the efficiency of the above-mentioned method is exemplified by the numerical computation.

  17. Comparison of two methods for extraction of volatiles from marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic headspace (DHS) thermal desorption principle using Tenax GR tube, as well as the solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) tool with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 50/30 µm CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, both coupled to GC/MS were implemented for the isolation and identification of both lipid...... and Strecker derived volatiles in marine phospholipids (PL) emulsions. Comparison of volatile extraction efficiency was made between the methods. For marine PL emulsions with a highly complex composition of volatiles headspace, a fiber saturation problem was encountered when using CAR/PDMS‐SPME for volatiles...... analysis. However, the CAR/PDMS‐SPME technique was efficient for lipid oxidation analysis in emulsions of less complex headspace. The SPME method extracted volatiles of lower molecular weights more efficient than the DHS method. On the other hand, DHS Tenax GR appeared to be more efficient in extracting...

  18. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  19. Phase I study of concurrent radiotherapy with TS-1 and vitamin A (TAR therapy) for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Torahiko; Kuratomi, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Masuda, Muneyuki; Hirakawa, Naoya; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Umezaki, Toshiro; Komune, Shizuo

    2005-01-01

    The triple combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), vitamin A and radiation (FAR therapy) has been effectively used to treat head and neck cancer. The biological anti-tumor effect of 5-FU depends on the activity of its metabolizing enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). TS-1 is a novel oral DPD inhibitory fluoropyrimidine (DIF). To improve the anti-tumor effect of FAR therapy, we have applied TS-1 in place of 5-FU injection in the combination of Vitamin A and radiation (TAR therapy). In this study, we have examined the appropriate duration of TS-1 medication and the clinical efficacy and safety of TAR therapy. TS-1 was administered orally at a dose of 65 mg/m 2 twice a day. Vitamin A (Retinol Palmitate: 50,000 U/day) was administered intra-musculary on each day of radiation. Radiation was given (1.5∼2 Gy/day: 5 days/week) for 30∼40 Gy. The levels were divided according to the length of TS-1 application as follows: level 1, 2 weeks; level 2, 3 weeks; level 4, 4 weeks. Grade 4 toxicity of anorexia was observed in one case of level 3. We decided that level 2 (3 weeks of TS-1 administration) was the appropriate length of TS-1 application. TAR therapy is a useful concurrent chemo-radiotherapy which might improve the response rate and quality of life (QOL) of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (author)

  20. T-S criticality of black holes with power Maxwell invariant source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ze-Tao; Li, Gu-Qiang; Long, Kun; He, Fang; Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we show that black holes with PMI source exhibit the T-S criticality and derive the relevant critical physical quantities analytically. The values of critical quantities for the case s≠1 vary from those for the case s=1, showing the effect of PMI field on the critical phenomena of black holes. When qPMI field does not affect the Maxwell equal area law.

  1. Disruption of Inhibitory Function in the Ts65Dn Mouse Hippocampus Through Overexpression of GIRK2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-24

    embryological and developmental or a result of later problems. Delays in prenatal growth of the Ts65Dn cerebral cortex and hippocampus due to longer...cultured from both DS patients and model animals are also reportedly more vulnerable to apoptosis (Sawa, 1999). A majority of research investigating cell...death in DS has been limited to several apoptosis -related genes, including those related to oxidative stress, and transcription factors overexpressed

  2. Vom Stabilitäts- und Wachstumsgesetz zum Wohlstands- und Nachhaltigkeitsgesetz

    OpenAIRE

    Koll, Willi

    2016-01-01

    Das Stabilitäts- und Wachstumsgesetz wird bald 50 Jahre alt. Neue Herausforderungen erfordern eine Wirtschaftspolitik, die weit über die Ziele des Gesetzes hinausweist. Sie muss wirtschaftliches Wachstum und Stabilität mit den Zielen fiskalischer, sozialer und ökologischer Nachhaltigkeit auf nationaler und europäischer Ebene verbinden. Der Autor gibt einen Über blick über solche umfassenden Zielsysteme und leitet daraus ab, wie eine derart erweiterte wirtschaftspolitische Agenda in ein Wohlst...

  3. Agent Based Fuzzy T-S Multi-Model System and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic concepts of agent and fuzzy T-S model, an agent based fuzzy T-S multi-model (ABFT-SMM system is proposed in this paper. Different from the traditional method, the parameters and the membership value of the agent can be adjusted along with the process. In this system, each agent can be described as a dynamic equation, which can be seen as the local part of the multi-model, and it can execute the task alone or collaborate with other agents to accomplish a fixed goal. It is proved in this paper that the agent based fuzzy T-S multi-model system can approximate any linear or nonlinear system at arbitrary accuracy. The applications to the benchmark problem of chaotic time series prediction, water heater system and waste heat utilizing process illustrate the viability and the efficiency of the mentioned approach. At the same time, the method can be easily used to a number of engineering fields, including identification, nonlinear control, fault diagnostics and performance analysis.

  4. Volatilization and trapping of ruthenium during calcination of nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Smet, M. de; Trine, J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid radioactive aerosols and semi-volatile fission products e.g. Ru, Cs, Sb are generated during high level liquid waste calcination and vitrification processes. The retention of Ruthenium was studied because of its strong tendency to form volatile compounds in oxidative media. Since RuO 4 was the suspected form for high temperature processes, the study was carried out on the behaviour of RuO 4 and its retention on adsorbants and catalysts for various gas compositions. The behaviour of volatilized Ru species obtained by calcination of nitrosyl Ru compounds was then compared with the RuO 4 case

  5. ERCC1 and TS Expression as Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Metastatic Colon Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel B Choueiri

    Full Text Available In patients with metastatic colon cancer, response to first line chemotherapy is a strong predictor of overall survival (OS. Currently, oncologists lack diagnostic tests to determine which chemotherapy regimen offers the greatest chance for response in an individual patient. Here we present the results of gene expression analysis for two genes, ERCC1 and TS, measured with the commercially available ResponseDX: Colon assay (Response Genetics, Los Angeles, CA in 41 patients with de novo metastatic colon cancer diagnosed between July 2008 and August 2013 at the University of California, San Diego. In addition ERCC1 and TS expression levels as determined by RNAseq and survival data for patients in TCGA were downloaded from the TCGA data portal. We found that patients with low expression of ERCC1 (n = 33 had significantly longer median OS (36.0 vs. 10.1 mo, HR 0.29, 95% CI .095 to .84, log-rank p = 9.0x10-6 and median time to treatment to failure (TTF following first line chemotherapy (14.1 vs. 2.4 mo, HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.048 to 0.58, log-rank p = 5.3x10-4 relative to those with high expression (n = 4. After accounting for the covariates age, sex, tumor grade and ECOG performance status in a Cox proportional hazard model the association of low ERCC1 with longer OS (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.26, p = 0.0448 and TTF (HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.21, p = 0.0053 remained significant. Patients with low TS expression (n = 29 had significantly longer median OS (36.0 vs. 14.8 mo, HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.074 to 0.82, log-rank p = 0.022 relative to those with high expression (n = 12. The combined low expression of ERCC1/TS was predictive of response in patients treated with FOLFOX (40% vs. 91%, RR 2.3, Fisher's exact test p = 0.03, n = 27, but not with FOLFIRI (71% vs. 71%, RR 1.0, Fisher's exact test p = 1, n = 14. Overall, these findings suggest that measurement of ERCC1 and TS expression has potential clinical utility in managing patients with metastatic colorectal

  6. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement by Nalidixic Acid of the Thermal Susceptibility of the Ts-7 Mutant of Escherichia Coli TAU-Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mikio; Mishima, Yukio; Kawada, Jun; Yielding, K. Lemone

    1975-01-01

    Nadilidixic acid at 5 × 10−6 M produced a substantial increase in thermal susceptibility of Ts-7, suggesting either that the thermal and nalidixic acid targets are identical or closely interdependent. PMID:1101825

  8. A route to hydroxylfluorenes: TsOH-mediated condensation reactions of 1,3-diketones with propargylic alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Liangfeng; Tan, Davin; Miao, Xiaohe; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    An efficient method of preparing hydroxylfluorenes by TsOH-mediated tandem alkylation/rearrangements of propargylic alcohols with 1,3-diketones is described. These reactions are accomplished in moderate to good yields under mild conditions to offer

  9. Usuga tõe ja töö vabariiki / Matti Päts ; interv. Ants Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päts, Matti, 1933-

    2003-01-01

    Patendiameti peadirektor Matti Päts vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti Vabariiki selle 12. taasiseseisvumisaastal, eesti ajakirjandust, segadust ühiskonnas, kokkuhoidliku meelelaadi kadumist, insenerkonna vähest esindatust ühiskonnaelu juhtimises, maaelu

  10. Function and structure in phage Qbeta RNA replicase. Association of EF-Tu-Ts with the other enzyme subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumenthal, T; Young, R A; Brown, S

    1976-01-01

    alters its quaternary structure: the EF-Tu-Ts cannot be covalently attached to the other enzyme subunits with bifunctional cross-linking reagents in the presence of RNA. This conformational change is not influenced by ionic strength. The addition of Qbeta RNA to the enzyme, does not result in the release...... for one another increases with increasing ionic strength. The enzyme is capable of initiation of RNA synthesis with synthetic templates only when in the low ionic strength conformation. Elongation of initiated polynucleotide chains is not affectedby ionic strength. Addition of Qbeta RNA to the enzyme also...... of EF-Tu-Ts from the other enzyme subunits: whereas free EF-Tu-Ts binds GDP independently of salt concentration, this binding by Qbeta replicase is sensitive to high ionic strength and remains so in the presence of Qbeta RNA. Furthermore, RNA does not allow the release of EF-Ts from EF-Tu by GTP...

  11. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jinghui; Kobayashi, Masahito; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The proposed test is a stochastic volatility version of the co-movement test proposed by Engle and Susmel (1993), who investigated whether international equity markets have volatility co-movement using t...

  12. Enhancement of the anaerobic hydrolysis and fermentation of municipal solid waste in leachbed reactors by varying flow direction during water addition and leachate recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uke, Matthew N., E-mail: cnmnu@leeds.ac.uk [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Stentiford, Edward [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Combined downflow and upflow water addition improved hydraulic conductivity. ► Upflow water addition unclogged perforated screen leading to more leachate flow. ► The volume of water added and transmitted positively correlated with hydrolysis process. ► Combined downflow and upflow water addition increased COD production and yield. ► Combined downflow and upflow leachate recycle improved leachate and COD production. - Abstract: Poor performance of leachbed reactors (LBRs) is attributed to channelling, compaction from waste loading, unidirectional water addition and leachate flow causing reduced hydraulic conductivity and leachate flow blockage. Performance enhancement was evaluated in three LBRs M, D and U at 22 ± 3 °C using three water addition and leachate recycle strategies; water addition was downflow in D throughout, intermittently upflow and downflow in M and U with 77% volume downflow in M, 54% volume downflow in U while the rest were upflow. Leachate recycle was downflow in D, alternately downflow and upflow in M and upflow in U. The strategy adopted in U led to more water addition (30.3%), leachate production (33%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation (33%; 1609 g against 1210 g) compared to D (control). The total and volatile solids (TS and VS) reductions were similar but the highest COD yield (g-COD/g-TS and g-COD/g-VS removed) was in U (1.6 and 1.9); the values were 1.33 and 1.57 for M, and 1.18 and 1.41 for D respectively. The strategy adopted in U showed superior performance with more COD and leachate production compared to reactors M and D.

  13. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  14. Attentional function and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron morphology during aging in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit intellectual disability and develop Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology during the third decade of life. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits key features of both disorders, including impairments in learning, attention and memory, as well as atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). The present study evaluated attentional function in relation to BFCN morphology in young (3 months) and middle-aged (12 months) Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) controls. Ts65Dn mice exhibited attentional dysfunction at both ages, with greater impairment in older trisomics. Density of BFCNs was significantly lower for Ts65Dn mice independent of age, which may contribute to attentional dysfunction since BFCN density was positively associated with performance on an attention task. BFCN volume decreased with age in 2N but not Ts65Dn mice. Paradoxically, BFCN volume was greater in older trisomic mice, suggestive of a compensatory response. In sum, attentional dysfunction occurred in both young and middle-aged Ts65Dn mice, which may in part reflect reduced density and/or phenotypic alterations in BFCNs.

  15. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  16. Multiscaling and clustering of volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Michele; Serva, Maurizio

    1999-07-01

    The dynamics of prices in stock markets has been studied intensively both experimentally (data analysis) and theoretically (models). Nevertheless, while the distribution of returns of the most important indices is known to be a truncated Lévy, the behaviour of volatility correlations is still poorly understood. What is well known is that absolute returns have memory on a long time range, this phenomenon is known in financial literature as clustering of volatility. In this paper we show that volatility correlations are power laws with a non-unique scaling exponent. This kind of multiscale phenomenology is known to be relevant in fully developed turbulence and in disordered systems and it is pointed out here for the first time for a financial series. In our study we consider the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) daily index, from January 1966 to June 1998, for a total of 8180 working days.

  17. Effect of a cationic surfactant on the volatilization of PAHs from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Zhu, Lizhong

    2012-06-01

    Cationic surfactants are common in soils because of their use in daily cosmetic and cleaning products, and their use as a soil amendment for the mitigation and remediation of organic contaminated soils has been proposed. Such surfactant may affect the transfer and fate of organic contaminants in the environment. This study investigated the effect of a cationic surfactant, dodecylpyridinium bromide (DDPB), on the volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a paddy soil. The volatilization of PAHs from moist soil amended with different concentrations of DDPB was tested in an open system. The specific effects of DDPB on the liquid-vapor and solid-vapor equilibriums of PAHs were separately investigated in closed systems by headspace analysis. DDPB affects both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor processes of PAHs in soil. At DDPB concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), movement of PAHs from the bulk solution to the gas-liquid interface appeared to be facilitated by interaction between PAHs and the surfactant monomers adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, promoting the volatilization of PAHs from solution. However, when DDPB was greater than the CMC, volatilization was inhibited due to the solubilization of PAHs by micelles. On the other hand, the formation of sorbed surfactant significantly inhibited the solid-vapor volatilization of PAHs. The overall effect of the two simultaneous effects of DDPB on liquid-vapor and solid-vapor processes was a decreased volatilization loss of PAHs from soil. Inhibition of PAH volatilization was more significant for the soil with a lower moisture content.

  18. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-09

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers.

  19. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  20. Guidelines: the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. The authors built consensus by an iterative process. Do's and Don'ts were proposed based on authors' individual teaching experience and awareness of the literature, and the amalgamated set of guidelines were then refined by all authors and the evidence was summarized for each guideline. Don't Knows were identified as being important questions to this international group of educators which if answered would change practice. The criteria for inclusion of evidence for these guidelines were not those of a systematic review, so indicators of strength of these recommendations were developed which combine the evidence with the authors' consensus. A set of 32 Do and Don't guidelines with the important Don't Knows was compiled along with a summary of the evidence for each. These are divided into guidelines for the individual clinical supervisor giving feedback to their trainee (recommendations about both the process and the content of feedback) and guidelines for the learning culture (what elements of learning culture support the exchange of meaningful feedback, and what elements constrain it?) Feedback is not easy to get right, but it is essential to learning in medicine, and there is a wealth of evidence supporting the Do's and warning against the Don'ts. Further research into the critical Don't Knows of feedback is required. A new definition is offered: Helpful feedback is a supportive conversation that clarifies the trainee's awareness of their developing competencies, enhances their self-efficacy for making progress, challenges them to set objectives for improvement, and facilitates their development of strategies to enable that improvement to occur.

  1. A federated capability-based access control mechanism for internet of things (IoTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of Internet of Things (IoTs) allows heterogeneous embedded smart devices to collaboratively provide intelligent services with or without human intervention. While leveraging the large-scale IoT-based applications like Smart Gird and Smart Cities, IoT also incurs more concerns on privacy and security. Among the top security challenges that IoTs face is that access authorization is critical in resource and information protection over IoTs. Traditional access control approaches, like Access Control Lists (ACL), Role-based Access Control (RBAC) and Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC), are not able to provide a scalable, manageable and efficient mechanisms to meet requirement of IoT systems. The extraordinary large number of nodes, heterogeneity as well as dynamicity, necessitate more fine-grained, lightweight mechanisms for IoT devices. In this paper, a federated capability-based access control (FedCAC) framework is proposed to enable an effective access control processes to devices, services and information in large scale IoT systems. The federated capability delegation mechanism, based on a propagation tree, is illustrated for access permission propagation. An identity-based capability token management strategy is presented, which involves registering, propagation and revocation of the access authorization. Through delegating centralized authorization decision-making policy to local domain delegator, the access authorization process is locally conducted on the service provider that integrates situational awareness (SAW) and customized contextual conditions. Implemented and tested on both resources-constrained devices, like smart sensors and Raspberry PI, and non-resource-constrained devices, like laptops and smart phones, our experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FedCAC approach to offer a scalable, lightweight and fine-grained access control solution to IoT systems connected to a system network.

  2. Heavy metals speciation in solid household waste incineration residues and contribution to the interpretation of volatilization processes; Speciation des metaux lourds dans les residus solides d'usines d'incineration d'ordures menageres et contribution a l'interpretation des processus de vaporisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnepain, B.

    1998-07-01

    Different types of solid residues of incineration plants have at first been analyzed by complementary techniques. Relative tendencies to the heavy metals speciation have been established. On the one hand, the chemical trapping of heavy metals by ashes as well as their respective mobilities have been characterized by the sequential extraction method. On the other hand, morphology of ashes, localization, repartition and chemical environment of heavy metals have been studied by X-ray microanalysis. It has been shown that Cd and Zn are highly leachable, Cr, Ni and Cu are trapped in ashes and Pb, As have intermediary behaviours with a slow mobility. Concentration gradients of heavy metals in terms of the ashes granulometry have been deduced. An experimental device for studying the vaporization of heavy metals in a fluidized bed (simulation of the heavy metals release during the incineration of household wastes) has been perfected. Experiments have been carried out in conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere, residence time) near those of the real processes. A model, coupling the mass and heat transfers with a thermodynamic anticipation of the heavy metals behaviour has been developed and has allowed to exploit these obtained results. (O.M.)

  3. Application of ISO/TS 16949:2009 in Forest Products Industry

    OpenAIRE

    SEVİM KORKUT, Derya; SOLAK, Ertan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present the short, medium and long term benefits of the activities in the basis of quality management development and in the context of ISO/TS 16949 Automotive Sub-Industry Quality Management System which determines the service standards of a forest products facility as an automotive sub-industry supplier, to be shown as an example to similar facilities. In this study which aims to present the facility’s character an examination has been done via supplier, productio...

  4. High precision wavelength measurements of X-ray lines emitted from TS-Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platz, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cornille, M.; Dubau, J. [Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)

    1996-01-01

    X-ray line spectra from highly charged impurity ions have been taken with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. By cross-checking the wavelengths of reference lines from the heliumlike ions Ti20 + (2.6 Angstroms) and Ar16 + (3.95 Angstroms) we first demonstrate that it is possible to measure wavelengths with a precision, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}, of better than 50000. We than determine the wavelengths of n=3 to n=2 transitions of neonlike Ag37+ in the 4 Angstroms spectral range. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Secretin radioimmunoassay using 125I-6-tyrosyl-secretin (6TS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptis, S.; Leitze, M.; Schlegel, W.; Pfeiffer, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    In radioimmunological determination of secretin difficulties are caused by the following two problems: firstly, in raising potent antibodies, and secondly in satisfactory labeling. All secretin RIAs described in the literature were carried out with traditional synthetic secretin (Young, Lazarus, Chisholm and Atkinson 1968; Boden and Chey 1973; Holohan, Murphy, Buchanan and Elmore 1973; Boehm, Lee and Chey 1974). Our study describes the development of an assay with sufficient sensitivity to measure circulating immunoreactive secretin in human blood, by using 125 I-6-TS, which is a product of Schwarz and Mann/USA (SM). (orig.) [de

  6. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising...

  7. Dos and Don’ts for butterflies of the Habitats Directive of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Swaay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine butterfly species are listed on the Annexes of the Habitats Directive. To assist everyone who wants or needs to take action for one of these species, we compiled an overview of the habitat requirements and ecology of each species, as well as information on their conservation status in Europe. This was taken from the recent Red List and their main biogeographical regions (taken from the first reporting on Article 17 of the Directive. Most important are the Dos and Don`ts, which summarize in a few bullet points what to do and what to avoid in order to protect and conserve these butterflies and their habitats.

  8. Alignment of CT-PPS detectors in 2016, before TS2

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, J

    2017-01-01

    This note presents the first alignment of the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) using the data from before Technical Stop 2 (TS2), 2016. This new procedure involves two stages. In the first one, data from a special calibration fill are used. In this fill, both horizontal and vertical Roman Pots (RPs) were inserted very close to the beam. In the second stage, hit distributions from physics fills (with only horizontal RPs inserted) are matched to the previously aligned reference from the calibration fill. The alignment and optics calibration is verified by reconstructing consistent $\\xi$ spectra from different RPs and LHC fills.

  9. Experimental-laboratory studies of a composition based on TS-10 resin designed for insulation operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyazel' shchikov, V M; Glukhov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented from studying the technological parameters of a strengthened argillaceous solution (SAS) conducted using the method of planning partial experiments. Particular empirical relationships are found which provide a concept about the degree of influence of each of the SAS components (TS-10 resins of paraform, water, clay) on the rate of structure-formation and mechanical strength. Summary relationships are obtained: the time for viscosity to reach 500% cP-SAS composition and ultimate compression strength SAS composition which can be used in selecting the formula for the mixture for the insulation operations in an ''cold'' well.

  10. Synthesis of mesoporous TS-1 using a hybrid SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel for catalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung-Tae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong [Research Center for Green Catalysis, Division of Green Chemistry and Engineering Research, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 107, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Wha-Seung, E-mail: whasahn@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Meso-TS-1 catalyst was synthesized using a SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel with an organosilane precursor. ► Hierarchical pore structure was confirmed by characterization of the materials. ► Catalytic activity was tested using oxidative desulfurization of the model sulfur compounds. ► Meso-TS-1 demonstrated significantly improved catalytic activity than TS-1. -- Abstract: Mesoporous TS-1 (M-TS-1) was synthesized using a hybrid SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel combined with an organosilane precursor. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement. M-TS-1, prepared in 2 days, showed high crystallinity and the best textural properties among the samples. The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms of M-TS-1 exhibited a hysteresis loop at pressure higher than P/P{sub 0} = 0.4, clearly indicating the existence of mesopores. M-TS-1 has significantly larger mesopore volume (0.48 cm{sup 3}/g) than that of conventional TS-1 (0.07 cm{sup 3}/g), and showed a narrow peak centered at ca. 6.3 nm. In the oxidative desulfurization reaction, M-TS-1 was more active than conventional TS-1 at the same Ti-loading; M-TS-1 produced a dibenzothiophene (DBT) conversion of 96%, whereas conventional TS-1 produced a final DBT conversion of 5.6% after a reaction time of 180 min. Oxidative desulfurization over TS-1 was influenced both by electron density and steric hindrance in the sulfur compounds tested.

  11. Synthesis of mesoporous TS-1 using a hybrid SiO2–TiO2 xerogel for catalytic oxidative desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung-Tae; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Ahn, Wha-Seung

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Meso-TS-1 catalyst was synthesized using a SiO 2 –TiO 2 xerogel with an organosilane precursor. ► Hierarchical pore structure was confirmed by characterization of the materials. ► Catalytic activity was tested using oxidative desulfurization of the model sulfur compounds. ► Meso-TS-1 demonstrated significantly improved catalytic activity than TS-1. -- Abstract: Mesoporous TS-1 (M-TS-1) was synthesized using a hybrid SiO 2 –TiO 2 xerogel combined with an organosilane precursor. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, and N 2 adsorption–desorption measurement. M-TS-1, prepared in 2 days, showed high crystallinity and the best textural properties among the samples. The N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms of M-TS-1 exhibited a hysteresis loop at pressure higher than P/P 0 = 0.4, clearly indicating the existence of mesopores. M-TS-1 has significantly larger mesopore volume (0.48 cm 3 /g) than that of conventional TS-1 (0.07 cm 3 /g), and showed a narrow peak centered at ca. 6.3 nm. In the oxidative desulfurization reaction, M-TS-1 was more active than conventional TS-1 at the same Ti-loading; M-TS-1 produced a dibenzothiophene (DBT) conversion of 96%, whereas conventional TS-1 produced a final DBT conversion of 5.6% after a reaction time of 180 min. Oxidative desulfurization over TS-1 was influenced both by electron density and steric hindrance in the sulfur compounds tested.

  12. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  13. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  14. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  15. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  16. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  17. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  18. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    We present and test a model relating a firm's idiosyncratic cost, its exporting status, and the volatilities of its domestic and export sales. In prior models of trade, supply costs for domestic and exports were linear and thus additively separable. We introduce a nonlinear cost function in order...... to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...... has several testable predictions. First, larger firms have lower total and domestic sales volatilities. Second, foreign market volatility increases domestic sales volatilities for exporters. Third, exporters allocate output across both markets in order to reduce total sales volatility. We find...

  19. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  20. Confinement of ruthenium oxides volatilized during nuclear fuels reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, E.T. Jr.; Longo, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    While many materials have been suggested and employed as trapping agents for gaseous oxides of fission product ruthenium volatilized during nuclear fuels reprocessing, none that is known to form thermodynamically stable compounds with rutheniunm has been utilized. We have employed alkaline earth metal compounds for this purpose because of their ability to form stable mixed metal oxide phases with ruthenium. Results of experiments in which RuO 4 was volatilized from either a solid source (RuO 2 .xH 2 O) or from solution [Ru(NO)(NO 3 ) 3 ] in HNO 3 and passed through beds of alkaline earth metal carbonates and calcium oxide held at 600 to 750 0 C have demonstrated that compounds of formulation MRuO 3 (M = calcium, strontium, barium) are formed. Under oxidizing conditions, these materials exist as stable ceramic phases, whereas under reducing conditions, they are transformed into intimate mixtures of the alkaline earth metal oxide and nonvolatile ruthenium metal

  1. Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Shiuh Lim, Zhi; Zou, Xi; Chen, Lang; Ramesh, R.; Wang, Junling

    2013-01-01

    The quest for a solid state universal memory with high-storage density, high read/write speed, random access and non-volatility has triggered intense research into new materials and novel device architectures. Though the non-volatile memory market is dominated by flash memory now, it has very low operation speed with ~10 μs programming and ~10 ms erasing time. Furthermore, it can only withstand ~105 rewriting cycles, which prevents it from becoming the universal memory. Here we demonstrate that the significant photovoltaic effect of a ferroelectric material, such as BiFeO3 with a band gap in the visible range, can be used to sense the polarization direction non-destructively in a ferroelectric memory. A prototype 16-cell memory based on the cross-bar architecture has been prepared and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. PMID:23756366

  2. A Simplified Model for Volatile-N Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine; Glarborg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In solid fuel flames, NO is largely formed from the oxidation of volatile nitrogen compounds such as HCN and NH3. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in these flames, it is necessary to have an adequate model for volatile-N oxidation. Simple global models for oxidation of HCN and NH3 from...... the literature should be used cautiously, since their predictive capabilities are limited, particularly under reducing conditions. Models for HCN/NH3/NO conversion based on the systematic reduction of a detailed chemical kinetic model offer high accuracy but rely on input estimates of combustion intermediates...... for the sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, especially at lower temperatures. The semiempirical correlations for estimating radical concentrations may also be useful in combination with models for other trace species, such as sulfur oxides, organic species, etc....

  3. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  4. Second Generation HTs Wire Based on RABiTS Substrates and MOD YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoop, U. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Thieme, C. L. H. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, D. T. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Kodenkandath, Thomas [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Nguyen, N. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Siegal, E. E. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Civale, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Holesinger, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Maiorov, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    The performance of Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire manufactured by continuous reel-to-reel processes is nearing the 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self field) performance threshold for commercial power cable applications. The 2G manufacturing approach under development at American Superconductor is based on the combination of the RABiTS substrate-buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of the YBCO layer. The capability of this process has been demonstrated in multiple 10 meter lengths with critical currents exceeding 250 A/cm-width with high uniformity and reproducibility. Critical currents of 380 A/cm-width have been achieved in short length samples prepared by the same basic process. The incorporation of nanoparticles ('nanodots') into the YBCO layer using the MOD process has resulted in a 2-fold improvement in the critical current at 65 K in a 3 T field. The research and development focus at ASMC is now directed toward the economical scale-up of the RABiTS/MOD process, optimization of the conductor properties for targeted applications and the use of 2G wire in initial demonstration applications.

  5. Progress on MOD/RABiTS{sup TM} 2G HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Schoop, U.; Thieme, C.; Teplitsky, M.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Siegal, E.; Scudiere, J.; Maroni, V.; Venkataraman, K.; Miller, D.; Holesinger, T.G

    2004-10-01

    The development of the second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire has advanced beyond initial laboratory demonstrations and is now focused on developing and testing high critical current conductor designs required for commercial applications. The approach pursued at American Superconductor for 2G wire manufacturing is based on the combination of the RABiTS{sup TM} substrate-buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of the YBCO layer. This MOD/RABiTS{sup TM} approach has been demonstrated in 10 m lengths with critical currents of up to 184 A/cm-width ({approx}2.3 MA/cm{sup 2}) and in short length with critical currents of up to 270 A/cm-width ({approx}3.4 MA/cm{sup 2}). In addition to a high critical current, the superconducting wire must also meet stringent mechanical and electrical stability requirements that vary by application. Commercially viable architectures designed to meet these specifications have been fabricated and tested. Wires manufactured by this process have been successfully tested in prototype cable and coil applications.

  6. Oxidation of Catechol using Titanium Silicate (TS-1 Catalyst: Modeling and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sengupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of catechol was studied in an eco-friendly process with commercial titanium silicate-1 (TS-1 catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant in absence of all mass transfer effects. The process was opti-mized by Box-Behnken design in terms of three independent process variables such as reaction tempera-ture, moles of hydrogen peroxide per mole of catechol and catalyst amount whose optimum values of the process variables were found to be 60 °C, 13.2 and 1.24 g respectively for maximum conversion of 75.8 %. The effects of different process parameters such as mole ratio of hydrogen peroxide to catechol, catalyst par-ticle size, catalyst amount, temperature and reaction time were studied. A pseudo first order kinetic model was fitted with the experimental rate data. The apparent activation energy for the reaction was found to be 11.37 kJ/mole.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 22nd April 2013; Revised: 25th October 2013; Accepted: 1st November 2013[How to Cite: Sengupta, S., Ghosal, D., Basu, J.K. (2013. Oxidation of Catechol using Titanium Silicate (TS-1 Catalyst: Modeling and Optimization. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 167-177. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4759.167-177][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4759.167-177

  7. Impôts en France : réunion publique le mercredi 19 mars 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Impôts en France : réunion publique le mercredi 19 mars 2014 Une réunion publique aura lieu le mercredi 19 mars de 13h à 15h dans l’amphithéâtre principal (500/1-001). Au cours de cette réunion, MM. Jean-Louis Brandolin et Gérard Polizzi, respectivement responsable et responsable-adjoint du Service des impôts des particuliers et des entreprises de Bellegarde, Centre des finances publiques, apporteront leur expertise au sujet de l’imposition des membres du personnel du CERN domiciliés en France. Seront à l’ordre du jour les questions de principe que se posent apparemment de nombreux membres du personnel : par exemple, la définition du domicile fiscal, le contenu de la déclaration de revenus (mention des revenus CERN et déclaration des autres revenus de sources française ou étrangère), la déclaration des comptes bancaires à l’étranger, l’assujettissement (dans certaines conditions) à la CSG-CRDS. Cette réunion publique portera UNIQUEMENT sur des questions de principe ...

  8. Adaptive Controller for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Jian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-DOF parallel robot always appears in the form of Stewart platform. It has been widely used in industry for the benefits such as strong structural stiffness, high movement accuracy and so on. Space docking technology makes higher requirements of motion accuracy and dynamic performance to the control method on 6-DOF parallel robot. In this paper, a hydraulic 6-DOF parallel robot was used to simulate the docking process. Based on this point, this paper gave a thorough study on the design of an adaptive controller to eliminate the asymmetric of controlled plant and uncertain load force interference. Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy inference model was used to build the fuzzy adaptive controller. With T-S model, the controller directly imposes adaptive control signal on the plant to make sure that the output of plant could track the reference model output. The controller has simple structure and is easy to implement. Experiment results show that the controller can eliminate asymmetric and achieve good dynamic performance, and has good robustness to load interference.

  9. BiGGEsTS: integrated environment for biclustering analysis of time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeira Sara C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to monitor changes in expression patterns over time, and to observe the emergence of coherent temporal responses using expression time series, is critical to advance our understanding of complex biological processes. Biclustering has been recognized as an effective method for discovering local temporal expression patterns and unraveling potential regulatory mechanisms. The general biclustering problem is NP-hard. In the case of time series this problem is tractable, and efficient algorithms can be used. However, there is still a need for specialized applications able to take advantage of the temporal properties inherent to expression time series, both from a computational and a biological perspective. Findings BiGGEsTS makes available state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms for analyzing expression time series. Gene Ontology (GO annotations are used to assess the biological relevance of the biclusters. Methods for preprocessing expression time series and post-processing results are also included. The analysis is additionally supported by a visualization module capable of displaying informative representations of the data, including heatmaps, dendrograms, expression charts and graphs of enriched GO terms. Conclusion BiGGEsTS is a free open source graphical software tool for revealing local coexpression of genes in specific intervals of time, while integrating meaningful information on gene annotations. It is freely available at: http://kdbio.inesc-id.pt/software/biggests. We present a case study on the discovery of transcriptional regulatory modules in the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat stress.

  10. A nonparametric approach to forecasting realized volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Clements; Ralf Becker

    2009-01-01

    A well developed literature exists in relation to modeling and forecasting asset return volatility. Much of this relate to the development of time series models of volatility. This paper proposes an alternative method for forecasting volatility that does not involve such a model. Under this approach a forecast is a weighted average of historical volatility. The greatest weight is given to periods that exhibit the most similar market conditions to the time at which the forecast is being formed...

  11. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  12. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chen (Jinghui); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The

  13. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  14. Dynamic Factor Models for the Volatility Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Michel; Ozturk, Sait R.; Dijk, Dick van

    The implied volatility surface is the collection of volatilities implied by option contracts for different strike prices and time-to-maturity. We study factor models to capture the dynamics of this three-dimensional implied volatility surface. Three model types are considered to examine desirable...

  15. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  16. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  18. Bound volatile precursors in genotypes in the pedigree of 'Marion' blackberry (Rubus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad E; Qian, Michael C

    2010-03-24

    Glycosidically bound volatiles and precursors in genotypes representing the pedigree for 'Marion' blackberry were investigated over two growing seasons. The volatile precursors were isolated using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the released volatiles were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct microvial insert thermal desorption GC-MS. The most abundant volatile precursors in the genotypes were alcohols, followed by shikimic acid derivatives. High amounts of furanone glycosides were also detected, while norisoprenoids only existed in a small amount in blackberries. The volatile precursor composition in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree was very similar to their free volatile distribution. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' predominantly had bound norisoprenoids. Wild 'Himalaya' predominated with terpene alcohol and furaneol glycosides, whereas 'Santiam' and 'Chehalem' contained a high level of terpene alcohol glycosides. A similar inheritance pattern was also observed for some volatile precursors in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree. A high content of linalool, hydroxylinalool, and alpha-ionol glycosides in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate level in their offspring 'Marion', while a low content of (E)-linalool oxide precursor in 'Olallie' and a high content in 'Chehalem' also resulted in a moderate level in 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol glycosides in 'Marion' exceeded that of its two parents.

  19. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...... of SPME were examined for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, and a standard method for their quantitative analysis in aqueous samples was developed and validated in inter-laboratory studies on the basis of reference material and in comparison with the traditional methods....... The influences of some possible interferences on the SPME process were examined, and new SPME probes were tested for the in situ monitoring of groundwater pollutants. Inter-laboratory studies were carried out also for the validation of SPME for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organonitrogen...

  1. TS gene polymorphisms are not good markers of response to 5-FU therapy in stage III colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña-Sarasqueta, A; Gosens, M J E M; Moerland, E; van Lijnschoten, I; Lemmens, V E P P; Slooter, G D; Rutten, H J T; van den Brule, Adriaan J C

    2011-08-01

    Although the predictive and prognostic value of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression and gene polymorphism in colon cancer has been widely studied, the results are inconclusive probably because of methodological differences. With this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of TS gene polymorphisms genotyping in therapy response in stage III colon carcinoma patients treated with 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy. 251 patients diagnosed with stage III colon carcinoma treated with surgery followed by 5-FU based adjuvant therapy were selected. The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'untranslated region of the TS gene were genotyped. There was a positive association between tumor T stage and the VNTR genotypes (p = 0.05). In both univariate and multivariate survival analysis no effects of the studied polymorphisms on survival were found. However, there was an association between both polymorphisms and age. Among patients younger than 60 years, the patients homozygous for 2R seemed to have a better overall survival, whereas among the patients older than 67 this longer survival was seen by the carriers of other genotypes. We conclude that the TS VNTR and SNP do not predict response to 5-FU therapy in patients with stage III colon carcinoma. However, age appears to modify the effects of TS polymorphisms on survival.

  2. Interstitial lung disease caused by TS-1: a case of long-term drug retention as a fatal adverse reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong-Min; Hwang, In Gyu; Suh, Suk-Won; Chi, Kyong-Choun

    2011-12-01

    TS-1 is an oral anti-cancer agent for gastric cancer with a high response rate and low toxicity. We report a case of long-term drug retention of TS-1 causing interstitial lung disease (ILD) as a fatal adverse reaction. A 65-year-old woman underwent a total gastrectomy with pathologic confirmation of gastric adenocarcinoma. She received 6 cycles of TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin for post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy followed by single-agent maintenance therapy with TS-1. After 8 months, the patient complained of a productive cough with sputum and mild dyspnea. A pulmonary evaluation revealed diffuse ILD in the lung fields, bilaterally. In spite of discontinuing chemotherapy and the administration of corticosteroids, the pulmonary symptoms did not improve, and the patient died of pulmonary failure. TS-1-induced ILD can be caused by long-term drug retention that alters the lung parenchyma irreversibly, the outcome of which can be life-threatening. Pulmonary evaluation for early detection of disease is recommended.

  3. A Combination of TsHARP and Thin Plate Spline Interpolation for Spatial Sharpening of Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies and much attention paid to spatial sharpening for thermal imagery. Among them, TsHARP, based on the good correlation between vegetation index and land surface temperature (LST, is regarded as a standard technique because of its operational simplicity and effectiveness. However, as LST is affected by other factors (e.g., soil moisture in the areas with low vegetation cover, these areas cannot be well sharpened by TsHARP. Thin plate spline (TPS is another popular downscaling technique for surface data. It has been shown to be accurate and robust for different datasets; however, it has not yet been attempted in thermal sharpening. This paper proposes to combine the TsHARP and TPS methods to enhance the advantages of each. The spatially explicit errors of these two methods were firstly estimated in theory, and then the results of TPS and TsHARP were combined with the estimation of their errors. The experiments performed across various landscapes and data showed that the proposed combined method performs more robustly and accurately than TsHARP.

  4. The Prediction of the Gas Utilization Ratio based on TS Fuzzy Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Jiang, Haihe; Yin, Yixin; Xiao, Wendong; Zhao, Baoyong

    2018-02-20

    Gas utilization ratio (GUR) is an important indicator that is used to evaluate the energy consumption of blast furnaces (BFs). Currently, the existing methods cannot predict the GUR accurately. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven model for predicting the GUR. The proposed approach utilized both the TS fuzzy neural network (TS-FNN) and the particle swarm algorithm (PSO) to predict the GUR. The particle swarm algorithm (PSO) is applied to optimize the parameters of the TS-FNN in order to decrease the error caused by the inaccurate initial parameter. This paper also applied the box graph (Box-plot) method to eliminate the abnormal value of the raw data during the data preprocessing. This method can deal with the data which does not obey the normal distribution which is caused by the complex industrial environments. The prediction results demonstrate that the optimization model based on PSO and the TS-FNN approach achieves higher prediction accuracy compared with the TS-FNN model and SVM model and the proposed approach can accurately predict the GUR of the blast furnace, providing an effective way for the on-line blast furnace distribution control.

  5. Indigenous microbial capability in solid manure residues to start-up solid-phase anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S

    2017-06-01

    Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH 4 kgVS fed -1 for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum. Nonetheless, at high solid loadings (i.e. TS level>10%), the digestion performance was affected by chemical inhibition due to ammonia and/or humic acid. Thermophilic temperatures did not influence digestion performance but did increase start-up failure risk. Further, inoculation of residues from the batch digestion to subsequent batch enhanced start-up and achieved full methane potential recovery of the bedding. Inoculation with liquid residue (leachate) was preferred over a solid residue, to preserve treatment capacity for fresh substrate. Overall, the study highlighted that indigenous microbial community in the solid manure residue was capable of recovering full methane potential and that solid-phase digestion was ultimately limited by chemical inhibition rather than lack of suitable microbial community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  7. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  8. Money growth volatility and the demand for money in Germany: Friedman's volatility hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Imke; Nautz, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Bundesbank claimed that monetary targeting has become considerably more diffcult by the increased volatility of short-term money growth. The present paper investigates the impact of German money growth volatility on income velocity and money demand in view of Friedman's money growth volatility hypothesis. Granger-causality tests provide some evidence for a velocity-volatility linkage. However the estimation of volatility-augmented money demand functions reveals that - in contras...

  9. Volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Moderately volatile elements (MVE) are key tracers of volatile depletion in planetary bodies. Zinc is an especially useful MVE because of its generally elevated abundances in planetary basalts, relative to other MVE, and limited evidence for mass-dependent isotopic fractionation under high-temperature igneous processes. Compared with terrestrial basalts, which have δ66Zn values (per mille deviation of the 66Zn/64Zn ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard) similar to some chondrite meteorites (∼+0.3‰), lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ (2 st. dev.). Furthermore, mare basalts have average Zn concentrations ∼50 times lower than in typical terrestrial basaltic rocks. Late-stage lunar magmatic products, including ferroan anorthosite, Mg- and Alkali-suite rocks have even higher δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). Differences in Zn abundance and isotopic compositions between lunar and terrestrial rocks have previously been interpreted to reflect evaporative loss of Zn, either during the Earth-Moon forming Giant Impact, or in a lunar magma ocean (LMO) phase. To explore the mechanisms and processes under which volatile element loss may have occurred during a LMO phase, we developed models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are generally applicable to planetary magma oceans. Our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ∼+1.4‰ within the lunar mantle. For the sake of simplicity, we neglect possible Zn isotopic fractionation during the Giant Impact, and assumed a starting composition equal to the composition of the present-day terrestrial mantle, assuming both the Earth and Moon had zinc 'consanguinity' following their formation. We developed two models: the first simulates evaporative fractionation of Zn only prior to LMO mixing and crystallization; the second simulates continued evaporative fractionation of Zn that persists until ∼75% LMO crystallization. The first model yields a relatively homogenous bulk solid

  10. 78 FR 24992 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; Volatile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    .../30/11 4/29/13 [Insert page number where the Title Changed. Solid Air Fresheners document begins]. And... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions... and the negative declarations in accordance with the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA). DATES...

  11. Comparison of methods for determining volatile compounds in milk, cheese, and whey powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted for optimal SPME release while not generating new compounds that are abs...

  12. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  13. Low-temperature process steps for realization of non-volatile memory devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the low-temperature process steps required for the realization of nano-crystal non-volatile memory cells are discussed. An amorphous silicon film, crystallized using a diode pumped solid state green laser irradiating at 532 nm, is proposed as an active layer. The deposition of the

  14. Stabilization of high-level waste from a chloride volatility nuclear fuel reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Thornton, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for stabilizing high-level waste from a chloride volatility thorium-based fuel coprocessing system have been studied. The waste, which is present as chloride salts, is combined with SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 and pyrohydrolyzed to remove the chloride ions. The resulting solid is then combined with a flux and glassified. 3 figures, 4 tables

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biochar and biochar-amended soil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon(aceous) nanoparticles are inevitably generated during the pyrolysis of waste biomass, and remain on the solid co-product called biochar. Such pollutants could have adverse effects on ...

  16. Total Oxidation of Model Volatile Organic Compounds over Some Commercial Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Topka, Pavel; Jirátová, Květa; Šolcová, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 443, NOV 7 (2012), s. 40-49 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/059 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : volatile organic compounds * oxidation * ethanol Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 3.410, year: 2012

  17. Impact of microorganism on polonium volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Ishida, A.; Fukuda, A.; Yoshinaga, C.

    2007-01-01

    Volatilization of polonium by microorganisms, Chromobacterium violaceum, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was examined for pure cultures in LB medium at 30 deg C, showing relative Po emission intensity 100, 10 and 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum pre-cultured in LB medium without Po and suspended in water with Po showed high Po volatilization in spite of poor nutriment condition. Antibiotics inhibit volatilization of Po and cultivation at low temperature greatly reduced volatilization. The results strongly support the biological effects on Po volatilization. (author)

  18. Volatile constituents of Trichothecium roseum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelen, M; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R; Geeraerts, J

    1978-06-01

    In the course of investigation of Trichothecium roseum (Fungi Imperfecti) for its attractancy against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cheese mite), the twenty following volatile compounds produced at a very low concentration by the microfungus were identified by gc, gc/ms, gc/c.i.ms and tlc: 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, octa-1,5-dien-3 one, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, octa-1,5-dien-3 ol, furfural, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpineol (alpha and beta) citronellyl acetate, nerol, citronellol, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol geranyl acetate, 1-phenyl ethanol and nerolidol. Octa-1,5-dien-3-ol and octa-1,5-dien-3-one have not been previously isolated from fungi; octa-1,5-dien-3-ol is the most potent attractant amount the volatile compounds detected by gc.

  19. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  20. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  1. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  2. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  3. Multidimensional analysis of cannabis volatile constituents: identification of 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane as a volatile marker of hashish, the resin of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Marie; Charvoz, Céline; Dujourdy, Laurence; Baldovini, Nicolas; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-28

    The volatile constituents of drug samples derived from Cannabis sativa L. were investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC×GC-MS). Samples of cannabis herb and hashish showed clear differences in their volatile chemical profiles, mostly resulting from photo-oxidation processes occurring during the transformation of fresh cannabis herb into hashish. Most unexpectedly, we could demonstrate hashish samples as containing remarkable amounts of a rare and unusual monoterpene - 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane - among the volatile compounds detected in their headspaces. We gave evidence for the formation of this compound from the light induced rearrangement of β-myrcene during the manufacture of hashish. In view of its high abundance among volatile constituents of cannabis resin and its scarce occurrence in other natural volatile extracts, we propose to rename this specific monoterpene hashishene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  5. Electron beam treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds and dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Considerations of wastes based on the reduction, reuse and recycle in daily life are primary measures to conserve our environment, but the control technology is necessary to support these measures. The electron beam (EB) process is promising as an advanced purification process having advantages such as a quick treatment of big volume gas, applicability even for very low concentration pollutants as the further purification at the downstream of existing process, and decomposition of pollutants into non-toxic substances by one process. The EB technology has been developed for treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ventilation gas and dioxins in solid waste incineration flue gas. (author)

  6. Forecasting volatility for options valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaifa, M.; Morimune, K.

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector plays a neuralgic role in the basement of world economies, and market actors (producers, intermediates, as well as consumers) are continuously subjected to the dynamics of unstable oil market. Huge amounts are being invested along the production chain to make one barrel of crude oil available to the end user. Adding to that are the effect of geopolitical dynamics as well as geological risks as expressed in terms of low chances of successful discoveries. In addition, fiscal regimes and regulations, technology and environmental concerns are also among some of the major factors that contribute to the substantial risk in the oil industry and render the market structure vulnerable to crises. The management of these vulnerabilities require modern tools to reduce risk to a certain level, which unfortunately is a non-zero value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to provide a modern technique to capture the oil price stochastic volatility that can be implemented to value the exposure of an investor, a company, a corporate or a Government. The paper first analyses the regional dependence on oil prices, through a historical perspective and then looks at the evolution of pricing environment since the large price jumps of the 1970s. The main causes of oil prices volatility are treated in the third part of the paper. The rest of the article deals with volatility models and forecasts used in risk management, with an implication for pricing derivatives. (author)

  7. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  8. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  9. Protein dynamics associated with failed and rescued learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahiuddin Ahmed

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is caused by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21. Although it is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID, there are, as yet, no effective pharmacotherapies. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of ∼55% of Hsa21 classical protein coding genes. These mice display many features relevant to those seen in DS, including deficits in learning and memory (L/M tasks requiring a functional hippocampus. Recently, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, was shown to rescue performance of the Ts65Dn in several L/M tasks. These studies, however, have not been accompanied by molecular analyses. In previous work, we described changes in protein expression induced in hippocampus and cortex in control mice after exposure to context fear conditioning (CFC, with and without memantine treatment. Here, we extend this analysis to Ts65Dn mice, measuring levels of 85 proteins/protein modifications, including components of MAP kinase and MTOR pathways, and subunits of NMDA receptors, in cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice after failed learning in CFC and after learning was rescued by memantine. We show that, compared with wild type littermate controls, (i of the dynamic responses seen in control mice in normal learning, >40% also occur in Ts65Dn in failed learning or are compensated by baseline abnormalities, and thus are considered necessary but not sufficient for successful learning, and (ii treatment with memantine does not in general normalize the initial protein levels but instead induces direct and indirect responses in approximately half the proteins measured and results in normalization of the endpoint protein levels. Together, these datasets provide a first view of the complexities associated with pharmacological rescue of learning in the Ts65Dn. Extending such studies to additional drugs and mouse models of DS will aid in identifying pharmacotherapies for effective

  10. Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Ts65Dn Mice Are Deficient in the Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Chang, Jianhui; Shao, Lijian; Feng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Chow, Marie; Du, Wei; Meng, Aimin; Zhou, Daohong

    2016-06-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra partial or whole copy of chromosome 21. In addition to musculoskeletal and neurodevelopmental abnormalities, children with DS exhibit various hematologic disorders and have an increased risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute megakaryocytic leukemia. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model, we investigated bone marrow defects caused by trisomy for 132 orthologs of the genes on human chromosome 21. The results showed that, although the total bone marrow cellularity as well as the frequency of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) was comparable between Ts65Dn mice and their age-matched euploid wild-type (WT) control littermates, human chromosome 21 trisomy led to a significant reduction in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers and clonogenic function in Ts65Dn mice. We also found that spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were significantly increased in HSCs from the Ts65Dn mice, which was correlated with the significant reduction in HSC clonogenic activity compared to those from WT controls. Moreover, analysis of the repair kinetics of radiation-induced DSBs revealed that HSCs from Ts65Dn mice were less proficient in DSB repair than the cells from WT controls. This deficiency was associated with a higher sensitivity of Ts65Dn HSCs to radiation-induced suppression of HSC clonogenic activity than that of euploid HSCs. These findings suggest that an additional copy of genes on human chromosome 21 may selectively impair the ability of HSCs to repair DSBs, which may contribute to DS-associated hematological abnormalities and malignancies.

  11. Risk based definition of TS requirements for NPPs with WWER-1000 type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.; Tokmachev, G.

    2000-01-01

    The main regulations in safety related maintenance for NPPs in Russia are defined as a part of Technical Specifications (TSs). It includes limiting conditions for operation (surveillance requirements, allowed outage time, et.). In Russian practice the two levels of TSs are presented: general TSs that have been established as a master documents for similar designed NPPs and plant specific based on operation practice of each NPP unit. This paper presents a brief review of submissions to TS changes for NPPs with WWER type reactor were issued by AEP PSA team since 1988 year. Besides it provides an approach allows to estimate the complex affect on plant risk for both Limiting Conditions of Operation (LCO) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI) based on relevant probabilistic tool (Minimal Cut Sets method and Marcov Chains methods). (author)

  12. Ethnicity, development and gender: Tsáchila indigenous women in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Sarah; Pequeño, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous populations have become the subjects and agents of development in national and international multicultural policy that acknowledges poverty among indigenous peoples and their historic marginalization from power over development. Although the impact of these legal and programmatic efforts is growing, one persistent axis of disadvantage, male–female difference, is rarely taken into account in ethno-development policy and practice. This article argues that assumptions that inform policy related to indigenous women fail to engage with indigenous women's development concerns. The institutional separation between gender and development policy (GAD) and multiculturalism means that provisions for gender in multicultural policies are inadequate, and ethnic rights in GAD policies are invisible. Drawing on post-colonial feminism, the paper examines ethnicity and gender as interlocking systems that structure indigenous women's development experiences. These arguments are illustrated in relation to the case of the Tsáchila ethno-cultural group in the South American country of Ecuador.

  13. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  14. An expert protocol for immunofluorescent detection of calcium channels in tsA-201 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Herzig, Stefan; Matthes, Jan

    Pore-forming subunits of voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are large membrane proteins (260kDa) containing 24 transmembrane domains. Despite transfection with viral promoter driven vectors, biochemical analysis of VGCC is often hampered by rather low expression levels in heterologous systems rendering VGCC challenging targets. Especially in immunofluorescent detection, calcium channels are demanding proteins. We provide an expert step-by-step protocol with adapted conditions for handling procedures (tsA-201 cell culture, transient transfection, incubation time and temperature at 28°C or 37°C and immunostaining) to address the L-type calcium-channel pore Ca v 1.2 in an immunofluorescent approach. We performed immunocytochemical analysis of Ca v 1.2 expression at single-cell level in combination with detection of different markers for cellular organelles. We show confluency levels and shapes of tsA-201 cells at different time points during an experiment. Our experiments reveal sufficient levels of Ca v 1.2 protein and a correct Ca v 1.2 expression pattern in polygonal shaped cells already 12h after transfection. A sequence of elaborated protocol modifications allows subcellular localization analysis of Ca v 1.2 in an immunocytochemical approach. We provide a protocol that may be used to achieve insights into physiological and pathophysiological processes involving voltage gated calcium channels. Our protocol may be used for expression analysis of other challenging proteins and efficient overexpression may be exploited in related biochemical techniques requiring immunolabels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HAfTs are novel lncRNA transcripts from aflatoxin exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alex Merrick

    Full Text Available The transcriptome can reveal insights into precancer biology. We recently conducted RNA-Seq analysis on liver RNA from male rats exposed to the carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, for 90 days prior to liver tumor onset. Among >1,000 differentially expressed transcripts, several novel, unannotated Cufflinks-assembled transcripts, or HAfTs (Hepatic Aflatoxin Transcripts were found. We hypothesized PCR-cloning and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends could further HAfT identification. Sanger data was obtained for 6 transcripts by PCR and 16 transcripts by 5'- and 3'-RACE. BLAST alignments showed, with two exceptions, HAfT transcripts were lncRNAs, >200nt without apparent long open reading frames. Six rat HAfT transcripts were classified as 'novel' without RefSeq annotation. Sequence alignment and genomic synteny showed each rat lncRNA had a homologous locus in the mouse genome and over half had homologous loci in the human genome, including at least two loci (and possibly three others that were previously unannotated. While HAfT functions are not yet clear, coregulatory roles may be possible from their adjacent orientation to known coding genes with altered expression that include 8 HAfT-gene pairs. For example, a unique rat HAfT, homologous to Pvt1, was adjacent to known genes controlling cell proliferation. Additionally, PCR and RACE Sanger sequencing showed many alternative splice variants and refinements of exon sequences compared to Cufflinks assembled transcripts and gene prediction algorithms. Presence of multiple splice variants and short tandem repeats found in some HAfTs may be consequential for secondary structure, transcriptional regulation, and function. In summary, we report novel, differentially expressed lncRNAs after exposure to the genotoxicant, AFB1, prior to neoplastic lesions. Complete cloning and sequencing of such transcripts could pave the way for a new set of sensitive and early prediction markers for chemical

  16. Development and validation of the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy treatment satisfaction (FACIT TS) measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, John D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Bode, Rita; Cella, Dave; Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    To develop and validate a new functional assessment of chronic illness therapy (FACIT) measure of satisfaction with treatment for chronic illnesses such as cancer and HIV/AIDS. To define domains and generate items, a literature review informed creation of semi-structured interview guides for patients and an international expert panel of clinicians and researchers. Patients and experts also rated 15 areas of satisfaction for relevance. The final list of items underwent further refinement by the original expert panel and a new group of clinical experts. Items were tested in four studies (primarily lung cancer) and data were pooled for analysis. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and item response theory modeling were conducted to evaluate dimensionality. Internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were both evaluated. Validity was evaluated by correlating the FACIT subscale scores and measures of comparable concepts and by testing the scales' ability to distinguish people according to their overall treatment satisfaction. Two instruments were created: the FACIT TS-general (G), an overall evaluation of current treatment, and the FACIT TS-patient satisfaction (PS), a measure of patient satisfaction. CFA results were not optimal for a five-factor solution for PS. Internal consistency reliability met psychometric standards (≥0.70) for all PS subscales. Construct validity was established for the PS subscales: Physician Communication, Treatment Staff Communication, Technical Competence, Confidence and Trust, and Nurse Communication. The two instruments generated here offer a new way to assess several key dimensions of patient satisfaction with treatment, especially for people with lung cancer.

  17. Examining the Impact of Corporate Dividend Policy On Stock Price Volatility In Singapore : Does Financial Crisis Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Muhammad Asjad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and widely researched topics in the field of corporate finance is corporate dividend policy and the probable impact it has on firms’ stock price volatility. Despite years of research and extensive empirical examination of the dividend policy-stock price volatility linkage, conflicting evidence across a multitude of studies implies that no solid conclusion regarding the veracity and validity of this relationship has yet been reached. Furthermore, there is a dearth of s...

  18. La grossesse chez l'adolescente à l'hôpital de Tsévié (Togo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Décrire le profil des grossesses chez l'adolescente à l'hôpital de Tsévié (Togo). Matériel et méthode : Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive analytique portant sur les dossiers des parturientes âgées de 10 à 19 ans reçues à l'hôpital de Tsévié entre janvier 2011 et juin 2012. Résultats : Au cours de cette période, 180 ...

  19. Hypocellularity in the Murine Model for Down Syndrome Ts65Dn Is Not Affected by Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hidalgo, Rosa; Ballestín, Raul; Vega, Jessica; Blasco-Ibáñez, José M.; Crespo, Carlos; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of an extra copy of the chromosome 21 and it is the most common aneuploidy producing intellectual disability. Neural mechanisms underlying this alteration may include defects in the formation of neuronal networks, information processing and brain plasticity. The murine model for DS, Ts65Dn, presents reduced adult neurogenesis. This reduction has been suggested to underlie the hypocellularity of the hippocampus as well as the deficit in olfactory learning in the Ts65Dn mice. Similar alterations have also been observed in individuals with DS. To determine whether the impairment in adult neurogenesis is, in fact, responsible for the hypocellularity in the hippocampus and physiology of the olfactory bulb, we have analyzed cell proliferation and neuronal maturation in the two major adult neurogenic niches in the Ts656Dn mice: the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Additionally, we carried out a study to determine the survival rate and phenotypic fate of newly generated cells in both regions, injecting 5′BrdU and sacrificing the mice 21 days later, and analyzing the number and phenotype of the remaining 5′BrdU-positive cells. We observed a reduction in the number of proliferating (Ki67 positive) cells and immature (doublecortin positive) neurons in the subgranular and SVZ of Ts65Dn mice, but we did not observe changes in the number of surviving cells or in their phenotype. These data correlated with a lower number of apoptotic cells (cleaved caspase 3 positive) in Ts65Dn. We conclude that although adult Ts65Dn mice have a lower number of proliferating cells, it is compensated by a lower level of cell death. This higher survival rate in Ts65Dn produces a final number of mature cells similar to controls. Therefore, the reduction of adult neurogenesis cannot be held responsible for the neuronal hypocellularity in the hippocampus or for the olfactory learning deficit of Ts65Dn mice

  20. A novel method of TVTS in the TS-3 device and the proposal of its application to a large device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Hayashi, N.; Ueda, Y.; Ono, Y.; Katsurai, M.

    1997-01-01

    A novel method of television Thomson scattering (TVTS) has been developed in the TS-3 device. In this system, a framing camera is located between a spectroscope and a close coupled device camera. This framing camera can take two successive frames from the exit of the spectroscope. The time interval is of 500 ns between those two frames. Because of the shortness of this time interval, the background light is negligible; moreover TVTS is applicable to the TS-3 device whose plasma lifetime is about 150 μs. This method indicates the possibility of not only high spatial resolution but also time repetition in a simple system. (orig.)

  1. Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled.

  2. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, Alex [Merrill Lynch, Mlfc Main, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ (United Kingdom); Sepp, Artur [Merrill Lynch, 4 World Financial Center, New York, NY 10080 (United States)], E-mail: Alex_Lipton@ml.com, E-mail: Artur_Sepp@ml.com

    2008-08-29

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  3. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-08-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  4. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-01-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics

  5. Uncertainty of Volatility Estimates from Heston Greeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pfante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a widely recognized measure of market risk. As volatility is not observed it has to be estimated from market prices, i.e., as the implied volatility from option prices. The volatility index VIX making volatility a tradeable asset in its own right is computed from near- and next-term put and call options on the S&P 500 with more than 23 days and less than 37 days to expiration and non-vanishing bid. In the present paper we quantify the information content of the constituents of the VIX about the volatility of the S&P 500 in terms of the Fisher information matrix. Assuming that observed option prices are centered on the theoretical price provided by Heston's model perturbed by additive Gaussian noise we relate their Fisher information matrix to the Greeks in the Heston model. We find that the prices of options contained in the VIX basket allow for reliable estimates of the volatility of the S&P 500 with negligible uncertainty as long as volatility is large enough. Interestingly, if volatility drops below a critical value of roughly 3%, inferences from option prices become imprecise because Vega, the derivative of a European option w.r.t. volatility, and thereby the Fisher information nearly vanishes.

  6. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  7. Aroma volatile compounds from two fresh pineapple varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg(-1) and 380.66 μg·kg(-1) in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  8. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg−1 and 380.66 μg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple. PMID:22837701

  10. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  11. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  12. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  13. Inflation Volatility and the Inflation-Growth Tradeoff in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha; Varsha S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    This paper amends the New Keynesian Phillips curve model to include inflation volatility and tests the determinants of such volatility for India. It provides results on the determinants of inflation volatility and expected inflation volatility for OLS and ARDL (1,1) models and for change in inflation volatility and change in expected inflation volatility using ECM models. Output gap affects change in expected inflation volatility along (in the ECM model) and not in the other models. Major det...

  14. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  15. Volatile communication in plant-aphid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Volatile communication plays an important role in mediating the interactions between plants, aphids, and other organisms in the environment. In response to aphid infestation, many plants initiate indirect defenses through the release of volatiles that attract ladybugs, parasitoid wasps, and other aphid-consuming predators. Aphid-induced volatile release in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the jasmonate signaling pathway. Volatile release is also induced by infection with aphid-transmitted viruses. Consistent with mathematical models of optimal transmission, viruses that are acquired rapidly by aphids induce volatile release to attract migratory aphids, but discourage long-term aphid feeding. Although the ecology of these interactions is well-studied, further research is needed to identify the molecular basis of aphid-induced and virus-induced changes in plant volatile release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID COMPONENT OF WELDING AEROSOL. I. PHASE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phase composition of the solid component of welding aerosol (SCWA obtained as a result of metal welding with electrodes of ANO-4 and TsL-11 types manufactured according to ISO 2560 E432R 21 and ISO E19.9NbB20 standards, respectively, and differing in com-position of their wires and coatings was determined with the help of a Siemens D500 diffrac- a Siemens D500 diffrac-tometer supplied with the manufacturer’s software. Four and thirteen phases were identified in SCWA-ANO-4 and SCWA-TsL-11, respectively. Evaluation of crystallite sizes by the use of the Scherer equation showed that the crystallites formed in the course of welding with a TsL-11 type electrode are larger than those in the case of an ANO-4 type one: 65-89 nm and 30-49 nm, respectively.

  17. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus. XIV. Production and evaluation of influenza A/Georgia/74-ts-1[E] recombinant viruses in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, D D; Murphy, B R; Belshe, R B; Rusten, H M; Chanock, R M; Blacklow, N R; Parrino, T A; Rose, F B; Levine, M M; Caplan, E

    1977-08-01

    The two temperature-sensitive (ts) lesions present in influenza A/Hong Kong/68-ts-1[E] (H3N2 68) virus were transferred via genetic reassortment to influenza A/Georgia/74 (H3N2 74) wild-type virus. A recombinant clone possessing both ts lesions and the shutoff temperature of 38 C of the Hong Kong/68 ts donor and the two surface antigens of the Georgia/74 wild-type virus was administered to 32 seronegative adult volunteers. Thirty-one volunteers were infected, of whom only five experienced mild afebrile upper respiratory tract illness. The wild-type recipient virus was a cloned population that induced illness in five of six infected volunteers. Therfore, the attenuation exhibited by the Georgia/74-ts-1[E] virus could reasonably be assumed to be due to the acquisition of the two ts-1[E] lesions by the Georgia/74 wild-type virus. The serum and nasal wash antibody responses of the ts-1[E] vaccinees were equivalent to those of the volunteers who received wild-type virus. The two ts lesions present in the Hong Kong/68-ts-1[E] virus have now been transferred three times to a wild-type virus bearing a new hemagglutinin, and in each instance the new ts recombination exhibited a similar, satisfactory level of attenuation and antigenicity for adults. It seems likely that the transfer of the ts-1[E] lesions to any new influenza virus will regularly result in attenuation of a recombinat virus possessing the new surface antigens.

  18. A novel concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TS-1/nedaplatin for esophageal cancer showing better quality of life durning treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Aya; Inaba, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Takashi; Itoh, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer is expected to achieve adequate quality of life (QOL) and to improve the survival of patients. As a QOL-oriented therapy for esophageal cancer, concurrent CRT with tegafur·gimestat·otastat potassium (TS-1)/nedaplatin (CDGP) was developed and evaluated. Between June 2001 and September 2002, 18 patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in a clinical study of concurrent CRT with TS-1/CDGP. To evaluate the impact of treatment on the QOL, the patients were asked to answer QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs (QOL-ACD) before and after therapy. The response rate was 66.7%, with a complete response occurring in 9 (50.0%) of the 18 patients. Patients with improved global, functional, or mental QOL after therapy showed or tended to show a significant, longer survival. Compared to patients previously treated by the same regimen with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) instead of TS-1, those receiving the present therapy were able to leave hospital more frequently during treatment. TS-1/CDGP-based CRT for esophageal cancer exhibited comparable antitumor activity and survival benefit as with standard 5-FU/cisplatin (CDDP)-based CRT without causing serious side-effects. The patients receiving the present therapy seemed to have a better chance of maintaining their QOL. (author)

  19. Influence of iron and beryllium additions on heat resistance of silicide coatings on TsMB-30 molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtseva, A.L.; Fedorchuk, N.M.; Lazarev, Eh.M.; Korotkov, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Alloying of titanium modified silicide coatings on TsMB-30 molybdenum alloy with iron or beryllium is stated to improve their protective properties. Coatings with low content of alloying elements have the best protective properties. Service life of coatings is determined by the formed oxide film and phase transformations taking place in the coating

  20. A Universal Ts-VI Triangle Method for the Continuous Retrieval of Evaporative Fraction From MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Jia, Shaofeng; Lv, Aifeng

    2017-10-01

    The triangle method based on the spatial relationship between remotely sensed land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index (VI) has been widely used for the estimates of evaporative fraction (EF). In the present study, a universal triangle method was proposed by transforming the Ts-VI feature space from a regional scale to a pixel scale. The retrieval of EF is only related to the boundary conditions at pixel scale, regardless of the Ts-VI configuration over the spatial domain. The boundary conditions of each pixel are composed of the theoretical dry edge determined by the surface energy balance principle and the wet edge determined by the average air temperature of open water. The universal triangle method was validated using the EF observations collected by the Energy Balance Bowen Ratio systems in the Southern Great Plains of the United States of America (USA). Two parameterization schemes of EF were used to demonstrate their applicability with Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products over the whole year 2004. The results of this study show that the accuracy produced by both of these two parameterization schemes is comparable to that produced by the traditional triangle method, although the universal triangle method seems specifically suited to the parameterization scheme proposed in our previous research. The independence of the universal triangle method from the Ts-VI feature space makes it possible to conduct a continuous monitoring of evapotranspiration and soil moisture. That is just the ability the traditional triangle method does not possess.

  1. The impact of ISO/TS 16949 on automotive industries and created organizational capabilities from its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Ostadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ISO/TS 16949 is an ISO Technical Specification. ISO/TS 16949 achieves the objectives which are continually to improve the production of automobile parts and related services, and to strengthen the international competition for the automotive industry and its suppliers. By applying this quality system standard, automotive manufacturers could offer superior products and good services to customers. The more the companies know about the benefits if quality management systems such as ISO/TS 16949, better they can seek interest and determine indices of these systems. So, this standard has been implemented in companies considering a number of benefits. In this paper, we carry out an empirical study in order to verify the importance these benefits and ranking them based on the value of importance. Finally, the study tends to provide a reference guide considering benefits assessment and created organizational capabilities from this standard for the automotive industry in pursuing ISO/TS 16949 and procuring maximum benefit from the results.

  2. VISIT-TS: A multimedia tool for population studies on tic disorders [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jonathan Vachon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population-based assessment of Tourette syndrome (TS and other tic disorders produces a paradox. On one hand, ideally diagnosis of tic disorders requires expert observation. In fact, diagnostic criteria for TS explicitly require expert assessment of tics for a definite diagnosis. On the other hand, large-scale population surveys with expert assessment of every subject are impracticable. True, several published studies have successfully used expert assessment to find tic prevalence in a representative population (e.g. all students in a school district. However, extending these studies to larger populations is daunting. We created a multimedia tool to demonstrate tics to a lay audience, discuss their defining and common attributes, and address features that differentiate tics from other movements and vocalizations. A first version was modified to improve clarity and to include a more diverse group in terms of age and ethnicity. The result is a tool intended for epidemiological research. It may also provide additional benefits, such as more representative minority recruitment for other TS studies and increased community awareness of TS.

  3. NeemAzal T/S – toxicity to early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Živná, D.; Plhalová, L.; Casuscelli di Tocco, F.; Divišová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Faggio, C.; Tichý, F.; Svobodová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 23-30 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Neemazal T/S * embryo-larval toxicity test * azadirachtin * oxidative stress * histopathology * insecticide Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2015

  4. Benefits and Factors Influencing the Design of Intergenerational Digital Games: A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Hera Conde-Pumpido, T.; Loos, E.F.; Simons, M.; Blom, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the benefits and factors to be taken into consideration for the design of intergenerational digital games. We conducted a systematic in Scopus, Web of Science, PsicInfo, Pubmed and Science Direct, finally including 16 empirical studies written in English.

  5. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  6. Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman V.; Rancière, Romain; Servén, Luis; Ventura, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction Norman V. Loayza, Romain Ranciere, Luis Serven, ` and Jaume Ventura Macroeconomic volatility, both a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for developing countries. This article provides a brief overview of the recent literature on macroeconomic volatility in developing countries, highlighting its causes, consequences, and possible remedies. to reduce domestic policy-induced macroecon...

  7. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  8. Labour Demand and Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Broll; Sabine Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess under what conditions exchange rate volatility exerts a positive effect on a firm's labour demand. As the exchange rate volatility increases, so does the value of the export option provided the firm under study is flexible. Flexibility is important because it gives the firm option value. Higher volatility increases the potential gains from trade and may increase the demand for labour. This may explain part of the mixed empirical findings regarding the ef...

  9. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  10. Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp., Fir Honeydew (Abies alba and Sage (Salvia officinalis Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp., fir honeydew (Abies alba and sage (Salvia officinalis honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In case of sage honey, sensory characteristics are reported for the first time and are rather uniform including: colour characterized as beige to jade, depending on the consistency; odour characterized as between light and medium intensity, slightly pungent and wooden; taste characterized as low sweetness, expressive acidity and apple caramel, with persistent fruity aftertaste. Characteristic volatile profiles of the analyzed honeys are described. Taking into consideration similarities with lime and fir honey volatile profiles reported in literature, characteristic volatile compounds resulting from qualitative data evaluation are proposed. Sage honey volatile profile has been reported for the first time and it was found quite different compared to the other studied honeys showing the lowest number of peaks among the studied honeys, 34. Several compounds belonging to the sage honey volatile profile have been identified for the first time in honeys. They include tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, 3-hexenyl ester of butanoic acid, 2-methylbenzene, maltol, methyl ester of 3-furanocarboxylic acid and benzeneacetic acid. Based on the obtained results and with the lack of comparative literature data, they are proposed as characteristic volatiles for the volatile pattern of sage honey.

  11. Production Function of Outgassed Volatiles on Mercury: Implications for Polar Volatiles on Mercury and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, A. N.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    We are interested in the flux of volatiles delivered to the polar regions of Mercury and the Moon through time. We integrate the production functions for volatile delivery from impacts, solar wind, and volcanism, which we focus on initially.

  12. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  13. [Chemical components of Vetiveria zizanioides volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghua; Li, Huashou; Yang, Jun; Chen, Yufen; Liu, Yinghu; Li, Ning; Nie, Chengrong

    2004-01-01

    The chemical components of the volatiles from Vetiveria zizanioides were analyzed by SPME and GC-MS. In the roots, the main component was valencene (30.36%), while in the shoots and leaves, they were 9-octadecenamide (33.50%), 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (27.46%), and 1,2-benzendicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester(18.29%). The results showed that there were many terpenoids in the volatils. In shoot volatiles, there existed 3 monoterpenes, 2 sequiterpenes and 1 triterpene. Most of the volatiles in roots were sesquiterpenes.

  14. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  15. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  16. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  17. THE DOUBLE-DEGENERATE NUCLEUS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA TS 01: A CLOSE BINARY EVOLUTION SHOWCASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Richer, Michael G.; Yungelson, Lev; Rauch, Thomas; Suleimanov, Valery; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Stasinska, Grazyna; Tomsick, John; Wilms, Joern; Morisset, Christophe; Pena, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of SBS 1150+599A, a close binary star hosted by the planetary nebula PN G135.9+55.9 (TS 01). The nebula, located in the Galactic halo, is the most oxygen-poor known to date and is the only one known to harbor a double degenerate core. We present XMM-Newton observations of this object, which allowed the detection of the previously invisible component of the binary core, whose existence was inferred so far only from radial velocity (RV) and photometric variations. The parameters of the binary system were deduced from a wealth of information via three independent routes using the spectral energy distribution (from the infrared to X-rays), the light and RV curves, and a detailed model atmosphere fitting of the stellar absorption features of the optical/UV component. We find that the cool component must have a mass of 0.54 ± 0.2 M sun , an average effective temperature, T eff , of 58,000 ± 3000 K, a mean radius of 0.43 ± 0.3 R sun , a gravity, log g = 5.0 ± 0.3, and that it nearly fills its Roche lobe. Its surface elemental abundances are found to be: 12 + log He/H = 10.95 ± 0.04 dex, 12 + log C/H = 7.20 ± 0.3 dex, 12 + log N/H eff = 160-180 kK, a luminosity of about ∼10 4 L sun and a radius slightly larger than that of a white dwarf. It is probably bloated and heated as a result of intense accretion and nuclear burning on its surface in the past. The total mass of the binary system is very close to the Chandrasekhar limit. This makes TS 01 one of the best Type Ia supernova progenitor candidates. We propose two possible scenarios for the evolution of the system up to its present stage.

  18. Optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for Trichoderma harzianum using an orthogonal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J D; Yang, Q

    2015-03-13

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the production of fungal bio-pesticides with high efficiency, low cost, and non-polluting fermentation, while also increasing their survival rate under field conditions. This is the first study to develop biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum transformants TS1 that are resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. Agricultural corn stover and wheat bran waste were used as a medium and inducing carbon source for solid fermentation. Spore production was observed, and the method was optimized using single-factor tests with 4 factors at 3 levels in an orthogonal experimental design to determine the optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1. In this step, we determined the best conditions for fermenting the biocontrol fungi. The optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1 were cultivated for 8 days, a ratio of straw to wheat bran of 1:3, ammonium persulfate as the nitrogen source, and a water content of 30 mL. Under optimal culture conditions, the sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 reached 1.49 x 10(10) CFU/g, which was 1.46-fold higher than that achieved before optimization. Increased sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 results in better utilization of space and nutrients to achieve control of plant pathogens. This method allows for the recycling of agricultural waste straw.

  19. A non-chemically selective top-down approach towards the preparation of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with improved oxidative desulfurization catalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuting; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Jia, Mingjun; Valtchev, Valentin; Yu, Jihong

    2016-02-28

    Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with secondary macropores have been successfully prepared by using two different fluoride-containing chemical etching post-treated routes. Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites exhibited a chemical composition similar to that of the parent material and showed remarkably enhanced catalytic activity in oxidative desulfurization reaction.

  20. Elongation factor Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassembly of the Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J; Altman, Roger B; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C

    2013-05-10

    Aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) enters the ribosome in a ternary complex with the G-protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. EF-Tu·GTP·aa-tRNA ternary complex formation and decay rates are accelerated in the presence of the nucleotide exchange factor elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts). EF-Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassociation of ternary complex. This system demonstrates a novel function of EF-Ts. Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis.

  1. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of organic municipal solid waste together with liquid manure. Part 1; Anaerob nedbrydning af organisk husholdningsaffald sammen med gylle. Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    This project includes preliminary investigations about anaerobic degradation of organic municipal waste together with liquid manure. Investigations consist of characterization of organic municipal waste and preliminary test of anaerobic degradation of the waste. Characterization is related especially to the contents of environmentally hazardous substances, while the degradation process is characterized by means of determination of biogas potential in batch test and methane yield, organic VS (volatile solids) reduction and process stability in reactor test. In relation to environmentally hazardous substances the content of NPE and LAS in all tests of organic municipal waste was insignificant. The main problem was the content of DEHP, concentration of which is half of the cut-off value in the municipal waste. By TS (Total solid) reduction through the biogas process the DEHP concentration will thus exceed the cut-off value pr kg TS in the effluent if DEHP is not removed at the same time. The PAH concentration in the collected waste was only in one case at the level of the cut-off value which would exceed the cut-off value if no removal happens through the anaerobic degradation. The biogas potential of municipal waste was determined to be 187 m{sup 3}biogas/m{sup 3}waste, which makes organic municipal waste a very attractive waste type for biogas plants. No direct restraint by degradation of clean waste in batch test could be demonstrated. In the reactor test a stable degradation of organic municipal waste with an increasing supply of waste in mixture with manure could be established. By treatment of a mixture of municipal waste and manure in ratio to 50 : 50 a methane yield on 350 lCH{sub 4} kg VS and a VS-reduction between 50% and 60% could be obtained. Using clean municipal waste diluted with water the methane yield was higher than in the batch test and a VS reduction of up to 80% could be obtained. The analyses of DEHP and PAH in influent and effluent of the

  3. Experiments in a boundary layer subjected to free stream turbulence. Part 2: The role of TS waves in the transition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiko, A.V.; Westin, K.J.A.; Klingmann, B.G.B.; Kozlov, V.V.; Alfredsson, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    The natural occurrence of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves has so far only been observed in boundary layers subjected to moderate levels of free stream turbulence (Tu <1%), due to the difficulty in detecting small-amplitude waves in highly perturbed boundary layers. By introducing controlled oscillations with a vibrating ribbon, it is possible to study small amplitude waves using phase-selective filtering techniques. In the present work, the effect of TS-waves on the transition is studied at Tu = 1.5%. It is demonstrated that TS-waves can exist and develop in a similar way as in an undisturbed boundary layer. It is also found that TS-waves with quite small amplitudes are involved in nonlinear interactions which lead to a regeneration of TS-waves in the whole unstable frequency band. This results in a significant increase in the number of turbulent spots, which promote the onset of turbulence. 28 refs

  4. Pressure gradient effect at distributed excitation of 3D TS waves by freestream and wall disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodulin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of previous experiments (carried out in the Blasius boundary layer and devoted to quantitative investigation of influence of an adverse pressure gradient on two efficient mechanisms of excitation of 3D TS instability waves due to a distributed boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vortices. These mechanisms are associated with distributed scattering of 3D amplified free-stream vortices both on the natural boundary-layer nonuniformity (on smooth surface and on 2D surface nonuniformities (waviness. The corresponding detailed hotwire measurements were carried out in a self-similar boundary layer with Hartree parameter βH = –0.115 in a wide range of the problem parameters. Complex values of quantitative characteristics of the physical phenomenon under study (the distributed receptivity coefficients are evaluated by based on the obtained experimental data. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient leads to reduction of efficiency of the investigated vortexroughness receptivity mechanism.

  5. The use of chloroaluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS) for time-delayed fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundy, Sarah; Putten, Wil van der; Shearer, Andy; Buckton, Daniel; Ryder, Alan G; Ball, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Phthalocyanine derivatives are currently under investigation for use in photodynamic therapy, which is a promising cancer treatment. These materials, which display preferential uptake in cancerous cells, also exhibit high fluorescence yields and can be used for tumour detection. Problems with steady-state fluorescence techniques such as excitation scatter and background autofluorescence can be eliminated by using time-resolved imaging techniques without the need for filters. A tissue phantom was assembled to test a constructed time-gated imaging system by drilling 36 wells of varying diameter and depth (10 mm to 1 mm) into a block of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The system was used to record images of chloroaluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS) at differing concentrations in neat aqueous solvent and cell suspensions within the wells. A mixture of Intralipid (to mimic tissue scatter) and Evan's blue (to mimic tissue absorption) of depths ranging from 1 mm to 10 mm was placed on top of the PMMA block. The ensuing images were analysed using signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-detail curves. The results indicate that the time-gated imaging system can prevent background excitation scatter from distorting the fluorescence signal from a longer-lived photosensitizer without the need for filters

  6. Transient and intermittent magnetic reconnections in TS-3/UTST merging startup experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Imanaka, H.; Hayamizu, T.; Inomoto, M.; Sato, M.; Kawamori, E.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Asai, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The high-power reconnection heating has been developed in the TS-3 merging experiments, leading us to a new pulsed high-beta spherical tokamak (ST) formation. Two ST plasmas were produced inductively by two or four PF coils without using any central solenoid (CS) coil and were merged together for MW-GW reconnection heating. The magnetic reconnection transformed the magnetic energy of reconnecting magnetic field through the outflow kinetic energy finally to the ion thermal energy, increasing the plasma beta of ST up to 0.5. A new finding is that ejection of current sheet (or plasmoid) causes high-speed merging/ reconnection as well as high-power heating. In the high-q ST merging, the sheet resistivity was almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet dissipation resulted in flux pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the flux pileup exceeded a critical limit, the sheet was ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed was slow during the flux pileup and was fast during the ejection, indicating that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increased the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable us to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even if the merging high-q tokamaks have low current-sheet resistivity. (author)

  7. Adenylylation of small RNA sequencing adapters using the TS2126 RNA ligase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Lodoe; Ryan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Many high-throughput small RNA next-generation sequencing protocols use 5' preadenylylated DNA oligonucleotide adapters during cDNA library preparation. Preadenylylation of the DNA adapter's 5' end frees from ATP-dependence the ligation of the adapter to RNA collections, thereby avoiding ATP-dependent side reactions. However, preadenylylation of the DNA adapters can be costly and difficult. The currently available method for chemical adenylylation of DNA adapters is inefficient and uses techniques not typically practiced in laboratories profiling cellular RNA expression. An alternative enzymatic method using a commercial RNA ligase was recently introduced, but this enzyme works best as a stoichiometric adenylylating reagent rather than a catalyst and can therefore prove costly when several variant adapters are needed or during scale-up or high-throughput adenylylation procedures. Here, we describe a simple, scalable, and highly efficient method for the 5' adenylylation of DNA oligonucleotides using the thermostable RNA ligase 1 from bacteriophage TS2126. Adapters with 3' blocking groups are adenylylated at >95% yield at catalytic enzyme-to-adapter ratios and need not be gel purified before ligation to RNA acceptors. Experimental conditions are also reported that enable DNA adapters with free 3' ends to be 5' adenylylated at >90% efficiency. © 2015 Lama and Ryan; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. The Epoxidation of Limonene over the TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wróblewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Limonene belongs to a group of very important intermediates used in the production of fine chemicals. This monoterpene compound can be obtained from peels of oranges or lemon which are a (biomass waste from the orange juice industry. Thus, limonene is a renewable, easy available and a relatively cheap compound. This work presents preliminary studies on the process of limonene epoxidation over zeolite type catalysts such as: TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15. In these studies methanol was used as a solvent and as an oxidizing agent a 60 wt % hydrogen peroxide solution was applied. The activity of each catalyst was investigated for four chosen temperatures (0 °C, 40 °C, 80 °C and 120 °C. The reaction time was changed from 0.5 to 24 h. For each catalyst the most beneficial conditions (the appropriate temperature and the reaction time have been established. The obtained results were compared and the most active catalyst was chosen. These studies have also shown different possible ways of limonene transformation, not only in the direction of 1,2-epoxylimonene and its corresponding diol, but also in direction of carveol, carvone and perillyl alcohol—compounds with a lot of applications. The possible mechanisms of formation of the allylic oxidation products were proposed.

  9. Trapping or tethering stones (TS: A multifunctional device in the Pastoral Neolithic of the Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gallinaro

    Full Text Available The Pierres de Ben Barour, also known as trapping or tethering stones (TS, are stone artefacts with notches or grooves usually interpreted as hunting devices on the basis of rock art engravings. Though their presence is a peculiar feature of desert landscapes from the Sahara to the Arabian Peninsula, we know little about their age, context and function. Here we present a new approach to the study of these artefacts based on a large dataset (837 items recorded in the Messak plateau (SW Libya. A statistically-based geoarchaeological survey carried out between 2007 and 2011 in Libya, alongside landscape and intra-site analyses of specific archaeological features (such as rock art, settlement and ceremonial contexts, reveal that these artefacts were used for a prolonged period, probably from the early Holocene. This was followed by a multifunctional use of these devices, particularly during the Pastoral Neolithic phase (ca. 6400-3000 cal BC, with the highest concentrations being found near ceremonial contexts related to cattle burials.

  10. Light-cone reduction vs. TsT transformations: a fluid dynamics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suvankar; Krishna, Hare

    2018-05-01

    We compute constitutive relations for a charged (2+1) dimensional Schrödinger fluid up to first order in derivative expansion, using holographic techniques. Starting with a locally boosted, asymptotically AdS, 4 + 1 dimensional charged black brane geometry, we uplift that to ten dimensions and perform TsT transformations to obtain an effective five dimensional local black brane solution with asymptotically Schrödinger isometries. By suitably implementing the holographic techniques, we compute the constitutive relations for the effective fluid living on the boundary of this space-time and extract first order transport coefficients from these relations. Schrödinger fluid can also be obtained by reducing a charged relativistic conformal fluid over light-cone. It turns out that both the approaches result the same system at the end. Fluid obtained by light-cone reduction satisfies a restricted class of thermodynamics. Here, we see that the charged fluid obtained holographically also belongs to the same restricted class.

  11. MIS High-Purity Plutonium Oxide Metal Oxidation Product TS707001 (SSR123): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carillo, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-09

    A high-purity plutonium dioxide material from the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program inventory has been studied with regard to gas generation and corrosion in a storage environment. Sample TS707001 represents process plutonium oxides from several metal oxidation operations as well as impure and scrap plutonium from Hanford that are currently stored in 3013 containers. After calcination to 950°C, the material contained 86.98% plutonium with no major impurities. This study followed over time, the gas pressure of a sample with nominally 0.5 wt% water in a sealed container with an internal volume scaled to 1/500th of the volume of a 3013 container. Gas compositions were measured periodically over a six year period. The maximum observed gas pressure was 138 kPa. The increase over the initial pressure of 80 kPa was primarily due to generation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in the first six months. Hydrogen and oxygen were minor components of the headspace gas. At the completion of the study, the internal components of the sealed container showed signs of corrosion, including pitting.

  12. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  13. Fundamental uncertainty and stock market volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2008-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from participants in the Survey of Professional Forecasters over the period 1969 to 1996.

  14. Effects of Idiosyncratic Volatility in Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the effects of the aggregate market volatility components - average volatility and average correlation - on the pricing of portfolios sorted by idiosyncratic volatility, using Brazilian data. The study investigates whether portfolios with high and low idiosyncratic volatility - in relation to the Fama and French model (1996 - have different exposures to innovations in average market volatility, and consequently, different expectations for return. The results are in line with those found for US data, although they portray the Brazilian reality. Decomposition of volatility allows the average volatility component, without the disturbance generated by the average correlation component, to better price the effects of a worsening or an improvement in the investment environment. This result is also identical to that found for US data. Average variance should thus command a risk premium. For US data, this premium is negative. According to Chen and Petkova (2012, the main reason for this negative sign is the high level of investment in research and development recorded by companies with high idiosyncratic volatility. As in Brazil this type of investment is significantly lower than in the US, it was expected that a result with the opposite sign would be found, which is in fact what occurred.

  15. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...

  16. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  17. Volatility transmission and patterns in Bund futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. van Ieperen; A.J. Menkveld (Bert); P. Kofman (Paul); M.P.E. Martens (Martin)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze intraday volatility behavior for the Bund futures contract that is traded simultaneously at two competing exchanges. We investigate the transmission of volatility between the exchanges. We find that the lead/lag relations are restricted to a few minutes and do not reveal a

  18. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  19. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  20. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we ...

  1. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  2. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  3. Mutual fund volatility timing and management fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambona, E.; Golec, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that compensation incentives partly drive fund managers’ market volatility timing strategies. Larger incentive management fees lead to less counter-cyclical or more pro-cyclical volatility timing. But fund styles or aggregate fund flows could also account for this relation;

  4. Some recent developments in stochastic volatility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Nicolato, Elisa; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and puts in context some of our recent work on stochastic volatility (SV) modelling for financial economics. Here our main focus is on: (i) the relationship between subordination and SV, (ii) OU based volatility models, (iii) exact option pricing, (iv) realized power variation...

  5. Volatility Determination in an Ambit Process Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Graversen, Svend-Erik

    The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness.......The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness....

  6. Order flow and volatility: An empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opschoor, A.; Taylor, N.; van der Wel, M.; van Dijk, D.

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between order flow and volatility. To this end we develop a comprehensive framework that simultaneously controls for the effects of macro announcements and order flow on prices and the effect of macro announcements on volatility. Using high-frequency 30-year U.S. Treasury

  7. Amorphous ice. A microporous solid: astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, E.; Pletzer, R.

    1987-01-01

    Vapour deposited amorphous ice, investigated by N 2 -adsorption at 77 K, was found to be a microporous solid. Micropore volumes between 0.21 and 0.12 cm 3 /g were determined by comparison plots and Dubinin-Radushkevich plots. Warming of the adsorbent to 113 K caused sintering and reduction of apparent surface area by about an order of magnitude; in the presence of adsorbed gas, large amounts of gas were enclosed in the solid. The influence of micropores on the H 2 recombination rate on amorphous ice in interstellar dust and on adsorption of volatile gases in comets is discussed briefly

  8. Volatile organometallic and semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on a project concerned with the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of mercury-cadmium telluride (MCT) undertaken by a research consortium based in the Clayton area involving Monash University Chemistry Department, Telecom Research Laboratories, and CSIRO Division of Material Sciences and Technology. An M.R. Semicon 226 MOCVD reactor, operating near atmospheric presure with hydrogen carrier gas has been used. Most applications of MCT are direct consequence of its responsiveness to radiation in infrared region spectrum. The main aims of the project were to prepare and assess a range of volatile organometallics that might find use as a dopant sources for MCT, to prepare and study the properties of a range of different lanthanide complexes for MOCVD applications and to fully characterize the semiconductor wafers after growth. 19 refs., 3 figs

  9. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  10. Traceability System for Improved Utilization of Solid Biofuel from Agricultural Prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass production and supply for renewable energy generation should be managed well and carried out in a sustainable manner. An effective traceability system (TS is required to provide sufficient information and assure the quality of the biomass. The objective of this study is to define and develop a TS to assure the pruning biomass quality for the production of solid biofuels and to provide guarantee to the final user that the biomass is in good condition according to recommended quality criteria. It is designed for an agricultural pruning supply chain in which farmers, biomass traders, transporters, and end users are major actors. It is based on the biofuel quality requirements required by final users and other standards such as the new European standards EN 14961-1, EN15234:1-2011, and EN14961-1:2010, which describe solid fuel quality parameters. Traceable quality parameters include origin and source of product, traded form, bale dimension, chips size distribution, moisture content, ash content, and density of biomass. In this TS, a unique product label is introduced and integrated into a smart logistics system (SLS. The TS uses information captured at different stages of the product supply chain. It enables the management of the whole pruning biomass supply chain with the support of a centralized web-based information platform, an integral part of the SLS.

  11. Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Solanumbetaceum Cav. Fruits from Panama by Head-Space Micro Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando A. Durant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the volatile compounds of two varieties of Solanum betaceum Cav. by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS i s presented. The HS-SPME method for extraction of the volatiles compounds was optimized by using a 2 3 central composite design. Maximum extraction of volatile compounds was achieved by using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction temperature 76° C, incubation time 44 min, and extraction time of 46 min. The main types of compounds detected in both varieties are terpenoids, followed by aromatics, esters, and aldehydes. Golden-yellow cultivars contained higher levels of esters and terpenes, while the reddish-purple variety contained a significant amount of aromatic compounds. The data structure of the chemical information obtained as well as the relationship between variables was evaluated by means of principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  12. Tie-down assessment of radioactive material packages on conveyances approach to competent authority approval applications in accordance with TS-R 1 (June 2000) and TS-G-1.1 (June 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, J.; Owen, S.; Tso, C.F. [Arup, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' findings, during carrying out many package tie-down assessments, regarding the approach to the assessment process, and the issues that may arise. The current regulatory framework, as outlined in the abstract, is considered and possible areas for further development or research are discussed. The safe transport of a package containing radioactive material requires a secure system of retention on the conveyance during transport. The requirements for the assessment of this tie-down system are covered by International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA) Regulations, and by the specific regulatory and guidance materials applying in the country of application. The IAEA regulations have recently been updated in TS-R-1 (June 2000) [1] and TS-G-1.1 (June 2002) [2]. In particular, Appendix V of reference [2] specifically covers 'Package Stowage and Retention during Transport'. In the United Kingdom the Transport Container Standardisation Committee (TCSC) provides guidance on the application of the IAEA regulations in TCSC 1006 ''The securing of Radioactive Materials on Conveyances'' [3], and this document has also been revised in December 2003. The basic requirement of the IAEA regulations is to maintain the integrity of the components of the package and its retention systems during routine operations (TS-R-1 Para 612). In accident conditions the package is permitted and may be required as part of the design (the weak-link approach as discussed later in this paper) to separate from the conveyance, while preserving the package integrity. Any tie-down attachments on the package shall be so designed that, under normal and accident conditions of transport, the forces in those attachments shall not impair the ability of the package to meet the requirements of the Regulations. (TS-R-1 Para 636).

  13. Tie-down assessment of radioactive material packages on conveyances approach to competent authority approval applications in accordance with TS-R 1 (June 2000) and TS-G-1.1 (June 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, J.; Owen, S.; Tso, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' findings, during carrying out many package tie-down assessments, regarding the approach to the assessment process, and the issues that may arise. The current regulatory framework, as outlined in the abstract, is considered and possible areas for further development or research are discussed. The safe transport of a package containing radioactive material requires a secure system of retention on the conveyance during transport. The requirements for the assessment of this tie-down system are covered by International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA) Regulations, and by the specific regulatory and guidance materials applying in the country of application. The IAEA regulations have recently been updated in TS-R-1 (June 2000) [1] and TS-G-1.1 (June 2002) [2]. In particular, Appendix V of reference [2] specifically covers 'Package Stowage and Retention during Transport'. In the United Kingdom the Transport Container Standardisation Committee (TCSC) provides guidance on the application of the IAEA regulations in TCSC 1006 ''The securing of Radioactive Materials on Conveyances'' [3], and this document has also been revised in December 2003. The basic requirement of the IAEA regulations is to maintain the integrity of the components of the package and its retention systems during routine operations (TS-R-1 Para 612). In accident conditions the package is permitted and may be required as part of the design (the weak-link approach as discussed later in this paper) to separate from the conveyance, while preserving the package integrity. Any tie-down attachments on the package shall be so designed that, under normal and accident conditions of transport, the forces in those attachments shall not impair the ability of the package to meet the requirements of the Regulations. (TS-R-1 Para 636)

  14. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    digestate, are acknowledged for their potential to serve as organic amendments and fertilizers however, their characteristics constitutes them prone to N losses, and their management (handling, storage, transportation) costly. Thermal drying of manures is known to facilitate transportation by volume...... reduction, nutrient concentration and hygienization of the final product. However, thermal treatment of ammonium rich organic wastes such as digestate solids has been linked with relative high volatilization of NH3 and therefore decrease in N fertilizing value of the final product. Temperature and air...... solids had low N fertilizing value due to the excessive loses of inorganic N during the drying process. On the contrary, acidification minimized ammonia volatilization from solids during the thermal treatment with direct impact on the N fertilizing value of acid treated solids. In addition, acidification...

  15. Improved Stabilization Conditions for Nonlinear Systems with Input and State Delays via T-S Fuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Che

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of nonlinear systems with input and state delays. The considered nonlinear systems are represented by Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy model. A new state feedback control approach is introduced for T-S fuzzy systems with input delay and state delays. A new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is employed to derive less conservative stability conditions by incorporating a recently developed Wirtinger-based integral inequality. Based on the Lyapunov stability criterion, a series of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are obtained by using the slack variables and integral inequality, which guarantees the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. Several numerical examples are given to show the advantages of the proposed results.

  16. MoMuLV-ts-1: A Unique Mouse Model of Retrovirus-Induced Lymphoma Transmitted by Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has developed a murine model of lymphoma via breast milk transmission of MoMuLV-ts-1 (Moloney murine leukemia virus-temperature sensitive mutant-1. Uninfected offspring suckled from infected surrogate mothers become infected and develop lymphoma. Multiple gene integration sites of ts-1 into the infected mouse genome including tacc3, aurka, ndel1, tpx2, p53, and rhamm were identified, and mRNA expressions were quantitated. These genes produce centrosomal proteins, which may be involved in abnormal chromosomal segregation leading to aneuploidy or multiploidy, thus causing lymphoma. Since there is no report to date on this retroviral model leading to centrosomal abnormality, and causing lymphoma development, this is a valuable and unique model to study the centrosomal involvement in lymphomagenesis.

  17. Robust fuzzy output feedback controller for affine nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy bilinear model: CSTR benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, M; Hamdan, I

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a robust H∞ fuzzy output feedback controller is designed for a class of affine nonlinear systems with disturbance via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy bilinear model. The parallel distributed compensation (PDC) technique is utilized to design a fuzzy controller. The stability conditions of the overall closed loop T-S fuzzy bilinear model are formulated in terms of Lyapunov function via linear matrix inequality (LMI). The control law is robustified by H∞ sense to attenuate external disturbance. Moreover, the desired controller gains can be obtained by solving a set of LMI. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), which is a benchmark problem in nonlinear process control, is discussed in detail to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach with a comparative study. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deriving and Analyzing Analytical Structures of a Class of Typical Interval Type-2 TS Fuzzy Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haibo; Ying, Hao

    2017-09-01

    A conventional controller's explicit input-output mathematical relationship, also known as its analytical structure, is always available for analysis and design of a control system. In contrast, virtually all type-2 (T2) fuzzy controllers are treated as black-box controllers in the literature in that their analytical structures are unknown, which inhibits precise and comprehensive understanding and analysis. In this regard, a long-standing fundamental issue remains unresolved: how a T2 fuzzy set's footprint of uncertainty, a key element differentiating a T2 controller from a type-1 (T1) controller, affects a controller's analytical structure. In this paper, we describe an innovative technique for deriving analytical structures of a class of typical interval T2 (IT2) TS fuzzy controllers. This technique makes it possible to analyze the analytical structures of the controllers to reveal the role of footprints of uncertainty in shaping the structures. Specifically, we have mathematically proven that under certain conditions, the larger the footprints, the more the IT2 controllers resemble linear or piecewise linear controllers. When the footprints are at their maximum, the IT2 controllers actually become linear or piecewise linear controllers. That is to say the smaller the footprints, the more nonlinear the controllers. The most nonlinear IT2 controllers are attained at zero footprints, at which point they become T1 controllers. This finding implies that sometimes if strong nonlinearity is most important and desired, one should consider using a smaller footprint or even just a T1 fuzzy controller. This paper exemplifies the importance and value of the analytical structure approach for comprehensive analysis of T2 fuzzy controllers.

  19. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Yancey, Antronette K

    2012-08-01

    Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA). SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation) over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers' PA levels.

  20. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Sofiya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA. SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Discussion Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers’ PA levels. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01588392